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Indo-EuropeanEtymologicalDictionaryIndogermanischesEtymologisches

Woerterbuch(JPokorny)
Indo-EuropeanAssociationIndo-EuropeanLanguageGrammarProto-Indo-Europeanlexicon
Indo-EuropeanGrammar&DictionaryIndo-Europeandictionary-translatorIndo-European
LinguisticsIndo-EuropeanlanguagesIndo-EuropeanLanguagesForumIndo-European
LanguagesRevivalModernIndo-EuropeanlanguagelearningIndo-EuropeanlanguagesofEurope

AProto-Indo-EuropeanLanguageLexicon,andan
EtymologicalDictionaryofEarlyIndo-European
Languages
ThedatabaserepresentstheupdatedtextofJ.Pokorny'sIndogermanischesEtymologisches
Wrterbuch,scannedandrecognizedbyGeorgeStarostin(Moscow),whohasalsoaddedthe
meanings.ThedatabasewasfurtherrefurnishedandcorrectedbyA.Lubotsky.Pokorny'stextis
givenpracticallyunchanged(onlyafewobvioustyposwerecorrected),exceptforsome
rearrangementofthematerial.Thenumbersinthelemmataaregivenaftertheroot(e.g.Pokorny's1.
bher-appearsasbher-1)becauseautomaticalphabetizationwouldotherwisetoomuchaffectthe
orderofthelemmata.

Root/lemma: abhro- (*hebhro- )

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:strong,mighty
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:'stark,heftig'
Note:
Note:TheRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:apelo- :
:`strength'seemsrelatedtoRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:abhro- (*hebhro- )::
`strong,mighty'[theshiftl >rr].
Material:
Material:toMir.Prefixabor-,cymr.afr-`verymuch';got.abrs`getstrong,violent',adv.abraba`very
much',bi-abrjan`beforewereastonishedbesideoneself',aisl.Prefixafar-`verymuch';ill.VN,
thrak.PN-.
Maybeillyr.VN,thrak.PN-:alb.(*)afronj`bringclose,squeeze',afr`near'
similartoformationsoflett.blazt`squeeze,clash,hit':OldChurchSlavicbliz,blizAdv.`nigh,
near'(eigentl.`adjacent').
Heremaybegot.aba(n-stem)`husband'.
Note
Note:
Therootabhro- :
:'strong,mighty'isrelatedtothecultoffertilityhencethegoddessoflove,beauty
andsexualrapture'Aphrodite'.ThenameofAphroditederivedfromGr.`seafoam'+
`titaness'.ThenameofAphroditeisalsorelatedtoRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ab(n) :
:(ape,aquatic
demon)andtoRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ab- :
:(water,river)[seebelow].

InGreekmythology,Aphroditeisthegoddessoflove,beautyandsexualrapture.Accordingto
Hesiod,shewasbornwhenUranus(thefatherofthegods)wascastratedbyhissonCronus.Cronus
threwtheseveredgenitalsintotheoceanwhichbegantochurnandfoamaboutthem.Fromthe
`aphros("seafoam")'aroseAphrodite,andtheseacarriedhertoeitherCyprusorCythera.
HencesheisoftenreferredtoasKyprisandCytherea.
ThenameofAphroditeisrelatedtoPIERoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:(enebh-2 ):nebh- ,embh- ,m b h- :
:(wet,
damp;water;clouds)OldIndianabhr-m.(*mbhros),av.awra-n.

References:
References:WP.I177,Feist1bf.,579a.,W.SchulzeKZ.52,311=Kl.Schr.398.
Seealso:
Seealso:abhPage(s):
Page(s):2
Root/lemma: abh- (*hebh- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:quick,abrupt
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`rasch,heftig'
Note:
Note:alterr/n-stem
Material:
Material:Gr.`straightway,forthwith,atonce,quickly,presently'(oldabstractnoun

`quickness'),forwhat,nevertheless,probablyatfirst,`suddenly'.
HereatmostOldChurchSlavicabje`straightaway,directly',butuncertainlyOldIndianahnya
`directly,straightaway,instantly,speedily'(rathertohar,han-`day'p.7).
References:
References:WP.I177,Feist1bf.,579a.,W.SchulzeKZ.52,311=Kl.Schr.398.
Seealso:
Seealso:abhroPage(s):
Page(s):2
Root/lemma: ab(n) (*heb- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:ape,*waterdemon
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Affe'
Note:
Note:(kelt.neologism).Theanimalintroducedbytravelingmerchantscanhavebeennamedbythe
Celtswiththenameofheraquaticdemon(seeaboveab-).
Material:
Material:Hes.ismaybe(Akk.Pl.)toreadandstill
beforetheconsonaticmutationinGerm.stubby;hence,in.apim.`Monkey,gate',as.apo,ahd.affo
m.,affa,affinf.,ags.apam.`Monkey',aech.opicecomesaruss.opicafromtheGerm.

References:
References:WP.I51f.
Seealso:
Seealso:compareab-`water'andSchraderReallex.,HoopsReallex.s.v.ape.
Page(s):
Page(s):2-3
Root/lemma: abEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:water,river
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Wasser,Flu'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- (moreproperlyk ):k- :
:`water,river'[throughtheshift-g->-b-,k->-p-attestedinGreek,IllyrianandCelticlanguages]derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ab- :
:(water,river)
andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma: p -2 :
:`water,river'.
Material:
Material:Lat.amnisf.,latem.c(*abnis);air.ab(*aba)Gen.abae`river',besidesabann,cymr.afon,
orn.bret.auon,gall.brit.FlNAbona,derivedcymr.afanc`beaver,waterdemon,dwarf',tomir.abac
(*abankos)`beaver,dwarf',schweiz.-frz.ava`pasture'(*abanko-);lett.FlNAbava.
TheWestGermanFlNin-apa,nhd.-affa,probablygobackpartlytousuallylostwestgerm.*ap-(idg.
*ab-),partlyinven.-ill.ap-(idg.*ap-).
rum.ap`water'

References:
References:WP.I46f.,WH.I40,Feist19a,579a,GIPatSR.II134.
Seealso:
Seealso:comparealsop-2`water,river'andab(n)`ape'.
Page(s):
Page(s):1
Root/lemma: ades-,ados- (*heh- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:sortofcereal
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Getreideart,Spelt'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:n.
Material:
Material:Lat.ador,-risn.`akindofgrain,spelt',maybeingot.atisk(*ades-ko-)`sowingfield',
probablym.asahd.ezziscaPl.`sowing',mhd.dial.Esch,schweiz.dial.Aesch,`fieldentranceofa
village';toch.ABti`grass'[Batiyo(f.pl.)`grass'(Adams9)](differentlyPedersenToch.641).about
gr.`anearofcorn'seeunderandh-.
PerhapsArmenian:
Armenian:hat`grain',Hittite:
Hittite:hattarn.`cereal'
Note:
ItseemsRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ades-,ados- :
:`sortofcereal'evolvedfromanolderroot*heh- `akindof
grain'.Thisrootwassuffixedwithcommon-skaformantingerm.branchGermanic:
Germanic:*at-isk-a-,while
inAnatolianbranchtherootwassuffixedwithcommonPIE-tarformant.Theoldlaryngeal(centum>a-,e-:satem->s-)waslostexceptinhitt.andarm.Clearlygerm.tonguesborrowedthecognate
fromareducedlat.(*hattar-)adris>Germanic:
Germanic:*at-isk-a-.

Finallyzerogradeinalb.(*adris)*dris,driz`thornyplant',(*dris)drith`grain'wherethelat.-is
endinghasbeensolidified.
Thesurpriseisthephoneticmutation-h->-d-foundonlyinav.-illyr.-balt.languages.
References:
References:WP.I45,Feist61a,andersWH.I14.
Page(s):
Page(s):3
Root/lemma: ad-1 (*hed-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:to,by,at
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zu,bei,an'
Material:
Material:Phryg.-`hedoes';maked.-(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I69);lat.ad`to,with,
in',preverbandprepositionm.Akk.,alsoGen.atque,ac`andinaddition,andalso,and'(*ad-que;not
at+que;alsoumbr.ap`inwhichplace,inwhatplace,where,when,after,since,although'
chronologically,withextended-inape),umbr.a-preverb,-arpostpositionm.Akk.,osk.adpd`as
faras',otherwisewiths-extensionosk.az`to,toward'prepositionm.Akk.;air.ad-preverb(e.g.,ad-

gldur`callupon,appealto'),cymr.add-,gall.ad-prefix(e.g.,MNAd-iant:cymr.addiant`longing',
Admrus:air.mr`large');cymr.,withvowelag`with'(ad+he,OldIndianha,not=lat.atque
`and,aswellas,togetherwith');germ.*atpreverbandprepositionmostlywith`dative'=Lok.,rarem.
Akk.(got.westgerm.fromthetime,ags.alsofromtheplace),aisl.alsowithGen.:got.at`to,by',aisl.
at`to,by,against,after',ags.t,as.at,ahd.az`to,by,in'.
zerograde:ved.t-srati`creeps,creepsup',ahd.zagn(:got.*-agan`fear'),ahd.z-ougen,mhd.
zugen,as.t-giancomparedwithgot.at-augjan`withraisedupeyes,point,show'.
References:
References:WP.I44f.,WH.I11f.
Seealso:
Seealso:Perhapstoad-2.
Page(s):
Page(s):3
Root/lemma: ad-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toestablish,putinorder
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`festsetzen,ordnen'
Material:
Material:Umbr.arsie(*adio-)`venerable,august,divine,sacred,pure,holy(veryfreq.andclass.);of
adivinity,andofthingsinanywaybelongingtoone',arsmor(*admon)`aformofreligious
observance,religioususage,ceremony,rite',arsmatiam(*admatio-)`relatingtoreligiousritesor
ceremonies,ritual',armamu`youshallbeordered,setinorder,arranged,adjusted,disposed,
regulated',AmuneepithetofJupiter,to*ad-`settle,order';air.adn.`law',Pl.ada`ceremonious
customs',fromitAdj.`lawful',adas`proper',cymr.addas`suitable',eddyl(*adilo-)`duty,purpose';
probablyalsogerm.*tila-`suitableopportunity'ingot.tiln.,ga-tils`suitably',ags.til`suitable,useful'
asn.`goodness,suitability'=ahd.zil`purpose',prepositionags.aisl.til`to,for'.

References:
References:WE.I12,DevotoMl.Pedersen224.
Page(s):
Page(s):3
Root/lemma: ad(u)-,ad-ro- (*hehero )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:watercurrent
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Wasserlauf'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ang(h)i- :
:`snake,worm'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- (moreproperly
k ):k: `water,river';Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ehero- :
:`lake,innersea';Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ad(u)-,ad-ro- :
:`water
current':Illyr.pannon.VN[commonalb.-illyr.-balt.-h- > -d-, -z-phoneticmutation].
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- `water,river'nasalizedin*akuent-(suffixedin-er,-or)derivedRoot/
Root/

lemma: au ( e)-9, au e d-, au e r-:


:`toflow,towet;water,etc.`
Material:
Material:Avest.au`waterrun,brook,canal',ven.-ill.FlNAd(d)ua(forPo),*Adulia>Attel(to
DanubeinBavaria),MonsofAdula`St.Gotthard'(probablynamedaftertheriversstreamingthere),
obersterr.FlN*Adra>Attersee,Attergau,FlNAdrana>Eder(Hessen),maybealsoPNAdriain
Venetien(afterwardsmareAdriaticum),sizil.FlNandven.-ill.nameofOder-;
furtherlett.FlNAdula.
Note:
ThenameoftheprimordialhillinEgyptianmythology,thefirstmountainthatraisedfromtheocean.
ThemountaingodwasborrowedbyHittieswhocalledthedreaminggodUpelluri.Greeksreceived
AtlasfromHittites.Atlas`*mountainprobablynamedaftertheriversstreamingthere':,-
m.`Atlas'(Od.,Hes.,Hdt.,A.etc.),nameofaGodwhocarriesthecolumnsofthesky;originally
probablynameofArcadianmountainswhichwerespreadthenbytheepicingeneralandespecially
(byIonicseafarers)wastransferredtotheAtlasMountainsinWestAfrica,seeSolmsenWortforsch.
24;aboutAtlasasapersonificationoftheworldaxisTicheMus.Helv.2,65ff.Berberdrr
`mountain'.
Derivatives:
Derivatives:Ofit`f.(Hes.etc.),nameofamythicalisland,accordingtoBrandenstein
Atlantis(Wien1951,=Arb.Inst.Sprachw.3)=Crete;further`(E.,Pl.,Arist.etc.)and
`(Kritias).
References:
References:VasmerZslPh.8,114f.,PokornyUrill.4,70,93,109,124.
Page(s):
Page(s):4
Root/lemma: agh-(lo-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:disgusting
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`widerwrtig'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:agh-(lo-) :
:`disgusting'derivedfromanextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:agos- :
:`fault,sin'
produced.
Material:
Material:Got.agls`opprobrious,ignominious',aglia,agl`hardship',us-agljan`press',ags.eg(e)le
`offensive,unwieldy,unfortunate',eglanadd`pain'(engl.ail`hurt;indisposedhis'),eglian`tobefelt
painfully',mnd.egelen`causegrief',got.aglusAdv.agluba`,difficult';also(withpuzzling
suffix)got.aglaiteif.-in.`licentiousness,wantonviolence,insolence,sexualoffense',ahd.agaleizi
f.,-in.`discomfort;zeal',agaleizo,as.aglto,agaltoAdv.`sedulous,keen'.
Possiblyhereow.agh-(=av.a-)`nasty',n.`horrible,damage',aghal-`bad'.
Heremaybetomir.ladn.`wound'(*agloton),mcymr.aele(u)`painful',aeleum.`pain'(*aglou-).
References:
References:WP.I41,Feist15a,SpechtDekl.136,LothRC.38,56.
Page(s):
Page(s):8

Root/lemma: aghl(u)- (*heghel-)


Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:rainyweather
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:etwa`dunkleWolke,regnerischesWetter'
Material:
Material:Gr.`fog,darkness'
Maybealb.agull`badvision'
OldPrussianaglon.`rain'(u-stem),arm.*alj-inajaj,ajamujkh`darkness'(MeilletMSL.10,279).
References:
References:WP.I41.comparePetersenAr.andArm.Stud.126.
Page(s):
Page(s):8
Root/lemma: agh- (*hegh--)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tofear
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`seelischbedrcktsein,sichfrchten'
Material:
Material:Gr.n.`fear,pain,grief',,`grieving,sorrowing,mourning'(Aor.,
,Perf.),,`mourning,groaning',`sadden';hereprobably
`load,grief'(*),thereof`tobeloaded,bedepressed'.
Maybenasalizedalb.(*aghos)ankth`fear'[commonalb.-s>-thphoneticmutation].
Ags.egem.`fear',egisi-grimagl.`ghost,spectre,evilspirit',n.es-stem*agiz=gr.`getafright';
Note:commongr.-h->--phoneticmutation
compareahd.egis-lh`dreadful',egisn`getafright'andtoo-andenstemsextendedgot.agisn.
`fear,anxiety,fright',ahd.agiso,egisom.,egisaf.`fear,frightfigure',ags.egesam.`fear';anord.agi
m.(-en-stem)'Fear',ahd.eg;mhd.egef.`fear,fright,punishment';got.-aganinunagands`arenot
afraid',af-agjan`frighten',us-agjan`frightensomebody',`inagjan`snubsomebody';preteritpresent
got.g(gum)`fearsme',nigs`fearnothing'(oldshortvocalsubjunctive*giz),anord.a-sk`be
afraid';got.gjan`snubsomebody'=anord.gja`getafright';anord.gnf.`fright',ttim.`fear',ags.
gaf.`fright'.
Air.ad-agor,-agur`fear'(becauseoftheablautequalitywithgot.gsupposesBrugmannGrdr.II23,
484originsfromolderPerf.),verbalnounigthiunder
References:
References:WP.I40,Feist14,380.
Seealso:
Seealso:hereuponbelongsprobablyalso:agh-(lo-)
Page(s):
Page(s):7-8
Root/lemma: agos- (*hege- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:fault,sin,*bloodguilt

Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Fehl,Schuld,Snde'
Material:
Material:OldIndiangas-n.`offence,injury,sin,fault',changebyablautwithgr.`heavyguilt,
bloodguilt';OldIndianngas-,gr.`innocent,guiltless';,`curses',.
ags.acan,c`hurt'(engl.ache),ndd.ken`hurt,fester,dent,blow',mndl.akel`grief,wrong,pity',
nfries.akelig,aeklig`wretched,vehement'.
Maybenasalizedalb.(*ngas)nknj,geg.angj`groan,sigh,complainofpain,evil'(*enq-);prove
thelinkbetweenRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:agos- :
:[fault,guilt,blame,sin(damage,injury,sacrilege,evil)]and
Root/lemma: enq- ,onq- :
:(tosigh,groan)[seebelow]
Note:
Note:ItispossibleRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:agos- (*hege - )::`fault,sin,*bloodguilt'isazerogradeoflat.
sangue`blood',alb.gjak`blood'seeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:s(u ) eko-s :
:`sap,pitch,*blood'.

References:
References:WP.I38.
Page(s):
Page(s):8
Root/lemma: agro- (egro- )(*hekuro-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:top,first,beginning
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Spitze,oberstes,erstes,Anfang'
Material:
Material:OldIndiangra-n.`point',agr(Lok.)`atthetop',alsotimewise`inthebeginning,first',
agrim-`first',av.ara-`first,uppermostaftertimespaceetc.`,n.`beginning;theuppermost,point';
lett.agrs(Adj.)`early',agriAdv.`early,earlyon',agrums`theearlymorning'.
maybealb.agu`dawn,morning,beginningoftheday'.
Whetherherelat.MNAgrippafrom*agri-p(e)d-`breechbirth(onewhocausesgreatpainathisbirth',
W.SchulzeKZ.32,1721,in1721,doubtingLat.Eig.2305
IfOldIndiangraon*ogro-or*egro-retrograde,onecouldcomparehitt.-kur,-gur'cliffsummit,
rock,crag'.
MaybeAgrianesIllyr.TN,Agron`Illyrianking'.
References:
References:WP.I38f.,PedersenHitt.183.
Page(s):
Page(s):8-9
Root/lemma: agu ( e)s ,aks
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:axe
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Axt'
Material:
Material:Got.aqizi,anord.x,ags.acus,x,as.acus,accus,ahd.achhus,accus,aches,nhd.Axt

(germ.forms*aqwiziand*akusihavemaybederivedaccordingtoZupitzaGG.89fromagradating
*agus:*agusis),gr.`ax,hatchet'
Note:commongr.-h->--phoneticmutation
lat.ascia`axofthecarpenters'(from*acsilikeviscus:,vespafrom*veps).
maybealb.(*asca)ashka`shavings,woodsplinter',(*viscus)vishk,fishk`makethin,wither'.
References:
References:WP.I39,WH.I71,Feist54b,SpechtDekl.150,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I4654.
Page(s):
Page(s):9
Root/lemma: ahEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:ploughanimal
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`trchtigesTier'
Material:
Material:OldIndianah`cow',av.azf.Adj.`pregnant'(fromcowsandmares),mir.ag(s-stem)m.,
f.`bovineanimal,cow',agallaid`deer'(actually,`wildox'),l`brood,throw'(*aglo-),cymr.aelds.,
mcymr.aelaw`abundance,fertility',eilion(*agliones)`fallowdeer,horses';herewithe-vocalismarm.
ezn`bovineanimal'
References:
References:WP.I38,LothRC.38,55.
Page(s):
Page(s):7
Root/lemma: aro-s
Seealso:
Seealso:s.aPage(s):
Page(s):9
Root/lemma: a- (*he- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tolead,*drivecattle
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`treiben'(actuallyprobably`mitgeschwungenenArmentreiben'),`schwingen',in
Bewegungsetzen,fhren'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:originallylimitedtothepresentstem.
Note:
oldlaryngealcentum->a-,e-:satem->s-;
Material: a :OldIndianjati`drive',aj-m.`adrove,troop;adriver';j-m./f.`runningmatch,
combat',av.azaiti`drive,leadaway',arm.acem`lead,bring';
maybealb.geg.(*),ago`leader,chief';ag-`dawn,beginningoftheday',agon`todawn,startthe

day':lat.agoagereegiactum`tosetinmotion,drive;ofanimals,todriveorhunt',agon-onism.`a
contestinthepublicgames',agonalia-iumand-orumn.`afestivalofJanus'.

gr.'lead'(Aor.Aor.,arenew),lat.ag`tosetinmotion,drive,lead,negotiate'(Pf.g
withablautinnovation),osk.Imper.actud=umbr.aitu`agito',osk.acum`agere',air.ad-aig(*aget)
`adigit',acymr.agit,hegit,morerecentlyyt(*agti),besidesthestronginflectionincymr.corn.bret.a
(*aget)`goes';t-Preteritair.ro-da-acht`drivenaway',cymr.aeth(*ag-t)`toputinmotion'etc.,see
PedersenKG.II451following,air.in`activity,play'(from*agnis),gallo-rom.*and-agnis`bigstep',
frz.andain`swath,scytheslash',afrz.`widestep',anord.aka`driving'(PreteritklikeOldIndian
Gram.ja);ags.ac`however,but,yet'(wrtl.`go!'likelat.age);toch.Bak-,ABk-`travel,lead';
Maybealb.ec-`walk,travelonfoot',vocativehec,eja`come!'.

to
to-participle:,lat.ctus'putinmotion,moved,driven,tended,conducted',*amb(i)-aktos,
actually,`sentaround(:air.imm-aig)messenger,servant'ingall.(-lat.)ambactus`vassal,slave',
cymr.amaeth`servusarans'(fromKelt.derivesgot.andbahts,ahd.ambaht`servant',fromwhichthe
kinshipwithnhd.Amt).
Asidg.Instrumentalnounin-trhereOldIndianar`goadtodrivethelivestock',av.atr`whip,
scourge'.
MaybeTokharian:
Tokharian:Bkn.`zeal'(Adams35),ABk-`lead,guide,drive'(36).
lengthenedgradeformations:OldIndianj-m.f.`race,fight',mir.g(Gen.ga,u-stem)`fight',
ga,ige`leaders'(cfalsogall.PNAgo-mrus=air.gmar`warlike';Com-gius),lat.onlyin
compounds:ambgs,around`aroundaboutway,winding.Hence,inspeech,etc.,either
circumlocutionorobscurity'(conservativestemlikeOldIndianj-`tolead'=lat.agInf.Pass.,and
likeOldIndianaj-inprtanj-`inthefightpulling',however,withstretchinthecomposition),indgs
andindgo,-inis`surroundinganddrivingofgame',co-gulum`ameansofcoagulation,acoagulum
orcoagulator(thecurdledmilkinthestomachofasuckinganimal,thestomachitself,etc.),rennetor
runnet;thecurdledmilk;thatwhichholdsorbindstogether,abond,tie',OldIndiansamja-
`meeting,society',gr.`leading,leadingly',`guidance,management,freight',Hes.
`spokes',-(seeunder).aboutdor.(OldIndianjam)`Ilead'see,nevertheless,
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I654,4.

o -stem:ved.aj-`activity,train;driver',gr.`leader,militaryleader',-,att.ion.
-'militaryleader',(originallyDoric)`leader',lat.prdigo-igere-egi-actum`todrive
forth;tospend,waste',prd-igus`profuse,extravagant;rich,aboundingin.Adv.prodige'(fromprdigere),abiga`plantwhichhasthepowerofproducingabortion;ground-pine'(`closetomiscarriage'
fromab-igere=,OldIndianapa-jati`todriveaway,driveoff').
i o -stem:ir.aige`race',OldIndianinprtanjyam`competition'.
amn , amos:OldIndianjman-n.`road,train',jma-ds.(however,aboutjman,pari-jman-,
prthu-jman-,jma-y-s.hem-`earth'):lat.agmen`adrivingmovementoramassin(orderly)
movement,astream,band,train;esp.milit.,anarmyonthemarch'(toneologismagfor*ammen),
exmen`aswarm;athrong,crowd,shoal.(2)thetongueofabalance;testing,consideration';then`to
check,toweigh;toconsider'(from*agsmen),ammentum(*agmen-to-m)`inloopform-possiblyin
themiddleofthespear-fixedwiththrowstraps';maybe(Schw.Gr.Gr.I49210)witho-graduationgr.

`fieldfurrow,roadofheavenlybodies;swathbymowing'.

lo -stem:OldIndianajir-`quick,nimble'(however,lat.agilis`flexible,nimble'isaneologism);gr.
`herd,crowd',lat.agolum`shepherd'sstick'.
Gr.`race,competition';'street'(part.Perf.),fromwhichaboutnewer*lat.aga`a
gangwayinaship';lak.kret.tol.`leads,brings',ep.ion.,ds.(:and
,like-towards--and-,alsofromanendingrootform;cfSchwyzerGr.Gr.I
694,696).aboutseeSchwyzerGr.Gr.I5227andundersg-.
Lat.rmex,rmigre,rmigium,ltigre`arower,oarsman'andotherverbsin-(i)gre.-Presumably
lat.indigits`thelocaldivinitiesandheroes'(indigitre`adivinitycall',indigitmenta`invocation
formulae'),as*end(o)-aget-`theindigenous,native'.
formationdevelopmentto'toweigh'(from`bringinoscillation')inlat.exagium`aweighing,weight;a
balance',exigere[ex+ago]'todriveout,pushforth,thrustout,takeout,expel:--Toweigh,try,prove,
measure,examine,adjust,estimate,consider':amongotherthings`weigh,measure',exctus
`precise,accurate,exact',exiguus`strict,exact,scanty,small,little,petty,short,poor,mean,
inadequate,inconsiderable,paltry',exlis(*ex-ag-slis)`strict,narrow,thin,slender,lank,small,
meagre,poor',exmen(seeabove),agna`theopeningintheupperpartofabalance,inwhichthe
tonguemoves'(formationasforexamplecoquna),gr.also`weigh'(withAkk.oftheweight),
`weighingasmuch,oflikevalue,worthasmuchas'(from*,onthegroundsof*ag-ti-s
`weight',actually:)`fromsuitableweight',hence,`worth,solemnly','worthjustasmuchas,
equally'.
stillcfWH.I9,10,24aboutacnua,ctusquadrtus`afieldmeasureof120feetinthesquare',and
acttum`straightaway,immediately,forthwith',ags`footman,driver,hostler',ag,-nis`ofthe
priestskillingthesacrificialanimal'(fromagereinmeaning`sacrifice'),agnium`avictim,beastfor
sacrifice'belowlikewise
Heremaybegall.exacum`theherbcentaury'ifprescribedfor*exagum(=*exago-`pure-craving').But
betterto*ak-`sharp',seethere.
Furtherbelonghere:

aes -, ak s ...`(fulcrum,pivot:)axis-shoulder':
OldIndianka`axis',gr.ds.,-`carriage,wagon'Gl.12,217;KZ.40,217f.);
Note:commongr.-h->--phoneticmutation
lat.axis`axis'=lit.as,OldPrussianassis,OldChurchSlavicosf.ds.;ahd.ahsa,nhd.Achse,
ags.eaxds.;in.xull(fromurg.*ahsulaz)'axis';mir.ais`axis'(*aksilincymr.echelf.`axis',bret.
ahel).
Lat.la`shoulder',fromwhichtheusualmeaning`wing',from*agsl(cfDemin.axilla`armpit')=in.
xl,ags.eaxl,ahd.ahsala,nhd.Achsel,wherenearlengthenedgradendl.okselds.,andwithoutlformant:ahd.uochisa,mhd.uohse,ehseandahd.uochsana,ags.xn`armpit',in.stf.,strm.
`Cervicalpit',ags.custa,xtam.,engl.oxter`armpit';avaayGen.Du.`ofbothshoulders',arm.
anut`shoulderpit'(atfirstfrom*asnut`).
maybezerogradeinalb.geg.(*aksla-t)sqetla`armpit'.

ar `rush,hunt',aros `driving,rushing':
OldIndianinghasajra-`todriveconsuming,excitingappetite',av.(vehr-km)azr-daim`doing
thehunt,outgoingonprey(she-wolf)';gr.,ion.`hunt,catch',`catching
everything,catching',`meattongs',`tongs',`prostration,enuflection',
originallynameofa`demonwhichasaquick-temperedfeverseizesthelimbs'(?),

`hunter',`catch';but`take'accordingtoSchwyzerGr.Gr.I7271from*--;ir.rn.
`defeat'(*agron)`battle,fight'(*agr),actually,`rush',acorn.hair`destruction,injury,mischief,harm,
misfortune,disaster,loss,detriment,calamity',abret.airouPI.`anoverthrow,destruction,ruin,defeat,
slaughter,massacre,butchery,carnage',gall.VNVeragri`theimmensecombatants'.
maybealb.Agron`appellationofanIllyrianking'.

aros `field,camp'(to*agasherdtodrivewie,alsooriginally`placewherethecattleisbeing
driven,pasture').
OldIndianjra`surface,camp,fields'(withoutrespectonagriculture),gr.`field,land'(in
contrasttotown),lat.umbr.ager`field',got.(etc.)akrs,ahd.ackar,ahhar,nhd.Acker(Ackerandags.
ceralsoacertainlandmeasure,`somuchabottomplatecanoxenplowduringoneday'),arm.art
`field'(withpuzzlingtabout*atgr-,*atr-,seePedersenKZ.39,352;thereofartak`s`out',prefixarta-`
from').
OldIndianajrya-`locatedintheplain'=gr.`onthefield,outsidegrowingorliving,wildly';
`wildlyliving',lat.agrestis`acountryman,peasant,rustic,rural,crude'.(aboutgot.akran,
dt.Eckern,however,seeunder*g-`grow'.)
maybealb.egr`wild,rural,crude',ager`donkey(pullingawagon)',illyr.TNAgrianes.
References:
References:WP.I35f.,WH.I22f.,89,H.ReicheltWuS.12,112.
Page(s):
Page(s):4-6
Root/lemma: agh-no-s (*hegh-no-s )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`lamb'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Lamm'
Note:
Note:(z.T.also*agnos)
ItseemsthatfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:a- :
:`tolead,*drivecattle'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:agh-no-s :
`lamb'.
Material:
Note:
Theoldlaryngealcentum->a-,e-:satem->s-inPIE;onlyalb.andumbr.andSlavicpreserved
theoldlaryngealthroughalb.->k-phoneticmutation.
alb.geg.kinxh,tosk(*egh-)qengj`lamb':umbr.habina(f)`ofalamb':lat.haednus`ofakid':Old
ChurchSlavic:(j)agn`lamb'[commonalb.gh->gl->gj-:lith.gh->dz-phoneticmutation].

Gr.(*agnos,abnos)derivedfromanearlier*abnos`lamb'[commongr.k>p,g>bphonetic
mutation,laterb>mb>mcommonillyr.-gr.phoneticmutation]
gr.m.f.,f.`lamb';
lat.agnus,-,fem.-a`lamb'(agnle`sheepstable',lackingsuffixaffinitywithOldChurchSlavicjagnilo
`placewherethesheeplamb',aderivativeoftheverbjagniti`tolamb');air.ancymr.oen,acorn.oin,
bret.oan`lamb'(urk.*ognoswith-gn-wouldhavederivedfrom*-ghn-,not-*gn-,inspiteof
PedersenKG.I109-bn-;

o-probablyinfluencefrom*ouis`sheep');ags.anian,engl.toyean`tolamb',ndl.oonends.(from
*aunnfrom*auna-=idg.*aghno-);OldChurchSlavic(j)agne`lamb'(withformants-et-broadened
aroundpopularnamesofyounganimals),(j)agnc`lambkins'containfullgradation.Orisplacedidg.
*g(h)no-:to*g(h)noThroughtheGerm.andKelt.presumedvoiced-aspiratedalsowouldunderliethebasisoflat.and
slav.forms,sothatgr.(atfirstfrom*)remainstheonlydependableindicationinvoicednonaspiratedg.Ifumbr.habina(f)`ofalamb'couldbeexplainedfromintersectionfrom*hdno-=
lat.haednus`ofakid'and*abnno-=lat.agninus`ofalamb;f.assubst.,lamb'sflesh',however,
wouldpointumbr.btovoiced-nonaspirated.ButmaybeithasbecomeghinOsk.-Umbr.tob.
Note:
CelticIllyrianconcordances:commonillyr.-g->-b-,-d-:alb.-g->-d-phoneticmutation.
Lat.avillus`lambkin'becauseofthesuffixformationnottoovis,butfrom*aghnelos.
Note:
[commonlat.-Italicgw->v-phoneticmutation]Lat.avillus(*abillus)`lambkin':rum.(*agenus)
ageamiu`lamb'.
References:
References:WP.I39,WH.I.23.
Page(s):
Page(s):9
Root/lemma: ai-dh-,i-dh-, nas.i-n-dh- (*heui-h--)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toburn
Note:
Commonillyr.-h- > -dh-phoneticmutation
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`brennen,leuchten'
Material:
Material:OldIndianinddh`inflamed,isaroused'(pass.idhyte,Perf.dh,part.Perf.Passiddh),indhana-m`lighting'.
Gr.`lights,burns'(),,`igneously,sparkling',
Hes.,hylleisch'loggia';changingbyablaut-Hes.`ravenously'(W.Schulze
KZ.29,269=Kl.Schr.329).commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation

o-St.:gr.m.`fire'(`burntly')=OldIndiandha-m.`Firewood'=ags.d,ahd.mhd.eitm.
`Glow,pyre':zerogradeprobablynorw.schwed.id`leuciscusidus'(abrightcarpkind),cfnhd.dial.
aitel`leuciscuscephalus'asthe`shining';besidesu-stem*aidhu-ingall.VNAedui,air.ed`fire',
alsoasMN;lat.aeds`adwellingofthegods,asanctuary,atemple',ursprngl.`thedomesticstove',
alsoaedis=maked.Hes.
Fromtheverbaladjectivein-to-derivedprobablylat.aests,-tis`warmseason,summer'(from
*aisto-tt-,idg.*aidh-to-);aestus,-s(from*aidh-tu-)`heat,glow,surf',aesture`cook,surge,roar';
Maybealb.(*aest-,*vesna,*visienta)vjeshta`autumn,harvesttime(longsummer)':Go.asans
`harvesttime,summer'[commonalb.protheticv- beforebareinitialvowels]henceVesta`goddessof
hearthanditssacredfire'wasanIllyriangoddess,alsoalb.vatra(*vas-tra)`hearth'with-tresuffix.
agerm.MNAistomdius(`withquick-temperedcourage'),ags.stf.`driedstove',engl.oast`drying
room,dryingloft'.

r-formants:gr.`theupperair'(maked.),`thecheerfulsky'(maked.),
`brightly,cheerfully(fromtheweather)',forwhatchangingbyablaut'cheerfully',OldIndian
vdhr-(=vi-idh-r-)ds.
l-formants:gr.,`soot',maked.;underacceptanceofadevelopmentfrom
`shining,appearing'`tooapparently'oneputsalittlebitconstrainedlyhereags.del`vain,pointless,
trifling',ahd.tal,nhd.eitel.
Inidg.*aidh-lo-isbasedgerm.ail-inags.lan`burn'toln.`Flame',andinags.ledm.,aisl.eldr
(Gen.elds)`fire,flame'.Fromdifferentdevelopment-gradingags.ledareborrowedcymr.aelwyd,
bret.oaled`fromfire,stove'(M.FrsterThemse4872).Mir.el`lime'couldhaveoriginatedfrom
*aidhlo-.However,couldgerm.andkelt.wordsbeformedalsodirectlybytheroot4.4.i-with-losuffix.

s-formants:es-St.gr.n.`Glow,fire'=OldIndiandhas-n.`Firewood'.
Continuingformation:aisleisaf.(*aidhsn)`fire',norw.`Hearth',mnd.sef.`chimney,firestove'
(however,ahd.essa`chimney,hearth'seeunders-`burn');av.asmam.`Firewood'(*aidh-s-mo-,
cfwithoutsOldIndianidhmm.ds.);inadditionbalt.*aismiinlit.esm`firewood';lit.aistrf.
`passion';aech.niestj(fem.Pl.)`stove',laternstj(withn-suggestionbywrongdecompositionof
theconnections*vnstje,vn-stjach,Berneker275)from*aidh-s-to;inadditionzrogrades
*idh-s-to-inslov.istje,stjePl.`stovehole';toJohanssonIF.19,136alsoOldIndianiak`ofburnt
bricks',av.itya-n.`brick,(backedbrick)'.
In*indh-goesback:alb.geg.idhun,tosk.idht`bitter',tosk.idhrm`bitterness,anger,irritation',
hdhitPl.`nettle'(Joklstudies29).
Note:
Alb.andgr.aretheonlyIElanguagestopreservetheoldlaryngeal-in:alb.geg.hidhun`bitter',
hithra`nettle';
References:
References:WP.I5,WH.15,20,843,Trautmann3,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I347.
Probablytoi-4.

Herealsobelongsaisk-,iforiginatedfromaidh-s-k-.
Page(s):
Page(s):11-12
Root/lemma: aidEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`swell'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schwellen'
Seealso:
Seealso:s.oid-.
Page(s):
Page(s):11
Root/lemma: aig-1, nas.ingEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:disspirited,sick,ill
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`verstimmt,unwirsch,krank'
Material:
Material:Alb.k-k`nasty,bad,evil'(fromk+*aigio-);
Note:
Alb.solidifiedtheoldlaryngeal->k-(*eigio-)k-k,keq`nasty,bad,evil'similartoabbreviated
alb.(*abe)kam`hold,possess,have',commonalb.->k-;-b->-mb->-m-phoneticmutations
foundincorn.caf(f)os,cafes,mbret.caf(f)out,bret.kavout`have';alsozerogradeinalb.preterite
(ha)pata`Iheld,possessed,had',seeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ghabh- :
:tograb,take
lat.aeger,aegra,-um,aegrotus`unwell,ill,sick,diseased,suffering,feeble';anord.eikenndismays
`wild,furious',ags.col`excited,dismayed',nnorw.eikja,eikla`continuallywithattacks,
contradictions,assertionstorment',eikjen`argumentative';toch.aik(a)re(=lat.*aegro-),Aekro`ill';
nasalized:*ing-:lit.ngis`lounger,idler',ngasandangs`idle,sluggish';
lett.gstu,gt`haveinternalpain,besullen,morose',gnt`havedisgust',gnis`sullenperson'(lit.
ngti`choke,torment'probablystaysaway);OldChurchSlavicjdza`illness',nslov.jeza`rage',poln.
jdza`fury,witch'('gruff,sullen'),ech.jezinka`forestwoman'(etc.,seeBerneker268f.;in*jga,not
*aig,isconsequentlytobeledbackalso:)russ.bbajag'witch'(s.BrcknerKZ.45,318);
aisl.ekki`pain,grief'=ags.inca`pain,suspicion,quarrel',afries.inc(d.i.jinc)'angry',alsonengl.
inkle`anticipate,foresee',inkling`whispering,notion,indication,sign'.
References:
References:WP.I9,WH.I16,843,Trautmann70.
Page(s):
Page(s):13
Root/lemma: aig-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:oak

Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Eiche'
Material:
Material:Gr.`anoakenkind'(seeunder),presumablyalso-,-`an
uncertaintypeoftree'(possibly`hardoak').
TheoutcomefromappearsHes.,cf.,,`bowl,bark'
andPlin.n.h.16,6,13aegilopsfertpannosarentes...nonincorticemodo,verumeteramis
dependentes,KretschmerGl.3,335.
Anord.eik(conservativestem)f.`oak',as.k,ags.c(engl.oak),ahd.eih,mhd.eich,eiche,nhd.
Eiche;
Allothercognatesaredubious:gr.(moreproperlythan,s.FickBB.30,273)
possibly'aspen'couldbecreatedas'treetrembler,(*oakshaker)'alsoderivativelikefrom
*`swing,tremble'(:*aig-`moveviolently');
lat.aesculus`(mountainoak),thewinterorItalianoak'(*aig-sklos)isstillunclearafteritsformation,
maybeMediterraneanword.
Maybealb.geg.(*asi)ahi`*oak,beech'[thecommonalb.s>h phoneticmutationinthemiddleof
theword(SeeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:su e kr - Meaning:
Meaning:`mother-inlaworfather-in-law'shifts>h inalb.
(*vura-)vjehrr`father-in-law').
Root/lemma: *s ,s-i-s , s -en- ,os-k- :
:`ashtree(alb.ahi`beech')'musthavederivedfrom
Root/lemma: aig-2 :
:`oak(alb.ahu`oak')'.
References:
References:WP.110,WH.I20,844,SpechtKZ.68,195f.S.untenS.18Z.1/2.
Page(s):
Page(s):13
Root/lemma: aig-3
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tomoveswiftly,swing,vibrate
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`(sich)heftigbewegen,schwingen,vibrieren'
Material:
Material:OldIndianjati`stirs,moves,trembles',jathu`thequakeoftheearth',vicvamjaya`makingeverythingshake',nasalpresentigati,igate`stirs,moves',Kaus.igyati`setsinmotion,
touches,shakes',udigayati`swings',samigayati`setsinshakingmovement'(formrelationlike
between:OldIndianindhate);
fromGr.hereveryprobably.Hes.(alsoArtemidorOneirokrit.2,12:
),'strands'(probablyfromarisethe
connections`inthesurfofthesea';differentlyBechtelLexil.16),`gale,stormcloud;
theshieldofZeus'(probablyoriginallyunderstoodasthestormcloudshakenbyZeus,'thunderstorm
shield'),`gustofwindmovingdownsuddenly'from`storm,attackdown,driveoff'
(from,,),`attacknear,thrustnear';probablyalso
'lance'(onthegroundsof*`thecatapults'or'projectile');presumablyalso'shine',
fromtheflickerofthelightandthewarmairtothesouth;commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phonetic
mutation

TheverynameoftherootlemmaforgoatderivedfromtheshieldofZeuswhichafterthecrashwith
cloudscreatedthunderstorm.SincetheshieldofZeuswascoveredwithgoat'sskintheverynameof
thegoatwasstampedwiththenameofthecloudshaker.
HenceRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai- :
:(goat)isidenticalwithRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:aig-3 :
:(tomoveswiftly,move
violently,swing,vibrate).
inadditiongerm.nameofthesquirrel:ahd.eihhurno,eihhorn,mhd.eichorn(nhd.Eichhornwith
supportofEiche`oak'andHorn`horn',ags.cweorna,-wern,mnd.keren,khorn,anord.korne(k
oldablautorimpairmentfromaik-inaddition),neunorw.alsoeikorne,aschwed.korne(wasbased
ontheconcept`flexible,swingingitselffrombranchtobranch';inearliestwithoneto*uer-,uuer`squirrel,weasel'thebelongingsecondlimb:*aik-werna);akslOldChurchSlavicigr,igra`play',
igrati,perfectivevzigrati`,hop,jump,dance'(from*gr;lit.withBerneker422).

References:
References:WP.I11,Trautmann103.
Page(s):
Page(s):13-14
Root/lemma: aiEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:goat
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:digh- :
:`goat'derivedfromazerogradeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:deih- :
:`toprick;tick'.
FromtheolderrootRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:deih- :
:`toprick;tick'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai- :
:`goat'and
Root/lemma: - :
:`goat'[commonbalt.-illyr.-alb.de-,da->zerophoneticmutation].Hencethe
gr.cognatederivedfromprotoillyr.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Ziege'
Material:
Material:Gr.,-'nannygoat',arm.aic`nannygoat';zerogradeav.izana-`fromleather'
(actually,`fromgoatskin'asgr.,cfthesameimportancerelationswith*ao-`goat').
References:
References:WP.I8,SpechtKZ.66,13.
Page(s):
Page(s):13
Root/lemma: aighEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobeashamed
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sichschmen'
Material:
Material:Directlyfromtherootword:ags.wan`despise','bedisgusted'alsomnd.eichelen,
chelen,gelen(from*aiwiln)(fromitborrowsmhd.ekeln`bedisgusted').

Gr.n.`disgrace'(from*aigh-s-kos,k-derivativeofas-St.*aighes-,as:)got.aiwiskin.
`disgrace,embarrassment';cffurther`shame,senseofhonor,disgrace',`dishonors,
violates,disfigures',med.`avoidsme,isashamedofme',`ignominious,fullofdisgrace;
rebarbative';got.unaiwisks`unharmed',aiwisknact`shameful',ags.wisc(e)n.`disgrace,offense',
Adj.`shameless',mnd.eisch`nasty,hideous',nnd.eisk,aisch`revolting,rebarbative'.
References:
References:WP.I7,Feist30.
Page(s):
Page(s):14
Root/lemma: aikEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tocall(?)
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`anrufen'(?)
Material:
Material:Gr.Hes.,lett.acint`load,shout'.
Butcanbeprescribedfor`flatters',andacintaderivativefroma`hears!'explain(cf
vaict`ask'tovai).
References:
References:WP.I8,Mhlenbach-EndzelinI12.
Page(s):
Page(s):15
Root/lemma: ai-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todrive,tooverwhelm,harm
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`woraufeindringen,treiben,berwltigen,krnken'
Material:
Material:present*(a)ineumi:OldIndianinti,nvati,Imper.inuh,participle-inita-(penita`pushed,cutinto'),`penetrateintosomething,master',av.inaoiti,Inf.anahe`violate,hurt',ainita
(from*an-initabyhaplology)`notviolated,notpainedly'(fromainas-n.`Crime,sin,misfortune'=av.
anah-`actofviolence,crime',inadditionm.`evildoer'?),av.intay-`rape,injury;torture',OldIndian
in-`strong;m.master',maybealsotif.`plague,need';gr.`tremendous';
maybealb.inati`anger;ire;rage;dander;dudgeon;rampage;down;disappointment;malice;blood;
rancour;rancor;pique;spunk;miff;temper;must'.
maybehere-in-ingot.far-ina`guilt,reproach',ahd.firinn`sin',aisl.firnn.Pl.`theextraordinary'(cf
WeisweilerIF.41,29f.),iforiginalmeaning(asintheHeliand)`actofviolence'.
References:
References:WP.I1,Feist139/140.
Page(s):
Page(s):10
Root/lemma: ai-3, (*hei-,heiu)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:togive

Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`geben,zuteilen',aboutmediales`sichgebenlassen'dannalso`nehmen'
Note:
FromthereducedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ghabh- :
:`tograb,take',derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ap-1 (exact
p- ):p- :
:`totake,grab,reach,*give'>Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:pi- :
:`comrade'>Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-3 :
`togive'.
Maybealb.tosk.(*eipmi)ep,jap,geg.nep(*na`us'+ep`give')`giveus(*take)':hitt.eipmi
(pmi)`take',3.Pl.ap-pa-an-zi(apanzi):gr.`giveahand.
Material:
Material:Gr.`take,pack,touch',onlypresentandimperfecttense.
Note:
Gr.derivedfromareduced(*heiun-);comparetheformationgr.,,`service-tree,
rowantree'(*oiu)=lat.va`agrape,berryofthevine';[seeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ei-3 :
:`multicoloured;
reddish']
Alsoillyr.(*avetor)Aetor:Ven.(*avimos)Aimossuffixedwiththecommonsatem-tarformantasIE
rootsaresuffixedwith-taror-skaformants.Tochariancognatebelongstothe(-ts<*-tska)suffixed
roots.
Ven.MNAimos,illyr.MNAetor.
Maybealb.(*-eip)geg.ep,tosk.jap`Igive':Lycianpije,pibije`togive':Hittitepai,pija`togive'alb.
j-standsforthelostlaryngeal-.
hett.p(-ia)-an-`theygive':mess.pi-do`togive'arezerogradesofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-3 :
:`togive'
Note:
Theoldlaryngeal-couldhavebeencreatedfrombalt.-illyr.d->zerophoneticmutation.
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:d- :d- ,alsod-u- :du- :du- :
:`togive'>Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-3, (*hei
*hei-)::`to
give'
Lat.(*ave-mulus)ae-mulus`emulous,rivalling;inbadsense,jealous.M.orf.assubst.,arival,esp.in
love',probablyas`reachesforsomething'(FriskEranos41,53).
Toch.ai-,-,infinitiveaitsi,essi`give';hett.paai`hegives',3.Pl.p(-ia)-anziwithpreverb
pe`there'.
Note:
Toch.ai-,-,infinitiveaitsi,essi`give'displaythecommonToch.ts>ssmutations.
References:
References:PedersenGroupement20,Hittitisch115,Tocharisch227;FriskIndo-germ.10f.
Seealso:
Seealso:Herebelongscertainly:ai-ti-,ai-toPage(s):
Page(s):10-11

Root/lemma: ai-5:oiEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:importantspeech
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bedeutsameRede'(?)
Material:
Material:Gr.,`praises',m.,f.`significantspeech,praise';`talksin
riddles',commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation;n.`darkspeech'(however,-
`saysno,deny'-io-appearsderivativeofthenegation-);
ablaut,mir.ethm.`oath'(acymr.anutonouPl.,gl.`theperjured,theperfidious',ncymr.anudon
`perjury,actoflyingunderoath')=got.aism.,aisl.eir,ags.,as.,ahd.eidm.`oath'(probably
kelt.Lw.).
References:
References:WP.I2,103,OsthoffB.24,208f.
Page(s):
Page(s):11
Root/lemma: ai-r
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:ak.ofgrass
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Grasart'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-r :
:`ak.ofgrass'isareducedroot*ai-trafromwhichderivedalsoRoot/
Root/
lemma: ai-tro- :
:`bitter,sharp'.
Material:
Material:OldIndianrak`agrasskind',gr.`weedinthewheat,ryegrass,darnel',
`fromryegrass,darnel'),lett.ares,arenes`ryegrass,darnel'.
maybethroughmetathesisalb.(*ares>ser)egjr`Loliumtemulentum,ryegrass,darnel'[common
alb.-s->-gj-shift].
References:
References:WP.I12,SpechtDekl.2061.
Page(s):
Page(s):16
Root/lemma: aiskEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:bright,shining
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`klar,hell,leuchtend'
Material:
Material:Awnord.eiskra`ragebeforehotexcitement',nisl.iskraalsofromburningpain.
Lit.ikus,wherebesidezerogradealit.iks`clear,bright'.
Russ.dial.jska,demin.jsoka`brightstar',besideitabg.jasnoAdv.`clear,bright,distinct',russ.
jsnyj`light,clear,bright'from*aiskno-;poln.jaskry,jaskrawy`blinding,dazzling,brilliant'from
*aiskro-;abg.iskra`spark'etc.from*iskr.

Maybezerogradeinalb.(*aiskno-)shkndij`spark'[commonalb.n>ndphoneticmutation].
Alsoalb.zerograde(*jaskry),shkrinj`melt,burn',participle*scrum>shkrumb`ashes'[commonalb.
m>mbshift]loanedinrum.scrum`ashes'.
Russ.dial.jska,demin.jsoka`brightstar',besidesabg.jasnoAdv.`clear,distinct',russ.jsnyj
`bright,clear'from*aiskno;poln.jaskry,jaskrawy`brilliant,sparkling'from*aiskro;abg.iskra`spark'
etc.from*iskr.
HeretheFlNnhd.Aisch(Bavaria),Eysch(en)(Luxembourg),nengl.Axefromkelt.orven.-ill.*Aisk.
Maybealb.(*aisk)eshk`mushroom(whendriedusedtokindlethefire)'relatedtolat.esca-aef.
`food,victuals,esp.asbait',
References:
References:WP.I2,Trautmann4,PokornyUrill.70,113,M.FrsterThemse839.
Seealso:
Seealso:perhapsoriginatedfrom*aidh-sk-,orfrom*ai-sk-in i -4 .
Page(s):
Page(s):16-17
Root/lemma: ais-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:towishfor,searchfor
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wnschen,begehren,aufsuchen'
Note:
TheRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ais-1 :
:`towishfor,searchfor'isatruncatedrootofai-ska .Theformant-skais
acommonGermanicsuffixaddedtoRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-2 :
:`todrive,tooverwhelm,harm'
Material:
Material:OldIndianati`looks',m.`wish,choice',anv-iti`looksfor=av.iaiti`wishes',
OldIndianicchti(*is-sk)`looks,wishes'=av.isaitids.,OldIndianicch`wish',i(2.compound
part)`searching,strivingafter'=av.ids.,f.`Wish,theobjectofthewish',OldIndianita-`desiredly'
m-m.`LoveGod';
arm.aic(*ais-sk)`investigation';umbr.eiscurent(BuggeKZ.30,40)`theywillhavecausedto
come,called,sentfor,invited,summoned,fetched'(probablyas*eh-iscurent`theywillhavedriven
out,pushedforth,thrustedout,takenout,expelled');
Maybezeroforminalb.(*assa-)shanj`curse,blame'.
lat.aeruscre`tobeg,togetmoneybygoingaboutandexhibitingtricksoflegerdemain,toplaythe
juggler'as*aisos-ko-`demanding'toav.Imp.ias`longsfor'(-esko-besides-sko-:isaiti`wishes');
ahd.eiscn`research,ask,demand,(nhd.heischen`demand'withhafterheissen`hot'),as.scn,
scian`demand',ags.scian,xian`try,demand,ask',ahd.eisca`demand',ags.scef.
`investigation';
inBalt.-Slav.withnon-palatalkofthepresentsuffix-sk(towardsar.arm.-sk-),whatisnottobe
explainedbyborrowingfromtheGerm.;lit.ekau,iekti`look',lett.iskt`todelouse',OldChurch
Slavicisk(andit),iskati`look',iska`wish'.

References:
References:WP.I12,WH.19,Trautmann67.
Page(s):
Page(s):16
Root/lemma: ais-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobeinawe,toworship
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`ehrfrchtigsein,verehren'
Note:
TheRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ais-2 :
:`tobeinawe,toworship'isatruncatedrootofai-ska .Theformant-ska
isacommonGermanicsuffixaddedtoRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-3 :
:`togive'
Material:
Material:Ahd.ra,nhd.Ehre,ags.r`Relief,consideratetreatment,honour,luck',anord.eir
`consideratetreatment,peace,alsonameofthemedicinegoddess';ofitahd.rn,rn`honor,
spare,betake',ags.rian`honor,spare,betake',anord.eira`spare'.
Osk.aisusisAbl.Pl.`sacrifices',marruc.aisosD.Pl.`gods',plign.aisis`gods',volsk.esaristrom
`sacrifice',umbr.esono-`divine,sacred',comefromEtruscan.DifferentlyDevotoSt.Etr.5,299f.
d-extension:gr.(from*aiz-d-)`shies,reveres',,-`reverence,shyness,shame',
(*-)`';got.aistan,-aida`avoid,payattention';zerogradeOldIndian
`reveres,praises,implores'.
References:
References:WP.I13,WH.I20,419,844;Feist28a,KretschmerGl.30,882.
Page(s):
Page(s):16
Root/lemma: ai-ti-,ai-to- :oi-toEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:part,share,allotment,quantity,quota,portion,stake,stock,proportion,cut,
contribution
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Anteil'
Coments:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-ti-,ai-to- :oi-to- :
:`part,share,allotment,quantity,quota,portion,stake,stock,
proportion,cut,contribution'isatruncatedroot*ai-traintothesuffixedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-2 :
:`to
drive,tooverwhelm,harm'withtheformant-tra.
Material:
Material:Av.ata-`theproperpart'('punishment';dual`guiltandpunishment').
Gr.(*)`interest,destiny',hom.,better`theproperinterest',commongr.-illyr.-ks->ss-phoneticmutation;.Hes.;`promisinggoodtalent,favorabe',
`certainfromthedestiny,proper',`apply,use,consume',`dispenses
justice,itrules';
(maybedissimilatedfrom*)`beareferee,leads;divide(thewayof)life=leadsa

certainwayoflife;prescribeacertainmeasureinfoodanddrinking',hence,'referee'soffice'
and`life-style,lifearrangement',`well-chosen,particular'.
Osk.Gen.aeteis`partis',attm`portionum'.
FromGr.hereprobablyalso`responsible,guilty'(after),fromwhichlater`guilt,
cause';also,'demands'as`requireshisinterest';ablaut.m.`Destiny'.
Air.esn.,cymr.oesf.`period,age'from*aitto-,air.esm.`People'from*ait-tu-,cymr.oedm.
`Age'from*aito.
References:
References:WP.I2,HirtIdg.Gr.II,82f.SchwyzerGr.Gr.14213,6969,7057.
Page(s):
Page(s):11
Root/lemma: ai-troEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:[bitter,sharp]
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:[bitter,scharf]
Coments:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-tro- :`bitter,sharp'isatruncatedroot*ai-traintothesuffixedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai2 :
:`todrive,tooverwhelm,harm'withtheformant-tra.
Material:
Material:lit.aitrs`bitterly,harsh',aitrf.`sharpness'(alsofigurative);thenasalformation*introperhapsinabg.ob-triti`setonfire',o.s`burn,bequick-tempered',wru.zajti`anger',klr.rozjatrtia`fester'.
Maybealb.hithr`nettle,thronyplant'.Alb.haspreservedtheoldlaryngeal-.

References:
References:WP.I3,Berneker269.
Seealso:
Seealso:perhapsin i -4 .
Page(s):
Page(s):17
Root/lemma: aiu - , ai u Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`vitalenergy,vitality'
Material:
Material:OldIndianyu-n.,anominalizedadjectiveto-`flexibe,active';yu-m.`Geniusofthe
vitality',thereofderiveds-stemyun.,Gen.yua`vitality'(*iuos,Gen.*aiuss);n-steminthe
locative.yuni,Instr.yun;yh`vitality';
av.yn.`Lifespan',Gen.yao,dat.yavi,Instr.yav,ofityavatt-`duration',yavaj-`living
always';yum.`Lifespan';
Gr.s-stem:kypr.F(=);locativewithoutsuffix.lakon.'always';hom.,att.

(*F),Akk.att.(*F);Dat.-Lok.withoutextensioninion.,lesb.(*F)(afterwards
'forever',-'long-living');n-stem:m.(andf.after)`vitality,lifespan',
'always';
alb.esh`periodoftime;span;space;stretch;lapse'from*aiuesi(JoklL.-k.U.34);
lat.o-stemaevusm.andaevumn.`eternity,age,time,lifetime,ortimeoflife,aperiodoflife';
however,arebasedaetasf.`age:ofhumanlife,eitheralifetimeortimeoflife,age,aperiodoftime,
epoch',oldaevitas(fromitosk.Gen.atates,Akk.atatm,pl.Abl.aetatu)`age,timeoflife',
aeternus`ofanage,lasting,enduring,permanent,endless,forever'inadverbial*aiui.
maybezerogradeinalb.(*aetas),jet`life,lifespan'.
Got.o-stemaiwsm.`time,eternity,world';i-stemadverbialaiw(*aiui)=aisl.,ei(alsoinei-gi`not'),
ags.,,ahd.io`ever,always',got.niaiw`never',ahd.neo,nio,nhd.nie;ags.n-,engl.no`not,no';
maybealb.(*nio)jo`not,no'.
aisl.lang-r=lat.longaevus`ofgreatage,aged,ancient';i-stemalsoinaisl.fi,vif.(*aiui-)`life,
age';-steminahd.waf.`time,eternity',thereofahd.wid`eternity',wg`forever';got.aju-k-ds
f.`eternity'from*ajuki-(=ags.ce`forever'),withidg.g-suffix+idg.-tti;
toch.Aym-`mind,life'whichmattributedtom-`life'.
References:
References:WP.I6,WH.I21,EM.21,Feist30,32,BenvenisteBSL38,103ff,DumzilBSL39,
193,SpechtKZ.68,196,Dekl.88ff.,VanWindekens15.
Seealso:
Seealso:Fromthisderived*iuuen-(ieu-3)'young';Spechtalsowantsverymuchrisquelybeputin
addition*aig-,oak'(=`vitality'?).
Page(s):
Page(s):17-18
Root/lemma: ai 1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`exclamation'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:Ausruf
Material:
Material:OldIndianexclamationofremembering,address,compassion;
OldIndianaithesame;ayiinterjectionwiththevocative;
av.iinterjectionofthephonecall(beforethevocative);
gr.,,exclamationofthesurprise,ofastonishmentorpain(thereof`sighs,deplores',
'Sigh');
lit.aandi`oh!blows!'andbeforevocatives.
References:
References:WP.I1,WH.I396,BenvenisteOrigines130f.
Seealso:
Seealso:seealso*aik- .

Page(s):
Page(s):10
Root/lemma: ai o sEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`metal(copper;iron)'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Metall',underzw.probably`Kupfer('brandfarbig'?),Bronze';imArischenalso
`Eisen'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai o s- :
:`metal(copper;iron)'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:eis-1 :
:`tomoverapidly,
*weapon,iron'.
Material:
OldIndianyas-n.,av.ayah-n.`metal,iron';
lat.aes,g.aeris;got.aiz(protogerm.*a(i)iz-=idg.*aies-)`copperore,andthealloyofcopper,
bronze.Transf.,anythingmadeofbronze;avessel,statue,trumpet,kettle',ahd.r`ore',anord.eirn.
`ore,copper'.
thereofav.ayahana-`metallic,iron',lat.anus(*aies-no-=umbr.ahesnes`ofcopper,ofbronze'),
aneus,ags.ren,as.ahd.mhd.rn,nhd.ren(ehern).despitePokornyKZ.46,292f.isnotidg.
aiosoldborrowingfromAjasja,olderAas(ja),theoldnameofCyprus,aslat.cuprum:,there
accordingtoD.Davis(BSA.30,74-86,1932)thecopperpitsweretackledinCyprusonlyinlate
Mycenaeantime.
Note:

Ajasja,olderAas(ja)(Cyprus):HittitePNWilusa(gr.readingIlios)[commonphoneticmutationofthe
oldlaryngeal->a-,i-]:gall.Isarno-PN,ven.FlN'I,latersarcus,nhd.Eisack(Tirol);urir.PN
I(s)aros,air.r,balkanillyr.iser,messap.isareti(KraheIF.46,184f.);kelt.FlNIsar,nhd.Isar,Iser,
frz.Isre;*Isi,frz.Oise;*Isur,engl.Ure,etc.(PokornyUrillyrier114f.,161);nhd.FlNIll,Illach,Iller,
lett.FlNIsline,Islcis,wruss.Isa,alb.VNIllyrii.
Herelat.aestim,oldaestum`toappraise,rate,estimatethevalueof;toassessthedamagesina
lawsuit;inawidersense,tovalueathingorperson;hence,ingen.,tojudge',Denomin.from*aistemos`hecutstheore'(totemn).
References:
References:WP.I4,WH.I,19,20,Feist31.
Seealso:
Seealso:To i -4 `burn'?
Page(s):
Page(s):15-16
Root/lemma: akk
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`mother(children'sspeech)'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Mutter'(Lallwort)

Material:
Material:OldIndianakk`mother'(gram.),gr.`nurseofDemeter','ghost',
`becoy,positiononeselfstupidly',lat.AccaLrentia`Larenmother,Romanhallgoddess'(probably
Etruscan);alsointoSmall-Asianlanguages;comparelapp.Madder-akka`earthmother'.
Maybealb.Ajkuna`greatmother'inalb.epos.
References:
References:WP.I34,WH.I5.abouttoch.ammakiseeunderam(m)a.
Page(s):
Page(s):23
Root/lemma: ak - , ok -(*hek- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`sharp;stone'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`scharf,spitz,kantig'and`Stein'
Material:
Material:1.e/o- and -St:
Npers.s(lengthened-gradeform)`millstone,grindstone';gr.`point',lengthened-gradeformion.
,,Hes.,redupl.`point,edge'(as:);afterKretschmer
KZ.33,567andSchwyzerGr.Gr.I348belongs`hears'as*--`havingsharpear'here,
see,however,1.keu-;alb.atht`sharp,sour',
Note:
Inalb.atht(*ake-)`sharp,sour'+commonalb.suffix-t[commonalb.-k>-thphoneticmutationas
inalb.(*mag-)math`big'].
lat.acre`sharp,cutting,keen.Hence,totaste,biting;totouch,sharp;ofsounds,shrill;ofsmells,
penetrating;ofsight,keen;ofemotions,painful;ofunderstanding,quick,vigorous,energetic',acidus
`sour,acid,tart',actum`vinegar';
maybealb.acar`frost,sharpsteel'.
witho:mbr.convocarvilin`sharpenthemillstone',cymr.hogi`sharpen',acymr.ocoluin,ncymr.
hogalen,mbret.hygo(u)len,nbret.higolenn`whetstone'(withtheunclearsecondcomponent;to
explainbret.vocalismoftheinitialsoundbythepretone);mc.cyfogi`vomit,fight',withsecondaryiosuffixacymr.cemecid,ncymr.cyfegydd(*kom-okio-)'pickaxe';
withzerograde:acymr.diauc,ncymr.diog,mbr.dieuc(*dko-)'decayed,spoiled',mcymr.ym-amogawr(*-kr)`onestirs,isactive'(LothRC.45,191)andmbr.eaug,nbret.eok`ripe,madesoft'
(*eks-ko-),togall.excum`centaurionlepton'(ErnaultGloss.MBret.201);comparealsoaboveS.5;
schwed.agm.`marshgrass,Cladiummariscus,edge,blade'(*ako-),mhd.ag`perch',egle,eglinc
ds.,nhd.schweiz.egel,Demin.egli,aschwed.agh-borreds.,maybealsoschwed.agg`rancor,
hatred',agga`sting,torment',norw.dial.agge`tooth,point'(*akuko-orexpressiveGemination?),as
wellas(withsecondarygerm.vowelgradationa:uorfrom*akuko-withassimilationainu?)norw.
dial.ugg`sting,frightening',schwed.dial.ugg`point,tooth',anord.uggr`fear',norw.dial.ugge`fin';

lit.akotas*`awn',aka(*ako-k)`fishbone,bran'=wruss.osoka`sedge',pr.ackons(*akno-)ds.
maybe(*esel),egjr`Loliumtemulentum,ryegrass,darnel'[commonalb.-s->-gj-phoneticmutation],

zerogradeinalb.(*osoka-)shqir`sedge'.
---------------------*baltoslav.formswithkprovenoneidg.besidetheformak-,butispartiallyloanwordfromVenetoIllyrian,whoseareawouldbeoccupiedbypeoplefromtheBalticandSlavs(KretschmerGl.21,115).
AlsoginChurchSlaviciglaexplainsitselfontopS.15.
---------------------2.i-andj-stems:
Arm.asen`needle'(from*asin,MeilletEsquisse43);gr.,-`point,sting';lat.acis
`keenness,edge;ofthemind,penetration,insight;oftheeye,apiercinglookorkeenvision;
sometimesthepupiloftheeye,ortheeyeitself.Milit.,battleline;hencebattle,battlefield';as.eggja
f.,ahd.etcekka`point,swordedge',nhd.Ecke(protogerm.*ai,anord.egg`edge,cliffbacks',
eggja`sharpen,spuron',ags.ecg`edge,blade,sword'(fromitborrowsmir.ecg`edge',nbret.ek
`point'),eglePl.`awns',engl.ails;OldChurchSlavicosla(*osla),russ.osokm.`whetstone',ech.
osinaf.`awn'.
Maybezerogradeinalb.(*askel),hal`needle,fishbone,awn',[commonalb.sk->h-phonetic
mutation],olderalb.(*haskel)hakl`needle,fishbone':lat.aculeus-im.`sting,point;fig.,esp.in
plur.,painfulthoughts,cuttingremarks'.Itseemsalb.[togetherwithcymr.hogi`sharpen',ncymr.
hogalen,mbret.hygo(u)len,nbret.higolenn`whetstone']haspreservedtheoldlaryngeal-.
aboutags.eher`ear'seeunders-formant.
3.u-stem:
Gr.`chaff'seeunders-formant;lat.acus,-sf.`needle;fishname',acuere`sharpen',
acmen`sharppoint;hencethepointofremarks,etc.;sharpnessofintellect;cunning,trickery',acia
(*acu-i)`threadtothesewed',aquifolium(besidecrifolium)`holly',aculeus`sting',accipiter`hawk,
falcon'(*acu-peter`quick-flying');
Maybealb.(*aku-lio-)akull`ice,sharpice',(*accipiter)skifter`falcon,hawk',skip()tar`eagle-man',
truncatedskipe,shkab`eagle',suffixedgeg.Shkipni`landoftheeagles'.
Fromlat.aquila-aef.`aneagle;milit.,aneagleasthestandardofaRomanlegion;architect.,gable
orpediment'.aquilo-onism.`thenorthwind;thenorth'.aqua-aef.`water'itseemsthatRoot/
Root/
lemma:
lemma:ak- (moreproperlyk ):k- :
:(water,river)derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - , ok -:
(sharp;stone).
gall.acaunum(*akounon)`rock';ill.ONAcumincumtodaySzlankamen`saltstone'(Banat);
Note:ill.PNAcu-mincum`saltstone':alb.(*aku-lio-)akull`ice,sharpice'.
nhd.Achelf.`earpoint,awn'fromndd.aggel(withspirant.g)fromidg.*akul;ags.welm.`fork',
anord.so-ll`meatfork'(germ.*ahwala-,idg.*kuolo-);ifheregallo-lat.opulus`commonmaple'
(Marstrander,Corr.germ.-celt.18),wouldbeplacedidg.*oku-olo-;aboutanord.uggretc.seee/ostem,aboutags.arsees-formant;cymr.ebill`drill',mbr.ebil`peg,nail'(*aku-lio-);
Note:

Themutationkw>p,binCeltictongues,lat.andgr.
balt.*ausinlett.ass`sharp,pointed',lit.autam.Pl.`coarsehorsehair'=slav.*outam.`Thistle'in
ChurchSlavicst,russ.ost.Onaccountofheretoch.Acwe`rough'(VanWindekensLexique
15)?
seeunder*ku-s`fast(sharpinthemovement)'.
4.Withm -formant:

ak m o-/-
Gr.`point,edge,sharpness;thehighestpoint,climax,decisivepoint'(Adv.,,
);schwed.dial.m`marshgrass,Cladiummariscus'(germ.*ahma-,comparefinn.Lw.ahma
`equisetum').

ak - men-/-merOldIndianaman-n.`Stone,sky'(asastonevault,ReicheltIF.32,23ff.),amar-`stone',av.
asman-`stone,sky'(OldIndianGen.na,Instr.n,av.Gen.an,Abl.anatwith-n-from-mn-;
Instr.Pl.OldIndiananihaftero-stem);phryg.PN;gr.'anvil',;lit.
mensm.Pl.`Edge',akmu,-esm.`stone'.
5.Withn-formant:

ak e nOldIndianani-`headofthearrow,missile';av.sg-,Oldpers.aanga-`stone'(*akengo,
BenvenisteOrig.28);gr.`point,sting;longitudinaldimension'(however,aboutlat.acuna`a
cavity,hollow,dip;esp.apool,pond.Transf.,gap,deficiency,loss'seeWH.I9),`whetstone',
,-`spear'(forolder,*-aftertheparticiples),`throwthespear',
`thistlekind,pricklyheadplant',`fruitcarrypricklyheads',`thistle'(from*`stingflower'),`thistle,sting,thorn,spine,esp.ofthefish','goldfinch'(from
*),`barque',,`woman'sshoe'(*akno-,probablyfromthepointed
form);lat.agna`earofgrain'(from*akn);got.ahanaf.`chaff',anord.gn,ags.egenuf.andegnan
Pl.,ahd.aganads.,nhd.Ahne,dial.Agen`stalksplinteroftheflaxorhemp'(germ.*ag-,*ahan,idg.
*akn);lit.em.ans`edge,sprouting,germinating,sowing',lett.asnsm.`germburstingout'.
6.Withr-formant:

ak e r-, ok e rNote:
ManyGermaniccognatesprovethattherealrootswerethelabiovelars:ak er-, ok erAir.a(i)cher`sharp(fromthehoist)',becauseoftheGen.Sg.Akeras(PNintheOgham)notlat.Lw.;
abret.acer-uission`withsharpfingers'(biss),ocerouPl.`sharpened',acymr.ar-ocriongl.atrocia;lit.
aers,eers`riverperch';pol.dial.jesiora(from*aser);anord.grds.(fromprotogerm.*agura-,
idg.*okr-o-),westnorw.augur(from*gurr,newerdevelopmentfromgr),influencedfromauga`eye',
FromtheextensionofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - , ok -(*hek-):`sharp;stone'withr-formantderivedthe

labiovelars:ak er-, ok er-whosezerogradeproducedalb.(*kerna),gurr`stream'[commonalb.


rn>rrshift],(*ker-)gur`stone';
Herealsomaybethenameofthemaple(duetothepointedleafsections):
lat.acer,-erisn.`themapletreeormaplewood'(fromacerarborbecamevlat.acerabulus,MeyerLbkeREW.93),dn.rds.(germ.*ahira-);nhd.dial.Acherds.(germ.*ahura-);
gr.Hes.(*,meaningasbeside;tostem
comparealsoHes.);galloRome.*akaros,*akarnos`maple'(HubschmiedRC.50,263
f.);ahd.ahorn`maple'
(fromschweiz.andotheroralkindswoulddevopcertainly-,however,-wouldhavearisenalsoof
people'setymologicaldistortion,likemnd.nhorn,lhorn;ahorn(idg.*akrno-)isuptothedeclension
class=,whilelat.acernus`ofmaple'issyncopatedfrom*acer-inos;however,thatnhas
probablyalsoarisenfromtheformeradjectivematerialdevelopingformants-no-andnotfromr/nstembyaccumulationofbothelements.
Ratherthatcountsforgr.(*-)`yellowthistlekind'ds.,maybeherealso
`Kalmus',`hisspicyroot',comparewithotherformsstillf.`odoriferousflower',
`basil'(ifheresuitablly,namedafterthesharpsmell?).

ak r i-, ak r oOldIndianrih`corner,edge,border',catur-ara-`square';gr.`sharply',,,
`point,mountaintops'(alsoinas`havesharphearing,sharpentheear',and,-
`grasshopper',shortformfor`tiptoe',;`pointoftheboughs',seeto
theformationBrugmannGrdr.II21,241);

lat.(toseeFriskIF.56,113f.)cer,cris,-e(alat.cra,-um)`sharp,piercing,penetrating,cutting,
irritating,pungent',osk.akrid`sharply,fiercely,keenly',umbr.peracri-`fat,plump,corpulent'(=lat.
percer`verysharp',comparetomeaninggr.,also`uppermost,excellent',ando),lat.
acerbus`acidic,sad,harsh,bitter,unripe'(from*cri-bho-s);comparegall.AXPOTALVS`withhigh
forehead',air.r`high'(from*akros);lit.ars,atrs,alit.atras,OldChurchSlavicostr`sharp'(tinterpolatedwording).
Maybealb.geg.(*akri)hakrronj`threaten,frighten'.

ok r i-, ok r oWithshadingo-:gr.f.`sharp'mountainpoint,corner,edge',alat.ocrism.`roughmountain',lat.
mediocris`average,mediocre,ofmiddlingsize,medium,middling,moderate,ordinary',actually`tobe
foundhalfwayup'(hereablautcouldbedisplayedinthecompoundlikeinextorris:terra,meditullium:
tells),Ocriculum,Interocrea,ocrea`splint,agreave,legging',umbr.ocar,ukar,Gen.ocrer
`mountain,castlemountain',marr.ocres`amountain,mount,rangeofmountains',mir.och(a)ir
`corner,edge',fromitborrowscymr.ochr`edge'.
Totheheterocliteparadigm*ak-r-(g),*ak-n-es(alsothei-stem*aki-canhavecombinedwithit)
compareaboveakmen/mer-,PedersenKZ.32,247,JohanssonBeitr.9,PeterssonIF.24,269ff.;as
notabletheappositionappearsthereoffromgr.`nameofdifferentmountains',-
the'Agrigentum'whichmighthavesignifiedoriginally`rocks,stones'.

7.Withs-formant:

ak e s- :ak
aks Gr.`chaff'from*ak-sn,afterwardsreshuffledds.insteadof*;gr.'Barley'(`awned,bristly',formationlikelatonus-tus,venus-tus);gr.,Hes.-`with
igneouspoint',`two-edged',`withlongpoint'(maybeonlywithstretchinthe
compound,afterwhichthelengthalsoinsimple;however,lieslengthenedgrade*k-also
beforeinion.,,Hes.,Hes.,compareto
meaning`climaxoflife').
maybezerogradeinalb.(*-)kash-t`chaff(*barley)'where-tistheneuterending,(*),
san`chaff'.
additionalformationsingr.`sharp',comparetoformationlit.tamsstoOldIndiantmas-,lit.
tamsa(inaddition`harrow'Hes.),`winevinegar'.-Also*`sharpened'seemsto
be*--,HirtIF.12,225.
Note:commongr.-h->--phoneticmutation
Lat.acus,-eris`aneedle'acervus(*aces-vo-s)`aheap,mass;inlogic,argumentbyaccumulation';
got.ahsGen.*ahsisn.,aisl.axn.,ahd.ahir,ehirn.(germ.*ahiz),fromthePl.nhd.`earofcorn'f.,but
ags.ear(*ahuz),dat.Sg.nordhumbr.hher,eherds.(aboutthecoexistencefromi-,u-ands-stems,
partlyalreadyidg.,butesp.inGermanic,compareBrugmanncompareGr.II1,522,underSpecht
Idg.Dekl.152.Onaccountoforiginallyidg.-es-or-is-,or-us-stemdisplay,isdifficultintheisolated
casetodecide.comparealsoSievers-BrunnerAengl.Gr.pp.128,2under288f.)

ak - stiCymr.eithinm.Pl.`gorse,furze'(*akstno-),fromitborrowsmir.aittennds.(withunclearsound
gradation);lit.akstsfollowing'smokedspit'(=russ.ost`point,ear,spike'),kstinasm.`Sting,spur'=
OldChurchSlavicostnm.`Sting',ech.ostends.
maybealb.(*osten)hosten`stickfordrivingcattle'[alb.haspreservedtheoldlaryngeal-sothis
cognateisnotaSlavicloanword],zerograde(*ak-sti-)hesht`spear',[lat.hasta`spear,sting'].alb.
suggeststhatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hasto-1 ,hazdho- :
:(twig;pole)derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - ,
ok - ,(ak - sti- )::(sharp;stone)
8.Witht-formant:
OldIndianaph-m.(from*apaatha)`barbinthearrow';gr.`gruffcoastwithbreaker;
headland,elevation';toch.c-,cce-`head,beginning'(from*akt-).
Note
Note:
Againtherehasbeentheshiftgr.kw>pinOldIndian

ok e t `harrow,devicewithpoints':
Lat.occa`harrow'from*otikabyrearrangementfrom*okit(HirtIF.37,230)comparedifferent
formationsgr.`harrow';

Note:commongr.-h->--phoneticmutation
acymr.ocet,corn.ocet,bret.oguet:ahd.egida,mhd.eg(e)de,ags.eg(e)def.(nhd.Eggerenewed
fromtheverbeggenfromahd.egen,ecken,protogerm.*agjan,onitspartonlyfromtheSubst.
*agirevertformation);
lit.akios,ekios`harrow',OldPrussianaketes`harrows',insteadofederivesfromtheverb
*akiinlit.akju,akti,besidesakju,ekti;theanlaut(initialsound)a-frequentlyhasbecomeein
anunstressedpositionabeforepalatalvowel(EndzelinLett.Gr.36).
References:
References:WP.I28ff.,WH.I6ff.,SpechtDekl.24,69,125,271,331.SpechtKZ.62,210ff.
(unglaubhaft).

Seealso:
Seealso:S.under*ok - tu `eight',actually`bothpointsofthehands(withoutthumb)'.
zerogradesk-stuckprobablyinstemskemen-,kemel-,kmen-`stone,skies',komor-`stone
hammer',k i- ,ki-,ki-`sharpen,whet',k - `sharp,spit,spear'.
Page(s):
Page(s):18-22
Root/lemma: ak - 1, ak -(*hek-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`toeat'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`essen'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - , ok -(*hek-)::`sharp;stone'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - 1, ak -(*hek-)::
`toeat'
Material:
Material:OldIndiananti(insertedInf.ai-tumetc.)`eats,consumes',anamn.`food',na-
`greedy',lengthenedgradeayati`allowstodine',prtar-a-`breakfast';av.kahrk-sa`chicken
eater=vulture'etc.;
gr.f.`acorn'(as`food',compareformallyOldIndiana-a-`greedy'),`bite';
Maybealb.ha`eat,bite,consume':`bite';
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - , ok -(*hek-)::`sharp;stone':Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - 1, ak -(*ek-)::`toeat'.
Note:
Onlygr.andalb.havepreservedtheoldlaryngealan.agnn.`baitforfish'(*ak-n-),ja`allowtograze'(*ahjan).
References:
References:WP.I112f.,WH.I210f.
Page(s):
Page(s):18

Root/lemma: ak r u
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`tear'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Trne'
Material:
Material:Ved.run.,lateralsoram`tear',av.asr-n.,lit.aaraandaraf.,toch.krPl.
kruntds.,compareOldIndianarymi,lit.aroju`cries'.Therelationshiptoidg.*dakru`tear'is
unsettled.compareMeilletBSL.32,141.
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak r u :
:`tear'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dak r u- :
:`tears'.Thephoneticshiftda->
a-,zeroisacommonBalticIllyrianphoneticmutation.CompareRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:del-5 :
:`long':balt.
withunexplainedd-loss(seeunder):lit.lgas,f.ilg,lett.ilgs,OldPrussianilgaandilgiAdv.`long':
hitt.Nom.Pl.da-lu-ga-e-e(dalugaes)`long',da-lu-ga-a-ti(dalugasti)n.`length'.Thisisasound
proofofAryanmigrationfromtheBalticregiontoNorthIndia.
References:
References:WP.I33,WH.I746.
Page(s):
Page(s):23
Root/lemma: ak- (moreproperlyk ):kEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`water,river'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Wasser,Flu'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ang(h)i- :
:`snake,worm'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- (moreproperly
k ):k: `water,river';Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ehero- :
:`lake,innersea';Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ad(u)-,ad-ro- :
:`water
current':Illyr.pannon.VN[commonalb.-illyr.-balt.-h- > -d-, -z-phoneticmutation].
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- `water,river'nasalizedin*akuent-(suffixedin-er,-or)derivedRoot/
Root/
lemma: au ( e)-9, au e d-, au e r-:
:`toflow,towet;water,etc.`
Material:
Lat.aqua`water,waterpipe'(thereofaquilus`dark',aquila`eagle',eigentl.`theswarthy',aquil`north
wind',eigentl.`thedarkeningsky')=got.aaf.`river,bodyofwater',aisl.,ags.a,as.ahd.aha,
nhd.Acheds.(germ.*ahw,thereofderived*ahwj,*awj`surroundedbythewater'inaisl.eyf.
`island,pasture,grassland',ags.eg,ahd.-ouwa,-awa,mhd.ouwef.`water,peninsulaintheriver,
grasslandrichinwater';
maybealb.(*aquil)akull`frozenwater,ice'
ItseemsthatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- (moreproperlyk ):k- :
:(water,river)derivedfromRoot/
Root/
lemma: ak - , ok -:
:(sharp;stone).

nhd.Aue,compareafries.ei-land`island',Sca(n)din-aviaKretschmerGl.17,148ff.),russ.FlNOk,
pannon.PNAquincum`stove(*cookingstovewherewaterboilsmakingbubbles)',apul.FlNAquil,
ven.PNAquileia(alsoinSouthGermany);withablaut(idg.)inadditionaisl.gir(*kis)`Godof
thesea',ags.g-weard`watchatthesea',agor`sea,flood'(theinitialsoundaftera);maybehere
OldIndiankm`water',dak.plantN`watercolonist'(*ka-dhmn),poln.
(nordill.)FlNKwa.
Theaffiliationfromhitt.e-ku-uz-zi(ekuzi)`drinks',3.Pl.a-ku-wa-an-zi,seemsnotunlikely.Moreover
alsotoch.AByok-tsi`drink'.Air.oiche`water'doesnotexist;cymr.aig`sea'isneologismtoeigion
fromlat.oceanus.
alb.(*oceanus)oqean`ocean'.
FromPIEtherootforwater,ocean,passedtoAltaic:
Protoform:
Protoform:*k`e(-k-)
Meaning:
Meaning:`deepplace,placefarfromtheshore'
Turkicprotoform:
Turkicprotoform:*k
Tungusprotoform:
Tungusprotoform:*(x)uKJapaneseprotoform:
Japaneseprotoform:*ki
Note:
Note:Theparallelseemsplausible;thecommonmeaningheremaybeformulatedas"aplace(inthe
seaorriver)distantfromtheshore".
References:
References:WP.I34f.,WH.I60,848,Feist18f.,PedersenHittitisch128,Tocharisch190.
Page(s):
Page(s):23
Root/lemma: akEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`tohurt'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schdigen'?
Material:
Material:OldIndiankam`grief,pain',av.ak`nasty,bad',axtis`grief,pain,illness';gr.noun
*,*,thereof,,'swindler';Verbalst.-in
'deception'(*apnt),redupl.Present'damage'.
Note:commongr.-k->-p-,-g->-b-phoneticmutation
References:
References:KuiperGl.21,282f.
Page(s):
Page(s):23
Root/lemma: albhiEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`barley'

Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Gerste'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:albhi- :
:`barley'derivedfromatruncatedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ereg(h)o- ,erog(h)o- :
`pea'[commongr.-k->-p-,-g->-b-phoneticmutation].
Material:
Material:Gr.,`barley,pearlbarley,barleyflour',lakon.Hes.
(withgradualgrowthvowel;EhrlichKZ.38,55,in:fromwhichbyintersectionwith
then-,--seesarelationasbetweenOldIndiansthi:asth-n-,whatwouldguarante
olderprotoidg.oftheword);alb.elp(elbi)`barley'(N.Pl.*albh-).Iran.*arbhi-conclusionsVasmer
Stud.z.alb.Wortf.I(Dorpat1921)S.16ff.fromturko-tatar.etcarba`barley'.
relationshipto*albh-`white'assumesSpechtDekl.68an.
FromIranianbranchthenameforbarleypassedtoAltaicfamily:
Protoform:
Protoform:*rp`
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`barley,millet'
Turkicprotoform:
Turkicprotoform:*arpa
Mongolianprotoform:
Mongolianprotoform:*arbaj
Tungusprotoform:
Tungusprotoform:*arpa
Japaneseprotoform:
Japaneseprotoform:*p
Note:
Note:EAS90,KW15,Poppe87.67.TheMong.formcannotbeexplainedasaTurkism
(despiteTMN2,24,1997,100).TheTurkicformissometimescomparedwithProto-Iran.
*arba-(correspondingtoGr.alphi),cf.EastIranianformsgoingbackto*arpasy-(or*arbasy)
(-1982,23),butitisnotidentical(lossofthefinalsyllableishardtoexplain);on
theotherhand,theJpn.parallelisastrongargumentinfavouroftheAltaicoriginoftheTurkicform.
References:
References:WP.I92,JoklFestschriftKretschmer78f.,KieckersIE.41,184,WahrmannGl.17,
253.
Page(s):
Page(s):29
Root/lemma: albho- (*hele-bho-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`white'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wei'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:albho- (*helba-)::`white'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:el-1 ,ol- ,e l- :
:red,brown(in
namesoftreesandanimals)extendedin-kho-,-bho-formants.seelat.olor`swan'(*els);gr.
m.f.`stag(whitespotted)'.

Material:
Maybealb.geg.alka,alk(*alkha)`whitecream,dirt,spot,fatofwool'.
Gr.`whiterash',Hes.(alsoHes.,s.below),FlN;
commonillyr.-gr.-k->-p-phoneticmutation.
lat.albus`white,deadwhite;hencepaleorbright;sometimesmakingbright;fig.,fortunate',umbr.alfu
`white',osk.AlafaternumAlafaternum`Alfaternorum',prlig.Alafis`Albius'(andmanyothernames
partlyEtruscancoinageduetoosk.-umbr.rootalf-,aslat.alb-,s.SchulzeLat.Eig.119f.;etr.
Pronunciationfromlat.albusalsomustbethatofPaul.Diac.4L.asSabinecalledalpum);inaddition
albula,alburnus`whitefish',albarus`whitepoplar',albcus`asphodelplant'etc.;
Maybelat.albulus-a-um`whitish;f.assubst.Albula
Albula-ae(sc.aqua),oldnameoftheTiber'.
cymr.elfyddm.`earth,world'from*albio-(compareOldChurchSlavicsvt`light,world');
ahd.albiz,elbiz,ags.aelbitu,ielfetu,anord.elptr,lptf.(germ.*al-it-,-ut-)`swan',(forms-d-in

animalnames:s.BrugmannGrdr.II21,467,CharpentierKZ.40,433f.,SpechtDekl.229;also:)Old
ChurchSlaviclebed,russ.lebedlebjad,intheablauttopoln.abd,serb.labud,ech.labud
``swan'(protoslav.*olbed,-d,-d,comparetothelattersuffixformlit.bal-adis`pigeon,dove',
actually`white';
Maybethroughrhymeeffectalb.(*m'elm)mjellm`swan'similartoalb.jt()r,t'jetr`other'see
Root/lemma: e-3 ,ei- ,i- ,fem.- :
:`this,etc.(demonstrativestem);one'[rhymeofm-thesameas
rhymeoft-]commonalb.-mb->-m-phoneticmutation;[illyr.namesendingin-m-suffixlikealb.
delm`sheep',VNDalmatae,Delmatae(seeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dh(i)- (dh-ei- ?)::tosuck);therefore
anearlySlavicloanwordinIllyrian.
seeMeilletEt.322,MSL.14,377,SchulzeSBprAk.1910,800=Kl.Schr.122f.;namedafterthe
colorruss.lebed,poln.lebioda,oboda`atriplex,goosefoot',LidnStud.97);ndl.alft,elft`whitefish'
(formally=ahd.etcalbiz`swan';toloanwordfromlat.albula`whitish'incontrasttoitFalk-Torp189f.
areagainst,mhd.albel`whitefish',nhd.Albe,nd.alf,albe`whitefish'),comparelat.alburnus`awhite
fish,bleak'ds.;
nhdmdartl.Albums`hardsandunderthefertileearth',schwed.mdartl.alfds.;
probablyalsoanord.alfr,ags.lf,engl.elf(fromwhichnhd.Elfm.,Elfef.borrowed),mnd.alf`lp,
grand,evilspirit',mhd.nhd.Alp,Pl.theAlben(originallyprobably`whitishnebulousfigures'),aswell
asahd.alba`insectlarva,locustaquaenondumvolavit',ndl.elftenf.Pl.`cockchafergrubs',norw.
almads.(mfromtheGen.Pl.*albna,fromwhich*almna).
Note
Note:
TheIllyr.TNAlbanoiisthepluralformmhd.nhd.Alp,Pl.theAlben(originallyprobably`whitish
nebulousfigures')aprimitiveIndoEuropeanpeoplewhobelievedinevilspiritsbeforeanelaborate
mythologydevelopedlater.

Arbn`nameofalb.duringMiddleAges'
seetothesegerm.wordsesp.Falk-Torpunderaame(4,1428),al(19,1431),alv(22,1431),elvI
(188f.,1454),emd(189,1454);as`whitewater'alsothenameofElbe(lat.Albis,Albia,fromgerm.

*Al,Gen.Aliz=),anord.elfr`river'andrivername(inadditionprobablyalsomnd.elve`riverbed'),
comparegall.FlNAlbis,Alb(nowAube;contrastDubis,Dub,i.e.`black,deepwater'),lat.Albula,
gr.(seeesp.SchulzeSBprAk.1910,797=Kl.Schr.120).
Note:commongr.-k->-p-,-g->-b-phoneticmutation
Incontrasttothisassumption,itisdoubtfulfromorinwhichcircumferencenameslikegall.-lat.Albin,
mir.Albbu,Gen.Albban(stem*Albien-)`Britain'(tocymr.elfyddorfromthewhitechalkrocks),lat.
Alps,(highmountains?)andinital.,ligur.andkelt.areasfrequentlocalnamelikeAlba,
Albiumlikewisebelowgobackor,however,arenotidg.derivationoftheconcept`white'(Bertoldi
BSL.32,148,ZrP.56,179f.).
Arm.aauni`pigeon,dove',barelyfor*alabh-n-(BuggeKZ.32,1,PedersenKZ.38,313),seebelow.
Abouttheaffiliationof*albhi- *albhi- `barley's.d.
MaybeherebelongsHett.al-pa-(alpas)`cloud'inspiteofCouvreur(H106,149)here.
Totheablaut:beside*albho-sseemstobetwo-syllablerootformingr.(also?)and
arm.aauni,andinadditiontunedslav.intonation(serb.lbd),s.OsthoffIF.8,64f.,PedersenaaO.
Thisadditional-bho-onesyllableisincolornamesfrequentsuffix(e.g.lat.galbuslit.rabas`in

differentcolors,multicolored,dappled'besideranas;BrugmannGrdr.II21,388f),*albhosis
obtainableinmonosyllabicroot*al-andontheotherhandispossibleaccordingtoBrugmann
aaO.
tolit.alvas`tin'(`whitemetal'),OldPrussianalwis`lead,plumbum',russ.lovo`tin'(fromidg.
*aluo-?Balt.correspondencesareborrowedaccordingtoNiedermannfromtheSlav.)standina
similarrelation,asgr.-tolat.curv-us`crooked,curved,bent',OldIndianpalla(:
palva)toOldPrussianpelwo,alsogobacktoawordroot*al[u]-:*alu-:*alu-(inarm.aawni
andslav.words);
Note:
Frombalt.-slav.thenotionfor`whitemetals,whitecolor,sickwhite'passedtoAltaicfamily:
Protoform:
Protoform:*nilp
Meaning:
Meaning:`tin,lead'
Tungusprotoform:
Tungusprotoform:*lban
Japaneseprotoform:
Japaneseprotoform:*nmri
Note:
Note:AninterestingTM-Jpn.isogloss;cf.alsoOldKoguryo*naimul(seeMiller1979,8).Jpn.*nmri<*npan-(r)i,withusualregressivenasalization.
Earlier:
Protoform:
Protoform:*lpa
Meaning:
Meaning:`unable,sick;beingatservice,man-at-arms'
Turkicprotoform:
Turkicprotoform:*lp-

Mongolianprotoform:
Mongolianprotoform:*alba-n
Tungusprotoform:
Tungusprotoform:*albaKoreanprotoform:
Koreanprotoform:*rphJapaneseprotoform:
Japaneseprotoform:*aparNote:
Note:Poppe85,121(Turk-Mong.);TMN2,110-111.
gr.issufficientbythereshuffletowhichanimalnamesandplantnamesareexposed
everywhere,inordertoensureinadditionstill*alebh-;
hereas`theshiningone'gall.alausa`Europeanshad,twaiteshad'(frz.alose,span.alosa),compare
alsogall.GNAlaunos,Alounae,brit.FlNAlaunos(nengl.Aln),cymr.PNAlunaswellasarm.aauni
`pigeon,dove'from*alu-n-.
Astemformali-`white'isnotprovabe,inspiteofSpechtDekl.114,becausehett.ali-`white'appears
veryuncertain(CouvreurH149f.,FriedrichIF.58,94)andgr.,,iaretobe
explaineddifferently.
Here,however,probably(asa`paleyellowplant')hisp.-lat.ala`elecampane'(Isid.),span.-portug.ala
ds.,furthermorewith-nt-suffixahd.alantds.,withitetymologicalidenticallythefishnameahd.alunt
(neweralant),as.alund`whitefish,Alant'=(withgramm.alteration)aisl.-lunn`afish',idg.basic
form*al-nt-/*al-ont-.Theoriginalmeaningofal-isprobably`white,shining',hence,thenalso`pale
yellow'etc.
Apreciseseparationofthemeaningsofal-andel-isnotalwayspossible,whichiswhySpecht(Idg.
Dekl.59,160)explainedbothstemsasoriginallyidentical,thusal-asel-leadsbacktoel-,withwhich
heassociatesfurther(aaO.114)thecolorrootar-(seebeloware- ),er
er-.
References:
References:WP.I92ff.,WH.I26f.
Page(s):
Page(s):30-31
Root/lemma: aldhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`trough'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Trog'
Material:
Material:Altn.aldaf.`wave,upsurge,hostility,warfare';norw.dial.oldaf.`trough';schwed.dial.lla
`deepcavity'.compareags.ealdo,aldot,aldaht`trough,tub,container',nhd.bair.alden`field
furrow'.
Inadditionbaltoslav.*aldii-inChurchSlavicladiji,aldijif.`smallboat',lit.aldij,eldijf.`riversmall
boat',alsolit.eldijl`smokingfryingpan'.
Norw.lodje`Russianvessel,boat',schwed.lodja,mnd.lod(d)ie,loddigeareborrowedfromruss.
odj(=asl.ladiji).Falk-Torp652(seealso789under`olde').
References:
References:WP.I92,WH.I35,Trautmann6.

Page(s):
Page(s):31-32
Root/lemma: aleqEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`tohitback,shoot'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`abwehren,schtzen',presumablyactually`abschlieenanddadurchschtzen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianrkati`defended,protected,preserved',arm.aracel`graze,protect,watch,
guard'(PisaniKZ.68,157),gr.`prevent,protect,fightoff'(so-present;rakatibecauseofthis
correspondencenotmoreprobablytoequallymeaningrootareq- ),,theepic
propernames,afterbecomingknownasthecockwereusedforthenameofthiscontentiousbird
(FickCstem9,169,KretschmerKZ.33,559ff.,Boisacq1091f.);'defend,refuse,fend',
`defends,helps',`Protection,defense,help',`Protection,parapet,(esp.)
battlementofthewalls;help'(*--),`defense,help'and`thickness,strength'(latter
meaning,althoughinitselffrom`vigorousdefense'understandable,maybebyflowingtogetherwith
another,mpers.ark`work,effort,trouble'tosuitablewords,seeBartholomaeHeidelbg.SB.1916,IX
10);Hom.;`strong,hard,potent;fromweapons:`resistable,suitedtothefight';
ags.ealgian`protect,defend'(*algjan);got.alhs(f.,conservativestem)`temple',ags.ealh,as.alah
m.ds.,urnord.-run.aluh`amulet'(?),alit.elkas,alkasm.`holygrove,placeonahillwhereonehas
madeofearlyvictims',lett.lksm.`Idol,god'(germ.andbalt.wordsoriginally`holier,seclusiveorthe
usufructdeprivedgrove');
maybealb.alka`protectivelayerofmilk,cream,isolatinglayerofmilk'.
toch.alsk`remove'.
References:
References:WP.I89f.
Seealso:
Seealso:S.similarrootareq- `close,protect'.
Page(s):
Page(s):32
Root/lemma: algh- (*helgh-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`frost,cold'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Frost,Klte'
Material:
Maybealb.geg.alka,alk`white(coldwhite),cream,wool'fat';
Lat.algor`frost,cold',alge,-re`freeze,tobecold',belongalgidus`cold'accordingtoLidn,studies
z.OldIndianandcompareSprachgesch.66,toaisl.Gen.Sg.elgiar,nisl.elgurm.`snowflurrywith
strongfrost,half-moltensnow'.Germ.s-stem*aliz-disguiseditselfwithlat.algor,idg.*alghes-.
References:
References:WP.I91,WH.I29.comparePeterssonAr.underArm.Stud.126.
Page(s):
Page(s):32

Root/lemma: alghEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`toearn,price,value,*preciousbrightmetal'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`verdienen,Gegenwert'
Material:
Material:OldIndianrhati`isworth,earns,isobliged,debit,',argh`value,validity,price'(=osset.
ar`price,value'),av.arjaiti`isworth,amountsforvalue'(npers.arzdan`earn'),arjah-(es-stem)
n.`value,price'.
maybealb.(*rhati)argat`worker,serf',argtoj`entertain,reward,please,becomelazy',argom
`barren,unproductive'.
Gr.`acquisition,purchase'=lit.alg,OldPrussianGen.Sg.lgas`wage',gr.,
`profit,earn'(=OldIndianrhati,butbythemorecompletepresentinthevalidity
embeddedasanAorist),`cattleearned'.
Note:
Commongr.g>b,k>pphoneticmutation
maybealb.geg.(*)ble-`tobuy,purchase'.
Anadditionalformonvoiced-nonaspiratedisOldIndianarjati`acquires,earns,fetches'.
References:
References:WP.I91.
Page(s):
Page(s):32-33
Root/lemma: al-1,olEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`besides;other'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:Pron.-stem`darberhinaus'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:al-1,ol- :
:`besides;other'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:al :
:interjection.
Material:
Material:Lat.uls`beyond',*ulter,-tra,-trum`ulterior,situatedbeyond'(ultr,ultra),compounds
ulterior,Sup.ultimus=osk.ltiumam`theutmost,extreme,thehighest,first,greatest,lowest,
meanest';
Maybealb.ult,ult`low',ul`tolow,sitbelow':lat.ulterior-ius`compar.asfromulter,farther,more
distant,moreadvanced,moreremote'.
alat.ollus`that,thatyonder,thatone;emphatically,thatwell-known;incontrastwithhic,theformer,
(sometimesthelatter)'(*ol-no-s,comparebelowir.ind-ollandslav.*oln),newerolle,oll`then,next',
ollc`he,she,that,inthatplace,yonder,there';lengthenedgradelim`inthedistantpast,once'
(probablyafterim,eximreshapedandwithOldIndianpar-ri`third-lastyear'[compare-]tobe
equated*li,Lok.adverb,alsotheglossesolitana`theaged,old,ancient,oflongstanding',olitinata

`old,inveterate,ancient,former,ofoldtimes'canreject-or-?),umbr.ulo,ulu`that,thatyonder,
thatone;emphatically,thatwell-known;incontrastwithhic,theformer,he,she,ityonder,that';
influencedbyis,isteetc.thecognatesollus,ollewouldbeuncoloredtoille`that,thatyonder,that
one;emphatically,thatwell-known;incontrastwithhic,theformer,(sometimesthelatter)'.
Slav.*oln(idg.*olnei)=OldChurchSlaviclani,ech.loni,poln.loni`inthelastsummer,lastyear'
(`thatyear',comparelat.oll`atthattime,then').
Themeaningfromir.alltar,allaid(seebelow)alsoallowsthattherelationshipofOldIndianraa`far,strange'(=av.auruna-`wild'?),rd`fromadistance',r`far'seemspossible.Moreoveralso
maybeOldIndianar`ofstrangers,stranger',ar(i)y-`suitable,propertothestranger'(compareahd.
eli-lenti`foreignland'),thenSubst.`hospitable,lord,master,ruler,man',inadditionr(i)ya-`toar(i)y,suitable,hospitable',hence,VN'Arier=Aryan',ryaka-`venerableman',aryam-n.`Hospitality',
m.`Guest'sfriend';
maybeArrianesIllyr.TN.
av.airy(=rya),Oldpers.riya(=ariya),`Aryan',av.airyaman`guest,friend',npers.rmn`guest',
inadditionsarmat.VN(osset.*alan),osset.ir`Ossete',iron`Ossetic'`Ossetic'(P.Thieme*),
thestrangerintheRigveda,fig.f.d.clientd.Morgenl.XXIII2,1938;SpechtKZ.68,42ff.);
air.aire(*arios)andairech`nobleman,ofnoblepeople,suitor'canbelongtoprepositionair-`infront
of',thus`standinginthefirstplace',(ThurneysenZCP.20,354);mythicalir.ancestorremnis
scholarneologismtoriu`Ireland'.seeunderario-`lord,god,master'.
--------------------*)ThusThieme(aaO.159f.)properlyputsherereinforcingprefixgr.-(reducedgrade-),e.g.
-`easily(thestranger)recognizable',OldIndianar-etcsurelymustleadbacktoidg.*er-.
ThiemeputsfurtherhereOldIndiansr-`master,ruler,lord'assu-ri-`hospitable'andri-das`worry
forsustainingthestranger'.
---------------------Air.ollAdj.`honorable,large,extensive',actually`above(theordinary)goingout'(formally=lat.ollus,
idg.*olnos),compounds(h)uilliu`farther,more',Adv.ind-oll`ultra,extreme',fromwhichmaybealso
innonn,innunn`over,beyond'(withassimilationincollaborationwithinonn`thesame,identical';
ThurneysenKZ.43,55f.;PedersenKG.II195),ol-chen(a)e`inaddition,but',actually`ontheother
side(and)therefromonthisside';ol-foirbthe`pluperfect,pastperfect',oldu,oldaas`whenI,when
he',actually`about(the)outside,whatIam,whatheis',inaill`certain,sure',actually`situatedonthe
otherside'(ofitinoillus`confidence,security';

inuilligud`protection,safety';withol(l)`ultra,beyond'maybecorrespondsol`says'as`ultra,beyond,
further',originallyinthereportinacontinuousspeech).Theconjunctionol`because,sice'keeps
ThurneysenGrammar559againstitforrelatedwithcymr.ol`footprint'.
Besideswitha:air.al(withAkk.)`ontheotherside,over-beyond'(simplificationfrom*allinthe
pretone),Adv.tall(*to-al-n)`ontheotherside,there',anall`fromontheotherside,fromthere,over
here',withsuffixedPron.ofthe3rdpersonall,allae,neweralla`beyond,ontheotherside'(proves
originaldissyllabicoldformationalsooftheprepositionalformisnotprovidedwithpronominalsuffix,

seeThurneysenKZ.48,55f.,thusnotfromwithoutendingidg.*olor*al);derivatives:alltar`the
worldofthedead,theotherworld,hereafter',alsofrom`tosavageareassituatedontheotherside',
alltarach`otherworld,ulterior,thithertho'.
Gall.alla`another,other,different',allos`second'(ThurneysenZCP.16,299),VNAllobroges=
mcymr.all-fro`exiled,ostracized,banished'(tobro`land'),all-tud`foreigner',acymr.allann,ncymr.
allan`outdoors,outside';air.all-slige`thesecondcuttingout'.
Got.alls,aisl.allr,ags.eall,ahd.all`all',besidesinthecompoundgerm.ala-(without-no-suffix)in
agerm.matron'snamesAla-teivia,Ala-gabiaeetc,got.ala-mans`allpeople,humanity',ahd.ala-wri
`totallytrue'(nhd.albern);compareair.oll-athair(epithetofir.God'sfatherDagdae`thegoodGod')=
anord.al-fr(epithetofOdin),'allfather'.
Lat.alers,allers`taught;learned,instructed,well-informed;experienced,clever,shrewd,skilful'
accordingtoLandgrafALL.9,362,Ernoutl.dial.lat.104from*ad-ers,*allers(contrasttoiners).
Fromanadverb*ali`there,inaspecificplace,ineachcase'(differentlyDebrunnerREtIE.3,10f.)
havederived:

ali o s `other':
arm.ail`other';
gr.`other'(kypr.),n.,compare-`fromelsewhere,fromanotherplace,
strange'(=lat.aliud,formsasinlat.longinquus`farremoved,faroff,remote,distant'),inaddition
etc`eachother',`makesdifferent,changes',`variation,change,exchange,
trade':`becominganother,strange',fromOldIndiananytra`somewhereelse'
correspondingadverb;
Maybezerogradeinalb.(*nytra)tjetr`other'[commonalb.n>nt>tphoneticmutation]:Old
Indiananytra`somewhereelse'.
lat.alius=osk.allo`otherthings',n.aliud=gr.,inadditionfromtheadverbali:alinus`strange'
(from*ali-ies-nos),ali-quis,ali-cubietc;Comparativealter,-era,-erum`onefromtwo'=osk.alttram
`alteram'(from*aliteros-),byPlautusalsoaltro-;inaltrinsecus,altrvorsumthesyncopeiscausedby
thelengthofthewholeword;herealsoalterre,adulter,alternus,altercri;
gall.alios(LothRC.41,35),air.aile(*alios),n.aill(fromadverbialallfrom*aln;palat.lcomesfrom
aile),cymr.ail,bret.eil(from*elis,Comparative*aliis),doubledair.alaile,araile,n.alaill,araill,
mcymr.etcarall,Pl.ereill(llfromtheadverball);
got.aljis`other',butonlyincompositions,asas.eli-lendin.`foreignland',ahd.eli-lentids.=nhd.
`woefulness',got.alja-leik`other,different',aisl.elligar,ellar,ags.ellicor,elcor`other,otherwise,',
ahd.elichr`further',andinadverbs,likeags.elles,engl.else`other,different',anord.alla`otherwise'
etc.;acomparativeformation*aliraisags.elra`other';
toch.Alya-k,alye-k`'(*alie-k,PedersenGroupement26,Tocharisch117);unclearis
theabsenceofpalatalizationinAlak`other',lam`eachother',lm`somewhereelse',aletste
`strangers';
ostiran.etchal-ci`any(thing)available,etc'.

References:
References:WP.I84ff.,WH.I30,32f.,Feist33b,39a,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I614.
Aboutthesoundchangefrom*aniosto*aliosseeDebrunnerREtIE.3,1ff.,aboutangebl.pejorative
characterofaseeSpechtKZ.68,52,DiealtenSprachen5,115.
Seealso:
Seealso:Aboutanioss.underS.37(an2 ).
Page(s):
Page(s):24-26
Root/lemma: al-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`togrow;tobear'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wachsen;wachsenmachen,nhren'
Material:
Material:OldIndianan-ala-`fire'('theglutton',W.SchulzeKZ.45,306=Kl.Schr.216);
gr.`cheerful,strong'(+al-;aboutseebelow);
lat.al,-ere,-ul,-itum`tonourish,support,rear,feed,bringup';alscere`growup,prosper',
coalscere`growtogether',adolscere`growup'(adultus`grownup,adult,mature'),abolscere`to
perish'(inadditionappearsabole,-re`destroy,exterminate'asaTransitivetobenewlyshaped,
partlyafter(ad)augsc:(ad)auge,esp.,however,aftersynonymousdlv,dle;
thereminiscencein,wouldbethendeceptive;(differentlyWH.I4),lat.indols
`nativeconstitutionorquality;nature,disposition,character,talents',subols`asprout,shoot,
offspring,progeny',prles(*pro-ols)`offspring,descendants,posterity;theyoungmenofarace;of
plants,fruit'(ofitprltrius`acitizenofthelowestclass,servingthestateonlybybegettingchildren';
thesethreewithofromabeforedarkl,notwithidg.o-ablaut,wieHirtAbl.162accepts);alimentum
`food,nourishment',alimnia,-ium`food,maintenance';
air.alim`benourishing';hereprobablyalsocymr.alu,mbret.halaff,nbret.ala`bear,givebirthto',
cymr.alf.`actofgivingbirth,progeny,people',alafm.`wealth'=air.alamf.`herd',ofitalmaeds.;
got.ags.alan(l)`growup'(intr.likelat.adole),aisl.ala(l)`benourishing,produce',got.alis
`fattened'(participleofaKaus.*aljan=norw.dial.elja);aisl.elskr`inspiredbylove',elska`love'(see
tothemeaning-developmentFalk-Torpbelowelske).
Witht-formant:
Gr.-`insatiable,gluttonous';,(*-)n.`holygrove',lat.altus`high'(i.e.
`large-scalegrown'),mir.old`height;shores,coast',cymr.allt`sideofahill,woodedhills',acorn.as,
bret.aot,aod`coast',as.ald,ahd.(etc.)alt`old'(actually'growntall'),ahd.altn`putoff,delay'
(`makeold');
maybealb.geg(*n'alt)nalt`high'>alb.tosk(*nalt,lant)lart`high'[n/rrhotacism].

*altialsoingot.aldsf.`period,lifetime',ags.ield`period,lifetime,age,oldage'(Pl.ielde,as.eldi
`people,humans'),anord.ldf.`time,age,Pl.people';*altioinosk.altinm,thus`food,provisions,
aliment'=lat.*altinum;air.comaltae`fosterbrother'=mcymr.cyfeillt`serf,slave',ncymr.cyfaill
`friend'(*komal-tios),mcymr.eillt(*altios)`pupil,hero',air.inailt(*eni-alt)`servant',got.aleis
(*altios)`old'=air.alt(a)e`broughtup';

*altro-inair.altram`food',altru`nursingfather'(cymr.athraw`teacher'etc.,seePedersenKG.I137);
anord.aldrm.(Gen.aldrs)`age,lifetime,oldage',ags.ealdor`life',as.aldar,ahd.altar`oldage,
age'.
Withm-formant:
Gr.n.`grove',epithetofZeusandPoseidon(also,nameofPoseidonin
isthmianTroy,,forwhathom.`treenursery'asanabstractnoun,seeBechtelLexil.
331);lat.almus`nourishing,feeding(ager),blessing-donating,sweet,kind,sublime'.MaybehereFlN
thrak.Almus,illyr.(?)Alm(Rom),Alm(Etruria),abrit.*Alm,engl.Yealm.
mabealb.helm`healingdrug,posion,medicine,herb'similartoSanskritla-`poison'.obviouslyalb.
andgr.havepreservedtheoldlaryngeal-.
clearlyalb.showsthatfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:al-2 :
:`togrow;tobear;grove'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
el-3 :ol- : `torot,poison'.
Maybeillyr.Amalthea`thegoatthatnourishedZeus'.
Toch.lym-`life,mind'.

d-extensions:OldIndian-,`refreshment,donation,oblation,gift';gr.`allowstogrow,
strengthens','grows',`notthriving;growthrestraining',`bringsforth,
produce,create'().
Maybealb.geg.ardh-[dh-extensionasinsatemlanguages]`come,(*climax),beborn',ardhunaPl.
`yields,profits'.

dh-extensions:OldIndianrdhnti,rnddhi,rdhti,dhyati`prospers,succeeds,doessucceed,
manages',av.ardat`heallowstoprosper',rdt-`causeprospering',OldIndianrdhuka-`thriving'
(SpechtKZ.64,64f.);
gr.,`heals',`grows,heals';aschwed.alda`fruit-carryingoak',aisl.aldin`tree
fruit,esp.eatable(fruitorseedoftheoaktree,acorn)'.
References:
References:WP.I86f.,WH.I4,31f.
Page(s):
Page(s):26-27
Root/lemma: al-4
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`toburn'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`brennen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianaltamn.`fire,blaze,coal'(alsolmukam`fire');lat.adole`toworship,offer
sacrifice,burnasacrifice;tosacrificeonanaltar;ingen.,toburn;tosmell',adolsc,-ere`flareup
(fromaltars),togrowup,cometomaturity,tobeheapedup,orperhapstoburn'(ofromaasin
etymological-differentadolscere`togrowup,cometomaturity,tobeheapedup,orperhapstoburn'
toal,seeunder*al-2 `grow'),altre`firealtar'(withdifficultoablautumbr.uetu`towardturningto
vapor');

nschwed.ala`blaze,flame'(JohannssonZfdtPh.31,285followingms.Lit.);butinquestiongr.
Hes.;viewalsofromlat.alacer`quick,lively,animated',got.aljann.`zeal'etc.waspossible
as`igneous,quick-tempered'(JohanssonaaO.);aboutags.lan`burn'see*aidh -.
Maybebelongsheregall.MSAlatus,mir.alad`multicolored,dappled,striped'(iforiginally'burnt')=
nir.aladh`trout'(alto-).
Maybealb.alle`redcolor'.
References:
References:WP.I88,WH.I13,EM.88.
Page(s):
Page(s):28
Root/lemma: al-5 (*hel-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`togrind'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`mahlen,zermalmen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianu-`fine,thin,verysmall'(*alnu-),HindiandBengali`flour'(below
likewise;KuhnKZ.30,355;differentSpechtDekl.125).
Av.aa(*arta-)`crushed,ground'(HbschmannZdMG.38,428,SpiegelBB.9,178A.1).
Arm.aam`grinds',aauri(*alatrio-)`mill',aleur-`flour'(inspiteoflinsteadofnotborrowedfrom
,HbschmannArm.Gr.I414),aaxin`servant',aij`younggirl'(MeilletBSL.37,72).
Gr.:`grinds,crushes'*,`millstone,grindstone',and`themilling,
thegrinding',`mill',`grind',[F],Pl.(stretchedfrom;Schulze
Qunderep.225)`flour'(fromitcontracted*calledoutofthenewsg.Hes.;
-Hippokr.,Rhinthon),(*-F-)`wheatflour',`flimsy'(
`pulverized,crushed,ground'),`millerwhogrindsthespelt,wheat'(fromitlat.alica`spelt,ora
drinkpreparedfromspelt'ds).
---------------*)Also`millet',`spelt',,att.`groundcoarsegrain'(*F-,notafterJ.Schmidt
KZ.32,382from*F-)wouldbecompatible,perhaps,phonetically(thenwordrootwouldbe*el-,
*ol-,*el-).
maybealb.(*hol-)holl`flimsy,thin'
Note:
Onlygr.andalb.preservedtheoldlaryngeal-.
References:
References:WP.I89.
Page(s):
Page(s):28-29
Root/lemma: al-6,alu- :alu-

Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:Farbadjektiv`wei,glnzend'
Seealso:
Seealso:s.albho-andFarbadjektivel-.
Page(s):
Page(s):29
Root/lemma: al
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:interjection
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:underlikewise`hallo!'
Material:
Material:OldIndianalal(bhavant-)`alert,awake,smartbecoming'(mind.ar,r`duda!'ratherto
ar`foreigner,stranger',ThiemeDerstrangerinRigveda1ff.,seeaboveS.24).
Gr.,`hallo,hurra!',,`Schlachtruf',`stoedenSchlachtruf
from'(similarly`Kriegsruf,Schmerzensruf',`stoedenKriegsruffrom');lit.aluoti`hallo
cry'(borrowingfromdemDeutschennotprovable)besidesaliti`throughGeschreiaufscheuchen';
OldChurchSlavicole,bulg.oleleinterjection;e.g.FickI4356(nhd.hallo,hollaareagainstitfrom
demImperativfromahd.haln,holn`get,fetch'entwickelteRufworte).

Aufhnlichemal-seemstobasedonlit.nu-aldti`ringout;sound',uldoti`coo'(BezzenbergerBB.
21,315).
References:
References:WP.I89.
Seealso:
Seealso:S.diesimilaronomatopoeicwordsl-.
Page(s):
Page(s):29
Root/lemma: alpEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`small,weak'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`klein,schwach'?
Material:
Material:OldIndianlpa-,alpaca`small,slight,flimsy'(alpna,alpt`light,fast');touniteheavilyin
thedefinitionwithlit.alpst,alpa,alpti`becomeunconscious',alps`weak',lett.elpe`takingair,
breath',alpa`onetime,time,momentintime'.
appositionalsofromhom.(fromAeschylos)'weak',`empties,
exhausts',att.'loots',`empties(thebody)'isdoubtfulbecauseoftheirstotwosyllablesrootwordscomparedwithofthelightonesOldIndianandlit.words;
alsotheysuit,aswellastothem,addedto`slender,thin,havinghollowbody',
`Flank,swellofthebodyinthehip',`cavity,pit',`sorrel,rumex'as`
'inthemeaningcolouring(`empty,sunken,shrunken')nevertheless,considerablyab.quite
dubiousalsoalb.(JoklSBAk.Wien168,I48)laps`betiredof,sickof,boredwith'.
maybealb.(*)lpjet`sorrel,rumex',truncated(*),laps`beexhaused'.

Maybelat.lapso-are`toslip,stumble'.
Onaccountofherehett.alpaanda-(alpant-)`ill,weak,small,flimsy'?
References:
References:WP.I92,Couvreur106f.,WH.I786,HirtIdg.Gr.II,158.
Page(s):
Page(s):33
Root/lemma: alu- (-d-,-t- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`bitter;beer'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bitter,Bier,Alaun'
Material:
Material:Gr.()Hes.,[?]Hes.(see,however,
tomeaningHerwerdenLex.Graec.suppl.45);lat.alta`softleather;ashoe,purseorpatch,beauty
patch'andalmen`alum'aresimplyextensionsfrom*alu-.
TherootappearsinNorthernEuropewiththedefinition`beer,mead'(comparedtothemeaning
differenceChurchSlavickvas`alum,beer');in.ln.`Beer,carousal',ldrn.`Carousal'(*alura-),
ags.ealu()n.`beer',as.inalofat,mhd.inal-schaf`drinkingvessel';
maybealb.alle`red(colorofbeer?)'
hencefromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:al-2 :
:(togrow;tobear)couldhavederivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:alu- (-d-,t- )::(bitter;beer).
FromitborrowsOldPrussianalun.`Mead',lit.als(m.becomeasmeds=preu.meddon.;J.
SchmidtPluralbild.180),ChurchSlavicol(m.becomelikemed)`beer'.isalsoborrowedbyfinn.
olut`Beer'fromGerm.
References:
References:WP.I91,WH.I34.
Page(s):
Page(s):33-34
Root/lemma: ambhi, m b hi
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`around,frombothsides'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`um-herum,zubeidenSeiten'
Material:
Material:Arm.amboj`entirely,unscathed'(tooj`healthy'),gr.`around'(-`tobothsides',
withthesameadverbial-sasz..,,s.BrugmannGrdr.II22,737);

lat.amb-(beforevowel,e.g.ambig),am-,an-(beforeconsonant,e.g.amput,amicifrom
*am[bi]jaci)inseparableprefix`roundabout,around,allaround',alat.alsoprepositionam`around'
m.Akk.(ambi-forthepurposesof`both'alsoancepswhichisagainstlateformationitpointsto
amb),umbr.amb-(amboltu),a-(a-ferum`tocarryround,takeround;esp.oftheeyes,toturnall
round;inreligion,tolustrate,purify,bycarryingroundconsecratedobjects.Transf.,tospread,esp.to
spreadnews'),an-(an-ferener`bearinground'),osk.amvannud`agoinground,circling,revolving,
revolution,detour',amnd`agoinground,circling,revolving,revolution,acause,reason,motive,

inducement,occasion,opportunity'(barely*amb-beno-:veni,howeverno-derivation,s.v.PlantaII
32,623);with-er-extensionafterpraeter-e,intere(seev.PlantaII455,WH.I36);
umbr.ampretu,ambretuto`ambit,circuit',maybealsoosk.amfret`flanked'(rathertoSchulzeKZ.45,
182=Kl.Schr.468todisassemblein*am-ferent`theybearround,';
notlat.trailsofthesame-er-extensioninamfrctus`aturning,abend.Transf.,legalintricacies,
circumlocution,digression',ratherfromam-frctus);aboutPNAmiternums.SchulzeLat.Eig.541;
withti-extension(afterpos-t,per-t,BuckElementarbuch65)osk.ampt`around'(asumbr.ambr-at
firstduetofromamf-beforeconsonantsimplifiedam-);alb.mbi,mb`over,by,on,in'(G.MeyerAlb.
Wb.265).

m b hi: OldIndianabh-ta,av.aiwito`tobothsides,ringed'(aboutav.aibi,Oldpers.abimore
debatablymeaningseePedersenKZ.40,127,BartholomaeIF.19,BeiheftS.106;theending-sinin
historicalconnectionwiththatofgr.?);
OldIndianabhispossiblethemeaning`around,circum',Oldpers.abiy,av.aib,aiwiinthemeaning
`about,inregardto,from'fromderived*mbhioridg.*obhiorcontinuingin*ebhi;gall.ambi-`around,
circum'(e.g.-`livingonriverDravos'),
cymr.am-(throughi-umlautem-,ym-),corn.bret.am-,em-,air.imb-,imm-`around';ahd.as.umbi,
aisl.umb,ags.ymb,ymbe`around'(absorbedinGot.frombi).

bhi: got.biinmeaning`around',withfinalsoundextensioninstressedpositionas.ags.be-,b-,ahd.
bi-,b-,nhd.bei(aboutdubiousderivativesseeFalk-Torp37and1437underbilII`space,period',73
and1437underbillede`image').
Maybezerogradeinalb.(*ambhe)mb`at,in',(*ambhi)mbi`onupon'.
Falk-Torp37and1437underbilII`space,period',73and1,437underbillede`picture').

ambh(u
ambh(u)`both':
Gr.`both'(derivative);lat.amb,-ae,-`both';
OldIndianubhu`both',av.uwa-ds.;lit.abu,OldChurchSlavicobads.;got.baim.,ban.,Gen.

*baddj(bajs,seetotheformationBrugmannGrdr.II22,77;different-intheoutcometolat.
nostrtes-`ofourcountry,native'FickIII4255),as.bthie,ags.b,,engl.both,ahd.beide,bde,
anord.ber,Gen.beggja`both'(:got.*baddj<baii);toch.Ampi,mpe,ant-api.
FromthesewouldberegardedOldIndianubhu,av.uwayetascompositionwithu-`two'(lat.
ugint);SommerIF.30,404deniessuchu-andregardsthear.formsascausedbythelabial
evaporation*abhu=*mbhuwithreferencetoOldIndianKubera-from*Kabra(compare
patronymicKberaka-;WackernagelKZ.41,314ff).Lit.ab,OldChurchSlavicobaareprobably
basedonreorganizationfrom*amb-oatatime,aspreposition*ambhi`around'wasgivenupinfavour
of*obhi(ab.ob,s.lat.ob`withacc.,infrontof,before;inreturnfor;becauseof,onaccountof').
Therelation*ambh(u),*ambhi:got.etc.bai,biletsitbedubiousbarelythatam-(maybefroman-4 )
isthefirstcompositionpart,thesecondpartisidg.*bhu`both'.
References:
References:WP.I54f.,WH.I36f.,Feist74a,88,PedersenTocharisch82.

Page(s):
Page(s):34-35
Root/lemma: ames- oromesEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`blackbird'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Amsel'
Note:
Note:(:mes-:ams-or*oms-)?
Material:
Material:Fullgradewouldbelocatedjustbeforethefirstsyllableinahd.amusla,amsala,ags.sle
`blackbird',fullgradethesecondsyllableinlat.merula`ablackbird;afish,thesea-carp'(Kluge

EWb.12s.v.)andcymr.mwyalch,acorn.moelh,bret.moualc'h`blackbird'(possiblebasicform
*mesalkoder*misalkafterPedersenKG.I73,wheredifficultsuppositionsaboutir.sml,smlach
`thrush').
Differently-becauseofidg.meis-,mois-,mis--SchraderSprcompare2367,3II140,FickII4205:
merulafrom*misula,cymr.mwyalchetcfrommeisalk,finally,with-oi-ahd.*meisa,ags.mse,aisl.
meisingr`titmouse'.
However,willbegetscoveredlatterinthemeaningdivergentgroupofWoodKZ.45,70probably
moreproperlyintheAdj.*maisa-`small,tiny'becauseofnorw.mdartl.meis`thin,frailperson',
meiseleg`thinandweak',wflm.mijzen`crumble',mejzel`Alittlebit.Tinybits'.Thecomparisonoflat.
withbritwordsismostreliable.
References:
References:WP.I53f.,WH.II77f.
Page(s):
Page(s):35-36
Root/lemma: amGermanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`energischvorgehen'
Seealso:
Seealso:seeunderom- .
Page(s):
Page(s):36
Root/lemma: am-1,mEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`tograb'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`fassen'?
Material:
Material:OldIndianmatramn.`vessel,jug,bigdrinkingbowl',arm.aman`vessel',maybetolat.
ampla(*aml)`handle,handhold',amplus(*am-los)`extensive,far,spacious,considerabe'.

References:
References:WP.I52f.,WH.I41f.

Seealso:
Seealso:S.underm-1 .
Page(s):
Page(s):35
Root/lemma: am-2,mGermanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`mhen'
Seealso:
Seealso:seeunderm-2 ds.
Page(s):
Page(s):35
Root/lemma: am(m)a, am
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:mother
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Mutter',Lallwort
Material:
Material:Alb.am`aunt',`mother',outofit`riverbed',`residuumfromFlssigkeiten';aisl.amma
`grandmother',ahd.amma`mother,wetnurse',nhd.Amme;gr.,`mother'Hes.,osk.
Amma,Ammae,i.e.Matri(Gttername)'.AboutOldIndianamba`mother's.KretschmerKZ.57,251
ff.Vonam-,am-(seeBrugmannII2,I496)shapedarelat.amcus`friend'andamita
`Vaterschwester'(comparelit.anta`Schwiegermutter':lat.anus`alteswoman').Aboutvlat.amma
`owl's.SoferGl.17,17f.
Alb.mik`friend'zerogradeofrum.amic`friend'notfromlat.amcus`friend'
AVerbalableitungisperhapslat.amre`lieben'(comparemhd.ammen`wait,holdon,care'to
amme).AfterKretschmer(Gl.13,114)ratherEtruscan.
AfterZimmermannKZ.44,368f.,47,174belongsalsolat.amoenushere.Vonalat.*amoi(compare
SummoiCIL.II1750)couldamoinos=amoenusshapedsein,asMamoena(to*mamoi)besides
Mamana,furtherthroughgr.;(too)besides(to)gesttzt;
toch.ammakki(Vok.)`mother'from*amma+akki(OldIndianakk).
References:
References:WP.I53,WH.I39,41,TagliaviniMl.Pedersen163.
Page(s):
Page(s):36
Root/lemma: andher-, n d herEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`stem,spike'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Spitze,Stengel'
Material:
Material:Nurgriechisch:`anearofcorn',`stalkpoint,stalk',`Stalk,stemof
aplant',`chin'as`bearded,shaggyplace',`thecommonchervil',namedafter
hispricklyfruit,,`wasp,forestbee',wordoutcomeafter`corneous';
`wasp'(heremaybefrom*-`withbeardedface=man',then`man,

person',GntertHeidelberg.SB.1915,Abh.X;comparealsoSchwyzerGr.Gr.I4264.
AfterKretschmerGl.28,246from*-,theroughbreathingofetcfigurative?);from
also(*F),`wheatgruel,Speltmiller'(vonPlin.n.h.22,121howeveridentifiedas
gypt.word)?

References:
References:WP.I45.
Page(s):
Page(s):41
Root/lemma: andh-,anedhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`togrow,bloom,blossom'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`hervorstechen,sprieen,blhen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianndhan.`Somaplants';arm.and`field';gr.n.`Flower,bloom',
`blossoms',(*-es-ro-)`blossoming'etc;alb.nde(*andhn)`blossom,flower',ndem
`blossoms'(frompresent*from*andh);toch.Ant,nte`openspace,area'.
Mir.ainder,aindir`youngwoman',cymr.anner`youngcow',Pl.anneirod,acymr.enderic`abull-calf;
alsooftheyoungofotheranimals',cymr.enderig`bull,ox',bret.ounner(Trg.annouar,Vannes
annor)`youngcow';
moreoverfrz.(l)andierm.`Firegoat,Aries',also`poppy'(=`younggirl',compareital.madona,fantina
`poppy'),furthertobask.andere`woman',iber.FNAndere,Anderca,MNAnderus;maybekelt.
Origin?(*andero-`blossoming,young'?).
AccordingtoSchwyzerGr.Gr.I339heregr.-`cameout,bubbledout;',-`reside
ontopof',-'canopied,covered',etc.
Inspiteofthealittlebitdivergentmeaningprobablyalsoherewithzerograde*n d h:
OldIndiandhvanm.=av.advanm.`way,road',forwhataiadhvar-`religiousaction(*Soma-)
sacrifice,ceremony'(originally'courseofaction,way'-`ceremoniousway')from*ndhuero-,and
probablyalsowithsuffixablaut(*ndhuro-)isl.ndurrm.`akindofsnowshoe'.
References:
References:WP.I45,67,P.BenoitZrPh.44,3ff.,69ff.
Seealso:
Seealso:Herebelongsprobably:andher- ,n d her- .
Page(s):
Page(s):40-41
Root/lemma: andhoEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`blind,dark'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`blind,dunkel'

Material:
Material:OldIndianandh-,av.anda-`blind,dark',gall.andabatam.`agladiatorwhofoughtwitha
helmetwithoutopenings'(tokelt.Lw.lat.battu`tobeat,knock').
References:
References:WP.I182,WH.I46.
Page(s):
Page(s):41
Root/lemma: an()-3 (*ena--)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`tobreathe'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:an()-3 :
:`tobreathe'derivedfromareductionofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:anhen- :
:`smell,
odour;person'asinarm.anjn(forolder*anj),Gen.anjin`soul,being,person':anord.angim.`odour,
smell':alb.anj`swell,puff'[commonalb.ng>njphoneticmutation].
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`atmen,hauchen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianniti`breathes'(alsothematicallynati),nila`breath,breeze,wind',n
(maybe'breath'or`mouth,nose',na-nam`mouth,muzzle,face'withind.Vrddhi;'mouth'as`breathe,
thebreathing');priti`breathes';
av.ntya,parntya`oftheinhalingandexhaling'(*anti-`breathing'withandpar;seeBartholomae
IF.7,59;aboutainiti-`mildness'see,however,Airan.Wb.125f.).
Gr.`breath,wind',(withstretchinthecompound),`windless,calm',
v`richinwind'(-metricalstretch),(`windy',i.e.:)`trifling,invain'(dissimilatedfrom
,seelastBechtelLexil.44,also226,aboutthatprobablyfrom*-vobyextreme
dissimilationabbreviatedones`invain,withoutsuccess');differentRisch113;
compareFriskIndog.15;Hes.aretochangein,.Maybehere

`youth'asF--`newwheeze',afterSchwyzerGr.Gr.I4263;also`breathlessness,
suffocation',aaO.337.
Lat.animus`mind,soul',anima`wind,breath,soul,lives'(osk.anamm`air,acurrentofair,breeze,
breath,wind'),ofitanimal`livingbeing,animal',hl,-re`breathe,smell'(Denominative*an-slo-;
withphoneyh,thesoundvaluedescribedhereattainedandalsopenetratedinan(h)-lre;about
lattersee*an4 ).
Air.anl,cymr.anadl`breath',mbret.alazn(rearrangement),nbret.holan(*an-tlo-);mcymr.eneit,
ncymr.enaid`soul'(*an-t-),abrit.PNAnate-mros`warmhearted,bighearted';
air.animm,nir.anam`soul',Gen.anman(stem*ana-mon;thei-coloroftheNom.sg.afterneutr.men-stems.PedersenKG.II61;totheintersectionwithlat.animaf.`breath,wind,air.Transf.,the
breathoflife,vitalprinciple,soul'seePokornyZfcPh.1069f.),corn.eneff,mbret.eneff(Pl.anaffon)
nbret.anaoun`soul'(umlautedcorn.andbret.formsprobablyLw.fromLat.,seeVendrysDehib.
voc.112f.,PedersenKG.I170,II111);
inadditionair.osnad`sighs'(ussanad),further(`catchone'sbreath=rest,relax')anaid`remains,
rests,stops',con-osna`desist,cease'(com-uss-an-)etc.(seePedersenKG.II455f.,672);mcymr.

anantPl.`bards,poets',cyn-anin`word,praise';
got.uz-anan(preterituzn)`exhale';witht-formant:anord.nd,g.andarf.`breath,breathoflife,life,
soul'(=gr.),anda,-aa`breathe,gasp'=
=ags.ian`puffstrongly',anord.andim.`breath,
mind,soul',afries.omma(*anma)`breath',ags.oro(*z-an-)`breath'*;maybehereahd.unst,
aisl.ags.ystf.`storm'from*nsti-;
maybealb.anda`taste,smell'[commonalb.n>ndphoneticmutation]:anord.anda,-aa`breathe,
gasp'.
--------------------*)Inadditionalsoas.ando,ags.ana,anoa`excitement,rage,sorrow',ahd.anado,ando,anto
`annoyance,rage',mhd.ande`feelingofinsult',ahd.anadn,antn,mhd.anden`letoutone'srage',
nhd.avengeunderamiddefinition`gaspbeforeexcitement'(Kluges.v.,-Falk-Torp5and1428
underaand;Schrderbl.9).Aboutsecondafromahd.anado,ags.anoaseeSpechtPhil.Stud.
Voretzsch36.
----------------------OldChurchSlavicvonja(*ani)`smell'(vonjati`scent,smell'),*chati`smell'inaruss.uchatietc.(-chperhapsimitationfromduchati,thuswithouthistoricalconnectionwithsfromlat.hlre`breathe,emit
vapor,befragrant'from*an-slo-);
Maybenasalizedalb.(*unhati)nuhat,nuhas`scent,smell'.
NasalsarethemostimportantelementofprotoIndoEuropeanssincetheyindicatethehomelandof
Aryansinacold,snowyterritory.Theprolongationoftheirnosemusthavetakenplaceduring
thousandsofyearsofhabitatinthefrostyclimate.ThelongnoseservedIndoEuropeanstowarmthe
airwhilebreathingwhicheventuallycausedthepresenceofnasalsounds.
alb.geg.j,tosk.nj`Iswell,impregnate',geg.jun`conceited,puffed'knjem,gnem`incense'(*k(a)nemo-JoklStud.37);
Note:
Clearlytheinitialmeaninginalb.geg.j,tosk.nj`Iswell,impregnate'was`puffwithair'.
toch.ABm-`life,mind',me`intention',Acm(*ntemo-)`existence,living,mind'(K.
SchneiderIF.57,203,PedersenToch.48);alsoonolme,wnolme`livingbeing'?
arm.holm`wind'(BuggeIF.1,442)abides(inspiteofMeilletlit.6,3)(seeLidnArm.stem38f.,
PetersonKZ.47).-OldIndiantmn`soul'rathertoahd.tum`breath',seet-men .
Rootpointsbesidetotwo-syllableforms,likeOldIndianani-ti,ani-la,kelt.*ana-tlo-etc,andsuchlike
-,alsoformsofthemonosyllabicwordroots,thuslat.*an-slo->hl,anord.nd(etc).
References:
References:WP.I56ff.,WH.I49f.,Feist538.
Seealso: ansu-,antro- .
Page(s):
Page(s):38-39

Root/lemma: antEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`duck'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Ente'
Material:
Material:OldIndianttf.`waterbird'(ortoaisl.r,nschwed.daf.`eiderduck'fromgerm.
*d-?);gr.,bot.(*OldIndiant)`duck';commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phonetic
mutation
Maybezerogradealb.(*nossa)rosa`duck'rhotacismn/r:rum.(*rasta)RA`duck'
lat.anasf.(Akk.anatemandanitem:G.Pl.also-tium)`duck',germ.*anud-and*anidinahd.enit,
anut,NPl.enti,as.anad,ags.ned,aisl.nd,nhd.`Duck';balto-slav.*nt-from*ant-inlit.ntis,
OldPrussianantis,protoslav.*ty,serb.tva,aruss.utov(Akk.),klr.utj`duck'.
Lat.anatna(scil.caro)`duck'smeat':lit.antenads.
MaybeSwedishanka`duck'
References:
References:WP.I60,WH.I44,Trautmann10.
Page(s):
Page(s):41-42
Root/lemma: anhenEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`smell,odour;person'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Duft,Geruch,Person'
Material:
Material:arm.anjn(forolder*anj),Gen.anjin`soul,being,person'=anord.angim.`odour,smell'.
maybealb.anj`swell,puff'[commonalb.ng>njphoneticmutation].
References:
References:LidnArm.Stud.38f.,WP.I58,MeilletEsquisse77ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):43
Root/lemma: anh- (*henh- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`narrow,*press'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`eng,einengen,schnren',partlyalsovonseelischerBeklemmung,Angst
Material:
Material:Verbal:av.zah`topress',lengthenedgradeav.ny-zata`shesqueezesherselfinto
hercorset',ny-zayn`towedgeoneselfin'(with=;ved.ahmapossibly`letusarm=girdonthe
sword'isremotetothemeaning;anhaRV.8,46,5isunclear);
Maybezerogradealb.geg.(*anza-)zan`tocapture,grasp,press',tosk.z:av.zah`topress'
[commonalb.-h->-z-phoneticmutation].
gr.`tiesup,strangles',lat.ang`topresstightly;ofthethroat,tostrangle,throttle;ingen.,to

hurt,distress;ofthemind,totorment,makeanxious';
OldChurchSlavicasi-verb,ziti`restrain';inadditionwithzerogradeveryprobableOldChurch
Slavicv,vzati`bind'(suggestionthatv-isfillinghiatus,seeMeilletMSL.14,369,maybe
becomessteadythroughinfluencefromviti`coil,bind,wind'whichmayalsohaveinfluenced
meaning?).

anh-s `narrow':OldIndianonlyinahu-bhdf.`narrowlacuna'andintheAbl.Sg.n.ah
`crowdedness,qualityoftightlypackedtogether,affliction'(derivativeahur-`pressed,unhappy');
gr.in(seebelow);lat.inangiportus(*anguportus)`narrowalley,anarrowstreet';
got.aggwus`narrow'(atfirstfrom*aggus,asmanwusfrom*manus;wcomesfromtheoblique
cases),anord.ngr,ngr,ags.enge,as.engi,ahd.angi,engi`narrow',mhd.bangeAdv.(bi+Adv.
ango),nhd.bange;furthurderivativeswithg:arm.anjuk`narrow',mitkOldChurchSlavicz-k
`narrow'.
Cymr.e(h)ang(*eks-angu-,idg.*nhu-)`far,wide,extensive',mcymr.eingyaw`berestricted,be
containedin...`,air.cumcae(*kom-ingi)gl.`compressionofthethroat,suffocation;ofthemind,
distress,anguish,trouble',fairsing`far,wide'(*for-eks-ingi-),cumung(*komingu-,idg.*nhu-)
`narrow',ingf.(*nh)`crowdedness,affliction',from*kom-angio-cymr.cyfyng,inthiswayyng(also
ing,Morris-Jones,WelshGr.110)`narrow',mbret.encq(*angio-)`narrow'.
Maybealb.eng`deafanddumb(*narrowed)'

anhos-, anhes `oppression,affliction,crowdedness':OldIndianhas-n.`Fear,distress,need'


(aswellasahat-f.),av.zah-`badgering,need,captivity',z-jata`killedbystrangulation':lat.
angorm.`compressionofthethroat,suffocation;ofthemind,distress,anguish,trouble',angus-tus
`narrow'(from*anghos-to-s);angustiae`narrowness;hence,ofspace,astrait,narrowplace;'spiritus',
shortnessofbreath;oftime,shortness;ofsupplies,shortness,poverty;ofcircumstances,difficulty,
distress;ofdisposition,narrow-mindedness;ofreasoning,subtlety';
maybezerogradeinalb.(*angus-tus)ngusht`narrow'.
aboutCelticseeabove;anord.angrm.(maybeoriginallymoreneutrallyes-stem,Fick4III12)
`Annoyance,loss,pity,affliction,frustration',afries.angost,ahd.angust,nhd.Angst(from*anghos-tichangingthevowelafter*anghu-);OldChurchSlaviczost`restriction,constriction,limitation,
narrowing';
lit.aktas`narrow'(k-insertion,notgutturalchange)cannotstandfor*an[a]stasor*an-tas.
Wordsfor`nape'as`thenarrowestplacebetweenheadandtrunk'(theideaalsoplaysarole`where
onestranglesone'inlightofthis?):gr.ol.and`nape'(afterSchulzeGGA.1897,909
A.1,as*F-substantivizationofu-Adj.*anh-sbymeansofforms-en-;
aboutseealsoSchwyzerGr.Gr.I296),got.hals-agga`nape',klr.vjazyPl.`Neck',ech.vaz
`neck,nape'(tovzatiseeabove),OldPrussian(asslav.Lw.)winsus`neck'(alsoarm.viz`neck,
throat,cervix'withprepositionv-?),seePedersenKZ.38,311;39,402,VondrkSl.Gr.I184,Adontz
Ml.BoisacqI10,aswellasbelowunderaugh- ,ugh.
Otherformations:gr.`cord,choking,strangling'(fromitlat.angina`thequinsy,as
suffocating'),m.`braces,bandage',,,`closeto'(comparefrz.prs`closeto,

near':lat.pressus`apressing,pressure'),compounds`nearer,verynear'(*;
hencehaschangedafter=*,OsthoffMU.6,60ff.);commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ssphoneticmutation;
bret.concoez`geode'(*kom-angeid-;comparealsodial.acoe`uvulainthethroat';ErnaultRC.7,
314;19,314ff.);OldChurchSlaviczota`narrowness'.
Gall.PNOctodurusabsents,becauseir.ochte`narrowness,straitness'doesnotexist.
VanWindekens(Lexique5)putsheretoch.Aacr`weak.flimsy(?)'.
References:
References:WP.I.62f.,WH.I47.
Page(s):
Page(s):42-43
Root/lemma: ang(h)i- (*eghi-,oghi- andehi- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`snake,worm,*fish(*hedgehog=snakeeater)'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Schlange,Wurm'
Note: eghi-,oghi- andehi- ds.;atleasttwoetymologicaldifferent,butearlythecrossedkinship
whoserelationsstillareoftenunclear.
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ang(h)i- :
:`snake,worm,*fish'derivedfromanextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:anh(*henh- )::`narrow,*press'
Material:
Material:Lat.anguis=lit.angs(f.),OldPrussianangis`serpent,snake'(lett.odzef.`snake'),Old
ChurchSlavic*,russ.u,poln.w`snake',arm.auj(Gen.-i)`snake'(MeilletEsquisse154,
DumzilBSL.39,100);
mir.esc-ung`eel'(*`watersnake',esc`water'+*angh),cymr.llys-yw-en,Pl.-ywodds.(FickII415;
tobrit.zerogradefromgbeforeuseePedersenKG.I107).
Inadditionwithzerogradeandvoiced-nonaspirated(thelattercouldbeinitselfalsointheLat.and
Balt.-Slav.)ahd.unc`snake,adder',gr.(illyr).Hes.(*ngi-).
Note:
Commongr.g>b,k>pphoneticmutation.
Totheseformswithvoiced-nonaspiratedatfirstis,MuoHes.(*eng-ri-:to
compareSolmsenBeitr.1215),wherebecauseofr-suffixesaretobeconnectedbalto-slav.*anguriainslav.*gorm.russ.ug(o)r,poln.wgorz,ech.hor,serb.gor,sloven.ogr`eel',lit.ungurs
ds.
(assim.from*angurs,comparefinn.ankerias),OldPrussianangurgis`eel'(ChurchSlavicgulja,
jgulja`eel'probablyfromLat.).HirtIF.22,67connectsthesegr.andbalt.-slav.eelnamestoan
independentequation(nevertheless,comparether-suffixofahd.angaretc,seeunder).

Anotheridg.equationfor`eel'isperhapsgr.f.,lat.anguilla(seeesp.W.MeyerKZ.28,163,
JohanssonKZ.30,425,J.SchmidtKZ.32,369,OsthoffIF.4,270,292,HirtIF.22,67,Idg.619f.),
althoughthedetailsarestillunclear(intheGr.*assimilatedetc.to,orandthe
pureguturalthroughtheinfluencefrom;inLat.-illainsteadof-ellaafterthefluctuationinreal
diminutiveunderdetermininginfluenceiofanguis?).
Illyr.TNEncheleae`snakemen':Hungarianangolna`eel'[fromnativeillyr.TNPaeones].
Whilealb.ngjala(*Encheleae)`eel'similartoalb.gjndem(*ghend-)`befound',gjnj,gjenj,geg.gjj

`find'(G.MeyerBB.8,187,Alb.Wb.140,Alb.stemIII10;gjet`find,regain',s.SchmidtKZ.57,20ff.);
fromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ghend- andghed- :
:`tograb,grip'.
Hencegr.(illyr).Hes.(*ngi-):alb.ngjala`eel'thesameasgr.(*ghend-)`takein,
hold,contain,take;tobecapable,able;catch',Aor.(*ghnd-),Fut.(*ghends-),Perf.
:alb.gjndem(*ghend-)`befound',gjnj,gjenj,geg.gjj`find'[commonalb.gh->gl->gj-:
lith.gh->dz-phoneticmutation].

Otherwiseinalb.ch->s->gj-sincetheshift-s->-gj-isacommonalb.phoneticmutation.
Inthemeaning`worm,maggot'andwithr-suffix(compareaboveetc):ahd.angar`grain
maggot''engirinc`larva',nhd.Engerling,lit.anktira`maggots,cockchafergrubs,grubs'(andsimilar
forms,seeTrautmannOldPrussian301),lett.anksteri`maggots,cockchafergrubs',OldPrussian
anxdris(i.e.anxtris),however,`adder'(aboutthe-st-thesebalt.formscompareMhlenbach-Endzelin
Lett.-D.Wb.I71),russ.ug(o)r`blister,raisedbubbleontheskinthatisfilledwithpus,fin'(also`eel',
seeabove),poln.wgry`blister,raisedbubbleontheskin'(BezzenbergerGGA.1874,1236,BB.2,
154;notbetteraboutangar,gorders.GGA.1898,554f.).
Nasalizedforms:
Gr.m.(f.)`snake',ds.(for*,SpechtDekl.377),ahd.egala`leech,bloodsucking
worm',dn.norw.igle`aparasitesheetworminthevisceraoftheanimalsandintheskinandthe
branchiaofthefish'.
Moreovergr.,ahd.ags.igil(idg.*ehinos),nhd.Igel,eigentl.`snakeeater',W.Schulze
Gnomon11,407,lit.es,ChurchSlavicje`hedgehog(snakeeater)'.
Arm.i`snake,viper'canbeputas*ghisto(MeilletEsquisse75);
gr.`snake'(*oghis);cymr.euod(*ogh-)`sheepworms':OldIndianhi-,av.ai-`snake'.
Itisuncertainappositionfromas.egithassa,mnd.egidesse,ags.(corrupted)exe,ahd.egidehsa,
nhd.Eidechsemitewi-,egi-,idg.*oghi-=(ZupitzaGutt.99afterKluge;Falk-Torpundergle)+
germ.*ahsi,ahd.*dehsa`spindle,newel'.
Whetherinthisvarietysoorderistobebroughtthat*aghi-and*eghi-,*oghi-(h)anintersection
formwouldhavecaused*eghi-,*oghi-,remainsundecided.Tabooimageshavealsoprobably
helpedinit.
References:
References:WP.I63ff..WH.I48,SpechtKZ.64,13;66,56f.,HaversSprachtabu44f.
Page(s):
Page(s):43-45

Root/lemma: ank-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`need,necessity'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Zwank,Notwendigkeit'
Material:
Material:Gr.`necessity,compulsion'(normallyasreduplicatedrespectably),ion.
ds.(from`indispensable,necessary',`compelled,forced,obliged');
air.cen(c-from*ank-or*nk-),mcymr.anghen,cymr.angen,corn.bret.anken`need,necessity',
imIr.also`spoliation,actofviolence'.
Although`compulsion'from`hostiledistress,pursuit'werecomprehensible,itmakesdoesgr.-kelt.
meaning-concordance,nevertheless,doubtful,whetherphoneticallycorrespondentahd.hta
`hostilepursuit',nhd.Acht,ags.ht(protogerm.*ant),germ.ENctumrus(i.e.n.tumraz,1.
yearA.D.;BrugmannGrdr.I2382)wherewithir.cht(*anktu-or*nktu-,*enktu-)`manslaughter'atfirst
istobeconnected(seeFalk-Torp17,1430),root-likewithank-`compulsion'(:`press,kill')originally
issame,orconnectedto*enek-`kill',aswellashitt.i-in-kn,-en-kn(enkan)`death'.
maybealb.geg.hek`agony':hitt.i-in-kn,-en-kn(enkan)`death';bothalb.andhitthave
preservedtheoldlaryngeal-.
References:
References:WP.I60.PedersenHittitisch183f.,HendriksenUnters.28,BenvenisteOrigines155.
Page(s):
Page(s):45
Root/lemma: ank-2,angEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`tobend,bow,*flex;wangle;turn;curve,snakecoil,anchor'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`biegen'
Material:
illyr.TNEncheleae(Enchelleae)Illyr.TNassociatedwiththecoilsofthesnake,IlirusandKadmos.
OldIndianacati(mpers.anctan)and(zerograde)cati`bent,crooked',participle-akna-(with-,
ny-,sam-),-akta-(withud-,ny-)'crooked,bent';ak-m.`bend,hook,bendbetweenbreastandhip',
kas-n.`Bend,inflection,curve,crook'(=gr.`valley,gulch,canyon,gorge'),akasm
`side,points';aku-inakynt-`curvatures,bends,searchingsideways';
maybealb.(*anh-)an`side',(*anho-),anoj`bend'
av.anku-psmna-`withhooks,adorningthemselveswithclasps';
OldIndianankuc-`hook,fishhook,elephant'ssting',akur-`youngshoot,scion(originallygerm
point,crookedgerm),hump,tumefaction,aheavyswell'(=gr.`crooked',dt.Angel,anord.
ll,ll`cotyledon,germ,sprout,bud'seebelow);
av.Akam.`hook,bait',xnah(BartholomaeStud.2,101,Airan.Wb.359)`rein';

gr.`bow,elbow'(D.Pl.to=),--`fixedplanksintheribsofthe
ship'(Dderlein,BechtelLexil.129),`allwrithed,humped,curved,stooped',
`fishhook';`crooked',`strap,thong,brace'(=anord.l,lds.),`anchor';
`elbow,bay,allstooped';(seeabove).
maybeAncyra-aef.capitalofGalatia,inAsiaMinor.(ancientdistrictincentralAnatolia-aCeltic,
(Illyrian)settlement).
Witho:`barbedhook'=lat.uncus`hooked,curved;Subst.hook'(=uncnus`hook,
barbedhook');ungulus`afinger-ring,aring'Pacuvius,fromFestus514L.asosk.called,ungustus
`hook-shapedstuff'PaulusexFest.519,seebelowunderang- );Hes.;
Maybefromalsolat.unguiculus-im.`afingerortoe-nail',unguis-ism.`afingerortoe-nail;of
animals,claw,hoof',ungula-aef.`ahoof,claw,talon':rum.unghie`nail'andinzerogradealb.
(*unguiculus),glisht`finger,toe'[commonalb.-s>-stshift].
lat.ancus`somebodyhavingacrookedarm',ancrae`anenclosedvalley,valley,gorge'(`curve,
canyon,abay;aninlet'as=germ.*angra-);
air.cath`fishhook'=cymr.anghad`clutch,hand'(tocraf-anc`claw')from*akato-=OldChurch
Slavickot`hook';
gallorom.ancorago,ancora(v)usfrom*anko-rkos`Rhinesalmon,hooksalmon'schwd.Anke`Lake
ofConstancetrout'(gall.*anko-`curved,hooky'and*rko-`infront'from*prko-,cymr.rhag
`before');
ahd.ango,angul`fishhook,sting',aisl.angi,ags.onga`point,sting'(*akn-;aboutgot.halsagga
`cervicalbend,nape'seeratheranh-);*angra(uptogender=lat.*ancrae)inanord.angr`bay,
curve'(inlocalnameslikeHarangr),
Maybezerogradealb.(*angul)ngul`jab,stick,hook'
ahd.angar,nhd.Anger(germ.VNAngrivarii);synonymousaisl.eng(*angi-)`grassland,meadow';
ahd.awgul(=gr.-,seeabove),mhd.angel`thepartofabladethatisconnectedtothe
handle(ofasword)byatang',anord.ngoll`fishhook',ags.ongel`afishing-hook.Also,arodand
line'.
Maybezerogradeinalb.(*angelos)ngec,ngel`bestuck,behooked':(*angul)ngul`tojab,claw'.
Muchputsherelat.-germ.VNAnglii,ags.Angel,Ongelas`residentoftheHolsteinerbay'toaisl.PN
ngull,whichdidnotcovermeaning`angle,bay'(HoopsReallex.I61);
withoriginalinitialstressanord.ll,ll`cotyledon,germ,bud'(*anhla-,NoreenLtl.25;tomeaning
compareexceptOldIndianakur-yetnorw.dial.ange`germ,point,prong'from*ankn-),anord.l,
lf.`longstrips,thongs,riems'(basicform*nhul,compare,oratmost*anhl,standing
neargr.);
slav.jmy`barley'as`thistly,thorny,spiky'(Berneker268),comparetheabovewordsfor`point,
sting,cusp';
lit.ankaf.`noose,snare,loop'(=gr.Hes.);OldChurchSlavickot`hook'(seeabove);

toch.Aacl`bow,arch,curve',kar-`fangs,bulwark';alsoAokalm,okolmo`elephant'Van
WindekensLexique6,13,82.

ang- ,esp.tothenameofextremities(comparegot.lius`limb,member':*lei-`bend'):
OldIndiangam`limb,member',agli-,agri-f.`finger,toe'(thereofagulyam`afinger-ring,a
ring'),aguh-`bigtoe,thumb'=av.anguta-m.`toe',arm.ankiun,angiun`angle'andajal-m.
`twocuppedhandsheldtogether';
gr.n.`Bucket,bowl',(*-)`vessel',eigentl.`twistedvessel';
mir.aigen`fryingpan'isdial.additionalformof*aingends.;
ahd.ancha,enkaf.`neck'and`thigh,osseoustube,bonetube'(*ankin-),anord.ekkja`ankle,heel';
Demin.ahd.anchal,enchil(reinterpretedanklom.,anchala,enchilaf.,mhd.mnd.enkel,afries.
onkel,onklu,nhd.Enkel,
ags.(reinterpreted)anclow,engl.ankle,anord.kkla(*ankulan-)`ankleonthefoot';alsolat.angulus
(whichisunrelatedtoOldChurchSlavicg()l`angle,nook')`m.acorner,angle;nook,esp.either
aquietcorner,retiredspotorfig.,anawkwardcorner,strait'(besideswitho-gradelat.ungulus,
ungustusseeabove).
References:
References:WP.I60f.,WH.I46,49f.,MeringerWuS.7,9ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):45-47
Root/lemma: an-1 (*-an-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`maleorfemaleancestor'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`BezeichnungfrmnnlichenoderweiblichenAhnen'
Note:
Note:babble-word
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:an-1 (*an-)::`maleorfemaleancestor'derivedfromzerogradeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
en-1 ,en- ,n- ,n- :
:`tobear(mother,father)'[originoftheoldlaryngeal->-]
Material:
Material:Arm.han`grandmother',gr.Hes.,compareInschr.;lat.
annaf.`nursingmother';
illyr.EN,,Annaeusetc,aswellasmessap.illyr.ana=illyr.origin(W.Schulze
KZ.43,276=Kl.Schr.214,KraheIF.46,183f.);comparefurthermorelat.anus,-s`anoldwoman;
alsousedlikeadj.,old',alsoAnna-aef.sisterofDido;'AnnaPerenna',anItaliangoddess.
Note:
Arm.,gr.andillyr.havepreservedoldlaryngeal-;
Illyr.andlat.displaycommon-iladiminutivesuffix,suggestingthesameorigin.
Maybealb.tosk.aneja`mother',alb.an`side,bloodline'similartogerm.Ahnenreihe`genealogy,
lineofdescentfromanancestor',alb.anoj`toincline,like'.

Ahd.ano,mhd.ane,an,ene,nhd.Ahn`grandfather,great-grandfather,forefather';ahd.ana,mhd.
ane`grandmother,great-grandmother,ancestress'.diminutiveformationsare:altn.li(*anilo),ags.
Anela,ahd.Anelofamilynames;mhd.enel`grandfather,grandson'.
Furtherahd.eninchil,mhd.enichln,nhd.Enkel(`theyoungancestor').Thegrandsonwaslookedby
IndoAryansasaneffigyorsubstituteofthegrandfather;comparegr..
AgainstthisrepresentedviewofW.SchulzeKZ.40,409f.=Kl.Schr.67f.endorsedHermann,
Nachr.d.Ges.d.Wiss.toGttingen,Phil.-hist.Klasse1918,215f.,thebayr.enl,nl,sterr.nl,nl
etcthemeaning`ofgrandfathers'and`grandson'carryandtheoneherewithsameoccurancehasto
dolikewithnhd.Vetter(originally`ofthefather'sbrother',thenalso`ofthebrother'sson');the
salutationisreturnedbythegrandfathertothegrandson.Thisolderviewisnotable(comparethe
literaturebyHermannaaO.).
Preu.ane`oldmother';lit.anta`mother-in-law'.
Hitt.an-na-a`mother';aannaa(anna)`grandmother',lyk.nads.
ProbablyrightlyputsM.E.SchmidtKZ.47,189arm.aner`fatherofthewoman'moreover.Itissimilar
formationlikeinlat.matertera`mother'ssister,maternalaunt',cymr.ewythr`uncle',acorn.euitor;
bret.eontr(protokelt.*aventro-,seePedersenKelt.Gr.I55).*anero-hadtheoriginalmeaning
`anythingliketheforefather'.
Itisunsafeahd.heviannafromwhichreshuffledmhd.hebamme.Becauseahd.*anna`woman'isnot
tobecovered,Kluge11238originfrom*hafjan(d)jaccepts`thelifting'fromwhichthelaterclose
interpretationshaveoriginated.However,comparePBB.30,250.
References:
References:WP.I55f.,WH.I50,PedersenLyk.underHitt.26,66.
Page(s):
Page(s):36-37
Root/lemma: an-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:there,ontheotherside
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:Demonstrativpartikel`dort,andererseits'
Material:
Material:Gr.`probably,possibly,inanyothertrap'(from,ion.from*,from
);lat.an`conj.:indirectquestions,or;inindirectquestions,orwhether',secondarilyinterrogative
particle,extendedanne,air.and`here',got.an`then,now';lit.an-gu`or',OldPrussiananga-anga
`whether=orwhether'.
maybealb.(*ane)andej`there':air.and`here'[rathercommonalb.shiftn>nd].
Thereofderived:

ani o s `other'in:
OldIndianany-`other',av.anya-,ainya-,Oldpers.aniya-ds.compareaboveS.26.

anteros `other'(fromsecond)in:

maybezerogradeinalb.(*anteros)ndrroj`change,alter',ndrres`change,theotherthing';
OldIndianntara-,oss.ndr`other',got.anards.,aisl.annarr`other,second',ahd.andar,ags.
er`other',OldPrussiananters,antars(*antras)`other,second',lit.atras,lett.otrsbesidelit.
ataras,ostlett.torsds.,slav.*ter,*torinech.term.`Tuesday',osorb.wutory`other,
second'.AboutOldChurchSlavicvtor-`second's.u i - `asunder,apart'.
Note:
ItseemsRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:an-2 :
:`there,ontheotherside'isazerogradeoftheextendedRoot/
Root/
lemma: al-1,ol- :
:`besides;other'into*alny-,*any-.
Maybezerogradeinalb.(*nytra)tjetr`other'[commonalb.n>nt>tphoneticmutation]:Old
Indiananytra`somewhereelse'.
Perhapsalb.dial.(*anter)jatr,jetr,alb.[attributet`of'+anter],tjetr`other,second';similarto
formationinalb.geg.(*tmel=ofmilk)tamli`milk'wheretisthealb.attributeparticle.Initialalb.jseemstohavesubstitutedtheoldlaryngealform-.
References:
References:WP.I56,67,II337,WH.I44,Trautmann10/11,DebrunnerREtlE.3,1ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):37-38
Root/lemma: an4,anu,an,n
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:apreposition("alongaslantedsurface,etc.")
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:underlikewise,Prposition,etwa`aneinerschrgenFlchehin,hinan'
Note:
Note:(comparethesummarybyBrugmannGrdr.II22,798f.,alsoaboutthesyntactic).
Material:
Material:Av.ana,Oldpers.an(urar.*anaor*an)`aboutthere'(m.Akk.orInstr.),`along,on'(m.
Akk.),av.anu,Oldpers.anuv`after,accordingto;upthere'(m.Akk.),`lengthwise,along'(m.Lok.),
alsopreverb;
maybealb.ans`along'
OldIndiannu`after(timewisem.Akk.,bl.,Gen.),after(order),afterthere,along,behind,according
to,withregardto,against'(m.Akk.),Adv.`onit(auslaut-uappearstobecomparableinlesb.thess.
besideatt..AgainstWackernagelsexplanationfromidg.*enu`along,accordingto'seeWH.
I677;to-useeunderapu);arm.am-inambanamham-barnam`Iraise,uplift',ham-berem`I
endure'maybefrom-an(thehbymixturewithaborrowedsoundfromthePers.ham-`together';
ion.-att.,`on,upwards,along',dor.bot.ark.kypr.,lesb.thess.ark.,z.Partkypr.,
isolatesark.kypr.(from)ds.(themonosyllabicformappearstheoriginalandtobeextended
onlyafter;compareSchwyzerGr.Gr.I622;itislikelyaccordingtoSchwyzerGr.Gr.I275
originatedfrom;Adv.`upward,up';
Alat.remainderappearsan-hl`breathesstronglyandwithdifficulty'(an+*ansl);umbr.an-,(with
en`in'becomesynonymousandwithitalternately,hence,en-tentubeside:)an-tentu`intendito',
anseriato`observatum',anglar`oscines'(*ankltoclamo)etc

Maybehereair.an-dess`fromthesouth'etc;
got.ana(m.dat.midAkk.)`on,in,against,becauseof,about',anord.Adv.andprepositionm.dat.
andAkk.`on,in',m.dat.`on,in,up,by',m.Akk.`after,up,on,against',as.an,ags.on,ahd.aua,an,
nhd.an(*anaor*an,*an)prepositionm.dat.andAkk.andInstr.`on,up,in,to,against';
maybezerogradeinalb.(*ana)n`on,in'.
lit.ante,antm.Gen.`accordingly,accordingto';aboutthefirstonprotoslav.*ongoingbackto
slav.slav.v(n)-`in,on'seeBrugmannGrdr.II22,828and*en`in'.
Withzerogradeofthefirstsyllable,thusinitialsoundn:
lit.num.Gen.`fromdown,fromaway'(thesewherefrommeaningonlyfromtheconnectionwiththe
ablativeoriginatedanew),asaNominalprf.nuo-,asaVerbalprf.nu-(proklit.abbreviationasin
pri-besidepri),let.nom.Gen.`from',asprefixnuo-;
OldPrussianno,nam.Akk.`on(where),against,aboutthere',asprefix`after;fromaway'(seealso
BezzenbergerKZ.44,304);OldChurchSlavicnam.Akk.andLok.`onthere;up,on,in'(inaddition
afterpr:pr-dneologismna-d`upside,above,about'm.Akk.andInstr.andpreverb);OldIndian
n-perhapsinndhit`pressed',seebelown- `help'.
Herepresumablylit.-na,-n`in(directionwhere)',postalpositionwithverbsofthemovement,av.nazdyah-,OldIndianndyas-`closer'('*movednear');rootsed-`sit';presumablysimilarlygot.n,
ahd.nhAdv.`near'as`lookingnear,turnednear'(withrootoq- as2ndpart);seeBrugmannGrdr.

II22,798f.,wherealsoabouttheambiguousOldIndiandhi`about,on',ap.adiy`in'(*-ndhior*edhi,
*odhi).
maybealb.(*nh)nga`from'[commonalb.n>ngshift]
Aboutgot.anaksadv.`suddenly,straightaway',supposedlytoabg.nagl`suddenly,abruptly'(),s.
Feist42.
References:
References:WP.I58f.,WH.I43f.,49,677,Feist41a,373,Trautmann200.
Page(s):
Page(s):39-40
Root/lemma: ant (e nt )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:doorposts
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Trpfosten'
Material:
Material:OldIndiant(usuallyPLtaslat.antae)`Umfassung,Rahmenadoor',av.iyAkk.
Pl.`doorposts',arm.dr-and`doorpost'(HbschmannArm.Stud.I19);lat.antaeafterVitruv3,2,2
`diefreiendigendenandvornetwasverstrktenWnde,diedenPronaoseinesTempelsordie
ProstaseinesHauseseinschlieen'=anord.nd`Vorzimmer'(BuggeKZ.19,401).
References:
References:WP.I59,WH.I52.
Page(s):
Page(s):42

Root/lemma: ans,ansiEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:noose,snare
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Schlinge,Schleife',partlyasHandhabevonGefen(Henkel)oderasdem
ZugviehumgelegterZgel
Material:
Material:Lat.nsa`clutch,handle,ahandle;(hence),occasion,opportunity',nsaecrepidae`the
eyeletsonthestrapsoftheshoesolesthroughwhichtheshoelaceswerepulled'=lit.sf.(Akk.
s)`pothandle,loopwiththeknotapron'(comparealsolat.anstus=lit.stas`(furnishedwithor
havingahandle)withahandle'),lett.uosa`handle,loop,eyelet',nexttowhichi-stempr.ansis
`hook,pothanger,kettlehanger',lett.oss(Akk.osi)`handle';
Maybealb.(*ues)vesh`handle,ear'
aisl.sf.(*ansj)`holeintheupperedgeoftheshoeleatherforpullingthroughofthestraps'=mnd.
sef.`ring-shapedhandle,loop'(outofitsptmhd.nhd.se;orwgerm.wordtoOhraccordingto
KlugeandWeigand-Hirts.v.);mir.(i)siPl.`rein',gr.,dor.ds.(*v).
Maybetruncatedalb.(*enha)ena`pot(*pothandle)'[commonalb.-s->-h-phoneticmutation].
References:
References:WP.I68,WH.I51,Trautmann10.
Page(s):
Page(s):48
Root/lemma: ansu-, n s uEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:ghost,demon
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Geist,Dmon'
Material:
Material:OldIndiansu-,av.ahu-`breathoflife,world',therefromOldIndiansu-ra-,av.ahura`ruler,lord'(*nsu-);ven.ahsu-(=su-)`culteffigy,cultfigure'=germ.*ansuz`god,ace'inaisl.ss,
run.a[n]suR,ags.s`ace',got.-lat.anses`demigods'.

References:
References:H.GntertDerar.Weltknig102,Feist52b.
Seealso:
Seealso:Perhapstoan()-`breathe'.
Page(s):
Page(s):48
Root/lemma: ansEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:favourable
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wohlgeneigt,gnstigsein'
Material:
Material:Got.anstsf.,ahd.anstand(zerograde)unst,mhd.gunstfrom*geunst,ags.st`favour,
mercy',anord.st,st`favour,love',ahd.abanst,abunst,as.avunst,ags.fest`distrust,

resentment,disfavor';mhd.gundm.`favour',anord.f-andf.`disfavor';
preteritpresentahd.an,unnum(Inf.unnan,preteritonsta,onda)`grant'(gi-unnan),as.ags.unnan
`grant,concede,wish',anord.unna(ann,unnom,preteritunnanfrom*una)`love,grant,concede'.
un-nu-m(from*unznum-)isanoldpresenttheneu-,nu-class,whereforethenewSg.ann.
Whichrootbeginningasgerm.an-,un-,hasinanststhesuffixcompound-sti-tosee(see
BrugmannGrdr.II22,437),whilemhd.gund,an.fundtheeasieronecontained-ti-.

However,isbecauseofgemeingerm.*anst(s)rootprobablyasgerm.ans-,uns-tobegin(Kluge

ZfdtWtf.9,317,BrugmannGrdr.II23,332),unnumconsequentlyoriginatedfrom*unz-num(idg.*nsnu-me),whereuponthenSg.ann,andnewweakpreterit*un-a(ahd.onda,anord.unna)beside
ahd.onsta,as.gi-onsta;thenalsomhd.gund,anord.fund(suffix-ti-)newcreationshavebecome
afters-parttounnum,unnan.
Alsogr.-'friendly',-`unkind,hard'(:ab-unst)isthemostlikely=*-,-
(seeBrugmannaaO.).
IndivergentformaljudgementBechtelLexilcovers.49gr.-onneutr.Subst.*noswhose
suffixalezerogradeliesasabasisgerm.*ansti-.
References:
References:WP.I68,Feist53.
Page(s):
Page(s):47
Root/lemma: antro-m
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:cave,hole
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Hhle,Luftloch'
Material:
Material:Arm.ayr,Gen.Pl.ayric`cave,hole',gr.ds.

References:
References:WP.I561,SchwyzerMel.BoisacqII2341,KZ.68,222,Gr.Gr.I532,PisaniKZ.68,
161f.
Seealso:
Seealso:Perhapstoan()- `atmen',asoriginally`Luftloch'.
Page(s):
Page(s):50
Root/lemma: ant-s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:forward,before,outerside
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Vorderseite,Stirn'
Material:
Material:OldIndiannta-`end,border,edge'(therefromantya-`thelast');
Alb.(*nta)ana`side,end'.

gr.Gen.Sg.(=')`downtheforefront',Dat.-Lok.(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I5486,

6225),Akk.-`intheface'(*ant),-,-,-etc(W.Schulze,Kl.Schr.669,
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I632under),adverbal`towards,opposite',thereafter`meets';about
seeSchwyzerGr.Gr.I722under.;abouts.BrugmannGrdr.II22,687;

air.tan(*antono-)`forehead';perhapsheremcymr.enhyt,cymr.ennyd`time,moment'(*antiti-to
OldIndianit-`gait,way'),mcymr.anhaw`old'(*ant-auo-),nir.ata`old;age'(*ant-odio-),compare
LothRc.48,32;50,63;
hitt.a-an-za(ant-s)`forefront',therefroma-an-te-iz-zi-i(antezzi)=*ant-etios;
lyk.tawata`leader'(PedersenLyk.underHitt.17);
toch.Aantule`outside,to...before',antus`also'.
seealsounderantios.
Inadditionaspristinecases:

anti 'inthefaceof'>`towards,opposite,against',etc.
OldIndianantiAdv.`oppositeitself,beforeitself,near',fromwhatantik-`near',n.`nearness'.
Arm.and`there',ndpreposition`for,insteadof'm.Gen.and`along,about(in,on)somewherethere'
m.Akk.(comparegot.and),inmeaning'aside'm.Abl.and`with,by'm.Lok.(whichhasdwindled
vowelinthefinalsoundisnotdeterminable;anl.-froma-),aspreverb'on';inadditionandranik
`firstborn,thefirst(earliest)'(BuggeKZ.32,2;comparetomeaninglat.ante`before,ofplaceortime'
andtheabovementionedwordsfor'forehead'asa'front'),probablyalsoancanem`togopast'
(PedersenKZ.39,425,comparegr.;cfromt+theaoristics,comparetheAor.-anc).
Maybealb.andej`there,intheotherside,opposite'.
Gr.`inviewof,towards,opposite,before;for,insteadof'm.Gen.,alsopreverb,e.g.;
hom.'`intheoppositepointofview,against'isfinetoBechtelLexil.46from*--
reshuffledafter;,att.`almost,against'(ambiguousending),,
`meets'.
Lat.ante(from*anti,compareantist,aswellasantcus,antiquus)prepositionm.Akk.spatially
`against,before',timewise`before',alsopreverb(e.g.anteced),antid-e,-hc`before',antid-re
`'leadtheway'(-dafterprd);inadditionanterior`earlier',antriumbellum`warbeforethetown',
antcus`thefront'(cafterposticus`behind'),antquus`old'(theendingandthecontractionintemporal
meaningafternovus;idg.*anti+*ok-`looking'),ants,-ium`rowsorranks(fromsoldiers,vines)',
originallypossibly`fronts'(aboutantaesee,however,under*ant`doorpost').
Hitt.a-an-ti(anti)`infront,esp.,inparticular'.

anta`againstthere'(direction);to-aseeSchwyzerGr.Gr.I622f.
Got.andprepositionm.Akk.`upthere,aboutthere,along'.Withtherefrommoredivergentlymeaning
thenominalprefixandverbalprefixgerm.anda-,and`against,opposite',alsoinverbsnormally`from
-away':got.anda-,and(e.g.andniman`accept',andanms`agreeable,pleasant',andbindan
`unbind,untie,beconfined'),anord.as.ags.and,ahd.ant-,int-,mhd.nhd.ant-,(e.g.Antlitz,Antwort,

entbinden).
compoundsanord.endr,enn`earlier,formerly,again,after'(endr=got.andiz-uh`either'),ags.end
`before'(*andis),ahd.enti`earlier,yore'(germ.*andiaz),mhd.ent,endKonj.`previous,before'(e.g.
Falk-Torp192,1455).
Lit.at,olderantam.Gen.`after-there,up,on'.
Aboutgr.seeabove.

n t i
Aweakerablautform(*nt-)showsgot.andm.dat.`,for,around',una-(*nto-)inuna-liuhan
`escape',ags.o-(*un-)inogangan`escape',genge`fleeting'=anord.unningi,undingi(*un-,
*andgangia-)`escapedslave'(BrugmannGrdr.II2,803).
Othermeaningpointsgot.andm.Akk.`until,to',ahd.untinunt-az`until,to'andunzi(=untzi)`until,
to',as.and`until,to',unti,unt(and+te`to'),unto(and+t),engl.unto`to,until',anord.unz(andes)
`until,tillthat',ags.(withgrammaticalchange)o`inaddition,besides,until,to',osk.antm.Akk.`up
to''(likewisefrom*nti,seeWaldeKeltenandItaliker54;becauseofgerm.andnottoplaceexactly
attuningmeaning=lat.ante`before',e.g.v.PlantaII443),lit.it`after'(rathercontaminationfromin
andant).
Thefactthattheseformsshowanextensionpreposition*en,*n`in'(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I629f.,where
alsoaboutgr.dial.),ispossibleasthenlit.itwith`after'correspondsintheapplication.
However,couldbeofthisoneadditionaluseadjustmentasaresultofthesoundresemblanceand
idg.*nt(-i,-a)`until,to'belongas`upagainstthere,ontheoppositesideover'toanti;alsothewords
forthe`end'(seebelow)areoriginallythepurposewavingontheoppositeside,andwithas.untis
alsoant(and+te)prepositionm.Akk.`wholly,completely'synonymouswhat,evenifonlynew
intersectionarefromuntwithand-,however,theconceptrelationshipofbothexplained.

anti o s `against,recumbentbefore'(formedfromtheadverbanti):
*anti-(germ.*andja-)ingot.andeis,anord.endir,as.endi,ags.endem.,ahd.anti,entim.andn.,
nhd.Ende;alsogr.`against'(inadditionds.,`situatedagainst;opponent')
probablygoesback(compareSchwyzerGr.Gr.I379)to*.
Againstitisfrom*anto-(seeabove)derivedntio-inanord.ennin.,ahd.andi,endin.`forehead'=
lat.antiae`thehairgrowingupontheforehead,forelock'.
Aquitedifferentwordisnhd.and,ahd.unti,anti,entiunderlikewise,as.endi,ags.engl.and`and',
anord.en(n)`and,but',withOldIndianth`thereupon,thereon,then,ditto',av.a`also',osk.ant
m.Akk.`usquead',lit.itm.Akk.`after'(however,seeabove),toch.entwe`also'belongsto*en,n
`in'.
Alsoalb.in(*ende)edhe`and,also',zerograde(*ende)dhe`and,but'.
References:
References:WP.I.65ff.,WH.I53f.,Feist46,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I619,621,629f.,632f.,722,726,
II(BV2bd3).
Page(s):
Page(s):48-50

Root/lemma: apeloEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:strength
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Kraft'
Material:
Material:Gr.-Hes.,ion.`strong',hom.`swoon,ion.
Hes.,Elis:MNT-(afterPrellwitzBB.24,214ff.,KretschmerGl.18,205
here,,withvocalgradationthess.;afterSommerIF.55,1762rather
pregreek);ill.MNMag-aplinus,Aplus,Aplo,Aplis,-inis,FNAplo,-onis;gall.VND-ablintes`the
powerless,theweak'(from*-aplentes);germ.GNMatronisAflims,Afliabus`effectivemagic',aisl.afi
n.,ags.afol,abaln.`strength'.
Note
Note:
TheRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:apelo- :
:`strength'seemsrelatedtoRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:abhro- :
:`strong,mighty'
[theshiftl >rr].

References:
References:WP.I176,Feistla,KretschmerGl.24,250.
Page(s):
Page(s):52
Root/lemma: ap-1 (properp- ):pEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:totake,grab,reach
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`fassen,nehmen,erreichen'
Note:
FromthereducedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ghabh- :
:`tograb,take',derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ap-1 (exact
p- ):p- :
:`totake,grab,reach,*give'>Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:pi- :
:`comrade'>Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-3 :
`togive'.
Maybealb.tosk.(*eipmi)ep,jap,geg.nep(*na`us'+ep`give')`giveus(*take)':hitt.eipmi
(pmi)`take',3.Pl.ap-pa-an-zi(apanzi):gr.`giveahand.
Material:
Material:OldIndianpnti`achieved,attained',morerecentlypt-`clever,suitable,trusted';av.
apayeiti`achieved,reached',3.Pl.pntefrom*puantai;
arm.unim`own'(*pn-),nd-unim`attain';
gr.`giveahand,attach,pickaquarrel,light,kindle',`touch',`touch,adherence
etc.`willbedelieveredinspiteofthespirithere.KretschmerGl.7,352assumesinfluencingby
an;hom.()`touch,palpate,feel,finger',ion.ds.,commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ssphoneticmutation;
hom.,(withol.o:Hes.)`cheat,barter,exchange',
`phantasmic,delusive,fallacious',`low-spirited'(eigentl.`gotdown').

PedersenKZ.39,428putswithgr.arm.ap``thehollowhand'(o-stem,however,Lok.yap`ias
-i-stem,thusprobablyolderneutr.-os-stem)together,whichwordshouldcorrespondtogr.
`joint,hinge';becauseofp`(=idg.ph)nevertheless,uncertain(compareMeilletBSL.36,110);
lat.apscor`touch,reach,attain,cometo,comeby',adipscor`tocomeupto,overtake;henceto
obtain.Perf.partic.adeptus,usedpassively,=obtained',copi`hasbegun,commenced',latercoep.
Theconnectionwithlat.*api,*apere`tobindtogether,unite,joint,connect,link,tieround'(imper.
ape`hinder,prevent,restrain'),aptus`aspartic.fitted,fastened,connected.Transf.,dependingon;
alsoprepared,fittedout;fittedupwith,equippedwith,withabl.(2)asadj.suitable,appropriate,fitting.
Adv.apte',cpula(co-apula)`alink,bond,tie,connection;arope,aleash;plur.grapnels'isprobably
certain.Maybeisderivedfromacommonprimarymeaning`touch,summarize'.
Alsolat.apud`at,near,by,with,in'willbebestofallsuithere.Theprimarymeaningwouldbe`in
closeconnection'(comparejuxt).Onehasderivedfromthepart.Perf.neutr.*apuod(from*apuot
`havingreached').Additionalformapor,apur(mars.-lat.apurfinem)pointsonoriginally-d;
lat.apex,-icis`cusp',esp.`thetopoftheconicalcapoftheRoman'flamines',orthecapitself;hence
anycrown,tiara,helmet;fig.,highesthonor,crown;gram.,thelongmarkoveravowel',maybe
belongsto*api;comparealsoEM.60;
toch.Aoppcci`clever'(VanWindekensLexique82);
hitt.eipmi(pmi)`takes',3.Pl.ap-pa-an-zi(apanzi).
Note:
TheoriginalrootwasRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ap-1 (exactp- ):p- :
:`totake,grab,reach,*give'>Root/
Root/
lemma: pi- :
:`comrade'>Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai-3 :
:`togive'.
Maybealb.tosk.(*eipmi)ep,jap,geg.nep(*naep)`giveus(*take)':hitt.eipmi(pmi)`take',3.
Pl.ap-pa-an-zi(apanzi):gr.`giveahand.[seeabove]
AboutOldIndianp`friend',gr.o`friendly'seebelowpi- .
References:
References:WP.I45f.,WH.I57f.,60,847,PedersenHitt.128,CouvreurH93.
Page(s):
Page(s):50-51
Root/lemma: ap-3,pEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:old;damage
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`gebrechlich;Schaden'
Material:
Material:OldIndianapv`illness,failure',av.(froman-es-stem)afa-m.`damage,evil';lit.ops
`weak,sore,frail'(CharpentierKZ.40,442f.),presumablygr.`frail,weak'(Bezzenberger
BB.1,164;totheendingseeRisch98;differentlySchwyzerGr.Gr.I530).

References:
References:WP.I47,SpechtDekl.345.

Page(s):
Page(s):52
Root/lemma: apo- (p , ap-u, pu)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:from,out,of
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`ab,weg'
Material:
Material:OldIndianpa`off,away,back'asadnominalrp.m.Abl.`awayfrom',av.ap.apa`away
from';aboutprivatives*ap-inIran,andGr.seeSchwyzerZII.6,230ff.;gr.,m.Gen.(=
*ablative)`awayfrom,ex,from';maked.-,-;
alb.prap`again,back'(*per-ap);lat.abm.bl.,`prep.withabl.(1)ofmotionormeasurementin
space,from,awayfrom.(2)oftime,from,after.(3)ofseparation,difference,change,from;soof
positionornumber,countingfrom;andoftherelationofparttowhole,outof,of.(4)oforiginand
agency;esp.withpassiveverbs,by,atthehandsof,becauseof.(5)viewedfrom,onthesideof:'a
tergo',intherear;henceinconnectionwith,asregards'(beforevoicedconsonantfromap,stillin
aperifrom*ap-ueri;perhapsalsoinaprcus,s.WH.I59;aboutlat.afs.justthere1;abs=gr.
`back,again';outofitas-beforep-,as-port;beforevoicedconsonants),umbr.ap-ehtre`from
without,fromtheoutside;ontheoutside,outwardly'(aboutother,unsafeosk.-umbr.Beleges.v.
PlantaI209,426,II454f.);
got.afprefixandprepositionm.dat.`from,awayfrom,fromhere',anord.afAdv.andprepositionm.
dat.,ags.f,of,as.af,ahd.aba,ab-`from,awayfrom',nhd.ab-.
comparealsolit.apai`thelowerpart'(as`turnedawaypart',*apoti,toOldIndianpatya-n.
`progeny'andhitt.ap-p-iz-zi-ia-a(appeziias)`back'.
Askelt.derivativesaretakenupfrom*apoacymr.ncymr.o`ex-,from,of',a.-mcorn.,a.-nbret.ads.
However,comesforthispoorinsoundbrit.formratheraffiliationtoair.,uainconsideration
(ThurneysenGr.524),sothatofallBrit.itremainsquiteunsafe.
Inhett.a-ap-pa(apa)`behind,back'(comparegr.-`giveback,return')havemaybe
collapsedidg.apoandepi(PedersenHitt.188,CouvreurH94f.,LohmannIF.51,324f.).
Derivatives:ap
ap-tero-,
-tero-,ap-ero-, ap-i o -, ap-ko-andaboveapoti , apeti o -.
OldIndianapataramAdv.`fartheraway',ap.apataramAdv.`apart,somewhereelse',gr.
`fartherdistant'(`veryfaraway');maybegot.aftar`fromtheback,backward',aftuma,
aftumists`thelast',ags.ftemestds.andgot.aftra`back,again',ahd.as.aftarAdv.`behind,after'
andrp.m.Dat.`after,behind,accordingto',ags.fterds.,anord.eptirAdv.andrp.m.Dat.and
Akk.`after',aptrAdv.`back,backward'.
Forthisgerm.However,wordsrelationshipalsostandswithgr.,idg.*epi,*opitothe
consideration(SchulzeKZ.40,414Anm.3),comparestillgot.afta`behind',ags.ft`behind,later',
got.aftana`fromtheback',anord.aptan,ags.ftan,as.aftan,mhd.aften`afterwards'.
OldIndianpara-`back,later,following,other',Adv.-m`after,later',av.ap.apara-`back,later,
following',Adv.-m,-am,Sup.OldIndianapam-,av.apma-`theonefarthestaway,themost
distant,thelast';

got.afarAdv.andprepositionwithdat.andAkk.`after,afterward',ahd.avar,abur(latterfrom
*apurm,asanord.aur-`bottom,lower,nether,back'incompound,seeFalk-Torp,11f.)`again,
oncemore,againstit'(nhd.aber),anord.afar`esp.,verymuch'(comparetomeaningOldIndian
para-also`outlandish,peculiar,extreme,extraordinary',LidnStud.74ff.;ags.eafora,as.aaro
`descendant').seestill*pero-`shore'.
maybealb.(*apar)par`first,top',afr`*away,close',afrm`relative,descendant',(*per-)prej
`from'.
Gr.`remote,far'(probablyalsoanord.efjaf.`bayinariverinwhichthecurrentrunsback',ags.
ebbam.`lowtide',as.ebbiaf.,mndd.ebbe,whereborrowsfromnhd.Ebbe,as`ebb,theoutward
movementofthetide;thereturnoftidewatertowardsthesea').
OldIndianpka-`recumbentapart,distant,comingfromthefront',arm.haka-as1.compositionpart
`against',hakem`piegareadunaparte,inclinare',OldChurchSlavicopaky`again',ChurchSlavic
opako,opaky,opae`back,inverted',inwhich,admittedly,formscanbepartlyalsorelatedto*opi,gr.
(comparelat.opcus`shaded,shady;dark,shadowy,obscure'=`turnedawayfromthesun';
Literaryformationby(BrugmannGrdr.II21,482).Besidesanord.fugr`after,turnedbackward',as.
auh,avuh,ahd.abuh,abah`turnedaway,inverted,wicked'(nhd.big,bicht),ags.*afocinengl.
awkward,from*apu-ko-s(orfrom*opu-ko-s:,sothatintheablauttogot.ibuks`beingonthe
decline',ahd.ippihhn`rollback'JohanssonPBrB.15,230,intheconsonantrelegatingto-,
seealsoFalk-Torpunderavet).

p :
av.pa-zdayeiti`lettomoveaway,scareoff';lat.po-situs,pn`toputdown,setdown,put,place,set,
fix,lay,deposit'from*po-s[i]n,po-li,po-lbrum,prcet`tokeepoff,keepback,tohinder,restrain'
from*poarcet;alb.pam.Akk.`without',pa-`un-'(Gl.MeyerAlb.Wb.317);afries.fn`from,of',as.
fana,fan,ahd.fona,fonm.Dat.(=*Abl.)`from,of'(ahd.-o-isafterPerssonIF.2,215toderivefrom
idg.*pubeside*po).
AsimilarformpursuesTrautmannOldPrussian389inOldPrussianpan-s-dau`thereafter'.Istotally
unsafewhetherarm.oork`polished,slippery,smooth'containsaccordingtoLidnArm.stem60ff.
o-from*po-.
Maybesuffixedalb.pas`behind,back'pastaj`later,thereafter'.
Againstithereinspiteofoftendivergentmeaning(BrugmannGrdr.II22,808considersabsorption
fromidg.*upo,andforsl.poinmeaning`behind,after'm.Lok.probablyproperlyoriginfrom*pos):
OldChurchSlavicpo`after,in,with,aboutalittlebitthere'(lit.pwithGen.underdat.`after',with
Instr.`under'),asessentialonlymoreperfectiveverbalprefixeslit.pa-,OldChurchSlavicpo-(as
nominalprefixOldChurchSlavicpa-,lit.paandp-,comparee.g.OldChurchSlavicpamnti
`remember',pamt`memory');
OldPrussianpa-essentialinnominal,p-inverbalcompound,compareTrautmann203,Meillet
Slavecomm.2505.

Aboutslav.pod`below,under'seeBrugmannGrdr.II22,733f.-S.stillidg.*po-ti and*po-s
*po-s.
Maybealb.(*po-s)posht`below,under'fromthesamerootasslav.languagesslav.pod`below,

under'fromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:apo- (p , ap-u, pu)::(from,out,of)notfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:p d -2 ,
p d - :
:(foot,*genitalia).

ap-u standsbeside*apo(Lit.seebelow*pu)inark.kypr.lesb.thess.,inahd.abo=
=aba,anord.
au-virin.`contemptuousperson'(Falk-Torp11f.),comparealsoabove*apuro-beside*apero-,
*apuko-,and*pubeside*po.That-umaybeenklit.Particle`and,also'(Feista,508a,WH.I87).
comparealsoSchwyzerGr.Gr.I182.
pu (seebove*apu)mostlyinmeaning(`turnedaway'=)`behind,back':
ahd.fona(seeabove),OldIndianpunar`againback',gr.`thelast';quiteuncertainlat.
puppis`thepooporsternofavessel;poet.thewholeship'.
maybealb.pupa`thepooporsternofavessel':poln.pupa`bottom'.
References:
References:WP.I47ff.,WH.IIf.,842,Feist,Trautmann11.
Page(s):
Page(s):53-55
Root/lemma: appa
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:father
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Vater';Lallwort
Material:
Material:comparegr.,,,(Theokrit)`dad';toch.appakke`father'(this(a)kkefromammakki`Mutter').
References:
References:WP.I47.
Seealso:
Seealso:comparealsopap(p)a .
Page(s):
Page(s):52
Root/lemma: aps
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:asp
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Espe'
Material:
Material:Ahd.aspa,nhd.Espe,ags.spe,anord.spf.ds.,lett.apse(from*apuse),OldPrussian
abseds.,nordlit.apusf.,lit.apu,epuf.`aspen,tremblingpoplar'(afterBezzenbergerBB.23,
298supposedlyfreediminutive-formationfrom*aps),russ.osna(*opsna)`aspen',poln.osa,osika,
osina`aspen'.
Thefactthatinthisaspennamethesoundresult-ps-,isnottheoriginal-sp-,confirmamongothers
trk.-osm.apsak`poplar',tschuw.ws`aspen'asaloanwordfromtheprotoArmeniantoPedersen
KZ.30,462.Spechtplacesbecauseofgr.gr.,Hes.aroot
nounap-.

References:
References:WP.I50,SpechtDekl.60.
Page(s):
Page(s):55
Root/lemma: ar 4 (er, or), r
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:now,also,interrogativeparticle
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:etwa`nun,also',alsoasFragepartikel
Material:
Material:Gr.,,(fromr)`now,thus,consequently',kypr.,interrogativeparticle(*
;,maybefrom');likewisezerogradelit.ir`and,also',lett.ir`also',OldPrussianir`and,
also'(=gr.,zerogradelit.ar,lett.arasanintroductionofaninterrogativesentence,alit.alsoer
withthesamebalt.vacillatefroma-ande-asbetweenlett.ar`with,in'andOldPrussianer`to';toch.
ra-emphat.particle.

References:
References:WP.I77,Trautmann12,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I342,622.
Page(s):
Page(s):62
Root/lemma: ardhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:pole
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Stange'
Material:
Material:arm.ardn`lance,spear':lit.ardasm.`polescaffoldfordryingflax',oldardamas`a(light)
poleorspar,asprit,whichcrossesthesaildiagonally(andservestomakeittaut)'(seetomeaning
BezzenbergerGGA.1885,920)'PeterssonKZ.47,245(thelit.wordsnotbetteraccordingto
LeskienAbl.329toardti`split,distinguish',seeunderer- `rare,loose,crumbly').

References:
References:WP.I84.
Page(s):
Page(s):63
Root/lemma: ardi-, r d iEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:point,edge
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Spitze,Stachel'
Material:
Material:OldIndianali`bee,scorpion'(from*ai,idg.*rdi)=gr.`headofthearrow,sting';air.
aird(*ardi-)`sharp,peak,pointofthecompass',anord.erta(*artjan)`stirup,stimulate,tease'
(anotherinterpretationfromertaunderer-,er-d- `setinmotion').

References:
References:WP.I83f.,LdersSchriften429.
Page(s):
Page(s):63
Root/lemma: aregEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tolock
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`verschlieen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianargala,argal`latch,bolt',maked.`bathinghut,bathhut',fromwhich
borrowsalb.raglf.`cottage,hut';kimmer.(*argeli)`subterraneandwelling';as.racud,
ags.recedm.`building,house'.

References:
References:WP.I81,WH.I63,JoklIF.44,22.
Seealso:
Seealso:compare*areq- `schtzen,verschlieen'.
Page(s):
Page(s):64
Root/lemma: ar(e)-- (ar- ),r i- (*her-(e)--)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:glittering,white,fast
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzend,weilich'
Note:
OldIndianrji-py`dartingalong'epithetofthebirdyen-(`eagle,falcon'),Av.rzifya-(cf.gr.
H.,),arm.arcui(<*arciwi)`eagle'provethatfromRoot/
Root/
lemma: er-1 ,or-:
or-:`eagle,*fast'derivedextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ar(e)-- (ar- ),r i- :
`glittering,white,fast'anditssubsequentzerogradeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:re-1 :
:`right,just,tomake
right;king'.
Material:
Material:OldIndianrjuna`bright,white';rajat-`whitish',rajatmhrayam`whitishgold,i.e.
silver',rajatm`silver'withflashy,inspiteofOsthoffMU.VI33notfromzerograder(orlikewise)
deduciblevocalismcomparedwithav.rzata-n.,Oldpers.ardata-`silver'(r-):TNillyr.Ardiaei
commonalb.-illyr.-->-d-phoneticmutation.
lat.argentum,osk.aragetud`silver',air.arggat,mir.airget,cymr.arian(t),corn.mbret.argant,nbret.
arc'hant`silver',gall.PNArganto-magus;arcanto-dan..`coinminter,mint-master,themasteror
superintendentofamint',
Maybealb.(*argento)argjend`silver'.
arm.arcat``silver',toch.ArkyantN.Pl.f.;withotherformationgr.`silver'(inspiteofthese
equationstheknowledgeofthesilverfortheprimevaltimesstandsnotsure,seeaboutthatpointand
abouttheborrowingquestionSchraderRL.II2394,G.IpsenIF.39,235f.,Festschr.Streitberg228),
messap.argorian(:)ds.,argora-pandes(*arguro-pondios)`quaestor,statetreasurer'.

Thrak.`(*white)mouse',FlN(*Argios).
Gr.`white,fast',incompounds-:-`withshiningthunderbolt',-`with
brilliantlywhiteteeth'(thereafteralso*for,furtherformationto,epithetof
townssituatedonwhitelimeorchalkmountains);`iswhite'.
probablyafterWackernagelVerm.Beitr.8f.from*dissimilated,whereforei-stemofcompoundsbehavesasav.drzi-raa-`possessingsteadychariot'todrzra-`solid'.
WithphoneticallysameOldIndianrjr-connotesalso`shining',isinthismeaningwith
`white'etymologicalidentical(inadditionalsoOldIndianjti-,rjka-`radiating').
OldIndianrjr-`fast',ji-van-`thealliedIndrasorderingaboutfastdogs'=gr.`fast'(likewise
ofdogs,alsoalreadyprotolinguisticepithet,seeSchulzeKl.Schr.124),-`fleet-footed',
horses-,upholdsPerssonBeitr.828from(rjr-)`white'differentword(totheroot
re-`straight,right,directly'inOldIndianrj-`rushingstraightfor',rji-py`dartingalong',etc),
againstBechtelLexil.57,theconceptofthelightsallowstohaveflowedfromthatofthequick
movement(compare`asquickasaflash,atlightningspeed')aswellasSchulzeaaO.
Sidesofthesameobservationconsideredastotryilluminatingpower,brightnessofthecolor,and
quicknessofthemovement(comparelat.micre`moverapidlytoandfro,vibrate,flicker;toshine,
glitter,sparkle').
,n.`thewhiteness(intheeye,nail)',,dor.(*F`shining';esstemin`perspicuous,clear',-epithetof,`elucidative,brightening'(seelastly
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I5001),`whitesheen,whiteluster,white-gleaming'(*-);maybe
alsoinepithetofHermes(`inslayingbrilliance').
Onaccountofes-stemav.rzah-`afternoonandevening'sothatbelongstogetheretymologically,
atleasthalfthemeaningisquitedoubtful,see.BartholomaeAiran.Wb.202,BechtelaaO.
Maybealb.(*rz-)errt`dark',err`darken':av.rzah-`afternoonandevening'
,-,-,-`white-gleaming';and`whiteclay'(lat.Lw.argilla,argla:alb.
argjil`whiteclay,mud'):-seeabove,-,-`shiningwhite'(intheword
endingprobablytorootbh-`shine',PrellwitzBB.22,90,BechtelLexil.57f.).
Maybealb.harc,harcaPl.`rockylandscape';alb.haspreservedtheoldlaryngeal-.
Lat.argentumseeabove;argu`toputinclearlight;todeclare,prove;toaccuse,blame,expose,
convict',argtus`totheeye,expressive,lively;talkativetotheear,piercing,shrill,noisy;ofomens,
clear,significant;ofpersons,sagacious,cunning;(sinceCiceroalso:)beaming,shimmering'and
`shrewd'.
Toch.Arki,rkwi`white'(*aruio-),rcune`epithetoftheroyaltitle',Arki-oi`whiteworld'
(comparecymr.elfyddS.30);hett.ar-ki-i(arkis)`white'.
Maybealb.(*arg-)jarg`whitesaliva'
Note:
alb.j-standsforthelostoldlaryngeal-.

e-vocalismshownbythoseofOsthoffMU.V,S.V,andMU.VI33consideredforgot.unarkns
`impure,unclean',arknia`cleanness,genuineness',ahd.erchan`right,just,real,true,genuine',
anord.jarknasteinn,ags.eorcnanstn`preciousstone,jewel'(inadditionalsoanord.jarteiknn.
`emblems'from*jar[kn]-teikn,LidnbyNoreenAisl.Gr.3p.281,6);comparealsoFeist25b.
Assecurelyonecannotconsidertheaffiliationofgerm.words,however,wasconcerningthevocalism
intersectionfromgerm.*ark-=idg.*ar-with*erk-=OldIndianrcati,idg.*erk-atleastconceivable.
AboutthatofUhlenbeckKZ.40,552,560consideredforlit.ruolas,uolas,dial.uuolas,ostlit.
dial.olas`oak',seeratherBezzenbergerKZ.42,263,TrautmannOldPrussian301,whereupon
an-(comparepr.ansonis)theoriginalformis(differentZupitzaKZ.36,66,Germ.Gutt.214).
ByHirts(Abl.124)basic*ar(e)-causegerm.wordsdifficulty,however,seeabove.Thebasisofa
2throotvowel(are-)isgivenonlybyOldIndianrajatm`whitish',thusdubious.
References:
References:WP.I82f.,II362f.,WH.I66,848,Feist25,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I260,447,481,Frisk
Nominalbildg.4.
Specht(Dekl.1141)placesbecauseofgr.Hes.acolorrootinar-,heequateswithal(seeaboveS.31).
Page(s):
Page(s):64-65
Root/lemma: arenkoEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindofcereal,typeofgrain
Material:
Lat.arinca`varietyofgrain,olyra(whichresemblesspelt)'(`Galliarumpropria'Plin.n.h.18,81;
foreign,presumablygall.word,despiteNiedermannand30notgenuinelylat.),gr.
`leguminousplantgrowingasaweedamonglentilplants',.
Hes.
Becauseofthemeaningdifferencequitedoubtfulequation;noobjectionofferssureenoughthenot

sufficingconfirmationfromin.Non-relatedinspiteofFickII416,17aregr.
`bread'(todarkorigin,seeBoisacq84),mir.arbar`grain'(see*ar-`toplough,plow'),arn
`bread'.
References:
References:WP.I84,WH.I67.
Page(s):
Page(s):66-67
Root/lemma: areqEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toguard,lock
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schtzen,verschlieen'
Material:
Material:IndetailOsthoffIF.8,54ff.m.Lit.

Arm.argel`hump,block,check,fence,hurdle,barrier,drawback,obstacle,hindrance,balk,
impediment',denomin.argelum`resist,holdfrom,holdback';maybewitho-gradationorm`wall,
mural'(*ork-mo-);
gr.`resist,reproach,protects,helps;expressdisappointment,besufficient,beenough'
(,)probablyfrom*;n.`protection,cover,shelter'(Alkman);o
`sufficing,enough',-`oneselfenough',-`withsufficingfeet,fast'(seealsoBechtel
Lexil.279f.);
Maybealb.(*)argsh`crudecraftsupportedbyskinbladders,crudebridgeofcrossbars,
harrow',zerogradeinalb.(*argo-)rrog`alpinemeadow(tobeguarded)'.
lat.arce,-re`toshutin;tokeepatadistance,hinder,prevent,keepaway',arca`achest,box;esp.
amoney-boxorcoffin;alsoacell'(actually`fastener,shutter',comparearcnus`shut,closed;hence
silent,secret,confidential';fromLat.derivesgot.etcarka`boxes,moneyboxes,ark';
maybealb.ark`box,moneyboxes,ark'.
ahd.arahha,archa`ark'andfromGerm.againOldChurchSlavicraka`burialcave',OldPrussian
arkanAkk.Sg.`ark'),arx`fortifiedhill,castle,fort',arcera`canopiedchariot'(suffixaftercumera,
compareWH.I63)osk.trbarakavm`tobuild,erect,establish;tocreate,frame'(constitutes
beforehand*trbark-`toencloseahouse,toputupafencearoundahouse');
ahd.rigil,mhd.rigel`latch,bolt',mengl.rail(ags.*reogol),GntertKalypso136;
lit.rktas`key',raknti`tolock,shut';
hett.ar(k)-`hold,clamp,tohang(kills.o.byhangingthem)',GtzeandPedersenMurili50.
Note
Note:
Maybealb.(*ark-)varg`row,chain,ring';commonprotheticalb.v-beforebareinitialvowels.
Throughthemeaninglittleisrecommendedtocitationofcymr.archen`clothes,shoe',bret.arc'henna
`wearshoes'(mir.acrann`shoe,clothes'probablyreconvertedfromarc-,StokesKZ.41,381).
AboutthatofW.FoyKZ.35,62as`castlehill'interpretedOldpers.mountainnamesarkadri-see
JustiIA.17,106(supposedly(H)ara-kadri`mountainravine,mountaingorge'),butinadditionagain
BartholomaeZ.altiran.Wb.105Anm.1,116.
Maybezerogradeinalb.kodra,kodrin(dim.)`hill'fromatruncatedOldpers.(H)ara-kadri
`mountainravine'.
Againstapposition(BrucknerKZ.45,108Anm.)recommendsmeaningfromslav.raiti`want,grant'.
Asformmito-gradation(oratmostwithor=r)coverslat.Orcus`Orcus,theinfernalregions.Transf.
thegodofthelowerworld;death,realmofthedead'(uncertain`lock,seal,shut,trap,close,lockup,
shutup,closeup').
References:
References:WP.I80f.,WH.62f.,848.
Seealso:
Seealso:Similarlyaleq- `refuse,protect'andareg- (seed.).

Page(s):
Page(s):65-66
Root/lemma: ar()Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toplough
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`pflgen'
Material:
Material:Arm.araur`plow'(*artrom;HbschmannArm.stemI21);
gr.(,)`plough,till',,`plowman',`plow';withoriginal
vocalizationofthe2ndsyllableherakl.,gortyn..etcplacedafterPersson
Beitr.669anidg.*aro-besides*ar-ahead(comparetoch.re),orappearedinsteadofatthe
sametimewiththereshufflemanydenominativecausativesin-tosuchin-afterinaddition
basico-formation,underspecialinfluencefrom`plowupthelandanew'.
lat.ar,-re`totill,plow,farm,cultivate.Transf.,tofurrow,wrinkle;ofships,toplowthesea'(forthe
older*ar-mi),artor`ploughman,husbandman',artrum`plow'(--for*-a-afterarre);
mir.airim`toplough',cymr.arddu(from*arj-)`toplough',arddwr`plowman',mir.arn.`arableland',
cymr.arf.ds.,mir.arn`bread',arathar(*artrom),cymr.aradr,corn.aradar,mbret.arazr,nbret.
arar`plow';mir.airem(*ariom),Gen.aireman`plowman',alsoPNAirem-n;
maybealb.ar`arableland,field'.
got.arjan,anord.erja,ags.as.erian,ahd.erran,mhd.ern`toplough,till',anord.arr`plow',ahd.art
`furrowedland',ags.ear,ierf.`furrowedland,yield'(seealsounder*ar- `yield,acquiesce'about
nhd.Art),mhd.arl,nhd.Arl,Arling`plow'(fromloanwordfromslav.*ordlogenuinelygerm.after
MeringerIF.17,121);
lit.ari,rti`toplough',rklas(*ar-tlom)`plow',arkls`horse'(as`aplowanimal');artjas`tiller,
plowman'(*artia-),OldPrussianartoys`tiller'(withsecondaryzerogradelit.or`ploughingtime',
comparegr.Hes.),lett.ar'u`toplough',ara,re`arableland';lit.armen
`superficiallyfurrowedlayerofearth';
OldChurchSlavicorj,orati`toplough';ralo(serb.rlo,poln.rado)`plow'(*ar()-dhlom:lit.rklas),
rataj`plowman';aboutslav.*ora-s.Trautmannn13;
tochABre`plow'.concerningthispertains:

ar()u - :
Arm.haravunk`arableland'(ScheftelowitzBB.29,58),lat.arvus,-a,-um`plowed,plowedland',esp.
arvum`plowedland,afield;ingen.,aregion',umbr.arvam-en`inplowedland'(=demlat.fem.arvas
A.Pl.),ar(u)via`crops,fieldcrops';
mir.arbor(*arur)`grain',Dat.arbaim,Gen.(alreadyair.)arbe(*aruens),Pl.N.A.arbanna(r/n-stem:
StokesKZ.37,254,PedersenKG.I63,II106;therefromairmnech`themanwhoownsalotofgrain',
Corrnac'sGl.,with-mn-=-vn-,StokesKZ.38,458);
gr.`arableland'(formallynotyetclearly;probablyafterBenvenisteNorns113from*-F,
extensionof-Ffrom*arour,comparemir.arbor.UnglauhhaftOtrbskiKZ.66,78).

Throughitsolde-divergencecymr.erwf.`field',Pl.erwi,erwydd,corn.erw,ereuds.,abret.mbret.
eru,nbret.ero`furrow'belongagainstittoahd.ero`earth',gr.,arm.erkir`earth'(forthelatter
supposesPedersenKZ.38,197likewise*eru-asabasis),however,havetakenoverliketheusefor
farmedfieldofone*ar()uo-.
FromthelackofAryancorrespondencesmaynotbeclosedagainsttheacquaintancewiththeplowin
indoGermanicprimevaltimes.
References:
References:WP.I78f.,WH.I69,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I362,683.
AfterSpechtKZ.68,422furthermoretoroot*er-(er-5 )`disjoint,sever'as`tearthegroundopen'
Page(s):
Page(s):62-63
Root/lemma: ario-
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:master,lord
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Herr,Gebieter'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ario- :
:master,lord,derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ar-1 * , themat.(a)re-, schwere
Basisar-,r- undi-Basis(a)r - , ri-:
:tomove,pass:gr.`bestinbirthandrank,noblest'.
Material:
Material:OldIndianar(i)y-`mister,convivial',r(i)ya-`Aryan',ryaka`venerableman';av.airy,
Oldpers.ariya-`Aryan';
gall.PN.Ariomnus(GIL,III4594);ir.aire(gl.primas)besidesairech,whereistobeformed*arjoand*arjako-,whichtoOldIndianryakabehavesasgr.`youth'toOldIndianmaryak-`male'
(PedersenKelt.Gr.II100).Againstitbelongsmir.ruirenothere,butfromro+r`kingofkings'.
AboutOldIndianaryamnn.`hospitality',m.`guest'sfriend',av.airyaman-,npers.rmn`guest',see
aboveunderal-1 .
W.Krause(runeinscriptions539)shouldreadproperlyurnord.arjostRN.Pl.`themost
distinguished,thenoblest',thuswouldhavetobeattachedindeedanurnord.*arjaR`posh,lofty,
noble,plush,gentle,kingly,polite,courtly,elegant,genteel,stately,highbred,exclusive'andanidg.
*ario-,intheOldIndianphoneticallywithaderivativefromar-`alien,stranger'wouldhavecollapsed.
Kelto-germ.PNAriovistushowever,provesnothing,becauseArio-couldstandfor*Hario-.Alsoair.
aire,airech`suitor'areambiguous,seeaboveunderal-1 .
MaybeArrianesillyr.TN.
References:
References:WP.I80.
Page(s):
Page(s):67
Root/lemma: ar-1 * , themat.(a)re-, heavybasisar-,r- andi-basis(a)r - , ri-

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tomove,pass
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`fgen,passen'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ar-1 * , themat.(a)re-, heavybasisar-,r- andi-Basis(a)r - , ri-:
:`tomove,
pass'
andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:er-3 :or- :r- :
:`tomove*stir,animate,fight,struggle,rise;tospringup,beborn'
derivedfromthesamerootRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:er-1 ,or-:
or-:`eagle'.
Material:
-----------------*)E.-M.74determinebecauseofarm.eri`horseshockorpointofshoulder,shoulderofanimals',y-

eriurel`fit;blendin;fiton;suit;adapt;key;tune;adjust;accommodate;readjust;bringintoline;mate'
positabasicform*er-.Butarm.eriderivesafterLidenMl.Pedersen88f.backtoidg.*rito-,*riti!
compareTrautmann242.
------------------Av.arnte`theysettle,getstuck',OldIndianar`wheelspoke',aram,lamAdv.(rakar-,
alakar`prepare;getready;makeup;getup;dress;trim;prink'and`beinservice;serve;doone's
service;accommodate;beofservice;beofhelp;beofuse',forwhatprobablyr-t-`servant;
manservant;valet;servitor;follower'andr-t-`willing;eager;prompt;ungrudging;unhesitating',av.
riti`compliant,servant')`suitable,enough';
av.arm`suitable,accordingly'(arm-piw`midday'=`thetimesuitableforthemeal',nexttowhich
ra-piwds.Withzerogradera-besides*ara-,fromwhatarmAdv.,BartholomaeAiran.Wb.189,
1509),ratu-m.,`judge,arbitrator'and`period(oftime)'(commonprimarymeaningpossibly`theactof
arrangingsomething(neatly)',fromwhich`theactofarrangingthelaw'and`righttime');OldIndianarp-yati`puts,fixed,clamps,cleats,affixes,appends,fastens,fixates,fortifies';abouthett.ar-ap(arp-)`toarrange,situate,putdown'compareCouvreur114f.;
arm.anem`produce;do;make;cook;render;cause;proffer;offer;holdout;volunteer;give;contract;
fix;put;matter;get;have;take;win;pulldown;putdown',yar`,Iconsent,conjoin,continue,press
so'(arar`hasdone,hasmade'=gr.),whereofyarem`add,subjoin,splice'(BuggeKZ.32,21),
ar`bad;poor;unsavory;unsavoury;poorly;inferior;unsatisfactory;low;stale;foul;hard;lamentable;
decayed;wrong;faulty;amiss;maladjusted;uneasy;evil;unkind;wicked;corrupt;off;unhealthy;
chronic;ill;sick'withnegative[=o]`notsuitable'(BuggeaaO.23);
gr.,Perf.`jointogether',`annexed,appended,attached,appendaged,
suitable',`wife'(probablyafterBrugmannIF.28,293,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I434herewithprefix*o-,
barelytoroot*ser-orroot*uer-,-F);inaddition`havecloserelationswith';
also`chatsconfidentially';-`ironclad,armoured',also-Pind.,-
`limb,member,joint(wrist,ankle)',`connection;connexion;contact;touch;liaison;tie;splice;
affiliation;junction;conjunction;coupling;communication;link-up;interconnection;link;line;
combination;association;incorporation;compound;relation;relationship;marriage;wedding;society;

union;juncture,friendship',`joins,unites,unifies,combines,conjunct,collective';withtsuffixeshomer.---`housewife'(`thewomaninchargeofthehouse'),ol.Hes.;
`Hadesastheonewholocksthegate(s)totheunderworld'(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I451,5);
-in`evenout,ease,reconcile,settle,redress,compensatefor,equalize,balance,make
upfor,makegood,givesatisfaction',`Itsuitsme,Ilikeit',,`come
toanagreement,cometoanagreementwithsomebody;makeoneselfinclined,reconcile',common
gr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation;
`ability;competence;efficiency',`better'(inrespectprobablystands-`verymuch,
very'incompounds,wherewithReuterKZ.31,594a1alsoOldIndianari-grt-,-tut-as`keenly
praised'wouldliketocompare;uncertainbecauseofgr.-`verymuch,very'seeBoisacqs.v.,
aboveS.24Anm.);`better,best',`left,ontheleft'.
Withlengthening-`appealingwell,complacent',`husband;hostage,pledge',
`tomeet';afterBirtPhilol.87,376f.waseigentl.`companion,theblindpersonwhogoes
withhisleader'.
FromSlav.perhapspoln.ko-jarzy`attach,connect,combine'(e.g.MiklosichEWb.100,Berneker31,
532).
Aboutmayberelatedgr.,lit.irs.4.ar`now,thus'.
Toch.Arwar,rwer,rwar`ready',rm,ere`face'(comparelat.figura`aform,shape,
figure').VanWindekensBSL.41,56,Duchesne-Guillemininthesameplace173.

t-formations:r t -, art- `jointtogether'.


OldIndianrt-n.`suitable,right',rtmn.`wellattached,holyorder'(tomeaningseeOldenbergGGN.
1915,167-180;not`sacrifice;victim;oblation;offering'),rtna`rite',av.arta-,rta-n.,Oldpers.
arta-(incompound)`law,right,holyright';
av.aa-under,`whatissure,true',OldIndianrtvan(t)-`proper,fair',av.avan/t/-;OldIndianrtu-
`certaintime,order,rule',rtf.`kind,way'(tooursrootafterKlugePBrB.9,193;seealsoMeringer
IF.17,125,B.GeigerWZKM.41,107),av.aipi-rta-`appoints,destines,firmlyassigned';
arm.ard,Gen.-u(=gr.,lat.artus,-s,comparealsoontopOldIndianrtu-)`structure,
construction,ornament'(HbschmannArm.Gr.I423,BuggeKZ.32,3),zard`apparatus,ornament';
ard`justnow,now,currently'(=gr.)(BartholomaeStud.II23,BuggeaaO.,MeilletEsquisse36),
ardar`fair,just,right'(HbschmannArm.stemI21,Arm.Gr.I423;
PerssonBeitr.636a2considersforitalsoidg.dh;compareav.ardra-`faithful,reliably,loyalto
belief,pious,godly'andtheotherundermentioneddh-derivatives),ardiun`struttura(PedersenKZ.
40,210);
gr.`(atthesametime)simultaneous'(Instr.*-`jointtogether,concurring,
coincidental'),-`connectoneselftosomebody,accompany'(dueto*-);ti-stemin
-F(`wellversedinwordstructure'),-()`withhealthyfeet',
-`able-minded,withsharpmind,withasturdymind'(presumablyalsoin`butcher,
slaughterer;murderer',whereof`slaughter,cutup,divide',afterJ.SchmidtKrit.83f.from
*-oratmost*`workmanlikecutting',compareOldIndianrta-n-`justlyleading',rta-yuj

`properlyharnessed');
Maybeinu-gradealb.urt`able-minded,withsharpmind,withasturdymind'
probablyalso`freshandhealthy',probablydissimilatedfrom*-to`witha
well-builtbody';`just'ofthepresentandthemostrecentpast(compareabovearm.ard`justnow,
now'andard-a-cin`newborn'asgr.-;
morphologicallynotyetquiteclear,perhapsLocative);-`exact,just',`adequate,just,
complete',`playsrightlyoroddly',`finishes,prepares',Hes.,
`hostile',`prepares';
,(=lat.artus`narrow,tight')Hes.,,`joins,
prepares',,,titleofapublicservantorofficialofArgos,Epidauros,Thera.
Lat.artus`narrow,tight(inspaceandtime),close;'somnus',fast,sound;ofsupplies,small,meager;
ofcircumstances,difficult,distressing'(Adv.art,originallyinstrumentalas);ars,-tis`skill,
method,technique;'exarte',accordingtotherulesofart.(2)anoccupation,profession.(3)concrete,
inplur.,worksofart.(4)conduct,character,methodofacting;'bonaeartes',goodqualities'(actually
`articulation,assemblage,packagiftproperly'=mhd.art),inadditionthecompoundsin-ers
`unsophisticated,sluggish,untrained,unskillful;inactive,lazy,idle,calm;cowardly;ineffective,dull,
insipid',soll-ers`clever,skilful',allers,alers`taught,learned';

arti,-ire`inserttightly,wedge,crowd,joinfast,presstogether'(morerecentlyartre);artus,-s`the
joints;'dolorartuum',gout;poet.,limbs',articulus`inthebody,asmalljoint;inplants,aknob,knot;of
time,amoment,crisis;ingen.,apart,division,point';
lit.art`near'(Lok.ti-stem);
mhd.artf.`kind,mannerandway',anord.ein-arr`simple,sincere',einrd`reliability;dependability;
trustworthiness;sureness;steadiness';
toch.ar(t)kye`rich,valuabe'().

m -formations:
A.Fromthelightbasisar-.
Arm.y-armar`suitable,adequate'(BuggeKZ.32,21);
gr.`seam,assemblage,joint',`just,recently'(`connect,join,adapts,orders',
`connection,alliance,regularity,harmony'),`chariot'(aboutthesewordsseeSommer
Gr.Lautst.133,MeilletBSL.28,c.-r.21f.[*arsmo-],SchwyzerGr.Gr.I306;fartherLit.byBoisacq
79),`assignedfood,provisions';
lat.arma,-rum`defensivearms,armor,weaponsofwar;hencewar,soldiers,militarypower;
protection,defense;ingen.tools,equipment',armentum`herdofhorsesorcattle,cattleforplowing'.
Hencesoundsinanord.jrmuni`bovineanimal,horse'andthePNgot.*Armana-reiks,ags.
Eormenrc,aisl.Jrmunrekr,mhd.Ermenrch;thesamefirstparttothenamefromalittlebitbigalso
e.g.inErmunduri`greatThuringia',anord.jrmungrund`thewideearth'=ags.eormengrund,ahd.
irmindeot,as.Irmin-sl,andintheshortformHerminones.

However,BrcknerKZ.45,107rightlychallenges,that`cattle,horses'istheoriginaland`large'outof
itderivedmeaninganddecidesviceversafor`large,serene'astartingpointbecauseofslav.ramn
`immense,strong,violent,sudden'(fromherelit.ermas`immense,monstrous',lett.rms`monkey,
clown,strangeappearance'),as`shotup'to*er-,*or-(orioretc;compareformal),notas
`sturdy,stout,wellbuilt,massive'belongsto*ar-`tojoin,connect'.
OldChurchSlavicjarm`yoke'(e.g.MiklosichEWb.100,Berneker31),sloven.jrmen`yokestrap,
strap';withzerogradeinitialsoundandthemat.vowel:OldChurchSlavicremen,serb.rmnetc
`strap';SpechtDekl.149f.
Toch.yarm,AByrm`measure'.
.Fromtheheavybaser-mo-: r - mo-`arm'.
OldIndianrm-`arm,shoulder'(originally`shoulderjoint',compare,lat.artus`joints')=av.
rm-`arm',osset.rm`cuppedhand',lm-rn,rm-rn`elbow',
lat.armus`shoulderorshoulder-blade;also,ofananimal,theside,theuppermostpartoftheupper
arm,scapula'(from*ar//mos),gall.aram`bifurcation,pointofseparation',(WartburgI119,Judby
Howald-rRm.Schweiz374ff.),OldPrussianirmof.`arm',lit.rmd(`gout',i.e.:)`goutinthe
joints',irm-liga`gout,arthritis'(seeTrautmannOldPrussian347);
zerogradelit.em.Pl.tant.arma`VorderarmamWagen'(ibd.),OldChurchSlavicramo,ram,serb.
rme`shoulder',got.arms,ahd.etcarm`arm',rm.armukn`elbow'(HbschmannArm.Stud.I21).
Rootformr-,r-:
Lat.reor,rr`tothink,suppose,judge'(themostprimitivemeteringandcountingisaccompaniedby
theputtingontopofeachotherorlayersofthepiecestobecounted),participleratus`intheopinion,
sense',butalso`determined,settled;calculated,certain,valid,legal',rati`areckoning,account,
consideration,calculation;areason,motive,ground;aplan,scheme,system;reasonableness,
method,order;atheory,doctrine,science;thereasoningfaculty';afterEM.793here(pr)portifrom
portine=prratine;
got.*garajan(onlyparticiplegaraana)`tocount',an.hundra,nhd.Hundert(*raan.`number'=

lat.rtum`toratify,confirm,makevalid';s.FickIII4336);ahd.girad`even(onlyfromnumbers)',nhd.
gerad(onlyfromnumbersdivisibleby2;differentfromgerad=straightahead),withnewablaut

anord.trractually`countaftertens'(FickIII4336);got.raj`number,bill,account',as.rethia
`account',ahd.radja,redea`account,speechandanswer,story',afries.birethia`accuse',as.rethin,
ahd.red(i)n`talk'(determinestheprecisecorrespondencefromrajwithlat.ratio`areckoning,
numbering,castingup,account,calculation,computation'e.g.Kluge11s.v.`speech'tothe
assumptionofborrowinggerm.wordsunderinfluencefromgaraian;moreproperlyFalk-Torp886
rajtodetermineasprimary-in-derivativefromgerm.root*ra-[garajan]).

Whetherherealsoanord.r`row,line,series,chain,range,string,tier,battery,file,turn,run,
procession,rank,order,progression,number,set,bank,esp.incrementliningalongtheshore',mnd.
ratf.`row,line,series,chain,range,string,tier,battery,file,turn,run,procession,rank,order,
progression,number,set,bank'(FickIII4337;`row;line;series;chain;range;string;tier;battery;
file;turn;run;procession;rank;order;progression;number;set;bank'as`addedoneachother,
stratified').

Ahd.rmen`striveforsomething,strive,aim',as.rmon`strive',mhd.mnd.rm`aim,purpose,target'
our*r-maybesuitas`toarrangeinone'smind,calculate',if,besides,this(thepreviousnewer
proves)Subst.rmmusthavebeenasformationwithformants-mo-startingpoint.

dh -extensionr-dh-,rdh -, r-dh-:
OldIndianrdhnti,rdhyati`prepares(suitably),manages;gets,succeeds,withwhichhasluck;
contents,winssomebody',rdhayati`manages,givessatisfaction',rdham.,rdhan.`blessing,
success,relief,gift,generosity';
Maybealb.radha`row',radhit`count'.
av.raiti`makesready',ra-m.`socialwelfareworker',rdah-n.`appropriateforoneself,making
oneselfavailable,willingness(inreligiousregard)',Oldpers.rdiy(Lok.Sg.)`weigh'(compareOld
ChurchSlavicradiseeunder),npers.ryad,rstan`decorate;adorn;bedeck;trim;attire;array;
drape;gild;emblazon;embellish';air.imm-rdim`considers,thinksover',cmr.amraud`suppose,
think,mean',ncymr.amrawdd`conversation'withders.meaningasair.no-ridiu,no-rdim`says,
tells',mcymr.adrawd`tell'andgot.rdjan,anord.ra`talk'(comparefurtheralsoplacedabovenhd.
Rede,reden;no-ridiuandrdjan,likesl.raditi,kaus.-iter.*rdhei);got.gardan`whereuponbe
judicious,takeprecautions',urrdan`judge,determine'(comparetomeaningesp.lat.rr),undrdan
`procure,grant',ahd.rtan`advise,confer,contemplate,plan,incite,indicate(riddle),request,tolook
aftersomething,procure,provide,get',as.rdan,anord.ra,ags.rdan(latteralso`read',engl.
read),Subst.ahd.rtm.`availablemeans,council,pieceofadvice,advisement,decision,intention,
precaution,stock,supply',similarlyas.rd,anord.rd,ags.rd;OldChurchSlavicraditi`takecare;
beaccustomed;lookafter;carefor;beinthehabit;tend;provide;supply;cater;fend;ensure;insure'
(serb.rdm,rditi`work,strive',rad`business,work';seeUhlenbeckKZ.40,558f.),radi`weigh',
nexttowhich*rdh-inOldChurchSlavicnerod`neglect(ofduty)',sloven.rdim,rditi`provide,
takecare'.
MaybeOldChurchSlavicradi`weigh':alb.geg.rand`heavy(*work),sththatweighsalot'raaor.
`fall(sthheavy,weighty)'[nasalizedform],randonj`weigh',re`care,attention',roje`guard'[common
alb.-d->-j-shiftbetweentwovowels],ruanj`toguard'.
Rootform((a ) r - , ri-(seePersonrootextension102,162,232;Beitr.741):
Gr.(ifnotneologism,seeaboveS.56),`number',`countless',arkad.
`,select;choice;exquisite',Hes.;
lat.rtus,-s`conventionalkindofthereligionpractise,usage,ceremony,rite,manner',rte`indue
form,aftertherightreligioususe,withproperceremonies,properly,fitly,rightly'(Lok.onebeside
rtuslyingconservativestem*rt-);
air.rm`number',ram(*ad-ri-m)ds.,do-rmu`counts',cymr.rhif`number',anord.rmn.`reckoning,
calculation',as.unrm`immensenumber'',ags.rmn.`number',ahd.rmm.`row,order,number'(the
meaning`verse,rhyme'fromanord.andmhd.rmprobablyafterKluge10s.v.Reimfromfrz.rime,
whichhasderivedfromrythmus).

Maybealso*ri-`thing'(lat.rs`athing,object,matter,affair,circumstance'etc)afterWoodax226
mustbeaddedasrootnounmeaning`stackedupgoods,piled-uppossessions'.
Maybeistobeaddedalso*ri-`thing'(lat.rsetc.)toWoodax226asarootnounmeaning`having

stackedupproperty'.
Inadditionprobablyasdh-extensionri-dh- (compareabover-dh-besidesr-):
Got.garais`arranged,certain',raidjan,garaidjan`prescribe,determine',anord.g-reir`ready,easy,
clear',greia`disentangle,order,arrange,manage,pay,disburse,remit',mhd.reiten`geteverything
setup,prepare,arrange,count,calculate,pay',reite,gereite,bereite,ahd.bireiti`ready',antreit
`series,ordo',lett.riedu,rizt`order',raids`raring,ready',ridi,ridas`device,clamp'.
QuitedoubtfullyisnotborrowedbyPerssonaaO.consideredaffiliationfromOldChurchSlavic
ordije`apparatus,instrumentum'(fromahd.runti`message',seePedersenconcentrationcamp.
38,310),rd`order',lit.rnda`row',lett.rida`row,number'.Onconditionofthatthesecontinueidg.

d,notdh(*re-n-d-),oneadds(e.g.FickI4527,PedersenaaO.,seealsoEM.711)thusthefollowing
kinin:`putonafabric',.,Hes.,

lat.rdior,-r,rsussum(fromweaver'slanguage,BralMSL.5,440)`tobeginaweb,laythewarp,
begin,commence,makeabeginning,setabout,undertake',exrdior`tobeginaweb,laythewarp,
preparetoweave',redrdior`totakeapart,unweave,unravel',rdo,-inis`aseries,line,row,order'
(alsoumbr.urnasierseemstobe=ordinariis`oforder,usual,regular,ordinary',LindeGlotta3,170f.;
differentlyGl.5,316),theconnectionagreeswithar-`put;place;fix;formulate;ordain;decree',which
wouldhavebeenneededthenalsobytheweavingmill,to(Perssonrootextension26,Thurneysen
Thes.underartus,-s),sowouldbejustifiedvowelfrom*or-d-eiasacausativeiterativevocalism.
Isevenmoredoubtful,fromafterReicheltKZ.46,318ask-extensionsofthebasesar-,ar-withthe
sameapplicationtotheweavingmillaretobeadded:
Maybealb.(*arnea)arnoj`torepair,mend,sew,weave',arn`patch,pieceoffabric'fromlat.
arnea,-eus`spider'
Gr.`spider',lat.arneus`ofaspider;n.assubst.acobweb',arnea,-eus`spider'(*ar-ksn;thewordendingto*sn-`tospin;weave,interweave,producebyspinning'as`anetspinner,a
woman,agirl(oraspider)thatspinsanet');supposedlyinaddition(WalterKZ.12,377,CurtiusKZ.
13,398)gr.`net',Hes.(see
alsoBoisacq79),whereforeafterBezzenbergerBB.21,295lett.er'kuls`spindle;abunchofoakum,
awadofoakum(forspinning)'(whichcanstandfor*arkuls).LidnIF.18,507f.putsitbetterto
slav.*orkyta,serb.rkita`redpasture'andlett.rcis,gr.`juniper'asshrubswithbranches
usableagainstlichen.
References:
References:WP.I69ff.,WH.I69,70,Trautmann13f.
Seealso:
Seealso:S.untenarqu- anderk- .
Page(s):
Page(s):55-61
Root/lemma: ar-2 odererEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todistribute
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zuteilen;(med.)ansichbringen'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:withidg.nu-present

Material:
Material:Av.ar-(presentrnav-,rnv-,preteritPass.rnv)`grant,allowtobegiven;do
guarantee',withus-andfr`(asanallotment)suspendandassign',frrta-n.`allotment(ofsacrifices
underlikewise),offering'(BartholomaeAltiran.Wb.184f.);
arm.anum`Itake',Aor.a(HbschmannArm.Gr.I420;meaningfrommedial`Iallottomyself,I
assigntomyself,Iallocatetomyself,Iappropriatetomyself'compareOldIndiandlmi`give':dat
`totakesomething,toacceptsomething';alsoin:)
gr.`acquires,triestoreach,conceives,acquireesp.asapriceorwage',durativecompared
with`acquire,win',Aor.v,;,`potboiler,daylaborer,
wageworker',n.`usefulness,profit,use'(Aesch.);
hitt.ar-nu-mi`Ibring'(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I696)belongsprobablyratherthanacausativeto3.er-`start
tomove'.
Thefullgradevocalismsoftherootguaranteeingformsareabsent.
References:
References:WP.I76f.
Page(s):
Page(s):61
Root/lemma: ar-3
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:nut
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Nu'
Note:
Note:(extendsby-i-,-i-,-u- )
Material:
Material:G.MeyerAlb.Wb.17combinesgr.HvHes.,alb.arrf.
`walnut-tree',OldChurchSlavicorch`nut'.relationtolit.reutas,ruouts`hazelnut',lett.rieksts
`nut,hazelnut',OldPrussianbuccareisis`'beechnut'(seeTrautmannOldPrussian314)accepts
SpechtDekl.62.
References:
References:WP.I77.
Page(s):
Page(s):61
Root/lemma: ar-5
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:torefuse;tolie
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`verweigern,leugnen'
Note:
Note:(withn-formant)
Material:
Material:Gr.(*-F-)`refuses',,`refusing,denyingeverything',
Hes.;
alb.rrm`false',rrm,rrn`lie',nrrj(from*rrnj)`denieseverything'(rrfromrn;PedersenKZ.
33,542Anm.2).Isevenmoredoubtfulwhetherarm.uranam`denieseverything,refuses',urast

`denial'wouldbeused(withur-fromr-).
References:
References:WP.I78,MeilletBSL.26,19,Esquisse111,142.
Seealso:
Seealso:seealsor-,r- `reden,rufen'.
Page(s):
Page(s):62
Root/lemma: aro-m (*her
*her-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:reed
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Schilfrohr'
Material:
Material:Gr.n.`bistort,kindofreed',-`therefromasmallkind';
lat.harund`areed;meton.,foranobjectmadeofreed,afishingrod;limedtwigsforcatchingbirds;
apen;theshaftofanarrow,orthearrowitself;ashepherd'spipe;aflute;aweaver'scomb;a
playthingforchildren,ahobby-horse';toformationcomparehirund`aswallow'andnebrundines:
`thekidneys'.
Note:
Maybealb.(*harundinis)dalndyshe`aswallow':lat.harundo-inisf.`areed;meton.,foranobject
madeofreed,afishingrod;limedtwigsforcatchingbirds':hirundo-inis,f.`swallow'.Similarphonetic
settingalb.dimn`winter':lat.hiemo-are`towinter,spendthewinter'[seeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hei-2 :
hi- :
:`winter;snow'
Lat.andalb.provethattheoriginalRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:aro-m :
:`reed'was(*her
*her-).Onlylat.,alb.and
gr.havepreservedtheoldlaryngeal-.
Thereisnodoubtthatfromillyr.-alb.-lat.(*harundinis)dalndyshe`aswallow'[commonalb.h->dphoneticmutation]derivedgr.`swallow',thereforeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ghel- :
:`tocall,cry'
derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:aro-m :
:`reed'(*her
*her-)wherer/lallophones.
FromPerssonDeorig.gerundii59addedlat.arista`thebeardofanearofgrain;hencetheearitself;
alsoaharvest',aristis`holcus,agreenvegetable'isdefeatedbecauseofhissuggestingtogenistaf.
`thebroom-plant'underlikewisesuffixstronglytothesuspiciontobeEtruscan(seeHerbigIF.37,
171,178).
FromMediterraneanlanguage
References:
References:WP.I79,WH.I635f.
Page(s):
Page(s):68
Root/lemma: ard-,ardEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindofwaterbird
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`einWasservogel'

Material:
Material:Gr.,`heron'(folketymologyinendingafter-),lat.ardea`a
heron'ds.(*ard-),anord.arta,aschwed.rta`teal',Demin.anord.ertla,norw.erle`wagtail',serb.
rda`stork'(*rd).
Maybetruncatedalb.(*)rosa,ros`duck',rika`duckling,duck',rum.(*rada)ra`duck'.
Note
Note:
Alb.andrum.provethatfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ant- :
:(duck)derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ard-,ard- :
(akindofwaterbird)[commonrhotacismn>r]
References:
References:WP.I146f.,WH.I64.
Page(s):
Page(s):68
Root/lemma: arquEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:smth.bent
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Gebogenes'
Material:
Material:Lat.arcus,-s(stemisin-qu-from,comparealat.Gen.arqu,furtherargues,arquitenns)
`abow,arch,arc;esp.therainbow',arqutus,arcutus(morbus)`icteric,yellowedasiffromjaundice,
jaundice,relatingtojaundice;m.assubst.,asuffererfromjaundice',probablyeig.`rainbow-colored,
greenandyellowlooking'(compareThes.);arcutusalso`arched-shaped,bow-shaped,supportedby
arches,covered(carriage)';
Note:
ital.arcobaleno`rainbow'>rum.curcubeu`rainbow'>alb.ylber`rainbow'
umbr.arclataf`aroundcake;acc.pl.`,whereforev.PlantaI341,GtzeIF.41,91(*arkelo-withloss
ofthelabialisation);got.araznaf.`dart,arrow'(ara-zna,comparehlaiwazna),altn.r(Gen.rvar)
f.`dart,arrow',ags.earhf.ds.(engl.arrow),germ.*arhv.
Maybealb.hark`bow'[alb.istheonlyIEtonguethathaspreservedtheoldlaryngeal-]
Forthebasicapproacharqu-(andnotarqu-)wouldspeakruss.rakta,ech.rokyta,serb.rokitaetc
`akindofwillowtree',where*arqta(MiklosichEWb.226,TorbjrnssonBB.20,140)formsthebasis,
andgr.`juniper',whichwordwithwithalllikelyhoodconcerningthisistobedrawnLidnIF.
18,507;inaddition`juniperberry'.
Indeed,Lidntakesrelationshipwithgr.`net'(seeBezzenbergerBB.21,285)inforwhatone
comparesunderar-1 ,S.61.
Anotherconnectionforgr.andruss.raktaetcseeksEndzelinKZ.44,59ff.,whichmore
properlycompareslett.rcis,cis(*rcis)`juniper';
furtherrcties`tormentoneself,grieve,straiten',rcea`averyquarrelsomeperson';lett.rk(k')is
`thornshrub'wouldbetoEndzelinmixturefrom*erksandlit.erktis`athornplant'correspondingas
regardstherootofthewordform;gr.-thenwouldhavetocontainzerogradefrom*er-.S.under
erk- .

References:
References:WP.I81,WH.I64,EM.69.
Page(s):
Page(s):67-68
Root/lemma: aru (*heru )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:intestines
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Darm'
Material:
Material:Gr.f.`bowel',lat.arvnaf.`grease,fat,lard,bacon',originally`intestinalfat'
(compareahd.mitta-garni`recumbentfatinthemiddleofthebowels');.Hes.is
lat.Lw.
Note:
Gr.(*horua),alb.(*horna)zorr`bowel'[commonalb.h->z-phoneticmutation]provethat
Root/lemma: aru (*heru )::`intestines'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:her-5 ,hor-n :
`bowels'.ThisdiscoverymightshedlightontheoriginoftheoldlarygealsinPIE.

References:
References:WP.I182,II353,WH.I71.
Page(s):
Page(s):68
Root/lemma: ast(h)Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:`bones'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Knochen'
Seealso:
Seealso:s.ost(h)- .
Page(s):
Page(s):69
Root/lemma: ati,atoMeaning:
Meaning:over,etc.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`aboutetwashinaus',daherbeieinerdemSprecherzugewendetenBewegung
`(aboutdenStandortofSprechenden)zurck',endlicheinfach`her'underVerblassenderVorstellung
einesberranntenZielesoderOrtes.
Note:
Note:comparetothemeaningquestionesp.BrugmannGrdr.II2,844f.thecolouringofthe
beginningvowelstandsfirmthroughLat.-Kelt.(Greek)asidg.a-,anditgivesnogoodreasonbefore,
balt.-slav.,germ.(andar.)formscanbeattributedtoidg.*o-,bythebook-followingrulesina(very)
strictwayjustbecauseitwouldbeatextbookexampleofablauttoe-formedfrom*etibildete.With
eti (seethere)atleastequalitymeaningandexchangeexistedintheuse.Isatireductiongradeto
eti

Material:
Material:OldIndianti`about-onto(adnominalm.Akk.),exceedingly,verymuch'(Adv.and
preverb),av.aiti-,Oldpers.atiy-ds.Adv.(as1.compoundpartandpreverb(beforei-`go'as`goby,
passby'andbar-`carry,bear'as`bringoveragain,tocarry');ar.aticanalsorepresentidg.*eti.
Gr.presumablyin-`however'(comparefrom;Brugmann-Thumb623,KVG.616;
byconnectionwith,got.sundr,theatt.itremainedkindofunexplained).Lat.at`but,yet,
moreover;sometimesintroducinganimaginaryobjection,but,youmaysay'fromincreasing-to
opposing`beyondit',whatlattermeaninginatavus,at-nepos(notinapprmunderlikewise,see
SkutschAflL.12,213).
Gall.ate-(from*ati-)inAtegntus(=mbret.(h)aznat,nbret.anat`acquainted,known')underlikewise,
abrit.Ate-cotti`theveryold',air.aith-,precedingad-`against,un-',mcymr.at-,ncymr.ad-,ed(Belegee.g.byFickII48,PedersenKG.II292);

hereas*ate-ko-nprobablymir.athachn.`acertaintime',cymr.adegm.ds.,comparegall.
ATENOVX(nameof2thhalfmonth),ThurneysenZcP.20,358
Got.-an`but,however'(verydoubtfulisagainstitderivationfromgot.as.ak,ags.ac`however',
ahd.oh`but,however'from*a-+ke=gr.;differently,butbarelyappropriateHolthausenIF.17,
458:=gr.,lat.age`go!well!').
Lit.at-,ata-,morerecentlyalsoati-,innominalcompoundat-`back,off,away,from,up'(see

BrugmannGrundr.II22,844f.),OldPrussianet-,at-(probablyonlyfrombalt.at-,Trautmann46);
OldChurchSlavicot-,ot`away,since,ex,from',adnominalm.d.Gen.-bl.,introducesMeillett.
155f.backtogen.-ablative*atos(infrontof,before;inreturnfor;becauseof,from=OldIndianata
`thenceforth'ratherPron.-stem*e-withablat.Adv.-forms-tos);idg.*ati(and*eti)wouldbein
additionLok.;bothremainveryunsafe.
Thedoubleaspectlit.ata-:at-remindsinpa-:p(see*apo),(see*apo),anditisdoubtfulabout
whetheronemayseeinablative*atdakindofo-stemformation.IntheSlav.theformonlongvowel
isformedfurtherinruss.etc.otva`grommet',asOldPrussianattolis,lit.atlas,lett.atls,atals
`grommet'speakingforidg.oldershortvocalizedformlit.at-=idg.*ato-(comparetoending*apo,
*upo):
air.do-,to-prefix`to'with(idg.)zerogradeofanl.vowels(MeilletaaO.,StokesBB.29,171,
PedersenKG.II74),probablyalsoillyr.to-,alb.te`to,by'(SkokbyPokornyUrill.50).
References:
References:WP.I42f.,WH.I75,421f.,863.
Page(s):
Page(s):70-71
Root/lemma: at-,*atno
at-,*atnoEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:togo;year
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`gehen,Jahr'
Note:
Gr.`year':lat.annus`year'(*atnos)`year':OldIndianhyana-`yearly',hyan-m.n.`year'

provethatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:en-2 :
:`year':Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:at-,*atno
at-,*atno-::`togo;year':Root/
Root/
lemma: u e t- :
:`year'[protheticu - beforebareinitialvowels]derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hei-2,
hi-, hei-men-, *heimn- ::`winter;snow'.
Material:
Material:OldIndiantati`goes,walks,wanders'.Moreoverlat.annus`year'from*atnos=got.Dat.
Pl.anam`year'.compareFickI2338,W.MeyerKZ.28,164,FroehdeBB.16,196f.(meaning
developmentlikewithgerm.*jram`year'toi-`go').

Maybealb.geg.(*ant)vajt,tosk.vete,vajtiaor.`togo',(*iti)viti`goaround,year,allyeararound'
[commonalb.protheticv-beforeinitialbarevowels-proofofancientlaryngeal.
Lat.hasfollowedalb.phoneticmutationst>nt>n,clearlylat.annus`year'derivedfromOldIndian
(*antanti)tati]
Note
Note:
Etruscanfollowsalb.phoneticmutationsEtruscanAvil:
Avil:year,Avilxva:
Avilxva:yearly//derivatedfromAvil
Avil,
byaddingaadjectivalsuffix-xva
xva.
Osk.-umbr.correspondsakno-`year,festivaltime,sacrificialtime'(with-tn-to-kn-,BrugmannIF.17,
492).Receivedthewordisdurableincompoundslat.perennis`thewholeyear;continuously'
[perennis-e`lastingthroughouttheyear;durable,perennial',perennitas-atisf.`duration,perpetuity',
perenno-are`tolastmanyyears'.],sollennis`festive,annual,customary,returningorcelebrated
annually,solemn,ceremonial,ritualistic;usual'(additionalformsollemnisabsolutelyanalogical
results;ThurneysenAflL.13,23ff.,afteromnis);umbr.sevacni-,per-acni-`sollennis',Subst.
`victim,sacrifice,sacrificialoffering'.
References:
References:WP.I42f.,WH.I51,847.
Page(s):
Page(s):69
Root/lemma: augh-,ughEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:nape
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Genick'
Material:
Material:CharpentierKZ.46,42placestogetherOldIndianuhf.`neck'(onlyPl.)andgr.
`nape,throat,straits'.
Inuhbeforeliesdiminutivesuffix-ih-,gr.--.Thebeginningis*ughsnghthefirstghis
reducedbeingproducedbydissimilation.To*ugh-s-nostands*augh-en-ingr.comparedwith
herearm.awj`throat',awji-k`cervicalcollar';ol.`nape,neck',ol.ds.mustbe
separatedtherefrom,inspiteofSchwyzerGr.Gr.I296;aboutgr.:kypr.`laurel'better
WH.I775f.(compareaboveS.43andHoffmannGr.Dial.II500,MeisterGr.Dial.I120).

References:
References:WP.I25,AdontzMl.Boisacq10.
Page(s):
Page(s):87

Root/lemma: augEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toglance,see,dawn
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen;sehen'
Note
Note:
ProbablyRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:aug- :
:`toglance,see,dawn'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:au e s- :
:`to
shine;gold,dawn,auroraetc.`.
Material:
Material:Gr.`shine,ray,daylight;eye',`shines,illuminates;sees',-`shining
verymuch';
alb.agj`dawns',agume`aurora,morning,dawn'(seePerssonBeitr.369);
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:aug- :
:`toglance,see,dawn'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:au e s- :
:`toshine;gold,
dawn,auroraetc.`
gr.hom.*(uss),Gen.(),att.(withaccentinnovation),dor.,F,
changingthroughablautol.`aurora'(protogr.[]),bot.and(*);
`nearthemorning',`tomorrow'(*-);hom.`radiativemorning';`rooster,cock'(*usi-`singinginthemorningearlymorning');
Maybegr.`nearthemorning':alb.agu`dawn's/hallophones:Estonianagu`daybreak,
dawn':Latvianausma,sju
jums`dawn'
[conservativedefinitiveformsversusindefiniteforms(alb.phonetictrait)]
fromalsoslav.iug`south'(FickKZ.20,168),russ.uin,uina
Probablywrongetymologysinceslav.iug`south':alb.jug`south'musthavederivedfromlat.iugum
-in.`ayoke'-aconstellationinthesouthernnightskies.seeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:i e u-2 ,i e u - ,i e u - g- :
totietogether,yoke
References:
References:WP.I25.
Page(s):
Page(s):87
Root/lemma: au1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:interjectionofpain
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:AusrufofSchmerzes,derVerwirrung,Entrstung
Material:
Material:OldIndiano,lat.au`Oh!',ags.a,mhd.ou(w),nhd.au,lett.a,u(disyllabicau,avu
withdispleasure,refusal,astonishment,surprise),poln.au,ech.ounder
References:
References:WH.I78.

Page(s):
Page(s):71
Root/lemma: au-2, au - es-, au-sEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tospendthenight,sleep
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bernachten,schlafen'
Material:
Material:Arm.aganim`spendsthenight',vair-ag`livinginthecountry',aut`spendthenight,night's
rest,station'.
Gr.`sleeps'fromredupl.*i-aus,Aor.-,nexttowhichunredupl.Aor.,Inf.F();
,-`placeofresidence,camp,stable,night'slodging',`isinthecourt,spendsthe
night',`spendingthenightoutside',`court,courtyard,dwelling'(originallyprobably
`thefencedinspacearoundthehouseinwhichthecattleisroundedupforthenighttime');from
comesexcept`Night'slodging',
`sheepstable',`placeofresidence'(:hom.`havehisrest
accommodation')alsogr.actually`rest,reststation',thereforethesolsticesasrestingplaces
inthecourseofthesun(solstitium),then`year,solstice,anniversary'(differentSpechtIdg.Dekl.15,
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I,4245,s.alsoen-`year').

Aheavybase*au - , *au - probablytobeaddedhom.(fromSchulzeQunderep.72


directlytoputunderformalcomparisonfrom(F):from*F)and
(Sappho),(Kallimachos)`'(BenfeyWzl.-Lex.I298),whereforeags.wrig,engl.weary,
as.wrag,wrig`tired,weary',ahd.wuorag`inebriates';aboutOldIndianvyati`getstired';see
however,rootau - `striveoneself,exert'.
References:
References:WP.I19f.SchwyzerGr.Gr.I690.
Seealso:
Seealso:beru e s- `verweilen'seeunderbesonderemArtikel.
Page(s):
Page(s):72
Root/lemma: au-lo-s (:u-l- )[*heu-l- ]
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tube,hole,*street
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Rhre,lnglicheHhlung'
Material:
Material:Gr.m.`pipeflute,longcavity',-m.`riverbed',m.f.`mountainvalley,
gulch,ditch,canal,strait';
OldChurchSlaviculj,lit.aulsandsecondarilyavils`beehive',originallythecavityinthetreein
whichtheswarmsettles;
Note
Note:
[probablyOldChurchSlavicavils`beehive'<vauls;butprotheticv-beforebareinitialvowelshas
beenattestedinillyr.,alb.andslav.tongues;maybethroughmetathesisau>uaalb.tosk(*hau-lo-)
huall,geg.huell,hojePl.`beehive,cavity'=lat.alvus`beehive,cavity'[commonalb.shiftl>j],alb.

holl`narrow,thin',alb.istheonlylanguagetohavepreservedtheoldlaryngeal-.Clearlythelat.
cognatederivedfromillyr.andslav.cognates.
From(*halvus,alhwus)lat.alvus`beehive,cavity'derivedrum.albin`bee',Portugueseabelha`bee',
Spanishabeja`bee',Frenchabeille`bee'[commonItalicandGreek-hw->-b-phoneticmutation.
OldChurchSlaviculicaf.`street,-inabuilt-uparea-hollow,ravine,gorge,narrowpass',lit.alasf.,
OldPrussianaulinis`bootleg',OldPrussianaulis`shinbone'.
Maybezerogradeinalb.tosk.udhull`road,street'[thecommonalb.-illyr.-lat.-dh->-ll-,-d->-lshift]
MaybeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:au-lo-s (:u-l- )::`tube,hole,*street'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:u e h- :
`tomove,carry,drive'[commonalb.-h->-d-phoneticmutation]
Arm.u,ui`way'and(comparethemeaning`belly'fromlat.alvus)yi`pregnant'(withablaut,
PedersenKZ.39,459;derivativesuarkemandylem`sendin')*);
---------------------*)arm.wordwiththeablautgradeidg..fromwiththesamelett.ula,ul`wheelhub'(wouldbethe
`tubularlyhole'inwhichtheaxisisinserted;LidnIF.19,321).
---------------------nnorw.aul,auleand(withidg.u-asahighsteptoau-)jl`angelicasilvestris',anord.(huann-)jli
`thehollowstemsofangelicaarchangelica',bothplantscallinNorwayalsoslke,whosebasic
meaninglikewise`tube,pipe'is(Falk-Torp474and1492underjolandfromSchroedertogerm.
ablaut58f.likewiseboatnamejolle`dinghy').
Herewithlat.rearrangementofaul-tualu-alsoalvusm.f.`belly,womb,stomach;holdofaship,
beehive',alveus`ahollow,cavity,trough;henceboat;alsotheholdofaship;bathtub;bedofa
stream;beehive;gaming-table',althoughtimeandlimitationoftherearrangementarestilltotally
unclear(seeThurneysenIF.21,177,SommerHdb.278).

References:
References:WP.I25f.,WH.I34f.,differentBanateanuREtlE1,122.
Page(s):
Page(s):88-89
Root/lemma: au-3 (au e );u Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:from,away,of
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`herab,wegvon-'
Material:
Material:OldIndianva`from,down',mostlyprefixfromverbsandSubst.,rarelyprepositionm.Abl.,
av.ap.avaprefix`down'and(whilemorethepurposethanthestartingpointofthemovementcame
totheconsciousness)`whereuponto,towhat,near'(e.g.avabar-`totakethere,carryaway'and`to
takethere,procure,supply,get'),alsoprepositionm.Akk.`there,therein';therefromOldIndian
vara-`inferior'andav.aor`after,below,down'(afterparextendedfromavar);

av.avarAdv.`below,down'=OldIndianavrRV.I133,7;OldIndianav(avs)`down',whereof
avastd`under';withoutauslautvowel(compareav.ao-r)OldIndian-e.g.in-ga-`single,
pathetic'(:ga`troop,multitude';WackernagelOldIndianGr.I54);
gr.-probablyin,Hes.(SchulzeQunderep.60);
illyr.au-`(ofmotion),towards,to(apersonorplace),at'inpropernames(KraheIF.49,273);
lat.au-`away,off,gone'inaufer`totakeaway,bearoff,carryoff,withdraw,remove'(=av.vabharati,av.avabar-),aufugi`tofleeaway,runaway,escape';
gall.au-tagis`'(VendryesBSL.25,36);
air.perhaps,a`from,with,by',asaprepositionm.dat.,acymr.hou,morerecentlyo`if',o
preposition`from';
OldPrussianlit.lett.au-`away,from'(e.g.lett.au-manis`not-sensical,nonsensical'),OldChurch
Slavicuprefix`away,from',e.g.umyti`togiveawash,washaway'(u-bati`fleefrom'),as
prepositionm.Gen.`from'(withverbsofthedesire,receive,take)and,withfadingoftheconceptof
thestartingpoint,`by,from';
maybealb.particleofpassiveu`by,from'usedbeforeverbsinpassivevoice.
hett.preverbu-(we-,wa-)`here',awaan`away'(SturtevantLg.7,1ff.).
thereofwitht-formsaut(i)o-: gr.`unavailingly,invain',ds.andgot.auja-(N.Sg.
*aueisor*aus)`desolate,leave'(*`remote'),auida`desert',ahd.di,nhd.de,anord.aur
`desolate';air.athad`item,particular,sort'.-goestothefrighteningwilderness,wildernessalsomir.
ath`fright,terrible'(aretobekeptawaycymr.uthr`terrible',corn.uth,euth,bret.euz`fright')At
leastistheirconnectionwithlat.pavre`toquakewithfear,panic;transit.toquakeat,tremble'
everythingratherthansure,seepou- `fear'.
Besideaut(i)o-stehtperhapschangingthroughablautu-to- inalb.hut`invain,blank,vainly',u e -to(seeunten*u - )ingr.`notfreeofcharge,notwithoutreason',(FbyHomer)`in
vain,withoutsuccess,pointless'.
Maybetruncatedalb.(*hot)kot`invain,withoutsuccess,pointless';alb.istheonlyIElanguageto
preservetheoldlaryngeal->k-.
tocombine*u - with*au - probablyunder*au e - :
lat.*v-invscor`toeat,feedon;touse,enjoy'originally`whereoftoeatup'(:esca),fromwhich
backformationvscus`greedy;fastidiouslyinfood(*merelynibblingoff);underfed';
againalb.eshk`fungus':lat.esca`food,victuals,esp.asbait'.Protheticv-addedtobareinitial
vowelsisanalb.-illyr.phoneticmutation.

v-toindicationfaultytoomuchortoolittle,v-cors`senseless,mad,moves,treacherous',vgrandis`diminutive,notlarge,tiny',vsnus`mad,insane;ofthings,furious,wild',V-jovis,umbr.
vepurus(Abl.Pl.),wheather`()'.
Note
Note:

Alsoinalb.v-toindicationfaultytoomuchortoolittle:alb.vshtir`difficult,hard'from(v-shtir
(participleofalb.shtynj`pushwithdifficulty')seeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:(s)teu-1 :
:`topush,hit'.

u o -: Gr.F-inark.F-,att.-,,lesb.-`open',att.,morerecently
(Prellwitz2345,BrugmannIF.29,241,BSGW.1913,159).
u e s-: WithOldIndianavs`down'attachedtogetherformantgerm.wes-innhd.West,ahd.westar
`westwards',anord.vestrn.`westen',Adv.`inthewest,againstwest'(*ues-t(e)ro-,compareanord.
norr),ahd.westana`fromwest'etc(BrugmannIF.13,157ff.;abouttheexplanationofthe
Wisigothaeas`West-Goths,Visigoths's.KretschmerGl.27,232).
Here(afterBrugmannaaO.)theinitialsoundofthewordforevening,idg.uesperosandueqeros,see
there.
Relationshipfromidg.*au-,u-withthePron.-stemau-,u-`yonder,overthere'as`ontheotherside,
fromthere'isconceivable.
References:
References:WP.I13f.,WH.I79,850,Trautmann16.
Page(s):
Page(s):72-73
Root/lemma: au-4,u- (:u - , u o -)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:that;other
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:Pronominalstamm`jener',alsogegenberstellend`alter,alius',`andrerseits,
hinwiederum',inzweiaufeinanderfolgendenSatzgliederngesetzt`dreinerseits-drandrerseits',
`einerseits-andrerseits'.
Material: au o : OldIndianav.Oldpers.ava-`that';OldChurchSlavicaruss.ov--ov-`ontheone
hand-ontheotherhandwhichappears-other',ovogda-ovogda`onetime-theothertime'(from
thiscorrelativeuseonlypoln.owcorrespondstoEnglishdeictic"I"andserb.ovajadeicticword
meaning"that",alsonbulg.-v[*uo-s]developed).

u-: OldIndianam-(Akk.Sg.ammetc)`that,yonder',arisefromAkk.Sg.m.*am(=idg.*em
`eum')+*um(Akk.Sg.ofoursstemu);s.Wackernagel-DebrunnerIII550f.
Toch.Aok,uk`still',Aoki`as,and',Aokk`upto',perhapsonly*ug(zerogradetogot.auk);from
inadditionom(p)ne,omte`there'
ParticleOldIndianu`thus,also,ontheotherhand,thereagain,againstit',emphasizingesp.after
verbalforms,Pron.andparticles(n`andnot,not'=nu,ath=athau),gr.-in-`evenvery
much',
got.-uinterrogativeparticle(alsotheenclitic-uhfrom-u-qe,s.BrugmannIF.33,173);thisualsoin
OldIndiana-sm.f.`that,yonder',av.hum.f.,ap.hauvm.`that,yonder',WackernagelDebrunnerIII529,541.
ParticleOldIndianut,inbothparts`ontheonehand-ontheotherhand,soon-soon,-as',oronly
inthesecondpart,alittlebitopposing`and,thus'(nachved.inity-uta,kim-uta,praty-uta),

av.uta,ap.ut`and,andalso';gr.`justas'from*F()+(originally`asontheotherhand',
`as,also'),buthom.`'from+afterDebrunnerIF.45,185ff.;isformedinaddition
to;also,,mostprobablyfrom,,+withadditionalfinalinflection;
wgerm.-odinas.thar-od,ahd.thar-ot`thither,there',as.her-od,ahd.her-ot`here',whereuponalso
as.hwarod`whither,where',ahd.warot`whither,where'(from*uteorfrom*utAlso*aute,*auti,
seebelow,wouldbepossiblebasicform).
Hereav.uiti,gthav.it`so',butnotlat.utandut,alat.utei.
Besideu,utetc.standswiththeablautgradeidg.au-:
gr.`ontheotherhand,again',*`again'(extendedtoion.,gort.,afterantique
grammariansfor`rightaway,there',wherefrom`atthemoment,straightaway',-`onthe
spot,here,there',`again,thus,further';lat.aut(*auti)`or',autem`however'(totheformseeWH.
I87),osk.aut,auti`or'and`but,ontheotherhand,onthecontrary,however'(tomeaningseev.
PlantaII465);
maybealb.geg.o`or'fromital.o`or'
umbr.ute,ote`aut';perhapsgot.auk`then,but',anord.auk`also,and',ags.ac,as.k,ahd.ouh
`and,thus,but',nhd.also=gr.-`again'.
PedersenPron.dm.315supposesgr.suitableformintheinitialsoundoffromalb.a-q`so
much'.-BrugmannBSGW.60,23a2linesupingr.-as`(he)himself-(he)ofhisown,self';
otherinterpretationsseewithSchwyzerGr.Gr.I613f.
Maybealb.(*aut-)vet`self'[commonalb.protheticv-beforebareinitialvowels].
Withr-formsairan.avar`here',lit.aur`seethere!',zerogradeumbr.uru`that,thatyonder,thatone;
emphatically,thatwell-known;incontrastwithhic,theformer',ura-ku`adillam',ures`illis'(orerose
ratherwith=as=lit.au);perhaps`here,well,allright,wellthen(anobsoleteinterjection
meaning"comenow")'(afterunderlikewise,inschr.after)from*-(
`here'+`here'),SchwyzerGr.Gr.I612,632.

u - , u o -: meaning`or'(=`ontheotherhand')esp.inOldIndianv`or'(also`even,yet;meanwhile;
probably,possibly';alsoconfirmingvi),av.ap.v`or'(particleoftheemphasisandassurance),
OldIndianav.v-v`either-or',gr.-(F),(withprocliticemphasis,procliticstressfor-(F),as
yetinthesecondpartofthedoublequestion),
lat.-v`or'(alsoinceu,sve,seu,nve,neu),alsoprobablyir.n,abret.nou`or'(iffrom*neue`or
not''withfadingthenegativemeaningoriginallyinnegativesentences,ThurneysenGrammar551;
notmoreprobablyafterPedersenKG.I441agrownstiffimperative*neueoftheverbir.at-ni`he
entrustswithhim',gr.);toch.wat`where'.
comparealsoOldIndiani-v(:va=-:)`justas,exactlythesameway',-v`insuchaway,
exactlythesameway,just,only',vm`so,thus'(behavestobeconfirmedviandv-vasna`this'ton-n`indifferentway',originally`thusandthus';with-vcorrespondsgr.(F)`only'
(`*justonly'),av.ava-,Oldpers.aiva-`an,one'(comparewithno-demonstrativeidg.*oinos`an,
one').

References:
References:S.esp.BrugmannDem.96f.,Grundr.II22,341-343,350,731f.m.Lit.II23,987,
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I629,632,804,Boisacqs.v.,etc
WP.I187f.,WH.I87,209,VanWindekensLexique78,80.
Page(s):
Page(s):73-75
Root/lemma: auq(h)- :uq(h)- andbesideitprobablyasanderelengthenedgradeu e q(h)Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:cookingpot
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Kochtopf,Wrmepfanne'
Material:
Material:Lat.aulla,aula,vulg.lla`jar,pot'from*auxl,Demin.auxilla(fal.olnainendingafter
urna);probablyalb.anf.`vessel'(from*auqnJokl.Stud.3);OldIndianukh-m.,ukh`pot,
saucepan';got.ahnsm.(*ukns)`oven,stove',withgramm.variationanorw.ogn,aschwed.oghn
ds.
Maybealb.(*ahna)ena`dish':IndicAnvA`oven,furnace'.
Besidesformswithprobablyonlytosingle-linguisticlabial:gr.gr.,older`stove'(afterFick
III429between,OtirWuS.5,217,GntertAbl.25from*ueq-ns;not*uqns,s.Boisacqm.Lit.),

afterE.FraenkelKZ.63,202from*Fthroughdissimilatorischensoundchange(W.Schulze
GGA.In1897,908);
Note:
Commongr.-celt.-k->-p-,-g->-b-phoneticmutation.
bret.offenf.`stonetrough'inspiteofLothRC.43,410barelyfrom*upp;ags.ofnet`smallvessel',
ofen,ahd.ovan,anord.ofn`stove,oven'(likewiseleadablebackin*ueqnos;beginningu-causedas
inwulfa-`wolf'thedevelopmentfrom-lv-to-f-,duringgot.etcauhnsgoesbacktoidg.*uq-ns;then
thelossofw-inOfenthenmustbeexplainedindeedfrominfluenceofthissister'sform*uhna-).
Fromtheassimilatedformaschwed.omn,mundartl.umn`stove'isprobablyborrowedOldPrussian
wumpnis`oven',umnode`bakehouse,oven,kiln,stove'.S.MeilletMSL.9,137,MeringerIF.21,292
ff.,SennGerm.Lw.studies,Falk-rpunderovn,weigandherdsmanandcleverunderOfen.
TotheobjectiveseeMeringeraaO.,SchraderReallex.592f.
References:
References:WP.I24,WH.I84,850,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I258.
Seealso:
Seealso:(compareS.84f.aug- :ueg-,oldestaueg-)
Page(s):
Page(s):88
Root/lemma: aus- (*heuks)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todraw(water),ladle,*shedblood

Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schpfen'
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:aus- :
:`todraw(water),ladle'derivedfromthestem:au / /- , au e nt-: ofRoot/
Root/
lemma: au ( e)-9, au e d-, au e r-:
:`toflow,towet;water,etc.`.
Material:
Material:Gr`scoops,extracts,takesfrom'(simple),,
,,(Spritusasperaftertheformerpresenttense*from
*,SommerGr.Lautst.2f.)
underlikewisewithzerograde*us - -,-(latterfromAor.)`scoops',common
gr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation;
Suidasand`scoops',originally*F(:OldIndianvr`water')*[]
`scoopswater',`vesselforladling'.
Anord.ausa`toscoop',austr`scoop,backwash,theshocks,wake',ndd.toesen`todraw(water),
ladle,scoop',schwb.se`vesselforladling'.
Lathauri,-re,haus,haustum`todrawup,drawoutorin;todrinkup,absorb,swallow;toshed
blood;todrain,emptyareceptacle;ingen.,toderive,takein;alsotoexhaust,weaken,waste',then
also`slurp,tie,suffers',poet.`wounds',withsecondaryhascasualinhumerus.
References:
References:WP.I27f.,WH.I637,869,W.SchulzeKl.Schr.190f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I6444.
Page(s):
Page(s):90
Root/lemma: au e g-, u g-, aug-, ugEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tomagnify,increase
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`vermehren,zunehmen'
Note:
Note:withs- formsau e k-s -,auk-s-, u e k-s-,uk-sMaterial:
Material:OldIndianugr-`immense'(compoundsSup.jyas-,jiha-`thestrongerone,strongest')
=av.ugra-`strong,hard'(compoundsSup.aojyah-,aojita-).
lat.auge,-re`toincrease,augment,enlarge,spread,extend',auctor(=umbr.uhtur)`apromoter,
producer,father,progenitor,authoretc',aucti`anincreasing;hence,fromthebidding,anauction',
augmen(tum)`anincrease,growth,akindofsacrificialcake'(=lit.augmu`increase,growth',Old
Indianjmn-m.`strength'),augur`aseer,soothsayer,diviner,augur'from*augos`aggrandizement'
(WH.I83);
got.aukan(preteritaauk),auknan`increase',ana-,bi-aukan`toappend,subjoin,addon',ahd.
ouhhn,as.kian`increase',ags.acian`increase',ecan`increase',anord.auka(preteritjkand
aukaa)`increase',st.participleags.acen,as.kan`increased,pregnant';
lit.ugu,ugti(lengthenedgrade)`increase,grow',auginu,-nti`allowtogrow,educate,bringup',
changingthroughablautpa-gti`growup',gis`growth,annualgrowth',lett.adzt,adzint
`gather',OldPrussianauginnonsparticlePerf.Akt.`drawn,pulled',
alett.aukts`high'=lat.auctus`toincrease,augment,enlarge,spread,extend',lett.agt`grow',as

alsothrak.-`highford',OldPrussianAucti-garbin,aucktai-rikijskan`authority',
aucktimmien`chief',
nexttowhichwithsof-es-stem(seebelow)lit.uktas,lett.aksts`high'(:lat.augustus
`consecrated,holy;majestic,dignified'),OldPrussianauck-timmiskanf.(Akk.)`authority',Old
Prussianagus`costive,constipated'(as`increasing'),lit.ugumas,lett.agums`increase,growth';

es -stemOldIndianjas-n.`vigorousness,strength',av.aojah-,aogah-(alsor-stemaogar)
`vigorousness,strength',lat.augustusseeabove(alsolit.etcuktas);inadditionwithsintheverb:
OldIndianvkaam`strengthening',vakyati`allowstogrow',av.vaxaiti`allowstogrow',nextto
whichwiththeweakestrootgradeOldIndianukati`'gainsstrength'(Perf.vavka),av.uxyeiti
`grows';commonOldIndianh->k-phoneticmutation
got.wahsjan`grow'(=OldIndianvakayati,idg.Iter.-Kaus.*uoksi;withitthatcombinedgradationPerf.whstotheparadigm;seeBrugmannIF.32,180,189);
gr.(F)`grow,increase',`grows';,`grow,increase',lat.auxilium`help,aid,
assistance,support,succor'(originallyPl.-i`strengthening,reinforcements',N.Pl.auxilis`auxiliary
troops,oringen.,militarypower');
anord.vaxa,vexa`grow',ahd.wahsan,nhd.wachsen,wuchs,whereforee.g.got.wahstus`accretion,
growth,bodysize',ahd.wa(h)smo`growth'underlikewise;
toch.Aoksi`grows',Aoku,auku`old';afterVanWindekensLexique79alsohereABoko`fruit',
Aokar`plant';againstitPedersenTochar.227.
Herewithzerogradeu g -:
-:got.wkrsm.`interest',ags.wcorf.`progeny,interest'(comparegr.
inthesamemeaning),ahd.wuohharm.`yieldoftheground,fetus,progeny,profit,interest,
usury'(inadditionsteir.wiech`extensive,excessive,richinleaves'asumlaut
AlittlebitdifferentlySchroederAbl.57f.),thereinnotwithsexpandedrootformaueg-thegrade
ueg-iscoveredinair.fr,cymr.gwair`grass,herbage';probablywiththesameablautOldIndian
vja-`strength,property,wealth,theprize(woninacontest)[TheGreeksgaveawreathoflaurelsto
winnersinthePythiangames],race',originally`quick,successful,energy',OldenbergZdMG.50,443
ff.
References:
References:WP.I22f.,WH.I82f.,850,Feist67,541,572,PedersenTochar.227.
Page(s):
Page(s):84-85
Root/lemma: au e i- (u e i- )(*hekei- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:bird,*waterbird
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Vogel'
Note:
BothRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:au e i- (u e i- )(*hekei- )::bird,*waterbird:Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- (*k ):
k- :
:water,river,derivedfromzerogradeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hgh- :
:youngofananimalorbird;
commongr.gh->h-phoneticmutation.

Material:
Material:OldIndianv,vm.`bird'(Gen.v,Akk.vim),av.vds.(G.Pl.vaym,alsowith
themat.casefromstemvaya-),mpers.vi,vyandak`bird',OldIndianvayas-n.`fowl,bird',vyasa-
`bird,crow';verbalav.-vayeiti`fliesup'(fromdivinities),OldIndianvvyat`flutters'.
Note:
Commonzerogradeinalb.(*avidos)vide,vidhez`dove':OldIndianv,vm.`bird'.
Gr.`eagle',att.,,Hes.(*F-);
Maybenasalizedalb.geg.(*heg-os,hab-os)>*gabj,gabonj,shkab(*-on-),shqiponj`eagle':
gr(*F-)`eagle':diminutivelat.(*akuei-la)aquila`eagle'.
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:hgh- :
:youngofananimalorbird:Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:au e i- (u e i- )(*hekei- )::
bird,*waterbirdsimilarphoneticmutationsashett.u-u-a-a(ua)`grandfather'seeRoot/
Root/
lemma: au o -s (*gue-gue-as)(*ghehuo-s)::grandfather:theoriginalrootwasadublicated(*guegue-as)hett.u-u-a-a(ua)`grandfather'thatwasabbreviatedintoRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:au o -s :
grandfather;Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ss- (*ghus )::parent:alb.(*ua)gjysh`grandfather'.
alb.vi-do,vito,vidheze`dove';
Note:
Commongr.-k->-p-,-g->-b-phoneticmutation.HenceRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:au e i- (u e i- )::`bird,
waterbird'evolvedsimultaneouslywithRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- (*k ):k- :
:`water,river'.
lat.avisf.`bird'(therefromauca`bird,esp.goose';
Back-formationfromDemin.aucellafrom*avicella;falsebyWH.I79)=umbr.avifAkk.Pl.`birds'
(aviekateD.Sg.`thetakenauspices',aviekla`relatingtoanauguroraugury');
cymr.hwyad,acorn.hoet,bret.houad`duck'from*auietos(PedersenKG.I55).Arm.hav`bird,
cock,hen'canhaveindeedsuggestion-h,butalsoas*pu-belongto*pu-`theyoung,boy'(slav.
pta`bird'etc).
References:
References:WP.I21,WH.84,850.
Seealso:
Seealso:Inconnectionwithitstandmostprobablythewordsfor`egg',seeunderu- .
Page(s):
Page(s):86
Root/lemma: au ( e)-10, au (o)-, u Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toblow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wehen,blasen,hauchen'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:participleu -ntNote:
Note:inslav.languagesoftenfromthe`throwdice',i.e.tothecleaningofthegrainofthechaffby
throwingofthegrainsagainstthewind.

Material:
Material:I.belongtolightrootformau ( e)- :

a.Gr.(ifnotlateneologism),-(seeunderIIa).
b.Mcymr.awy`violentgustofwind',acorn.awit`air'(*aueido-);
c.u e -dhro- presumablyinanord.vern.`wind,air,weather',as.wedarn.`weather,badweather',
ahd.wetar`weather,scent,freeair,wind(ofanimals)'andOldChurchSlavicvedro`cheerful
weather',vedr`jovial,merry(fromtheweather)';
u -d- perhapsingr.`fragrant';inu -dh- correlatesPerssonBeitr.664doubtingstill
,,Hes.).
d.r- , l- derivatives:gr.`aerialbreath,draft'(placeslightrootformau - ahead,as,
,Wetter,seeunder);but,Gen.`smoke,fog,air'staysaway,seeunderu e r- `bind,
hangup'.
Gr.,ol.`storm'(*F-);cymr.awen`inspiration',awelf.`wind,breath',acorn.auhel
`aura,heaven,breeze',mcorn.awel`weather',brit.Lw.mir.ahl(hhiatussign),aial`wind,breath'.
AccordingtoThurneysenGrammar125air.oal`mouth'from*auel.

e.au - et- ingr.Hes.,Et.M.,(contractedfrom)`vapour,


smoke,smoke',withzerograde,butanalogicalabsorptionof-:`breath,draftofthebellows,
thewind,smell,hotauraofthefire',ds.
II.belongtoheavyrootform:

a.u- , u-: OldIndianvti,av.viti`blows',gr.ds.,kypr.(readwithfrom*dj-)Hes.


(thatinperhapsprothetic;fromlightrootformcomegr.Hes.;
maybealb.(**u -nts )vesh`strike,blow,hit'.
`sharpblowing',`adverseblowing',`excessiveblowing'withstretchin
compound);besidestheparticiple*u -nt- `blowing'(OldIndianvnt-,gr.Akk.)stand*u -ntos `wind'inlat.ventus,got.etcwinds,ahd.wint,cymr.gwynt`wind',whereforelat.ventilre`(*expose
toadraught,brandish,fan),oscillate,vibrate',ventilbrum`throwshovel',got.diswinjan`separate
thegrain(thewheat)fromthechaff',winiskar`throwshovel'(germ.,nexttowhichwithgramm.
variationdin:)ahd.wintn`winnow,fan',winta,wintscvala`winnowingshovel',ags.windwian`to
exposetothehoist,winnow,fan'(engl.winnow);toch.Awant,yente`wind'.
Abouthett.hu-u-wa-an-te-e(h(u)uante)`hoist'()seeForrerbyFeist565,placesthewordas
`(hurrying)clouds'tohu-wa-a-i`runs,flees',whichalsobelongshere;seeCouvreur119f.,
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I6804.

n -present:gr.from*F--(comparetotheformationSchwyzerGr.Gr.I694)andfrom
*F`cleanthegrainsbyshakingupofthechaff,sieves',FHes.(delivers
;seealsoBechtelKZ.46,374);isbasedonsuchzerograden -present,butinmeaning
`blow',thusOldPrussianwins`air',Akk.winnen`weather'
i o -present(orfromrootform*ui-):OldIndianvyati`blows',av.fravyeiti`goesout'',got.waan
waw,ags.wwan,ahd.wjan,wen`blow',OldChurchSlavicvj,vjet`blow'and`winnow,fan'
(therefromruss.vjalo,sloven.vvnica,poln.wiejaczka`winnowingshovel,awinnowing-fan');

nominal:lit.vjas`blow';OldIndianvyu-,av.vyu`blow,wind,air'.
Forroot-likevalueof-i-leadsthesoundgrade*u - tothefollowingwordsinwhichgivespace,
however,partlytootherviews:OldChurchSlavicvijal,vijalica`storm,weather',russ.vjlica`snow
flurry'(alsovjlica!),vjuga`blizzard,snowstorm',zavjt`snow-covered,coveredwithsnow',
ech.vti(*vjati)`blow'(onlyslav.developmentsfromvortonigemvj-);
r.-ChurchSlavicvichr(*uisuro-)`whirlwind'(inanycase,atfirsttoruss.vichat`shake,move',

vichljat`toss,fling',s.BrugmannGrundr.II11049,PedersenIF.5,70,andprobablyas`whirl,swing
inthecircle'to*ueis-`turn');
lit.vdra,vidras`gale'(seeLeskienBild.438;inLit.veryrareforms-dra-comparereallylit.vtra
`storm'-urgestocaution);
hom.,,frombreathingoutorlettingoutthevitality(tolastmeaning
BechtelLexil21f.),gr.rootF-;mcymr.awys.82above.

b.au -d-: ahd.wzan,wiaz,mhd.wzen`blow,exhale,inflate',wz`gustofwind',lit.vdnti


`ventilate,cool';atmostgr.`breathes'from*F-(rather,however,gr.neologismofafter
otherverbsin-);
presumablyalso(from*au-d-ro-)lit.udram.`storm',n.`thunderstorm',OldPrussianwydra`blow'.
AboutOldIndiandharn.`chillness,cold',av.ar,aotads.comparePerssonBeitr.11.

c.u -lo- perhapsinlat.vltus`scattered,dissipated,fanaway,winnowthoroughly',whence


vlbra`somethingwinnowingthegrain'(Paul.Fest.68,3)andinahd.wlam.n.`fans'(ifnotfrom
*wla,seeunder)
d.u -s-: OldIndianvsa-,vsaka-`fragrance',vsayati`fillswithfragrance',savsita-`makes
stinking';isl.vs`frigidaura',vsa`exhale,blow,breathe',ndl.waas`whitefrost,ripe,smell,
fragrance',lit.vstu,vsti`cooloff,becomechillorbecomeaerial',vs`chillair,coolness',vsus
`chilly,aerial'.
e.t-furtherformations:OldIndianvta-,av.vt`blow',OldIndianvtula-(seeunder),gr.
`blowing,wind',`windy,aerial'=OldIndianvtula`windy'(also`mad;crack-brained;
demented;mind-boggling;insane;crazy;unbalanced';inadditionalsoperhapsgr.
`sacrilegious,outrageous,wanton,wicked'afterBrugmannBSGW.1901,94;inspiteofds.
notafterBechtelLexil.15toOldIndianytu-`spook,ghost');
lat.vannus`winnowing-fan'(from*uat-n-s,comparetheDemin.vatillumoriginally`asmall
winnowingshovel';fromlat.comesahd.wanna,ags.fann`winnowing-fan',alsonhd.Wanne);
anord.vl,vli`whisk,tail'(aboutsyncopated*vela-from*vaila-),ahd.wedilds.;ahd.wadal`tail,
fan',Adj.`wandering,fickle,beggar',wadaln`sweepinacurve,rove'(protoGermanic*wala-,idg.
*u-tlo-),ags.waol`wandering',wdla`beggar,poor',wdl`poverty',wdlian`beg,bepoor'
(protoGermanic*wla-),nexttowhichahd.walln`wander,gadabout,pilgrimages',ags.weallian
`wander;roam;travel;journey;drift;float;rove;stray;migrate;hike;walk;ramble;tramp'(from
*wl-ja-n);ahd.wla`fans'(from*w-la-or*w-la-,seeabove);lit.vtra`storm',thunder-storm',
OldChurchSlavicvtr`air,blow',OldPrussianwetro`blow';lit.vtyti`winnow,fan'.
Maybealb.(*vtytinj)`strike(lightning)':lit.vtyti`winnow,fan'

AboutOldIndianp-vjayati`make(fire/embers)blazebyblowingaironto(it/them)'(composed
fromPiniasKaus.tov-)seeWackernagelKZ.43,292.
Maybealb.vatra,vatr`hearth,(placewhereoneblowsthefire)'
Maybeheregr.(seeau -11 `striveoneself')as`gasp,pant,wheeze'
References:
References:WP.I220f.,Feist565a,Trautmann345,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I680.
Page(s):
Page(s):81-84
Root/lemma: au ( e)-9, au e d-, au e r-(*akuent-:auent-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toflow,towet;water,etc.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`benetzen,befeuchten,flieen'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ang(h)i- :
:`snake,worm'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- (moreproperly
k ):k: `water,river';Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ehero- :
:`lake,innersea';Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ad(u)-,ad-ro- :
:`water
current':Illyr.pannon.VN[commonalb.-illyr.-balt.-h- > -d-, -z-phoneticmutation].
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- `water,river'nasalizedin*akuent-(suffixedin-er,-or)derivedRoot/
Root/
lemma: au ( e)-9, au e d-, au e r-:
:`toflow,towet;water,etc.`
Material:
Material:a)au / /- , au e nt-:
Note:
Thefollowingmutationshavetakenplace:Root:ak->aku//-,akuent->au//-,auent-:
Hisp.FlNAvo[s]>span.Ave,PNA[v]o-briga;gall.FlNAveda>prov.Avze(Gard),Avisioportus
(Alpes-mar.);
OldIndianavatm.`fountains,wells'(*auntos),ava-`cistern,tank'(withprakrit.fromt),ital.
FlNAvnsinSabineland(therefromAventnusm.hillofRome),Aventia(Etrurian),gall.Aventia,
springnymphofAventicum>frz.Avenches(Schweiz),numerousFlNAvantia(*aunti)>frz.Avance,
LaVence,abrit.*Avants>cymr.Ewenni;alit.FlNAvant,lett.avuts(*auontos)`sources,
wellspring,spring'.
b)au e d- , aud -, d - ;
Note:
ThezerogradeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- `water,river'hasbeensuffixedinnasalized-(n)dor,-(n)tor:
*(a)ku//-,*(a)kuentor,*(a)huentor)>(a)ued-,(a)ud-,d-(*(a)hued-):
heteroklit.r/n-stemu dr , u dr (Nom.Sg.),udn(i) (Lok.Sg.),udns (Gen.Sg.)`water',compare
J.SchmidtPl.172ft.,PedersenKZ.32,240ff.,BartholomaePBrB.41,273.

OldIndiandat`thesoaking,theflowing',dman-n.`thewaves,floods',da-n-m`mashboiledin
milk',av.(*ahuoda)aoa-m.`wellspring,fount'.
OldIndianuntti(*u-n-ed-ti),3.Pl.undti`soaked,moistened';av.vaii-f.`waterrun,irrigation
canal'.
OldIndianudn(i)Lok.,udnGen.,udNom.Akk.Pl.`water'(Nom.Akk.Sg.udakm);fromrstemderivedsamudra`sea',anudra`waterless'(=gr.);

udro-s `wateranimal':OldIndianudr`awateranimal'=av.udra-m.`otter'(=gr.,ahd.etc
ottar,comparealsolat.lutraandwithlit.dra,OldChurchSlavicvydrads.);
alsonasalizedalb.(*lutra)lundra`otter'aLatinloanword
from-(e)s -stemOldIndian(*hutsa-)utsa`spring,well',compareair.(*hudeskio-)uisce(*udeskio-)
`water';
Note:
Thefollowingphoneticmutationshavetakenplace:zerogradeinarm:(a)kuent->guet,zerogradein
slav.(a)hueda->voda,zerogradeinphryg.(a)kuedu>[commonGreekg>b,k>pphonetic
mutation]:
arm.(*gwet)get`river'(basicform*ued,Sandhiformtouedr,compareunderslav.voda;it
correspondsalsophryg.`water',i.e.*vedfrom*ued,KretschmerEinl.225).
Maybealb.(*guet)det`sea':arm.get`river'commonalb.gu->d-phoneticmutation.
Note
Note:
Maybephryg.`water':nasalizedillyr.Bindus`watergod'[commonillyr.gu->b-phonetic
mutation].
Maybealb.geg.bdor,vdor,dzbor`snow,snowfall':gr.`water'commonillyr.gw->bphoneticmutation.
Gr.,(*-n-)`water'(withmetr.elongation);fromr-stemderived
`waterless',,`watersnake',f.`otter',,`watery'(ds.with
suffixexchange;similarly`watersnake,ichneumon':=lak.:),
`dropsy',`waterbucket'(:lat.uter);fromn-stem(compare`watery')derived
eig.`seawave,wave,thebillow'(),epithetofAmphitriteandThetis(JohanssonBeitr.117;
fromalso`truffle'as`juicy'),aswellasprobably-,-(-),,-
(seeBoisacq998a)

es-stem`water'isonlylatepoet.Nom.Akk.toDat..
Maked.PNfrom*uedesi,KretschmerRIEtBalc.1,383.commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ssphoneticmutation.
Alb.uj`water'(afterPedersenKZ.34,286;36,339notfrom*udni,butfrom*ud-;or,nevertheless,
from*ud).

Theshift-dn->nj>jofpossiblyalb.(*udna-h)uj,ujnaPl.`water'hasalsobeenattestedinalb.
shtynj,shtyj`poke,push'(*studni);seeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:(s)teu-1 :
:`topush,hit'

Maybealb.ujneut.Pl.`water'isatruncatedderivativeofLuwianwida--`watery',hitt.witi`inwater'.
Luwianwatti `'
D-LSg
D-LSgwa-at-ti:KBoXXIX25iii10.
CouldbecognateofHitt.witi'inwater',butunprovable.

Luwianwida- `watery'
D-LPl
D-LPl-i-da-an-za:45ii6.
SeeWatkins,Flex.u.Wortbild.376.Cf.perh.witam[]atKBo
XXIX37,4.ContraStarke,StBoT31.567f,witi,witaand

witazareHittite!

Luwianwitantalli(ya)- `ofthewater(s)'()
N-ASgNt
N-ASgNt-i-ta-an-ta-al-li-an:43ii1.

-i-ta-an-ta-al-li-ya-an-za:43ii9.
-i-ta-an-tal-li-ya-an-za:19,4*.
AbIn
AbIn-i-ta-an-tal-li-ya-ti:19,8*.
Mereguessbasedonshape&context.Farfromassured!
Luwianwitatt(a)- `'
ASg
ASg-i-ta-at-ta-an:43ii11.
Perhapsagainaderivativeof`water'.A2ndpl.imv.ofwida(i)ishighlyunlikelyinthecontext.
LuwianNINDA
NINDAwiyattatar ''
N-ASg
N-ASgNINDA-i-ya-at-ta-tar:XVII24ii3.
Lat.(*hunda)unda,f.`water,fluid,esp.awave;fig.astreamofpeople'(withn-infixfromthepresent;
compareOldPrussian(*gwundan)wundann.,undsm.`water'andOldIndian(*hundati)untti,undti
aswellaslit.vandu,-es,vnden,em.unduo,lett.densm.f.`water',andinadditionSchulze

EN.243,BrugmannGrdr.II23,281,283,Trautmann337);
(*huter)uter,utris`hose,tube'(*udri-s`*waterhose',comparegr.),lutra`otter'(l-afterlutum
`mud,mire,dirt;clay,puddle').
Umbr.(*hutor)uturn.`water'(=),Abl.une(*udni).
Air.(*hudesko)u(i)sce`water'(*udeskio-),odar`brown'(*udaros),coinfodorne`otters'(`waterdogs').
Got.wat(n-stem),Dat.Pl.watnam`water';aschwed.vtur(=idg.eratherumlautfromgerm.a
inthe-in-case,seeBartolomaeaaO.),
aisl.(*gvatna)vatnn.(takeso-stem,comparegot.Dat.Pl.watnam),vatr,nord.seanameVttern;
ahd.wazzar,as.watar,ags.wter(*uodr)`water';
aisl.(*huotar)otr,ags.otor,ahd.ottarm.`otter,watersnake',inadditionFlNOtter,oldUterna;with
nasalizationwithintheword(compareabovetolat.unda)probablygot.wintrus,aisl.vetr,ags.winter,
ahd.as.wintar`winter'as`wetseason'(LidnPBrB.15,522,Falk-rpundervinter;notbettertoir.
find`white',seeundersu e id- `shine');
perhapstoWasseralsoahd.ags.(*hwaschan)wascan,aisl.vaska,nhd.waschen,wusch(*wat-sk-);
withlengthenedgradeoftherootshapedfromaisl.vtr,ags.wt,engl.wet`wet,soaked'.
InGerm.alsowithags.waumm.`wave',zerogradeaisl.unnr,ur,Pl.unnir`wave',as.thia,
ia,ags.y,ahd.(*gvundra)undea`wave,billow,flood',likefromarootvariant*uet-,however,itis
foundnowhereelse;JohanssonBeitr.117f.seesthereinthetofthetypeOldIndianyakr-t.
Lit.(*gvoundu)vanduetc(seeabove);lit.(*hudras)dra,pr.udrof.,ostlit.dras,lett.drism.
`otter';OldChurchSlavic(*gvudras)vydra,skr.vdra(bsl.d-:lit.vnd-eni;seefinallyTrautmann
334m.Lit.;tocomparePedersent.Lit.54f.);
Maybealb.vidra`seaotter'Slavicloanword.
OldChurchSlavic(*gvoda)voda`water'(becomeFem.becauseoftheending-a,hereforidg.-[r]);
lengthenedgradeOldChurchSlavicvdro`,'(withattuningwellinthemeaning,
s.MeilletMSL.14,342,Trautmann337);
hett.wa-a-tar(*gwtar,wtar)`water',Gen.-te-na-a(e-gradeasphryg.,aofNom.frome).
Nom.Pl.u-witaar,withunsettledvocalisminspiteofPedersenHitt.167.
Maybetheoldlaryngealpresentinhitt.Gen.-te-na-a`ofwater',Nom.Pl.u-witaar`waters'was
transmitedtoturk.su`water'.
c)au e r - `water,rain,river'(ur-:r-;totheablautPerssonBeitr.604,Anm.2).
1.u r -, u e r-: OldIndianvr,vrin.`water',av.vrn.`rain'(withthemat.inflectioniran.av.vr`to
rain',med.`allowtorain,letrain'),OldIndianvrf.`water',av.vairi-m.`sea';
toch.Awr,war`water';
arm.gay`marsh,mud'(*uerio-);
gr.perhapsin`scoops',if*F[](see*aus-`scoop,drawwater,ladle');

alb.(afterJoklSBAk.Wien168I30,89,97)vrnd`lightrain'(nt-participle);hur-d`pond,tank,
marsh'(*r-),shure`urine',shur(postverbal)f.`urine'(prefixshfromlat.exoridg.*sm+r-n;or+
gr.);
Note
Note:
Albanianpreservedtheoldlaryngeal->s-likesatemlanguagesalb.(*srna)shura`urine':Hittite
ehur`urine':lat.rna`urine'.Butinalb.hur-d`pond,tank,marsh'alb.preserved-laryngeallike
centumlanguages.
cymr.gwerm.`suet,sebaceous,tallow';
anord.varim.`liquid,water'.
2.r- , au e r-: Lat.rna`urine'(inwhichmeaninginfluencedby),rnor,-r`todive',rntor
`adiver';
Maybealb.urela`water-pit':Basqueura`water'.
anord.r`finerain',yra`torainsubtly',rigr`dew-covered',ags.rigds.;
perhapsanord.rr,Gen.rar(u-stem),ags.r,ahd.ro,rohso,lat.Lw.rus`akindofwildox',
schwed.mdartl.ure`randybull,abullinheat'(`*onethatscatters,drops,onethatinseminates'as
OldIndianvran-etc,seeunder);
rootformau e r - inthrak.FlN,gr.(PerssonIF.35,199)*`water,spring'in
`withoutwater,ofbrooks'underlikewise(aboutgr.andcompareSchwyzer
Gr.Gr.I267,444);
inFlN:ital.Met-aurus(Bruttium),Pisaurus(Umbrien),gall.Avara>frz.Avre,Aura>frz.Eure,Aurana
>nhd.Ohrn(Wrttemb.),Arauris>frz.Hrault,Vi-aurus>frz.LeViaur;pr.Aure,lit.Auryt;
anord.aurigr`wet',aurr`wet,water',FlNAura,ags.ar`sea';
pr.wurs(*ras)`pond,pool',irinAkk.Sg.,iuriayPl.fem.`sea',alett.jri-m.,lett.j'ra,lit.jrs,
jriosPl.fem.`sea,esp.theBalticSea'(seeabovetolat.rna;j-presumablysuggestionafterJ.
SchmidtPL204);
lit.jaurs`swampy,marshy',jura,juras`marshyplace,marshyground,swampbottom'from*eur(seeBernekerIF.10,162,Trautmann335m.Lit.).
Maybearm.jur,Gen.jroy`water'[notfrom(*ghro-)seeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:gher- :
:`torun,flow'
]:alb.(*jura>uja)uj,ujraPl.`water'.
3.Verbum:Lit.vrdu,vrti`bubble,surge,cook',versm`wellspring',vrius`whirlpools',atvyrs
`counterstreamontheshore',lett.verdu,virt`soak,bubble,boil,cook',atvars`whirl',
OldChurchSlavicvrj,vrti`stream,bubble,surge,boil,cook',vir`whirlpool',izvor`wellspring
(bubblingwater)',whereforewithfrom`cook'developedmeaning`heat',lett.wersme`glow',Old
ChurchSlavicvar`heat'.
Aboutpossibleaffiliationof*u e r/ e /n `alder'seethere.

4.extensionu e r-s- `rain,dew':OldIndianvar-n.`rain,rainyseason,year'(varati`itisraining'),


gr.`urine';,`dew',ion.att.`urinates'(kausativ*uorsei,F-provedbythe
augmentation),`awaterbird';
mir.frass`rain'isolderfross(urost,inspiteofPedersenKG.I44);hett.waaraa
`rain'()seemsOldIndianLw.
Maybealb.(*var-)vesa`dew':`dew'.

u r s en- `dischargingsemen=virile',OldIndianvrn-`virile',m.`manikin,man,stallion'.
thereofderivedav.varna-`virile',OldIndianva-,vrabh-`bull',vi-`virile',m.`Aries,ram'(=
av.varni-ds.),vaa-m.`testicles';
Specht(Dekl.156)placeshere(fromgerm.*wrai-njan-)withouts-extensionahd.reineo`stallion',as.
wrniods.,ags.wrne`horny,lustful';ahd.wrenno`stallion'isback-borrowedfromMlat.

u e rs/i-: lat.verrs,-is`boar',lit.veris`calf',lett.versis`ox,rother,cattle'.
References:
References:compareingeneralPerssonrootextension47,85f.,JohanssonKZ.30,418,IF.2,60
ff.,PerssonBeitr.604f.,845(alsoagainstconnectionofuers-withers-).Aboutfinn.vesi,stemvete
`water's.MikkolaMl.vanGinneken137.
WP.I252f.,268f.,WH.I81f.,PokornyUrillyrier93,105,159,169,SpechtDekl.18f.,Trautmann
20,334,337,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I519,548,838.
Page(s):
Page(s):78-81
Root/lemma: au e sEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine;gold,dawn,auroraetc.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`leuchten',especiallyvomTagesanbruch
Material:
Material:OldIndianuf.Akk.usam,Gen.usa`aurora',av.u,Akk.uhm,
Gen.uahds.(uas-tara-`eastern'),nexttowhichOldIndianGen.Sg.,Akk.Pl.u,av.Lok.Sg.
ui-[,s.*dem- `tobuild']eitherfromarootnoun*us-,oras*us-s-tos-stem;OldIndianucchti=
av.usaiti(*us-skti)`shinesin(fromthemorning)',
Perf.OldIndianuvsa,Aor.avasran`theyshone';uar-,usr`dawn,aurora,earlymorning,primeof
theday,redsky',uarbdh-`earlyawake',usr-`earlymorning,reddish',alsofigurative`cow',m.
`bull'(Frisk,nominalformation3);

u e s- , u s- inOldIndianvasarhn-`strikinginthemorningearlymorning',vsar-`earlymorning',
m.`day'(compareinadditionalsotherelatedrootunderparticularcatchwordr/n-stem*u e s-r- ,
u e s - n - `springtide,spring');
gr.hom.*(uss),Gen.(),att.(withaccentinnovation),dor.,F,changing
throughablautol.`aurora'(protogr.[]),bot.and(*);
`nearthemorning',`tomorrow'(*-);hom.`radiativemorning';`rooster,cock'(*usi-`singinginthemorningearlymorning');

Maybegr.`nearthemorning':alb.agu`dawn's/hallophones:Estonianagu`daybreak,
dawn':Latvianausma,sju
jums`dawn'
Note:
[conservativedefinitiveformsversusindefiniteforms(alb.phonetictrait)]
lat.aurraf.`aurora,themorning,dawn,daybreak'(for*uss);auster(*aus-t(e)ro-=germ.*austra)`souther,southerlywind',austrlis`southern';
presumablyalsoaurum,sabin.ausom`gold'as`*reddish';tolit.uksas(k-unexplained),alit.ausas,
pr.ausis`gold';
maybetruncatedalb.(*aur-)ar`gold'
perhapstoch.Aws`gold',butcomparearm.oski`gold',finn.vas-ki`copper';perhapsVesuvius
(differentlyundereus-`burn');
mir.fir`sunrise',cymr.gwawr`aurora',bret.gwerelaouen`morningstar'(*usri-,PedersenKG.I
82);
germ.*austrinags.astre`springgoddess',astronPl.`Easter'=ahd.st(a)ra,starn;againstit
withidg.-t(e)ro-,ahd.star`eastern'andAdv.`theaftereast',nhd.ster-reich,anord.austrn.`East'
andAdv.`eastwards',
ags.compoundsasterra`moretotheeast',inadditionOstrogothae,olderAustrogotias`theeastern
Goths';ahd.stan`fromtheeast',ags.astef.`East',anord.austan`fromtheeast';*ussinags.
arendel`morningstar',ahd.MNOrendil;
lit.aurf.`aurora',ata`dayisbreaking',lett.ustds.;lit.autrnis(vjas)`north-eastwind',lett.
ustraf.`daybreak',ustrumsm.`East';inablautem.apriaim.`daybreak';
OldChurchSlaviczaustra`'(aboututro,jutro`morning'from*aus(t)ro-compareTrautmann
19,MikkolaUrsl.Gr.179andBerneker462f.m.Lit.,whereforeBrcknerKZ.46,212,auspoln.ci
`shine'reconstructssl.*usto`lustre,shine'),ustr`relatingtosummer'(seePedersenIF.5,69).
comparetoablautJ.SchmidtKZ.25,23f.,HirtAbl.134,147,ReicheltKZ.39,69.
maybealb.(*n`in'+aur),nesr,nesret,nesr`tomorrowmorning,tomorrow'
References:
References:WP.I26f.,WH.I86,87f.,Trautmann19,SpechtDekl.10,Wackernagel-Debrunner
OldIndianGr.Ill213and281f.,KretschmerGl.27,231;LeumannIF.58,121ff.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I
349,514,557.
Page(s):
Page(s):86-87
Root/lemma: au -11 (u e -d(h)- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:totry,force
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sichmhen,anstrengen'

Material:
Material:SolmsenUnters.267f.connectsOldIndianvyati,-t`getstired,isexhausted,tires'with
gr.`drudgery,contest'(*F-),,`fight,cut-throatprice,battlefield',whereby
-assumeseithersuggestionvowelisoramorefullrootform*au-besides*u-.Withitatmost
compatiblyisZupitzasKZ.37,405comparingthegr.wordswithmir.feidm`effort',

fedil`persistent,persevering',air.nifedligedar`(he,she)doesnotstay'(wherebyformalmeasure
relationshipwouldbecomparableas*m-`(apportionbymeasure),allot,(*cut)':*med-,*u-`blow':
anord.ver,nhd.Wetter),whereforePedersenKG.I110,cymr.gweddil`remnant,leavings'(outofit
mir.fuidell)places;heretoch.waimene`difficult,hard'
However,thearrangementisquiteunsafeinallitsparts.Forvyati`exertitself'asbasicmeaningin
wouldputthequestionthroughthemeaning`dryup'fromvna`dry',upa-vyati`beextinguishedby
dryingup,dryup',

upavta-`becomedry';andintakesturnsmostofcourse--assuffixal,whilethedentalir.
wordsroot-likedordhis,thusatbestsurelyexistsdistantrelationship.
References:
References:WP.I223,VanWindekensLexique149.
Page(s):
Page(s):84
Root/lemma: au i Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindofgrass,oat
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Grasart,Hafer'
Material:
Material:Lat.avna`oatsorwildoats,madeonlyasacattlefeed;henceoatenpipe,shepherd's
pipe;ingen.,anystalk,straw'(presumablyafterarna,terrnustooccurredsuffixexchangefor
*avnafrom*aui-sn);
lit.avi,lett.(Pl.f.)uzas,OldPrussianwyse`oat',OldChurchSlavicovs,russ.ovs`oat'(s
fromzprobablyprobablybecauseitoccursattheendofthewordinconservativeNom.*ovz),but
`awildgrasskind,straw,stalkorlikewise'barelyas*Fhere.
AfterSpechtDekl.298wouldbeassumedratheridg.*aui-besides*aues-(*auesn>avna).
References:
References:WP.I24,WH.I81,Trautmann21.
Page(s):
Page(s):88
Root/lemma: au - 5, au Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toweave
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`flechten,weben'
Material:
Material:Unextendedin:OldIndiantum,tav(fromderset-basisvtav)`toweave',Perf.vu,
participlet-,v-uta-(alsodaspresentvyati`weaves'canbeafterWackernagelOldIndianGr.I94
an-eio-presentv-yati,sothatFut.vayiyati,vya-`weaver'onlyinadditiononewouldbenewcreated),tu-m.`woofoffabric',vna-n.`theweaving'.

TotheexistenceofaheavybaseistobestuckagainstWackernagelbecauseofvtave`weave,
twist',vnam(W.mustunderstandt-asneologismtovyateafterht-:hvyate).

dh -extension1.au-dh- , 2.(a)u - d h- , u-dh-:


1.Arm.zaud`strap'(zaudem`connects,tiestogether'),yaud`strap,limb,joint'(y-audem`join
together'),aud`shoe';
lit.udiau,udiu,usti`toweave',ataudaPl.`woof',dis`auniquefabric,theweaving',das`eel
line'(vowelaswithugu`increase,sprout':gs`annualgrowth');
russ.uslo`fabric'(uzda`bridle'),seebeloweu- `pull'.Itgoesbacktotheimageoftheweavingor
spiningandthatofherassignedfategoddess:

audh- `luck,possession,wealth':illyr.PNAudarus,Audata(:germ.Audoberht),paion.PN
Audlen(KraheIF.58,132),cymr.udd(*audos)`master,mister'(differentLewis-Pedersen14),
bret.ozac'h`landlord'(*udakkos),LothRC.41,234;as.dan,ags.aden,anord.auinn`granted
fromthedestiny,grants',anord.auna`destiny,luck',aur`wealth',ags.ad`possession,wealth,
luck',
as.d`possession,prosperity',ahd.ald`fullandfreepossession'(mlat.allodium),mhd.klein-t
`jewel',got.audahafts`makeshappy',audags`blessed,fortunate',ahd.tac`happy,rich'.
2.Anord.vf.`fabric,piece,stuff,ascomesreadyoftheloom,dragnet',Pl.vir`gowns,clothes',
ags.wd(*wi-)f.`clothes,rope',as.wd`clothes',ahd.wt,Gen.-i`clothes,armament';
anord.varm.`rope,string,fishingline',schwed.norw.vadn.`dragnet'(anord.vztf.`spotfor
fishingatseafrom*waa-st),mhd.wate,wadef.`dragnet,trawlnet',mhd.spinne-wet`spinning
web'.
References:
References:WP.I16f.,WH.I88.
Seealso:
Seealso:Maybehereu e bh- `toweave',u e dh- `bind,connect'(whereforeasnasalformprobably
u e ndh- ),seethere;alsoperhapsu e i- `twist,spin',(a)ueg- `toweaveetc'(u e r- ``twist,spin'),u e s`wrap'.
Page(s):
Page(s):75-76
Root/lemma: au - 6, au e dEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tospeak
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sprechen'
Material:
Material:Gr.hom.Imperf.`(he,she)called(out),shouted',Hes.
OldIndianvdati`letsthevoiceresound,talks'(Perf.dim,participleudit-),vdanam`thesounds,
talking,mouth',ditif.`speech',vdayati`allowstosound,plays(amusicinstrument),allowsto
speak',vditram`musicalinstrument,music',vda-`soundletting,m.sound,call,sound,statement,
battleofwords';

inthelengthenedgradeandthemeaningcomparesitselfinnextOldChurchSlavicvada`calumny',
vaditi`accuse';
nasalizedOldIndianvandate,-ti`praises,praises,greetswithrespect',vandanam`praise,price,
reverentialgreeting',vandru-`appreciative,praising';seestillUhlenbeckOldIndianWb.under
vallak`akindofsounds',vallabha-`minion,favourite'.
Gr.[i.e.F]Hes.,(F)`quiiF,i.e.`,[i.e.F]
Hes.;
zerograde,(broughtoutsomewherefromtheAlexandrines)`sings,glorifies',,
(Theognostos.19,26)(`ballad,song'rathertotheweddingcall:other
interpretationsverz.WaldeLEWb.2undersu,Boisacqs.v.,againdifferentRisch50).
Lit.vadin,vadnti`shout,call'.

au - -d- in(F)`nightingale'(Hes.,ol.and,thezerogradein`sound,voice,language'(ol.Sappho),`shouts,speaks',,dor.
`speakingwithhumanvoice'.
au - ei-d- in(F)(att.)`sings',(F)(att.)`song',`singer',`singer'.
DifferentlyWackernagelKZ.29,151f.
Toch.watk-,ABwtk-,yaitk-`command,order'.
References:
References:WP.I251f.,SpechtKZ.59,119f.,VanWindekensLexique155.
Page(s):
Page(s):76-77
Root/lemma: au - 7, au -, au iEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tolike;tohelp,*desire
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`gernhaben';dahereinerseits`verlangen',andrerseits`begnstigen,hilfreich
sein'
Material:
Material:OldIndianvati`desires,favorsaboveothers,promotes,patronizes'=av.avaiti`provides,
helps'=air.con-i`protects';messap.F`Ibid(s.o.)farewell(towishs.o.tobestrongtobe
healthy)';
OldIndianvas-n.`satisfaction,favour,assistance'=av.avah-n.`help'(inadditionprobablyOld
Indianavas-n.`nourishment'),comparegr.-`favorable'(*-F);OldIndianman`favorable,helping'=av.aoman-`supporting,helping',OldIndianmn-m.`favour,assistance,
protection',

ma`comrade';OldIndianavitr-m.`patron,sponsor,patronizer'(fromwhich2-syllablerootform
asFut.aviyati,Perf.2.Sg.vitha,aswellasparticiplet-and:)t`delivery,help';
arm.aviun`violentdesire,longing;esp.irrationalwhim,caprice,orimmoderatepassion,lust'
(PeterssonEt.Misz.8);
gr.-Fin2.partofGreekfamilynames()compareKretschmerGl.18,232f.,different

SchwyzerGr.Gr.I487,3;521;(Theokrit)`friend,lover';
lat.ave,-re(basisau[i]-asinpreceding)`beeager,haveawilddesire,longfor,desire',avidus
`desiring,longingfor;esp.greedyformoney,avaricious'(therefromaude,-re`tobedaring;todare,
venture,bringoneselfto'),avrus`covetous,greedy';
air.coni`protects',cymr.ewyllys`favor,wishdesire',corn.awell`desire',abr.aiul`unaided,
wantonly,voluntarily',mbret.eoull,youll`favor,wishdesire',asanamecomponentingall.Avi-cantus
(=abret.Eucant),acymr.Euilaununderlikewise,alsoinahd.namesasAwileib,Awo;comparegot.
awiliu`,';mcymr.rimaw`hegrantstome',cymr.ad-aw(withnegat.at-)`leave',
abret.di-eteguetic`abandoned,forsaken,deserted,destitute'(*di-at-aw-etic).
Falk-Torp1407addsalsoan:ahd.di,as.thi,ags.Adj.ee,Adv.ae`easy,comfortable',ahd.
dmuoti,as.thmdi`modest',ags.amd`modest',anord.aumjkr`tomoveeasily,willing,
modest',

aukendr`torecognizeeasily';basicmeaningis`willing',fromwhich`tomakeeasy';formalgerm.toparticiple-formationtoawi-(examplegerm.auia-`deserted;flat;waste;empty;abandoned;blasted;
desolate;bleak;grey;gray;barren;stuffy;dull;tedious').Ratheruncertainly.
Ifalsoaltlit.autis`refreshoneself',atauimas`refreshment',lett.ataust`recover,refresh',atast
`invigorate,refresh'areused,thezerogradeliestothem*aus-ofinOldIndianvas-,gr.-
presentasabasises-stem.Or=lit.uti`getcold',uyti`cool'
Toch.Bau-lre,Aolar`comrade';asdubiousomaute`longing',w-r(n)-`crave,longfor',Aw-aste
`protection'withangebl.zerogradetherootratherherewa-`give',A1.Sg.ws(PedersenTochar.
186).
References:
References:WP.I19,WH.I81,850,VanWindekensLexique9,79,153,157.
Page(s):
Page(s):77-78
Root/lemma: au - 8, au iEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toperceive,understand
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sinnlichwahrnehmen,auffassen'
Material:
Material:OldIndian-avatiwithud-andpra-`aufmerken,heed',OldChurchSlavicum`Verstand'
(basicform*au-mo-);moreovertoch.om-palokoe`meditation'DifferentPedersen,Tochar.223
Anm.

u i s-: lengthenedgradeOldIndianvAdv.`apparent,manifest,obvious,bemerkbar',av.viAdv.
`apparent,manifest,obvious,vorAugen'(npers.kr`clear,bright';OldIndianviya-,av.viya`offenkundig');OldChurchSlavicav,javAdv.`kund,apparent,manifest,obvious'(inendingafter
denAdjektivadverbienauf-reshapedfrom*av,whereof:)aviti,javiti`offenbaren,kundmachen,
show'(lit.vytis`sichinTraumesehenlassen'Lw.fromdemSlav.).
fullgrade:gr.,Aor.`wahrnehmen'(*F--);lat.audi`hear'from*auizdhi,
compareoboediofrom*b-avizdhiabout*obodi;gr.(neologismtoAor.-(),)
`vernehme,hear'(*F-),`belongs,ruchbar,bekannt'.

Hereprobablyhett.u-u-i`Isee,observe',auzi`sees',--ri-i(fromau-warii)`Ausschau,
Warte',iterat.uk-`wiederholtsehen'.
References:
References:WP.I17,WH.I80,Trautmann21,PedersenHittitisch172f.
Page(s):
Page(s):78
Root/lemma: au o -s (*ua)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:grandfather
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Grovatermtterlicherseits'
Note:
Theoriginalrootwashett.u-u-a-a(ua)`grandfather'branchedintoRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:au o -s :
grandfatherincentumlanguagesandRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ss- (*ghus )::parent:alb.(*ua)gjysh
`grandfather'insatemlanguages;oldlaryngealcentum->a-,e-:satem->s-;
Material:
Material:Arm.hav,Gen.havu`grandfather',lat.avus`grandfather;poet.,ingen.,anancestor';fem.
lat.avia`grandmother'(seefinallyLeumann-Stolz5204),dubiousgr.as`primordialmotherearth'
(compareBrugmannIF.29,206ff.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I473;
lat.also-hu->-v-phoneticmutation.
differentJacobsohnPhil.67,484f.,KretschmerGlotta5.307);avtus`ofagrandfather,ancestral'is
probablyshapedaftermartus,olderi-steminlit.avnas`brotherofthemother';
differentlyJacobsohnPhil.67,484f.,innkeepersGlotta5.307);avtus`large-scalefatherly,
angestammt'isformedprobablyaftermartus,oldi-steminlit.avynas`brotherofthemother';

io-derivativeOldPrussianawis`uncle',OldChurchSlavic*ujds.(ujka`aunt'),air.(h)ue`a
grandson,anephew',mir.(a),ads.;en-stem:got.aw`grandmother',anord.afi`grandfather',i
`great-grandfather',ags.am,afries.m,ahd.heim,
nhd.Oheim,Ohm(afterOsthoffPBrB.13,447*awun-haimaz`theone(he)wholivedingrandfather's
home'),afterR.MuchGerm.205from*auhaim<idg.*auoskoimos`deargrandfather',compare
cymr.tadcu[*tatoskoimos]`grandfather'),
lat.avunculus`brotherofthemother'(probablycaressingdiminutivean*av,-nis);cymr.ewythr,
acorn.euitor,bret.eontr`uncle'(*auen-tro-).
Thestemcalledoriginallythegrandparentsonthematernalside,becomethroughthewordsfor
`uncleorauntonthematernalside'probably,s.HermannGGN.1918,214f.
Daarm.havcouldgobackalsoto*pap-,wouldbeauosonlynorth-westidg.Onaccountofhere
hett.u-u-a-a(ua)`grandfather'Lyk.*uga`grandfatheronthematernalside'appearsto
speakratherforAsiaMinororigin.
References:
References:WP.I20f.,WH.88f.,851,PedersenLyk.underHitt.25f.,RischMus.Helv.1,118ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):89

Root/lemma: b el-, b l-, abe lEnglishmeaning:


Englishmeaning:apple
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Apfel'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma: b el-, b l-, abe l- :
:`apple'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:om- (*amel)::`raw,
bitter,*sweet'.
Material:
MaybeOldIndian:
OldIndian:abal-m.`theplantTapiaCrataeva'{`Crataegusroxburghii'(H.EbelKZVI,
1957:216)}[ItisaproofoftheEuropeanoriginofthecognate].
Lat.Abella(osk.town,cityinCampanien)malifera`apple-bearing',afterVerg.Aen.7,740,might
havereceivedhernameafteroftheapplebreedingandrejectonthebasicform*ablon.Theappleis
notnamedpossiblyonlyafterthetown.
IntheKelt.thenamesaretobedistinguishedfor`apple'(*ablu)and`appletree'(*abaln-).Gall.avallo
`fruit',Aball(n-stem)PN,frz.Avallon,abrit.PNAballva,gallo-rom.*aballinca`Alpinemistletoe'
(Wartburg);
Maybeillyr.PNAulona
air.ubull(*ablu)n.`apple',ncymr.afal,Pl.afalau,corn.bret.avalm.`apple',butmir.aball(*abaln)f.
`appletree',acymr.aball,mcymr.avallPl.euyill(analogical)f.,acymr.aballen,ncymr.afallen`apple
tree'(withsingulativeending).
ThesameablautformsintheGermanic:
Krimgot.apel(got.*apls),ahd.apful,afful,mhd.apfel,ags.ppel(engl.apple),an.eplin.(apalgrr`apple-gray')`apple'.Germ.probably*ap(a)la-,*aplu-.Furtheran.apaldr`appletree',ags.
apuldor,ppuldre,ahd.apholtra(comparenhd.AffolternPN),mhd.apfalter`appletree'(*apaldra-).
TheBalticshowscleartracksinIdg.completelyisolatedl-declension*bl,G.Sg.*beles.
lengthenedgradeofthesuffixappearsmostlyinthewordfor`apple':ostlit.obuols,lett.buolis(-iiostem),westlit.buolas,lett.buols(o-stem)fromidg.*bl-;
Normalgrademostlyinthewordfor`appletree';lit.obels(fem.i-stem),lett.bels(i-stem),bele(stem)fromidg.*bel-;butOldPrussianwoblef.(*bl-)`apple',wobalne(*bolu-)f.`appletree'.
Abg.ablko,jablko,poln.jabko,slov.jbolko,russ.jbloko`apple'(*ablkofrom*blu-)etc;abg.
(j)ablan,sloven.jblan,aech.jablan,jablon,russ.jblon`appletree',fromidg.*boln-(influences
thesoundformof*ablo`apple').
Althoughauniformbasicformisnotattachable,itbecomesbothlat.kelt.germ.bsl.formsonly
aroundancientrelationshipandbarelyaroundborrowingact.Withrespecttolat.abies`fir'etc.very
uncertain.

Note
Note:
TheoldestIEcognateisLuvian:*amlu(wa)-`apple-(tree)';Attestations:[HittErgSg]a-ma-lu-waa-ma-lu-wa-

an-za
an-za:145iii18.GI H A H U R-an-za
R-an-za:XLIV4+Vo26.GI H A H U R-lu-wa-an-za
R-lu-wa-an-za:XLIV4+Vo28.
Commentary:Aboveanalysismostlikely,buttextualtraditioniscorrupt.Luviannt.nom.-acc.sg.
amluwan=zaalsopossible.Cf.Starke,KZ95.153f,andSoysal,Or58.174ff.
FromthecommonIEshiftm>mb>bderived*amlu(wa)->Root/lemma:
Root/lemma: b el-, b l-, abe l- :

`apple'inGermaniclanguageswhileinRomancelanguagestookplacethecoomonillyr.alb.sa>
zero,phoneticmutationLuvian*amlu(wa)-`apple-(tree)'>lat.malum-in.`anapple,orothersimilar
fruit';alb.geg.moll`apple'.
AlsoProto-Slavicform:jemela;jemelo;jemel;jmela;jmelo{2}[PageinTrubaev:VI26-27]:
Russ.omla`mistletoe'[f],OldRuss.imela`mistletoe'[f],Czechomela(dial.)`mistletoe'[f];
omelo(dial.)`mistletoe'[no];jmel,mel(dial.)`mistletoe'[fi],Slovakjemelo(dial.),hemelo(dial.)
`mistletoe'[no];imelo,jmelo(dial.)`mistletoe'[no],Poln.jemioa,jamioa`mistletoe'[f];imioa
(dial.)`mistletoe'[f],UpperSorbianjemjel`mistletoe'[mo],LowerSorbianjemjo,hemjo`mistletoe'
[mo],Serbo-Croatianmela(dial.)`mistletoe'[f];mela,mla`mistletoe'[f],Slovenejemla
(dial.),omla(dial.)`mistletoe'[f];imla,mla`mistletoe'[f],Proto-Balto-Slavicreconstruction:
emel-;Lith.malas,malas`mistletoe'[mo]3b,Latv.amuols;muols(BW);amuls;mals;muls
`mistletoe,clover'[mo]{1},OldPruss.emelno(EV)`mistletoe'.
Bibliography:Anikin1998:334-336,Andersen1996:133-135
Notes:{1}Theformswith-mayshowtheinfluenceofbuls`apple,clover'.{2}Thisplantnameis
probablyaborrowingfromtheIllyrianVenetian
IllyrianVenetiansubstratumlanguage.TheSlavicformswith*jmmustbeduetopopularetymology(themistletoe'ssapisusedtoproducebird-lime),cf.OCSimati`to
take'.AnetymologicalconnectionwithPIE*h1m-`totake'isdoubtful,asistheconnectionwith

*H3eHm-`raw'.

maybegr.Compounds:
Compounds:plantgrowinginthesametimeastheapple-tree,`medlar',=
.
ProbablyTocharianB:
TocharianB:mla*'akindofintoxicatingdrink';Paradigm:
Paradigm:[-,-,mla//]
Examples:
Examples:sea[mne]motmlatrikelyesaakseyokpyti`whatevermonkdrinksalcoholor
intoxicatingbeveragethroughbefuddlementorbrandy,pyti`[mla=BHSmaireya](H-149.X.3b1/2
[Couvreur,1954b:48]),tumeprwettsaimlasayokalle`thenit[is]tobedrunkwithanageddrink'
(W-33a5).
Derivatives:
Derivatives:mlatstse*
mlatstse*`drunken':arcacuepretaMr[nts]=dacmlatsai...pyarkatai-me`O
courageousandbraveone,thouhastdestroyedMra'sdrunkenbite'(241a2/3).
References:
References:WP.I50,WH.I3,E.FraenkelKZ.63,172ff.,Trautmann2.
Page(s):
Page(s):1-2
Root/lemma: her -, hen -, hes - (orher etc)(*d hen )

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:day
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Tag'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:Heteroklit.Neutrum.
Material:
Material:OldIndianhar,ha,Gen.hnas,av.Gen.PI.asnm`day'.InGerm.isfoundanlaut.
d-byinfluencefromprotogerm.*waz(idg.*dhgho-,s.*dhegh- `burn')`warmseason'(:lit.
dgas`summerheat'):theo-stemgot.dags,
aisl.dagr,ahd.tacm.`day'isfromneutr.es-stemreshaped(got.PN-=*Dagisius,ahd.
Dagibertetc),alsoinablaut,ags.dg(*diz),Pl.dgorn.`day'(got.fidur-dgs`fourthday'),aisl.
dgrn.`dayornight'besidesthereisn-stemadn.dgnn.`dayandnight'.
Note:
Note:FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhegh- : `toburn,*day'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma: her -, hen -,
hes - (orher etc)::`day'thesameasRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak r u :
:`tear'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
dak r u- :
:`tears'.Thephoneticshiftda->a-,zeroisacommonBalticphoneticmutation.Compare
Root/lemma: del-5 :
:`long':balt.withunexplainedd-loss(seeunder):lit.lgas,f.ilg,lett.ilgs,Old
PrussianilgaandilgiAdv.`long':hitt.Nom.Pl.da-lu-ga-e-e(dalugaes)`long',da-lu-ga-a-ti
(dalugasti)n.`length'.ThisisasoundproofofAryanmigrationfromtheBalticregiontoNorthIndia.

References:
References:WP.I849f.,WH.I467,Feist113f.,Sievers-Brunner121,243,WackernagelDebrunnerIII310f.
Page(s):
Page(s):7
Root/lemma: Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:goat
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Ziegenbock,Ziege'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:digh- :
:`goat'derivedfromazerogradeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:deih- :
:`toprick;tick'.
FromtheolderrootRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:deih- :
:`toprick;tick'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai- :
:`goat'and
Root/lemma: - :
:`goat'[commonbalt.-illyr.-alb.de-,da->zerophoneticmutation].Hencethe
gr.cognatederivedfromprotoillyr.
Material:
Material:OldIndianaj-`he-goat',aj`she-goat',mpers.azak`goat',npers.azgds.;
alb.dh`goat'(G.MeyerBB.8,186,PedersenKZ.36,320,335;probablyfrom*adhi,assii`eye'from
asii);
Note
Note:
Maybeazerogradeinalb.(*hi)dh`goat'[thecommonalb.shift-h->-d-],olderalb.geg.(*hi)
edha`goats,sheep'.
lit.os(*ios)`he-goat',ok`goat',OldPrussianwosee`goat',wosux`he-goat';

OldIndianajnam`fur,fleece';
lit.onis`belongingtohe-goat',oena`billygoat'smeat';
ChurchSlavic(j)azno(*azno)`skin,leather'.
References:
References:WP.I38,Trautmann22.comparealsoai-.
Page(s):
Page(s):6-7
Root/lemma: i er-, i enEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:day,morning
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Tag,Morgen'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:n.
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma: i er-, i en-:
:`day,morning'derivedfromareducedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma: her -,
hen -, hes - (oderher etc.)::`day'.
Material:
Material:Av.ayar,Gen.aynn.`day'.
Gr.Lok.*()-in(from*aieri-d-tom,toed-`eat')`breakfast'(uncontractedstill
produceableHom.124,2);lengthenedgrades*()inthederivative`earlymorning',
contractsin`inthemorning'.DifferentRisch105.
Got.air,aisl.r,Adv.`early'(likewiseLok.*aieri),inadditionKompar.got.airiza`earlier',Adv.airis=
ags.r,ahd.r,nhd.eher,ehe;Superl.ags.rest,ahd.rist,nhd.erst.
Maybealb.(*herst)hert`early';itseemsthatalb.haspreservedtheoldlaryngeal-.
References:
References:WP.I3,Feist24b.
Maybeto i -4 .
Page(s):
Page(s):12
Root/lemma: (i)h- :hEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toneed
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bedrfen,begehren'
Material:
Material:Av.zi-m.`desire',np.azds.,av.zam.`striving,eagerness,zeal';changingthrough
ablautav.izyati`strives,strivingfor'and`striving,zeal,success,prosperousness'OldIndianh
`desire',hat`striveswhereupon';
gr.`poor'=,Hes.(bysupportofwords,with-privativeoutofit
Hes.,and`lack,poverty'),Hes.,changingthroughablaut

`longsfor',`desire';
toch.Akl,aklk`wish,longing'.DifferentPedersenToch.42.
References:
References:WP.I40,VanWindekensBSL.41,55;unwahrscheinlichBartholomaeIF.5,215.
Page(s):
Page(s):14-15
Root/lemma: i k - : k Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:spear,pike
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Spie;witheinerspitzenWaffetreffen'
Note
Note:
BothRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - , ok -:
:`sharp;stone'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma: i k - : k - :
:`spear,pike'are
reducedrootsofanolderroot*he-elcreatedthroughmetathesisfromRoot/lemmna**hela.This
olderrootwassolidifiedbyChurchSlavic:
ChurchSlavic:(*he-el)igla`needle'[f]
Slaviclanguagesinheritedthecommonda->zerophoneticmutationfromtheolderBaltic-Germanic
languages.Thephoneticshiftda->zeroisacommonBalticphoneticmutation.CompareRoot/
Root/
lemma: del-5 :
:`long':balt.withunexplainedd-loss(seeunder):lit.lgas,f.ilg,lett.ilgs,Old
PrussianilgaandilgiAdv.`long':hitt.Nom.Pl.da-lu-ga-e-e(dalugaes)`long',da-lu-ga-a-ti
(dalugasti)n.`length'.
HencefromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhelg- :
:`tostick;needle'derivedthealledgedBalticRoot/lemmna
**helafromwhichChurchSlavic:
ChurchSlavic:(*he-el)igla`needle'[f],thenBothRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - , ok : `sharp;stone'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma: i k - : k - :
:`spear,pike'.
Finallyalb.geg.gjilpann.f.`needle'isacompoundof*gjil-`needle'+peni`thread';alb.common
zerograde*ilga>*gil-`needle'phoneticmutationcorrespondstozerogradeinLowerSorbian:
LowerSorbian:ga
`needle'[f].
Material:
Material:Gr.Hes.,gr.Hes.,kypr.or
(inthelatterpitfallfrom*)`wounds',gr.`spear,spit'(*aik-sm),OldPrussianaysmis
`spit,broach',lit.imas,jimas`spit,broach',(basicform*aikmosorGr.exactcongruent*aiksmos);frommoreoverOldPrussianayculo,ChurchSlaviciglaetc`needle',withginsteadof

(compareS.181)lat.c(analogicalci),-re`hit,wound,strike,smite;esp.,tostrikeabargain',
ictus`slash,blow,stroke;inmusic,beat',probablyalsoav.iar`instant,(veryshortspaceoftime)'=
gr.`near'(as`adjoining,adjacent')and,`mortar'(also,`wormsdamagingthe
vine',fromwhichds.couldbereshuffledaftertherelatedtomeaning,,;
differentSchwyzerGr.Gr.I299.
Herepossiblyanord.eiginn.`asproutthathasjustemergedfromaseed'(`point,cusp'),schwed.
mdartl.jelm.ds.(Fick4III2)andnd.ne`awn,earofcorn'(BezzenbergerFederalRailway.27,166).
Maybezerogradeinalb.(*ahel)hal`needle,fishbone,awn,earofcorn'[commonalb.-k->-hphoneticmutation].
References:
References:WP.I7,WH.I670,Trautmann3,4.

Page(s):
Page(s):15
Root/lemma: i -4
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toburn
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`brennen,leuchten'
Material:
Material:fromags.for`sharp,violent',ahd.eibar,eivar`harsh,bitter,pungent,rough,shaggy,
bristly;shiveringwithcold.Transf.,wild,savage;unpolished,uncouth;frightful,horrible'derivedfrom
*aibhro-notistobeconnectedcertainly.
Maybebutheregr.`warmsup'from*i(i)-ani;seeundereis-1 `move,shakeviolently'.
Seealso:
Seealso:S.underai-dh-, i e r-, ai o s-, aisk-, ai-tro-.
Page(s):
Page(s):11
Root/lemma: l -3
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:towander,roam
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`planlosumherschweifen,irren;alsogeistigirresein'
Material:
Material:Gr.`thevagrancy,thewanderingabout',(horn.Pf.),
`wandersabout'*,`beggar',

`wander,beggingaround',`invain'(Spiritusasperadmittedly,stillunexplained,s.
Boisacq44,alsoagainsttheassumptionofanl.F-);
fromabasisalu -, aleu- gr.`I'mbesidemyself'**,ds.(Hom.;Fut.Hippokr.),
`restiveness,worry,concern,fear,alarm',(from)`angst',,-(Plut.)``idle
hangingaround,boredom';commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation;
withtheconcept`wanderaround,aroundadangerousplaceorthingnottocomenearto',also
,`avoids',(*-,compareAor.)`escapes',`avoid,
flee',ds.,`defense'(*Fformationas).
------------------*)`fibber,boaster,bragger'(actuallydraggingaroundjuggler,mountebank),derivesafter

Bonfante(BSL.37,77)fromthrak.VN.

**),from*vergleichenSchulzeQunderep.310f.,LagercrantzZ.gr.Lautg.89

withOldIndianroati,ruyati`becrosswith,beangry',butfromUhlenbeckOldIndianWb.256is
placedmorerighttolit.rstas`unfriendly,unkind'.
--------------------

Mit-:`wandersaround',`bedemented',Med.`wanderaround',(dor.
Theokr.)`foolish,futile,vain',`trifling,invain,brainless',`confuses,beguiles;

bewildering',(besidesol.equivalentan*in:)hom.`'`dazed,
unconscious'(fromdor.*deriveslat.lea`agameofdice,gameofhazard;hencechance,risk,
uncertainty,blindluck').
Lat.ambul`towalk,goforawalk,travel,march'(umbr.amboltu`awalk,astroll');(lat.alcinor`to
wanderinmind,dream,talkidly'isprobablyborrowedfromunderformalsupportinvticinor).
Inadditionlett.alut,alutis`wanderaround,getlost',withlett.la`half-madperson',l'utis
`behavefoolish,gesturesclownish'.
Toch.ABl-`distinguish,remove'.
References:
References:WP.I87f.,WH.I33,38,EM.43(placesambultogr.,stemel- ).
Page(s):
Page(s):27-28
Root/lemma: lu-,loEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:abitterplant
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bitterePflanze'
Material:
Material:OldIndianl-,lukm-`bulb,onion,roundesculentradix';lat.lum,lium`garlic',osk.
*allfrom*aliprobablyasfoundationofgr.`sausage(*stuffedtubularcasing)';lat.lumor
lus`SymphytumofficinaleL.,comfrey,blackwort'aplantappreciatedforitsroots(perhapsgall.
words.Thesaurus).
Maybealb.helm`bitter;poison'
Note
Note:alb.istheonlyIElang.thatpreservedtheoldlaryngeal-.

References:
References:WP.I90f.,WH.I30,33.
Seealso:
Seealso:Probablytoalu- .
Page(s):
Page(s):33
Root/lemma: mer- (mr,mr)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:day
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Tag'
Material:
Material:Gr.horn.,-,att.(Asperprobablyafter,SommerGr.Ltst.123),
otherwise`day'(withLenis,hencenottoidg.*sem- `summer';
Lit.beiBoisacqs.v.,whereforeFickKZ.43,147);arm.aur`day'(from*mrabout*amur,*aumr;
MeilletEsquisse55).Tothestemformations.stillJ.SchmidtPl.195f.,toion.`midday'
Boisacqunder.VanWindekens(Lexique80)placesheretoch.Aoml,emalle`hot',

fromidg.*mel-.

References:
References:WP.I53,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I305,481,518.
Page(s):
Page(s):35
Root/lemma: noEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:ring
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Ring'
Material:
Material:Arm.anur`neckband,ring',lat.nus`circle,ring',air.inne(*nnio-)m.`ring,anus'.
Maybethroughmetathesisalb.(*nus)unaz`ring'.
References:
References:WP.I61,WH.I55,PedersenLitt.2,80.
Page(s):
Page(s):47
Root/lemma: peroEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:shore
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Ufer'
Material:
Material:Gr.,dor.f.`shore;mainland';ags.fer,mnd.ver,mhd.(md.)uover,nhd.
Ufer;butarm.ap`n`shore'requiresidg.phandhence,staysaway.
Maybealb.(*)afr`near,close,related,neighboring,intheareaof':OldIndianpara-`back,
later'.
relationshipto*apo`since,from,ex',OldIndianpara-`back,later'aslengthenedgradeformation
becomesadoptedbySpechtDekl.23.
References:
References:WP.I48.
Page(s):
Page(s):53
Root/lemma: p -2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:water,river
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Wasser,Flu'
Note:
ItseemsthatfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak- (moreproperlyk ):k- :
:`water,river'[throughtheshift
g>b,k>pattestedinGreek,IllyrianandCelticlanguages]derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ab- :
:(water,

river)andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma: p -2 :
:`water,river'.
Material:
Material:OldIndianp-f.`water',e.g.Pl.Norn.pa,Akk.ap,Gen.apm,av.Nom.Sg.f,Akk.
Sg.pm,Instr.Sg.ap(-ca),OldIndianpavant-`watery',inoldercontractionwithreduplicationstemin-i,-uauslautprefixes(KretschmerKZ.31,385,JohanssonIF.4,137f.)pratp-`directed
againstthestream',np-`lowlying,deep-recumbent',anp-`situated,lyinginwater',

dvp-`island,sandbankintheriver',antarpa-`island';thesamecontractionwithin-oending1.part
ingr.rivernamesI,(:,;FickBB.22,61,62);gr.``Peloponnes',
-ds.,lokr.-,ill.(differentKraheZONF.13,20f.)commongr.-illyr.ks->-ss-phoneticmutationandpuliofLowerItaly,rivernames(Arcadia),
(Thessaly),thrak.(Dacia),

ill.,Apsus,apul.PNSal-apia(`saltwater');hereasvestigesven.-ill.immigrationpartofthe
WestGermanapa-names,asErft(*Arnapia),andallFlNwith-up-,asnhd.Uppia-Bach(Tirol),frz.
Sinope(Manche),brit.harbourRutupiae,sizil.(comparelit.Kakupis),comparethethrak.
FlN,;
OldPrussianape`river',apus`spring,fountain,stream,brook',lit.p,lett.upe`water'(uisperhaps
reduplication-stemfromidg.o,a,TrautmannBsl.Wb.11;orbelongsup-rathertoOldChurchSlavic
vapa`sea').HereAch-(*aps-)incymr.FlN,gall.Axona
Besideskelt.-lat.ab-,seebelowab-.
JohanssonIF.4.137f.goestoexplanationtheb-formfromthrough,aswellasby
OldIndianbda-m.`cloud'andwithpaparadigmaticweldedtogetherInstr.Dat.Pl.OldIndian
adbhi,adbhya,presumedstem*ap()d-(perhaps`givingwater',withd-`give'belongingtothe
2ndpart)from:*abd(n),Gen.*abdns,fromwhich*abns;fromobl.casearosefromlat.amnis,was
compensatedduringinCeltic*abd(n):*abnsto*ab(mir.ab),*abon(hencemir.abann).
References:
References:WP.I46f.,WH.I40,846,KraheGl.20,188ff.,PokornyUrillyrier110ff.,130f.,Krahe
Wrzburg.Jahrb.1,86ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):51-52
Root/lemma: s - , therefromazd-,azg(h)Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toburn
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`brennen,glhen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiansa-`cinder,dust'(aboutsita-`black's.*n s i- `dirt-color,darkcolor');lat.ra
`altar;hencerefuge,protection;'arae',plur.,nameofcertainrocksatsea'(=osk.aasa`inthealtar',
umbr.are`altars'etc),re,-re`tobedry',ridus`dry,arid,dry,parched,thirsty'(therefromarde
`toburn,glow,beonfire;ofbrightobjects,togleam;offeeling(esp.oflove),toburn,smart;of
politicaldisorder,tobeablaze',participlePass.assus`dried,roasted;n.pl.assubst.asweating
bath'),rea`aleveloropenspace,site,courtyard,threshingfloor;esp.aplayground;hence,ingen.,

play'(eigentl.`burnt-out,dryplace');ahd.essaf.,nhd.Esse(*asin),urnord.aRina,aisl.arinn
`exaltation,elevation,hearth,fireplace',ahd.erin`floorboard,ground,bottom'(*azena);toch.ABaspresent,s-Perf.andcausative`dryup',Asar`todry';hett.a-a-i-i(ai)Lok.`onthehearth'
(aa).
Perhapsheremir.n`igneous,radiant,noble'(*sno-).Aboutgr.,s.SchwyzerGr.
Gr.1,724.
Becauserinhett.aari(ri)`becomeshot'doesnotbelongtothestem,itmustbedistinguishedlat.
re`tobedry,beparched'notfromra`astructureforsacrifice,altar'.
Formantextensions:

azd- ingr.(*azdi)`parch,dry',f.`dehumidifier,dirt',`dry,inflaming',
.Hes.(-from-zd-);ech.apoln.ozd`adevicefordryingmaltoraroomfordrying
malt',ech.slov.ozditi`todrymalt'.
azg- arm.aiun`ash'(MeilletEsquisse29),gr.(*-)`soot'(`ash-throw'),germ.
*askninaisl.aska,ags.asce,sce,ahd.asca,nhd.Asche.
Maybezerogradelat.cinis-erism.f.`ashes'<arm.aiun`ash';alb.(*aski)hi`ash'[commonalb.ski>hi-phoneticmutation].
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ken-2,ken-,keni-, kenu- ::`torub,scrapeoff;ashes'musthavecomefromzero
gradeofanextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma: s - , therefromazd-,azg(h)- :
:`toburn'into s k-en withthe
suffix-en.Thisassumptionisprovedbyalb.geg.(*askini)hini`ash'[commonalb.ski->hi-phonetic
mutation].

azgh- inarm.azazim`dries'(MeilletEsquisse33,EM.70),got.azgo`ash'(*azgn).Aboutthe
difficultrelationfromgerm.*askn:*az-gns.Feist72b;againdifferentSpechtDekl.201,219.Also
theconclusivenessarm.examplesarenotquiteflawless.
References:
References:WH.I61,65,848,Feist72,Trautmann22,PedersenHittitisch27,164.
Page(s):
Page(s):68-69
Root/lemma: t(e)rEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:fire,*blowthefire
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Feuer'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:t(e)r- :
:`fire,*blowthefire'derivedfromasuffixedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:au ( e)-10,
au (o)-, u - :
:`toblow'withcommonIEformant-ter.
Material:
Material:Av.tar(Gen.r)m.`fire',whereforeOldIndiantharvan-`firepriest',Lw.fromav.
aaurvan-,aaurun(dasfromr)ds.;

arm.airem`burns,lights'(duetofrom*airfrom*tr);serb.vtra`fire',klr.vtra`fire,stove',poln.
vatra`strawcinder'areborrowedafterJoklWZKM.34,37ff.fromrum.vatra`stove',theseagainfrom
Alb.(geg.votr,votrwithv-suggestionbeforealb.ot-from*t-,viell.iran.Lw.).
Note
Note:
Alb.tosk.vatra,geg.votr`hearth'provesthatSlavsborrowedprotheticv -beforebareinitialvowels
fromillyr.Thisphoneticmutationinalb.tookplacebeforetheinvasionofSlavsintotheBalkans
becausealb.andrum.sharethesamecognate.
Perhapsas`burnt'alsolat.ter`deadblack,dark;poet.clothedinblack.Transf.,dark,gloomy,sad;
malicious,poisonous'=umbr.atru,adro`black,coal-black,gloomy,dark';butlat.tella=osk.
Aderl[](*trol,e.g.v.PlantaI551),lat.trius=osk.Aadriis(v.PlantaII768,Thurneysen1.4,
38,SchulzeLat.Eig.269,578)aresuspectlyEtruscanorigin.
Maybeillyr.Adria`deep,darkwater,sea',zerogradeinalb.(*ter)terr`deadblack,dark'.
Possiblyaffiliationfromir.ith(Gen.tho)f.,cymr.odynf.`oven,stove',s.FickII49.
References:
References:WP.I42,WH.I75f.,849f.
Page(s):
Page(s):69
Root/lemma: t os, atta(atta)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:father,mother
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:Lallwort`Vater,Mutter'
Material:
Material:OldIndianatt`mother,oldersister',atti`oldersister',osset.da,gr.`oldman,old
fellow,father',dial.Akk.,`grandfather',lat.attam.`father;termofendearmentofthe
childrentowardsthefather',got.atta`father'(Demin.Attila,ahd.Ezzilo),afries.aththads.,ahd.atto
`father,forefather,ancestor'(ttbyrunningalwaysbesidesunpostponedneologism),OldChurch
Slavictc(*attiks)`father';alb.at`father',josh`(onthematernalside)grandmother'(*tsi),
hett.at-ta-a(atta)`father'.
Note:
Alb.andSlavuseprotheticj-forlostoldlaryngeal-.
Asimilar*to-singerm.*aala,*elaappearsthebasisfromahd.adal`sex,gender',nhd.Adel,as.
athali,ags.eluN.PL`nobleparentage',aisl.aal`(therudimentarybasisofanorganorother
part,esp.inanembryo)anlage,sex',Adj.ahd.edili,as.ethili,ags.aeele`noble,aristocratic',
lengthenedgradeahd.uodal,as.thil,ags.el,anord.al`(fatherly)genotype'(comparealsoahd.
fater-uodal,as.fader-il`propertyinheritedfromafather,patrimony');
heregot.haimlin.`genotype',comparewiththesamevocallengahd.Uota(actually`greatgrandmother'),afries.dila`great-grandfather';toch.Atl`man';herealsoav.wya-`nameofthe
fathersrataona`s`as`fromnobleparentage'
Theaffiliationfromgr.`inajuvenilemanner,childish',`gathers,waitsandisinhabit'

and`jumpscheerfullylikeachild',red.`drawsup(Redupl.underinfluencefrom
`nurse'),isdeniedbyLeumannGl.15,154.
Oneonthemostdifferentlinguisticareastoitselfalwaysnewlypedagogicbabble-word(e.g.elam.
atta,magy.atya`father',trk.ata,bask.aitads.).Similarlytata .
References:
References:WP.I44,WH.I77,850,Feist62,233,Trautmann16.
Page(s):
Page(s):71
Root/lemma:
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:interjection
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:AusrufderEmpfindung
Note:
Note:oftennew-created
Material:
Material:OldIndianexclamationofthemeditation;
gr.exclamationofthedispleasure,pain,astonishment;,exclamationofthesurpriseand
complaint;inaddition`groan';
lat.,hexclamationofpain,thedispleasure;
lit.,aexclamationofthesurprise,thereprimandormockery,exclamationoftheastonished
question(ofloudnewcreations);
got.exclamationofthedispleasure,theadmiration;ahd.exclamationofpain;mhd.exclamation
ofpain,theadmiration,suspendedthustothevocative.
References:
References:WP.I1,WH.I1,LoeweKZ.54,143.
Page(s):
Page(s):1
Root/lemma: baba-, (*bal-bal- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:barbaricspeech
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:Schallwort,LallwortforunartikuliertesundeutlichesReden
Note:
Note:alsobal-bal-,bar-bar- withmultipledissimilations,onomatopoeicwords
Material:
Material:OldIndianbabab-kartifromthecrackleofthefire;gr.,`uponmysoul,damn
itall!'(outofitlat.bb,ppds.,asbabaecalusperhaps`fop,dandy'from*),
`chats,talksindistinctly'(differentisthesoundconceivabilityfrom`chirps');
lat.babit(gloss.)`he/sheshallmakehappy,gladden,bless',babiger(gloss.)`stupid';ital.babbo
`father'(cymr.baban`kid,child'isengl.Lw.);
Maybealb.baba`father':bebe`child'

alb.beb`thenewbornkid,child';engl.baby`kid,child',schwed.mdartl.babbe`kid,child,smallboy'

(seealsounterbxmb-`swell'),mhd.bbe,bbe`missis;oldwoman,mother'(aboutbuobe`boy'see
underbhrtr `brother');lit.bba,OldChurchSlavicbaba`oldwoman';serb.-ChurchSlavicbbl'u,
bbati`stammer',serb.bboem,bobtati`clatterwiththeteeth'etc;lett.bibint`babble,murmur',
OldPrussianbebbint`mock'.

balbal- (babal-,bambal- ,fromwhichbamb-,balb-underlikewise):


OldIndianbalbalkarti`stammers';bulg.blbl`,blbl``chats',lit.balbsyti`babble',serbokr.
blbositi`stammer',russ.boloblit`chat,drivel',ech.beblati`stammer';lat.babulus`chatterbox,a
babbler,fool';nhd.babbeln,pappeln,engl.babble,norw.bable,schwed.babbla,aisl.babba`chat';
lat.balbus`stammering,babbling',balbti`tostammer,stutter;henceingen.tospeakobscurely',
OldIndianbalbthname(actually`stammerer');
Maynealb.(*balbus)belbzoj`babble'
ech.blb`gannet,gawk',blblati,bleptati`stammer,stutter';serb.blebtati,lit.blebnti`babble';gr.
(outofitlat.bambal),`myteetharechattering',`stammers'.
Mit-r-:OldIndianbarbara`stammering',Pl.nameofnon-Aryanpeople(providedthathereronidg.
randOldIndianlinbalbalgoesbacktoidg.l),gr.`notGreek,speakinganunintelligible/
incomprehensiblelanguage'(fromwhichlat.barbarus)``fromincomprehensible
language'(barelyafterWeidnerGl.4,303f.frombabylon.barbaru`stranger,foreign,alien'),serb.
brboljiti,brbljati`babble'(seealsounderbher-`todrone,buzz,hum'),lat.baburrus`foolish,silly',gr.
Hes.(aboutlat.burrae`trifles,nonsense's.WH.I124).
HereperhapsalsoOldIndianbla`young,childish,simple',possiblyalsoslav.relationshipfrom
russ.balkat`twaddle',balamt`babbler,stunner,headturner'.-Unredupl.presumablyalsogr.
`talks,patters',`speech',,Hes.;
butgr.`invoking,imploring,exorcising;bewitching,castingaspell;spreadingmalicious
gossip,speakingbadlyof;slanderous;envious,jealous',`bewitches,envies'hasderivedas
magicwordthroughborrowingfromnrdl.language,perhapsThrak.orIllyrian,fromtobh-`speak'
belongingtopresent*bha-sk`speaks,discusses'(;thisalsoinHesychs)
(KretschmerEinl.248f.);
lat.fascinum`givingittheevileye,spellcasting,invocation(exorcism());themalemember;initially
(atfirst)asapreventativeagainstbeingbewitched',fascinre`enchant,bewitch,envy'areborrowed
fromgr.andareadaptedonlyinf-folketymologyinfretc.
AfterSpechtDekl.133herelat.osk.bl-ae-sus`lisping,babbling';differentWH.I107f.
Maybealb.(*phlas)flas`speak'notfromlat.fbula`anarration,narrative'.
References:
References:WP.II105f.,WH.I90,94,Trautmann24f.
Page(s):
Page(s):91-92
Root/lemma: badi o s

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:gold,brown
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:'gelb,braun'
Note:
Note:(onlylat.andir.;maybefromone,atmostnotidg.,languageofancientEurope).
Material:
Material:Lat.badius`brown,chestnutcolored,bay';air.buide`gold,yellow'(comparetoLautl.air.
mag`field',Gen.muige;gall.Bodiocassesbecauseofratherforboduo-,aboutwhichunder*bhaut`hit').Gr.,derivesfromlat.
References:
References:WP.II105,WH.I92.
Page(s):
Page(s):92
Root/lemma: bait orpait
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:goatskin
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Ziegenfell,outofitgefertigterRock'
Material:
Material:therelationfromgr.`tentorskirtfrom(nannygoats)fur'togot.paidaf.`bodyskirt,
petticoat',as.pda`skirt',ags.pd`mantle',ahd.pfeit`shirt,shirtlikevestment,shirtlikepieceof
apparel'isdecidedthere,thatgerm.wordisborrowedfromgr.words;

fromdemGerm.againfinn.paitaandperhapsalb.petk,petk`clothes';gr.isprobablythrak.
Lw.orgoesbacktoalb.formsinillyr.*pait

References:
References:WP.II104,Feist381f.,BonfanteBSL.36,141f.
Page(s):
Page(s):92-93
Root/lemma: bakEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:stick,tohit
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`StabasStutze',also`stechen,stoen,schlagen'
Material:
Material:Lat.baculum`astaff,walkingstick'from*bac-(c)lom,older*baktlom;vestigesof-cc-in
Demin.bacillum,forwhichrepeatedlydeliversbaccillum,comparealsoimbcillus`(withoutsupport)
weak,frail'from-baccillos.Pisani(REtIE.3,53)placesbaculumas*bat-lo-mtobattu,thathe
considersasosk.-urnbr.Lw.(from*bakt-).
Maybelat.baca(bacca)-aef.`aberry,fruit;apearl',bacalis,bacale`berry-bearing(designationof
thefemalelaurel),MFr.(*bacale)Bacoule,n.f.Belette`weasel':alb.bukl`weasel',bukur,bukurosh
`good,pleasing,beautiful,slender(likeaweasel)':rum.bucuros`glad'.
Note
Note:Inmanylang.thenameofweaselandgoodcomefromthesameroot.

Gr.,,`astaff,walkingstick',Hes.(Contrastfrom
imbcillus),probablyalsoHes.
Gr.(i.e.`club')Hes.,otherwise`club,shillelagh,stick',isprobablyborrowedfromLat.
Mengl.pegge,engl.peg`pin,peg',nhd.pegel`pole';butmnd.pegel`markinavesselforliquids
(fromaringorsmallexistingplugs)',ags.pgelm.`winepot',engl.pail`bucket'frommlat.pagella
`col,column,yardstick'.
Lit.bkstelti`bump,puff',lett.bakstt`poke'(ortoonomatopoeicwordlit.bkst).
Againstitair.bacc(nir.bac)`stick,acrook',cymr.bach`corner,hook',bret.bac'h`heel,stick'(from
`clutch,crutchofthestick'),areintheIsland-CelticoralreadyintheoccurredthroughLatinbackformationsfrombaculum.
References:
References:WP.II104f.,WH.I92.
Page(s):
Page(s):93
Root/lemma: bal-balSeealso:
Seealso:seeunderbabaPage(s):
Page(s):93
Root/lemma: bal- ,balbalEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshake,dance
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wirbeln,sichdrehen'
Note:
ItseemsRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bal- ,balbal- :
:`toshake,dance'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:baba-,
(*bal-bal- )::`barbaricspeech'throughanOldIndicintermediary(seeabove).
Material:
Material:OldIndianbalbalti`whirls',balv-`crooked';gr.(inSicily)`dances',outofit
borrowslat.ballre`dance'.
Maybealb.(*bal-)valle`dance'[commonalb.b>vshift]
References:
References:WP.II109,WH.1,95,WackernagelOldIndian-Gr.I181.
Page(s):
Page(s):93
Root/lemma: ba x mb-,bha x mbh-,pa x mp-,pha x mphEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswell
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schwellen'

Note:
Note:Lautnachahmung,fromdenaufgeblasenenBackengenommen,psychologischfrombmb-,

bhaxmbh-asunmittelbarerimitationeinesgehrtendumpfenonomatopoeicwordsSchallesdifferent.
Material:
Material:OldIndianbimba-m`Scheibe,ball,Halbkugel',bimbf.`momordicamonadelpha'(eine
Cucurbitacee;bimbam`derenrotefruit');gr.`Kreisel,Wasserstrudel;bumblebee',wherefore
duetoeinesschwundstufigen`babbler':`';withbh(orph):gr.,-
`breath,breeze,storm,drip,blister',`blister,shieldboss';
lit.bmba`navel',bambalas`Dickbauch',bumbulas`knotamstick,inGarn',bumbulas,burbulas
`vesicle,blister',bumbuls`Steckrbe',bmburas,pumpuras`bud';lett.bmba,bumba`ball,sphere',
bemberis`Tannenzapfen';bimbul'i`Kartoffeln',bumbulis,burbulis`knot,knag',bumburs`sphere,ball,
Kartoffel';
russ.-alt.bubulja`Regentropfen',nowadaysbblik(*bbl-ik)`pretzel,Kringel',klr.bben`small
Junge,toddler',skr.bban`kindofbean',bbla`clump',ech.boubel,bublina`vesicle,blister',poln.
bbel`vesicle,blister'.
Unverschobenes*baxmb-orverschobenesbhaxmbh-inschwed.mdartl.bamb`paunch',norw.
mdartl.bamsa`greedydevour,pampfen',dn.(jt.)bams`thickperson',nhd.Bams`thickporridge,
mash',mhd.bemstn`dieeinendickenBauchhat'.
Verschobenesbaxmb-orunverschobenespaxmp-inschwed.mdartl.pampen`aufgedunsen',dn.
mdartl.pampe`sichbrsten,brag,boast',norw.mdartl.pempaseg(*pampjan)`sichwithTrank
fllen',mnd.pampen`sichstuff'(nhd.pampfen),nhd.pampe`thickporridge,mash'.
WithTenuis:lat.pampinus`(*bud,*eye)freshTriebofWeinstockes,vine-layer';lit.pampst,pampa,
pampti`swellup',pampls`Dickbauch',pmpa`knob,handle,button,pommel,Teichrose',pimpilas
m.`penis',lett.pmpt,pempt,pumpt`toswell',pampali`Kartoffeln',pimpala`dasmnnlichelimb,
member',pumpe`hump,hunchback,swelling,blister'(dieu-formsareascontaminationwith*pupaufzufassen);
abg.pup`navel',russ.pup`navel',ppy`bud,bulge',poln.pp`spigot';
aisl.ffl`giant;rogue,Einfaltspinsel',fimbul-verstrkendesprefix,ags.ffel`Seeungetm,giant'
(*pempelo-),aisl.fimbul-,fambi`Erztropf'.
Besideswithauslautgerm.Tenuisdn.fomp,norw.mdartl.fump,famp`thickfool'.
WithTenuisasp.arm.p`amp`ut`bladder'.
References:
References:WP.II108f.,WH.I122,NiedermannWuS.8,87f.,Trautmann26,205.
Seealso:
Seealso:seealso*ba x b -ds.
Page(s):
Page(s):94-95
Root/lemma: band- (*gheid- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:drop
Note:
Note:Consideringphryg.`water':nasalizedillyr.Bindus`watergod',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:band-

(*gheid-)::`drop':Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:oid- (*gheid-)::`toswell;strong,*fast,swelling,lump,water'
derivedfromazerogradeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:au ( e)-9, au e d-, au e r-(*akuent-)::`toflow,towet;
water,etc.`
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Tropfen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbindu-`drop'(probablyfor*bandu-underinfluenceofndu`drop'),related
tocorn.banne,banna,bret.banne`drop'(fromwhichisborrowedmir.banna,bainne`drop,milk'),
reallyIrishbuinne`togushforth,springup,flood';illyr.FIGBindus(*Bendus),apul.fonsBandusiae
Note:
OldIndianbindu-`drop':illyr.FIGBindusprovethatillyr.-phryg.weretheintermediariesofsatem
andcentumlanguages.

References:
References:WP.II110,PeterssonHeterokl.204f.,.rGl.29,69ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):95
Root/lemma: bar-barSeealso:
Seealso:seeunderba-baPage(s):
Page(s):95
Root/lemma: bataEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:murmur,babble
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:onomatopoetischforlppischesLallenorErstaunen
Material:
Material:OldIndianbatainterjectionoftheastonishment`oh,blow',bat-`weakling';abret.bat,
nbret.bad`numbing,dizziness',bada,badaoui`talkthoughtlessly',bader,badaouer`mouthmonkey',
acorn.badus`moonstruck',gr.`stammers',`chatspointlessstuff'(compare
Bla-Debrunner7p.40appendices).
References:
References:WP.II105.
Page(s):
Page(s):95
Root/lemma: bau
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:soundofbarking
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:NachahmungofHundegebells,Schreckwort
Material:
Material:Gr.`dogbarking',`barks,blasphemes',`bugbear,Hecate',lat.
baubor,-r`tobarkgentlyormoderately';alittlebitdifferentlyuseslit.babti`bawl,bellow'fromox,

babiscattleGodas`bawler',serb.baubau`frightword',bakati`getafright'etc
Maybealb.(*baubi)bubi`dog'.
Gr.`sleep'is,like`penis',folklikecodeword.
References:
References:WP.II104,WH.I99,W.OehlIF.56,119.
Page(s):
Page(s):95
Root/lemma: ba x b-,bha x bh-,pa x pEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswell
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schwellen'
Note:
Note:(asba x mb- ,s.d.)
Material:
Material:OldIndianpippala-`berry,paradisefigtree',pippalaka-`breastnipple'.piplu`pimple,
mole,markonthebody("witch'stits"-anykindofmarkonthebodythatawitchcouldusetosucklea
demon)'(probablyeig.`blister,vesicle');lat.papula`apimple,vesicle',papillads.`nipple,teat,
breast';lit.ppas`nipple,teat,breast,tit',pop`ulcer',pupuolo`thickbud'(ucanbeRedukt.-stemto
a,orassimilatedinfollowinguo,butalsotherootderivedformpup-).
Unchangedorneologismschwed.-norw.mdartl.pappe`women'sbreast',mengl.pappe,engl.pap
`nipple,teat,breast';besidesu-formsseeunderp(h)-`inflate,swell'.
Alsobesidesunderbaba-combinedbabbleandchildwords,likeengl.baby,standmhd.buobenPl.
`femininebreasts',westflm.babbe`growth,swelling,lump'(idg.bhorintheonomatopoeicword
unpostponedb)whichwillbelongfromtheimageoftheinflatedcheeksinourcircle.
References:
References:WP.II107.
Page(s):
Page(s):91
Root/lemma: ba x mbEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindofnoise
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:Nachahmungfordumpfe,drhnendeSchalleindrcke
Material:
Material:Grm.(outofitlat.bombus)`aboom,deephollownoise',,-`fleas',
`humminginsects',`narrow-neckedvessel'(as`gurgling'),or-
`bumblebee'(and`narrowneckedvessel');about`clatterswiththeteeth;stammer,lisp'see
underbaba- ;
alb.bumbulit`itthunders';
maybealb.bumball`Blattaorientalis',alsodial.`bumblebee':lit.bimbalas,bimbilas`gadfly,
horsefly'.

germ.withbyneologismpreventedsoundmovementaisl.bumba`drum',dn.oldbomme,bambe
`drum',holl.bommen`todrone'(compareauchnhd.bumbum;alittlebitsimilarlynhd.bammeln,
bimmeln`ring,sound');
lit.bambti`hum',inablautbimptids.,bimbalas,bimbilas`gadfly,horsefly';russ.-ChurchSlavic
bben,bubon`drum',russ.bubnt`chat,babble',poln.bben`drum'.
References:
References:WP.II107,Trautmann26,WH.I111.
Page(s):
Page(s):93-94
Root/lemma: bdelEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosuck
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`saugen,zullen'
Material:
Material:Gr.`sucks',`leech';nhd.zullen`suckinasuckingsac',zulp`pieceofcloth
usedforsoakingupliquid',ndl.tullen`drink,booze,sup',nhd.tulken`suck,drinkwithlargegulps,
quaff'KretschmerKZ.31,423;
veryuncertainbecauseofmoresimilargerm.wordslikenorw.tna`drinkalot'underlikewise(see
Falk-Torpundertylde).Iftheconnectionapplies,wasidg.initialsoundbd-,oritisgr.-perhapsin
childlanguage-from-=shortenedprefix(be-`suck').
References:
References:WP.II119.
Page(s):
Page(s):95
Root/lemma: bedEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswell
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schwellen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbadvam`troop,heap;acertainhighnumber';OldChurchSlavic(etc)bedro
`thigh';arm.port(*bodro-)`navel,belly,center'.
Maybehereschwed.mdartl.patte`woman'sbreast,nipple',isl.patti`smallchild',engl.pat`small
lump(frombutter)';theformsstandingbesideswithgerm.b-,lterdn.arsbatte`buttock',
schwed.mdartl.batt`ofsmallheaps'thenshowedthesameauslautfluctuationasb(h)eu-,b(h)`inflate,swell',wherewithrootb(h)ed-(:b(h)u-d-,-t-)hadtheoriginfromtheimageoftheinflated
cheekstogether.
Lat.bassus`stout,fertile,fat',roman`low,menial',staysaway.
References:
References:WP.II109,WH.I98,477,851,KretschmerGl.22,258f.
Page(s):
Page(s):96

Root/lemma: bel-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tocutoff
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`ausschneiden,graben,hhlen'
Material:
Material:Perhapsarm.pelem`excavates,digs',atmostalsomir.belach`cleft,gap,pass,way'and
kelt.*bolko-,-incymr.bwlchm.`fissure',bret.boulc'hds.,mir.bolgf.(dasgaftertolgds.)

References:
References:WP.II110;aboutnotexistierendesOldIndianbra`ffnung's.Wackernagelunder
DebrunnerKZ.67,171f.
Page(s):
Page(s):96
Root/lemma: bel-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:strong
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`stark'
Material:
Material:OldIndianblamn.`force,strength,power',blyn`stronger',bliha`thestrongest';
gr.,`better',,`best'(this--byreorganizationfrom*,
*afteretc);
lat.dbilis`feeble,weak';OldChurchSlavicboljj`greater',boljeAdv.`more,rather,toagreater
extent,plus'and`very,more'.Uncertainndl.-ndd.-fries.pal`motionless,steadfast'.
WithlengthenedgradeOldIndianbl-`young,childish',m.`boy,kid,child',f.`girl'.
Maybeini-gradealb.(*bl)bila`girl',bir`son,boy':OldIndianbl-,wherel/rareallophones.
References:
References:WP.II110f.,WH.I326f.
Page(s):
Page(s):96
Root/lemma: bend-, bn d -noMeaning:
Meaning:spike,needle,etc.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`vorspringendeSpitze'
Note:
Note:perhapsinfollowingkelt.andgerm.words:
Material:
Material:Mir.benn`horn,summit'(*bnd-no-or*bend-no-),bennach`pointed',cymr.bannm.`hill,
summit,horn(*bnd-no-)',mbret.ban`eminence,overhang,haughtiness,pride',gall.*ande-banno->
frz.auvent`(*protectionroof)canopy,shield,shelter'(eig.`bighorn'),JudRom.49,389f.,gall.dial.
lacusBncus,ifforBenncus,`thehorned'(Sirmione),from*benno-(idg.*bend-no-or*bnd-no-);
west-flm.pint`cusp,point',mnd.pint`penis',mhd.(mnd.)pinz`awl',ags.pintel`penis'(engl.pintle
alsostill`peg'),norw.pintol`penis',whereforeprobablywithablautnhd.-bair.pfouzer,pfunzer

`sharpenedcudgel,club';
withkelt.formstosuitablen-suffix(*penn-from*bend-n-)and.pin`woodenpin,peg,smallstake',
mnd.pin,pinne`pin,point,nail,peg',mhd.pfinnef.`nail',ags.pinn`peg,staff,stick',sptaisl.pinni
m.ds.,ablaut.*pann-inostfries.penne=pinne,ndd.pennen`latchadoor(withabolt)',ags.onpennian`open(*thepen)',engl.pen`enclosesoastopreventfromescaping;shutin,confine(shutin
apen)',ags.pennm.`pen,fold'.
Maybealb.pend`pairofoxentiedtogether'[commonalb.n>ndshift]homonymtoalb.pend
`feather':lat.penna`feather'.
References:
References:JohanssonKZ.36,347f.(alsoagainstborrowingofPinnefromlat.pinna,inwhich
Kluge11sticks).
WP.II109f.
Page(s):
Page(s):96-97
Root/lemma: b(e)u-1,bh(e)uEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:expr.soundofhitting
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:schallnachahmendfordumpfeSchalleindrcke,e.g.Uhuruf,dumpferSchlag
amongothers
Material:
Material:Npers.bm`owl';arm.bu,bu`owl'(withoutconsonantshiftinonomatopoeicword),gr.
m.,f.`eagleowl',`crylikean'eagleowl',lat.bb`eagleowl',bulg.buh`eagleowl',
russ.bchat`shoutvaguelyandpersistentlylong';
Maybealb.(*buph)buf`owl':rum.bufni;buh`owl'
lit.baubls`greatbittern',babti`roar,bellow',buben`dronesvaguely';lat.btio`greatbittern',
bteo`afalcon'skind';gr.`call,cry,shout',`shouts,cries'(outofitlat.bore`shout,cry'),
`call,cryforhelp'(*F),seemtobeshapedfromsuchb-asrhymewordsto,
(seerootg u - ).
Withendinginagutturalsound:OldIndianbk-kra-`roarofthelion',bukkati`barks'(av.buahin`hewhoispronetohowlingandsnarling/hissing',buxti-`howl,hissing'),gr.`howling'.
Maybehung.bagoly`owl(*hornedbird)'
Perhapsmir.bchna`sea'(`*roaringbreaker';basicform*boukani);lit.bkius`stammerers',lett.
bkkt`resoundvaguely';slav.buk-(fromzerogradeof*bouk-)inruss.-ChurchSlavicbuati
`drone,roar',serb.bm,bkati`roar',bm,bati`roar(fromthesea)';
Maybealb.(*buati)buas`roar(fromthesea)'

*bk-inruss.etcbyk`bull(*roarofthebull)';aboutangebl.*bk-inOldChurchSlavicbela,bela
`bee'(compareruss.byt`hum,frombees')seeunderbhei-andWH.I555;nasalizedpoln.bka
`talkinalowvoice,murmur',bk`greatbittern',old`crylikeagreatbittern(birdthatbooms/roarslike
anoxduringmating';intheapplicationtovagueblowpushruss.bkat,bchat(*bouk-s-)`bump,

hitthatresounds',buch`fall!',serb.bhnuti`breakout',buiti`hit,throw,fall,fallwithnoise',lit.
bukoti,lett.bak`descriptionofsoundproducedbyastrongblow',presumablyalsobuka`punch'
(alsolit.buks`dull'hereas`becomedullthroughhitting');mhd.buc`blow,push'(withoutsound
movementbycontinualrunningbesideneologism),puchen,buchen,nhd.pochen,ndl.beuken`hit,
bump',schwed.boka,bauka,bukads.(however,also`dig,spade,thrashabout',asaisl.bauka;this
versch.wordseealsoWH.Iunderfaux),engl.topoke`bump,sting',norw.pok,pauk`crudecudgel,
club',perhapsmir.balaim`hit'(*bougl...,ortobhu-d-`hit').
MaybefromtheextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:b(e)u-1,bh(e)u- :
:`expr.soundofhitting'derivedRoot/
Root/
lemma: bheg-,bheng- :
:`tobreak'in:alb.(*beuka)buka`bread':phryg.`bread',actually
`crumb'.
References:
References:WP.II112f.,WH.I111,119,124,470.
Page(s):
Page(s):97-98
Root/lemma: b(e)u-2, bh(e) Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswell,puff
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`aufblasen,schwellen'
Note:
Note:Explosivesoundoftheinflatedcheek,likepu-,phu seed.;runningbesideprimevalcreation
crossesthesound-lawfuldevelopment,sothate.g.germ.formswithpu-fromidg.bu-,butfrom
unpostponedidg.ornewpu-areexplainable.Fromtheconceptoftheinflatedcheekthemeaning
`swell,plumpbloated(thenconvex)ofthemostdifferentkind',also`makebulge,stuff,darn'and
`blow,coughunderlikewise'.Originallydifferentlytheonomatopoeticwordsb(e)u-1 forvague
onomatopoeticsoundsandbu- `lip,kiss'.
Material:
Material:Gr.,
;presumablyherealso`hill'(dialect),`aturnipkind',v`pilesup',
`anyplantoftheUmbelliferaefamily';redupl.`thegroin,glandsnearthegenitals,part.in
morbidlyswollenstate';nisl.pa`blow,breathe'.
Reduplicatesas,alsolit.bubs,bubsti`throwupbubbles'(fromwaterorfermenting
dough),mnd.bubbeln`throwupbubbles,surge',schwed.bobba`bombast,grandiloquence,fin,
insect',bubba`louse'and`Trolliuseuropaeus'underlikewise(withidg.bhorwithconsonantshift
preventedbynewcreationofb),anord.byfa(*bhbhin-)`big,lumpyfoot',norw.dial.bve,bva
`thicker,uncouth,clumsyperson,scarecrow,alsoawordformalemember'.
Withcertainbh- :OldIndianbh-ri-`rich,alot,immense',compoundsbhyas-,bhvyas-,Superl.
bhyiha-,av.biri-`plentiful,full,complete',compounds-Adv.baiy`(more,timewise=)longer,on
longerthan',Superl.bitm`most,greatestnumberofthings,verymuch,mostpossible';arm.bavel,
bovel`suffice';lit.brs`heap(houses),amount(sheep,birds,alsorain)',lett.bra`heap(people)';
withoutr-suffix:OldChurchSlavicbuj(*bhouio-)`wild,cruel,brainless',russ.bjnyj`growing
vehemently,wildly,excessively';fromherendd.b,bje,ndl.bui`gust,gustofwind,shower';
maybealb.buj`fuss'
gr.Hes.;withlengthenedgrade*bhu-gr.-ion.,att.

`blisters';gr.,`blister,bubble'(withAbl.ubesidesu).
Alsotherootbheu-`become,originate'isprobablydevelopedfrom`swell',comparethemeaningof
OldIndianprbhta-`rich,numerous'(:bhvati)withthatofbhri-.
extensionswithlareperhaps:OldIndianburi-,buli-(unbel.)`buttock,vulva'=lit.buls(alsobl,
bul)`buttocks',gr.Hes.,mnd.poll`head,point,treetop'(*bulno-),mnd.pull,poll
`(bloated)shell,pod',engl.pulse`legume';changingthroughablautmnd.puyl`bag',puyla`swelling,
lump,growth';withbh -:
-:got.ufbauljan,onlyinparticipleufbaulidai`(*inflated),conceited,haughty',
ahd.paulaf.`apimple,bubble',ags.byle,ahd.plla,mhd.biule`swelling,blister',anord.beyla
`hump,outgrowth',aschwed.bolin,bulin`swollen';air.bolach`swelling,blister'(*bhulk-,atmost
bhol-tobhel-`toswell');arm.boil,Gen.Pl.bulic`crowd,amount,herd',serb.bljiti`opentheeyes
wideinastare,togoggle'.
Dentalextensions:gr.,Hes.(but.T
Hes.,origingerm.-rom.kinshipofnhd.Btte,lat.buttis`barrel,cask,keg,cask',correspondsgr.
`demijohn,wickerbottle,carboy',seep - `inflate,bloat');hereprobablypoln.buta`pride',
bucisi`brag,boast'.
OldIndianbudbuda-`blister,bubble',gr.,,Hes.(*budio-,
perhaps`distended,bloats'YetseeunderS.101);norw.pte`pillow,cushion',pta`bulky
woman',schwed.puta`beinflated',puta`pillow,cushion'(dial.`femalepudenda';withthesame
applicationperhapsgr.Hes.),engl.topout`pushthelipsforward,usu.asan
expressionofdispleasure,sullenness,orflirtatiousness;showdispleasure,sulk'(`*toswell'),pout`a
youngdomesticfowl,achicken,ayoungturkey,pheasant,pigeon,guinea-fowl',ags.le-pteds.
(capit,actually`big-head'),ndl.puit`frog';
withgerm.-d-(--):ndd.puddig`swollen',ags.puduc`swelling,lump,growth,wart',mengl.ndd.
podde`toad'withnotyetclearedmeaningdevelopmentags.pudd`waterditch',mengl.podel,engl.
puddle,nhd.mdartl.Pfudel`asmallpoolofmuddywater,esp.oneformedonaroadorpathafter
rain',asalso(withgerm.t)norw.mdartl.pyta,westf.pt(*pauta)`slop,puddle,pool';asaconvex
curvatureinadditionperhapsags.pott,afries.mnd.pot`pot,pan'(differentKluge11underPott);
comparearm.poytn,Gen.putan`pot,souppot,jug'from*beud-n-or*boud-n-.
Withgerm.b -:
-:ahd.btil,mhd.biutel`sac,bag,pocket';isl.budda`sac,bag,purse',ags.budda
`dungbeetle',mengl.budde`bud'and`beetle,chafer',budden`redound'(`*toswell'),engl.bud`bud',
tobud`redound',mnd.buddich`thicklyinflated',nndd.budde`louse,cockchafergrub;frightpicture';
mnd.buddelen,bod(d)elen`throwbubbles,foam',norw.mdartl.boda`roar,bubble,fromthewater';
anord.boi`breaker,surge,breakers,surf';mhd.butte,nhd.Hagebutte;
besideswithgerm.-tt- :mnd.botte,ndl.bot`bud',mhd.butze`lump,mucus;goblin,frightfigure',nhd.
Butze(n),Butz`frightfigure;lumps,mucus,crowd;cores',etc,ndd.butt`clumsy,dull,coarse',mhd.
butzen`toswell';
besideswith--t - afterlongvowelordiphthongmhd.buzen`swell,jutout,bulge(fromthebelly,the
eyes)',ahd.bzo`abundleofflax',mhd.bze`ds.;ridiculousperson,knave,boy';
perhapslit.budl`akindofmushroom',slav.*bdlainech.bedla`asaprophyticfungusofthe
orderAgaricaleshavinganumbrella-likecapwithgillsontheunderside',bedlyPl.`oralfungi,
funguettesinoralornasalcavity';fromArm.herebesidespoytn(seeabove)alsoptu,Gen.ptoy

`fruit'andptuk,Gen.ptkan`greenbranch,youngshoot'and`breast,nipple,teat'.
Air.buiden`troop,multitude,crowd',cymr.byddin,abret.bodinds.hasroot-likeuandbelongs
likewisehere.
Labialextension:ags.pyffan`blowout,puffout',engl.puff`puff,blow,beinflated',norw.puffa,ndd.
puffen.
gutturalextensions:
Lat.bucca`thecheek,esp.whenpuffedout.Transf.,adeclaimer,bawler;aparasite;amouthful';
mhd.pfchen,nhd.(p)fauchen(cancontainunpostponedidg.p,comparelit.pkti`pant,gasp,
wheeze');schwed.puk`swelling,lump,growth,tubers',anord.pokim.`sac,bag,sack,bag',engl.
pokeds.,nhd.dial.Pfoch`sac,bag',ags.pohha,pocca`sack,bag,sac,bag',engl.pocket`pocket',
mndd.nndd.pogge,pugge`frog,toad;swelling,lump,growthintheabdomenwithcowsandmares',
ags.pocc`blister',nhd.(actuallyndd.)Pocke,dial.Pfoche`blister';anord.pkim.`devil',ags.pca,
pcel,engl.puck`fairydemon,ghost'(fromGerm.derivedir.pca`ghost',perhapsalsolett.pk'is
`dragon');zerogradendd.pk`subnormalpersoningrowth',norw.mdartl.pauk`small,weakperson,
knave,boy'(aboutgot.puggs`sac,bag,purse',anord.pungr,ags.pungds.andscaz-(p)fung`purse'
s.thoughFeist385).
Withgerm.b:
b:mengl.nengl.big(*bugja-)`thick,big,large,conceited';norw.mdartl.bugge`mighty
man',mengl.bugge(engl.bug)`alumpof(semi-)driednasalmucus,booger;chafer,bedbug;
bugbear,spectre,bogeyman',nhd.mdartl.bogg(e)`booger,thecoreinfruitorthecarpelsofanapple
orapear,bugbear,spectre,bogeyman'.
Herepresumablygerm.*buh-(idg.*bhuk-)inahd.buhil`foreland,hill',aisl.blaf.`swelling,blister,
shieldboss'(*buhln-)and*bk-(idg.*bhg-)inschweiz.Bcki`keg',engl.buck`bucket,pale'and
aisl.bkr`belly,body';ags.bc`belly,crock,pitcher',ahd.bh,nhd.Bauch,inadditionlett.
bugarains`tubercular',buga`hornlesscow',budzis`swelling,blister,unripeFruit';butlit.baas
`hornless',buy`scarecrow,bogie,spectre',bs`bedbug,louse',boe`club,mace,joint,
pinhead'(oprobablyfromu,compareaboveS.99)cancontainbalt.assingle-linguistic
formsandarebasedontheunextendedroot.

s -extension:
Gr.>(*,to:s.SchwyzerGr.Gr.I692),(*),,`tocram,
fill,chock,stuff,ramup',,`bung,clot,thrombus',(-)`crushed,thrusted,
thronged,full';alb.mbush`fill';mir.bas`sac,bag,pocket,belly'(*bhousto-,compareaisl.beysti
`ham'),
Note:
alb.mbush`fill'[commonalb.shiftb>mb ]
anord.pss`pocket,sac,bag',isl.pose,ags.pusa,posa,ahd.pfoso`sac,bag';withthemore
originarymeaning`blow,inflate,bloat,toswell',aschwed.pysa`pant,sniff,snort',mhd.pfsen`pant,
sniff,snort,sneeze',sichpfsen`selfinflating,inflated',nhd.mdartl.pfausen,ags.pos`catarrh,
waterfall',engl.pose`acoldinthehead,catarrh',mndd.psten`pant,sniff,snort',pster`bellows',
nhd.pusten(actuallyndd.)mdartl.pfausten,anord.pstr`slapintheface,boxontheear'(asfrz.
soufflettosouffler);norw.ps`swelling,lump,growth',peysa,psna`tobloat,bulge,swell',schweiz.

pfsig`swollen',nhd.Pfausback,withndd.anlautPausback(besidesBausbackwithgerm.b-,see
under);norw.mdartl.pusling`toddler,fairydemon,ghost,goblin',schweiz.Pfosi`toddler,clumsy,
stupidperson'(`shortandthick');norw.ps,pysa`mudpuddle',anord.pyssds.(inplacenames).
Mitgerm.b (=idg.bh,partlyperhapsunpostponedorthenewb):ags.bsom(germ.*bs-mo(n)-),
ahd.buosam,mhd.buosem,buosen,nhd.Busen,mhd.bs`vanity,arrogance,pomposity,
flatulence,bloatedness,inflatedness,bumptiousness,conceitedness,vaingloriousness,swelling
fullness',bsen`indulgeoneself',nhd.bausen`tobooze,bouse,quaff,tipple,carouse,swell',Baus
`abundance,tumor,inflation',Bausback,Bausch`swelling,turgescent,bulgycushion,stuffedbreast',
mhd.bsch`bulge;bead;lip;torus;wreath;roll;bulb,wad,plumper',anord.busilkinna`woman(with
chubbycheeks),achubby-cheekedwoman',norw.baus`proud,rollicking,wanton,violent,quicktempered',ahd.bsi`stonyhearted,bad',nhd.bse,mengl.bsten,nengl.toboast`brag,boast'
(`*blowup'),nhd.beysinn`thick,wideandlarge(fromclothes)',bstinnds.,aisl.beysti`ham',nhd.
mdartl.Baust`bulge;bead;lip;torus;wreath;roll;bulb',bauste(r)n`toswell',ahd.biost,nhd.Biestmilch(actually`fatmilk'),ags.bost,bysting,engl.beastngs,biestingsds.,norw.mdartl.budda
(*buzdn-)ds.(insecureis,whetherschwed.mdartl.buska`fresh,fermentingbeer'andassociated
withitas*beuza-istobeaddedahd.bior,ags.bor`beer'as`frothingatthemouth,foaming,bubblethrowing,blistering';aboutotherinterpretationsofbeerseeKluge11andWeigand-Hirt).

Russ.bchnut`tobloat,bulge,swell,gush,wellup',sloven,bhnem,bhniti`tobloat,bulge,swell,
sichinflate,bloat',bhor`vesicle,blister',kasch.bucha`pride,hauteur'(*bau).
Thereisusedprobablythefollowinggroupwhichmeaning`blastingforth,sallyingforth'from`swell'
canbedeveloped:aisl.bysia`streamoutwithbigpower';norw.mdartl.bysa`stormforth';schwed.
busa`dismay,hurtleout';ostfries.bsen`beviolent,roar,makeanoise,attack'(and`livethehigh
life,highonthehog/orhighoffthehog,havealuxuriouslifestyle',compareabovemhd.bsen
`indulgeoneself'),bsterig`stormy',OldChurchSlavicbystr`boardup;strand;takeaway;bring;
mishit;wallop;thrash',russ.bstryj`fast,sharpsighted,rapidfromthecurrent'(*bhs-ro-).
References:
References:WP.II114f.,Trautmann28,39.
Page(s):
Page(s):98-102
Root/lemma: b,b
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:sheep'sbleating
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:NachahmungofSchaflautes
Material:
Material:Gr.,lat.bb,-re`bleat,shout,fromayoungdeer',blreandvlat.blre`bleat',nhd.
bh,slav.(e.g.klr.)bkati`bleat',lett.b,bku,bikuInterj.`bleating,grousing,blatant',aisl.bekri
`Aries,ram',schweiz.bckeln`(*fromthealpinechamois)';similarlyair.biccithir`bellow,roar',cymr.
beichio`bellow',perhapsalsoOldIndianbkur`voice,sound,tone',allsingle-linguisticneologisms.
Similarlyair.beiccithir`roars',cymr.beichio`mugire',perhapsOldIndianbkur`voice,tone',all
single-linguisticnewformations.
References:
References:WP.II121,WH.I95,99.
Page(s):
Page(s):96

Root/lemma: bhabh
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:bean
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:andanklingendewordsfor`Bohne',underzw.`broadbean'
Note:
Note:comparetoSachlichenHoopsWaldb.350,400f.,464f.,HehnKltpfl.8221,570,Schrader
RL.2159f.

Material:
Material:Lat.faba(fal.haba)`thebroadbean'(inadditionthePNFabius,Fabidiusetcandthe
islandFabria),
Note:commonlat.ph->f-shift
russ.etcbob,OldPrussianbabods.Probablyreduplicatedbabble-wordandas`inflated,bulged
pod,tumescence'relatedtogr.m.`lentil':alb.bathf.`broadbean'(*bhak).
Note:commonalb.shift-kh>-thalso-gh>-dh
Alsoaisl.baun,ags.ban,ahd.bna`bean'(BaunoniaFrisianislandbyPlinius)haveoriginated
probablythroughdissimilationfrom*banto*aun.
Note:
Note:TheassumptionofaduplicatedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhabh(bha-bh)seemstobewrong.
Commonlat.k>pphoneticmutationcorrespondstocommongr.g>bphoneticmutation:gr.
`clean,gleaming',,`clean',`smudges'(*bhoig-o-),,
(*bhig-)`impure,unclean'.Thatmeansgr.m.`lentil'andalb.bathf.`broadbean'
derivedfromanintermediaryroot(*bhak)andthatonefromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheig- :
:`toshine'.
ObviouslyGermanicforms*banderivedfromillyr.*bathna(alb.bathf.`broadbean');common
alb.nasalizationt>nt>n.
References:
References:WP.II131,WH.I436.
Page(s):
Page(s):106
Root/lemma: bhag-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todivide
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zuteilen;asAnteilbestimmenor(originallymedial)asAnteil,asPortion
erhalten'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhajati`allocates,apportions,divides'=av.bag-(baat)`bedeterminedasan
interest',OldIndianbhaga`property,luck',av.baga-,baa-n.`favorableinterest,attractivelot';Old
Indianbhaga-`allocator,master,mister,epithetofSavitarandanotherditya'=av.baa-`master,
mister,god',npers.ba`god':OldChurchSlavicbog`god'(formalalso=gr.-);.
Maybesuffixedalb.(*ba-)bagti`sheep(animalgod)'
ur-ind.(Mitanni)PNBagarriti(=*bhaga-rti-`blessingstream'),GNBagbartu(=*bhaga-bhrt-`blessing
donator'),kleinas.VN(F)(=*bhaga-d-uon-`makingadonation'),KretschmerKZ.55,
95,Gl.18,232;

OldIndianbhakt-m`repast,meal'=av.baxta-participle`asallotedlot'.n.`assignedlot,fate
determination,esp.badluck';OldIndianbhakati`enjoys,consumes'=av.baxaiti`hasorgiveslot',
Desid.OldIndianbhikate`requests';
phryg.Hes.(perhapsofIranianorigin);orfromtogr.`oak'S.under
bhg-s;
gr.`eat',-`eatinggrain',etc;becauseofgr.,Hes.perhaps
here(MuchZfdtWtf.2,283)as.(kinni-)bako,nhd.Backe;
slav.*bog`lot'inOldChurchSlavicubg,nbg`poor',bogat`rich',OldChurchSlavicbog
`god'(protoextensionoriran.Lw.);GNDadi-bg`bestowingwealth';
toch.Apk,pke`deal,portion',Apci`treasure,tribute'.
References:
References:WP.II127f.,W.SchulzeKZ.60,138=Kl.Schr.469.
Page(s):
Page(s):107
Root/lemma: bhag-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:sharp
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`scharf,alsovomGeschmack'
Material:
Material:Kret.`whetstone',,`pointyheads,pointedheads,pointheads'(from
*after`crooked*(withapointedangle')wouldcomparefromLidnArm.-stem57ff.with
arm.bark(couldbe=)`bitter,sharpfromtaste;violent,angry'compared,yetbarkcould
belongalsotoidg.*bhorgo-s.

References:
References:WP.II128.
Page(s):
Page(s):107
Root/lemma: bhardh
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:beard
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Bart'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhardh :
:`beard'derivedfromthefussionofsuffixedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ger-1 ,
ger- :
:`todevour;throat'+zerogradeg(h)i- `snake,worm,fish'Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ang(h)i- :
snake,worm,*fish'.
Material:
Maybealb.geg.(*ger-gha)verza`(*throat),gilloffish'Latvianbrda`gilloffish':Latvian:brda

`beard'[f];brzda(dial.)`beard'[f]:Greek,`gilloffish'=Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ger1 ,ger- :
:`todevour;throat'+zerogradeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ang(h)i- (*eghi-,oghi- and
ehi- )::`snake,worm,*fish(*hedgehog=snakeeater)'
Lat.barba`beard'(assimil.from*far-ba);
ahd.bart,ags.beard`beard'm.,therefromahd.barta,as.barda,aisl.bara`hatchet,beards',
becausetheironstandslikeabeardinthehandle;fromtheGerm.OldChurchSlavicbrady`axe,
hatchet';
OldChurchSlavicbrada`beard',russ.borodds.,also`chin',skr.brda,Akk.brdu`beard'etc;
OldPrussianbordus`beard'(unclearafterTrautmann27);
lett.brdaand(seetozdunder)brzda,lit.barzd,Akk.barzd`beard';
lat.barbtus,OldChurchSlavicbradat,lit.barzdtas`havingabeard,bearded'.
Mayberum.brbat`man,jack,male,husband,spouse(beardedman)':alb.burr`man,jack,male,
husband,spouse(beardedman)'
lit.andpartlylett.-zd-isprobablythroughtheanalogythebalt.correlation(*barzd)causedfromOld
ChurchSlavicbrazda,russ.borozd`furrow'.
maybealb.brazda`furrow'
justasslav.*br`millet,sorghum'(seeunderbhar- `bristleear')willbebasedalsoidg.*bhardh
`beard'on*bhar-`bristle,standup',nexttowhichextension*bhares-ds.
References:
References:WP.II135,WH.I96,SpechtDekl.87.
Page(s):
Page(s):110
Root/lemma: bharek- orbh e rekEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tostuff
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`vollstopfen,zusammendrngen'
Material:
Material:Gr.,(*from*bhrk-)`encloses,cramsinto,crowdstogether',
commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation;
`lockedin',withsecondary:Aor.(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I760),etc,epid.
from*,-[]`woodenshack,shed',inadditionHes.;
lat.farci,-r`tofillfull,stufffull,cram',fartus`stuff,fillup,gorgeoneself,craminto',perhapsfrequns,-tis`crowded,numerous,full;ofplaces,full,frequented,populous;oftime,repeated,frequent,
constant;ofpersons,oftendoingathing;ofthings,oftendoneorused';
Note:commonlat.ph>fshift
mir.barcf.`onrush(esp.thewaves,billows)';whereasderivesmir.barcf.`fortress'probablyfrom

gallo-rom.*bar(i)ca`framehouse,awoodenhouse'(compareBollelliL'It.dial.17,147f.);
toch.Aprkr,prkre`firmlyfixedinplace;noteasilymoved;physicallystable'(VanWindekens
Lexique100).
References:
References:WP.II134f.,WH.I456f.,LothRC.38,303f.ZweifelbyEM332.
Page(s):
Page(s):110-111
Root/lemma: bhares- :bhoresEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:point,stubble(withformants)
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Emporstehendes,Spitze,Borste'
Note:
Note:Mits- extension
Material: bharsLat.fastigium(*bharsti-)`thegableend,pedimentofaroof;henceaslope,eitherupordown;of
measurementslookingup,height;lookingdown,depth;abstract,highrank,dignity;principalpointin
asubject',hereperhapsfastus,-sm.`pride,haughtiness,arrogance'(tu-stem),inadditionfastdium
`loathing,squeamishness,disgust,dislike;hencescorn,haughtiness,disdain'(from*fasti-tdium,to
taedium);s.alsoPisaniRc.R.Ist.Lomb.76,2,17f.;
air.barr`top,point,summit,foliage',cymr.corn.bar,bret.barrds.,abrit.PNCuno-barros`fierce,
furiouslikeabattledog',gall.*barros`bush,treetop'(M.-L.964).

bhorsMir.borr`stout,proud,swollen',mcymr.bwrrds.,corn.bor`fat';
ahd.parrn`standupstiffly',parrunga`pride',aisl.barr-`needle,conifer',ags.brs,bears,mhd.
bars,nhd.Barsch,ahd.bersich`barse,perch';ablaut.schwed.agh-borre(*borzan,idg.*bhrs-)ds.;
ndd.(outofitnhd.)barsch(*bhors-ko-)`coarse,stern,rough';mengl.burre,borre`burdock,
roughnessinthethroat',engl.bur(r)ds.,dn.-schwed.borre`burdock',schwed.sj-borre`hedgehog',
norw.dial.borren,byrren`stout,proud'.
Maybealb.geg.burr`man,valiantman,proudman',burrni`pride,bravery'mburr`beproud,boast'
[commonalb.b>mbphoneticmutation].
Note:
Maybealb.geg.burr`man,valiantman,proudman',burrni`pride,bravery'mburr`beproud,boast'
[commonalb.b>mbphoneticmutation]provesthatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhares- :bhores- :
:`point,
stubble'derivedfromanextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bher-1 :
:`tobear,carry'(seebelow).

bhr s ti-, bho rstiOldIndianbhrf.`prong,spike,cusp,peak,edge,point'=germ.*bursti-inaisl.burstf.`bristle,


ridgeoftheroof',ags.byrstf.`bristle',ahd.burst,borstm.n.,burstaf.`bristle',mhd.burste`bristle

brush'(fromdemPl.fromburst`bristlemass');slav.*brstio-inruss.bor`acanthus',bor`red
turnipsoup',etc
Withformants-dho- , -dh-:

bhrezdhAgs.breord,breardm.`edge,bank,border,shore,surface,plain,area'(*brerdaz),besidesbriord
(*brerdia),aschwed.brdderds.,nschwed.brdd,etc
Maybealb.(*bhrez)brez`hillside,(*border)strap,belt'thesameinrum.similartoruss.brozd
`bridle,rein'.

bhrozdhAlb.breth,bredhi`fir';air.brot`sting,prick',acorn.bros,bret.broudds.,comparemir.brostaim`spur
on,driveon,goad,incite,arouse'from*bhrost-(LothRC.42,70),mistakenlyO'Rahillyriu13,169
f.;ahd.brart`edge,border,stem,stembar,stempost',schwed.dial.bradd.

bhr e zdh-,bhr o zdhMir.brataim`loots,robs'(inadditionbratn`salmon')=cymr.brathu`sting,bite,drillthrough';


*bhrozdh-or*bhrzdh-togerm.*bruzd-inahd.brort`edge,border',ags.brordm.`cusp,peak,germ,
sprout,leaf',wschs.brerd(*brozdi-),

ags.bryrdan`sting,goad,stir,tease,irritate',aisl.broddr`cusp,peak,graingerm,cuttingedge',ahd.
gibrortn`tohem,gird,border';=baltoslav.*bruzd-inOldChurchSlavicbrzda,russ.brozd
`bridle,rein',
lit.bruzdklis,old`bridle,rein',currently`peg,plug,toggle'.Whereasislit.brzgilas,OldPrussian
bisgelan`bridle,rein'probablyborrowsfromprotogerm.riila-(ags.brigdels`bridle,rein',bregdan
`flax,wattle,braid').DifferentSpechtDekl.142.
References:
References:WP.II131ff.,WH.I461f.,546.
Page(s):
Page(s):109-110
Root/lemma: bharesEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:barley
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Gerste'
Material:
Material:Lat.far(eig.farr),farrisn.`spelt,grain,meal'from*far(o)s,*far(e)zes(respectively*fars,
*farses)=osk.far,umbr.far;lat.farna`meal,flour'(from*farrna),farreus=umbr.farsio,fasiu
`madeofspeltorwheat,meal';
Note:commonalb.ph->f-shift
maybealb.far`seed,barleyseed'
got.bariz-eins(=lat.farna)`frombarley',aisl.barrm.`corn,grain,barley',ags.bere`barley'

(*bar(a)z-,respectively*bar(i)z-);butslav.*barsina-inOldChurchSlavicbrano`nourishment,
food',skr.brno`meal,flour',russ.brono`ryeflour',afterJoklMileti-Festschr.(1933)119ff.
rathertobher-1 `bear,carry'.
Maybealb.bar`grass,pasture,fodder':aisl.barrm.`corn,grain,barley'.

References:
References:WP.I134,WH.I455f.,864.
Seealso:
Seealso:comparealsobhares -S.109.
Page(s):
Page(s):111
Root/lemma: bharu-, -u o Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:fir-tree,tree,forest
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Nadelbaum,Baum,Wald'
Material:
Material:Aisl.brrm.`tree',ags.bearu,Gen.bearwesm.`wood,forest,shrubbery,bush',ahd.
bara-wri`forestranger...akeeperofapark,forest,orareaofcountryside,priest';slav.*borinruss.ChurchSlavicbor,Pl.borove`fir,spruce,spruceforest',skr.br,Gen.bra`pinetree',ech.borm.
`pinewood'.

References:
References:WP.II164,Trautmann26f.,HoopsWaldbume362.
Page(s):
Page(s):109
Root/lemma: bhar- :bhor- :bhr Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:bristle,stubble,sharppoint
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Hervorstehendes,Borste,Spitze,Borstenhre,Grannenkorn'
Material:
Material:Mitvokal.formant:
got.bara-bagms`mulberrytree',engl.blackbear-berry`uvaursi',norw.bjrneber`rubuscaesius'
arereinterpretedafterthebear'sname*bara-`shrub,bush'=`briar';
fromprotoslav..*br(*bhor-)deriveruss.dial.bor,kir.bor,Gen.bru`kindofmillet,sorghum',skr.

brds.

Otherformationswithgare:
air.bairgenf.`bread'(*barigenor*barigon),cymr.etcbaram.ds.(*barag-,comparelat.farrg
`mixedfodderforcattle,mash;amedley,mixture').
Withformants-ko-:

mir.barc`spearshaft',cymr.barchf.`spear,javelin',slav.brkinskr.brk`cusp,peak,germ,sprout,
whisker,moustache',ech.brk`keel,pinionofbirds,primaryfeather,quill-feather',alsoprobably
russ.brce,brco`shinbone',dial.`pole'(Berneker119).
Perhapshere(withconsonantincrease)*brokko-`badger',mir.brocc,cymr.mbr.brochds.,whether
originally`pointyorsharpsnouted,ratfaced,incisivelooking,spiky'tolat.(kelt.)broccus`towith
protrudingteeth',gall.*broccos`cusp,peak,spiky',frz.broche`spear'etcUnclearis,towhatextent
mir.brocc`smut',gl.brocach`mottled,speckled,*tabby',cymr.broch`rage,fury,din,fuss,noise,
scum,froth,foam',nbr.broc'hed`mad,wicked,evil(=stung,bitten)'aretobeowedtosecondary
semanticchangeorbelongtodifferentstems.
Itisstrikingpoln.(ven.-ill).FlNBrok,perhapssignifies`riverbadger'.
References:
References:WP.II134,163,164,WH.I455f.
Page(s):
Page(s):108-109
Root/lemma: bhasko- (*bhedh-sko )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:bundle,heap
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:etwa`Bund,Bndel'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhasko- :
:`bundle,heap'isatruncatedformationofanolderroot*bhedh-sko from
whichderivedbothRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhedh-2 :
:`tobow,bend'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhasko- :
`bundle,heap'(seebelow).Thealledgedroot*bhedh-sko derivedfrombhegh- [commonillyr.-gh>-dh-phoneticmutation].
Material:
Material:Maked.and(thesegenuinegr.vowelform),
Hes.;perhapsheregr.`leathersack';
lat.fascia`bandage,band,girdle,girth,strap,landstripe',fascis`alliance,bundle,parcel;thefasces
withexcellenthatchetasatokenoftheimperiouspower';
Note:commonlat.ph->f-shift
Maybealb.bashk`together,bound',bashkonj`puttogether,unite',bashk`fleece(abundleof
wool)'.
Note
Note:
Alb.provesthatfromanearlyroot*bhegh- [commonillyr.-gh->-dh-phoneticmutation]derived
Root/lemma: bhedh-2 :
:`tobow,bend'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhadh-sko- :
:`bundle,heap'(see
below).
mir.basc`collar,neckband',abrit.bascauda`brazenrinsingboiler'(perhapsoriginallyanearthenand
burntvesselformedaboutatwistedskeletongoodasbasket),cymr.baich`burden,load',mbret.
bech,nbret.beac'hds.;gallo-rom.*ambi-bascia`load',alyonn.ambaissi`kneaderforthesheaves'
(JudRom.47,481ff.).

References:
References:WP.II135f.,WH.I97,459f.
Page(s):
Page(s):111
Root/lemma: bh d Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:good
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`gut'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhadr-`joyful,gratifying,lucky,good',n.`luck,salvation',s-bhadra-`lovely,
superb,pretty,splendid'=av.hu-bara-`lucky';
got.batiza`better',batista`best',aisl.betre,betstr,ags.bet(e)ra,betst,ahd.bezzir(o),bezzist,nhd.
besser,best;inadditiondasAdv.ofKompar.aisl.betr,ags.bet(*batiz),ahd.baz(*bataz,congealed
Neutr.`benefit');
aisl.batim.`improvement,salvation',afries.batam.`benefit,advantage',mhd.bazzeds.;got.
gabatnan`acquirebenefit',aisl.batna`becomebetter',ags.batian,ahd.bazzends.;
withablautgot.btaf.`benefit',aisl.ags.bt`improvement,replacement',ahd.buoz(a)f.
`improvement,penance,atonement'.
References:
References:WP.II151f.,Feist83,103,174,J.WeisweilerBue(1930).
Page(s):
Page(s):106
Root/lemma: bhgh-s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:elbow,arm
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`EllbogenandUnterarm'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhu-m.`arm,esp.forearm;withanimalsforefoot',av.bzu-`arm',Gen.
bzv(arm.bazukfromdemIran.);
gr.,ol.-dor.`elbow,forearm',aisl.bgr,Akk.PLbgu`arm,shoulder',ags.bg
`shoulder,arm;twig,branch',ahd.buog(nhd.Bug)`shoulder,hip,haunch,pointofshoulderof
animals';
toch.poke,pauke`arm'.
References:
References:WP.II130.
Page(s):
Page(s):108
Root/lemma: bh g hGermanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Mud,marsh'
Seealso:
Seealso:s.bhgh-.

Page(s):
Page(s):108
Root/lemma: bhg-s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:beech
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Buche'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:f.
Material:
Material:Gr.,dor.f.`oak'(compareSpechtKZ.66,59);lat.fgusf.`beech';gall.
bgosinPNBgcon,Bgono-;ahd.buohha`beech'(bkn-,comparesilvaBcenis`resin'by
Caesarandmlat.Bcnia`Rhn-anareainGermany'),
aisl.bkf.,ags.bc,bce(bkjn-),inadditiongot.bkaf.`alphabeticletter',aisl.bk,ags.bc,
ahd.buohf.n.`book(asthewoodofrune-tablets)',ahd.buohstap`alphabeticletter',actually`beech
stickforscratching'.
Nisl.beykin.`beechforest'is(becauseofbkids.)writingvariantfrom*bki,alatecollectivetobk;
alsoistodefineperhapsnisl.beykir`cooper'.Unclearismiraisl.bukr,baukr`firstaidkit,medicine
box',afterCleasby-Vigfusson85baLw.frommlat.apotheka`bin,box,case,crib,tank,bucket'is
soil
Slav.*buza-:*bz-`elder'inruss.buzm.:slov.bz,russ.dial.bozstayawayprobably;alsokurd.
bz`akindofelm',goesbacktooldervz(fromidg.*uigs).
Mhd.bche,biuche`lye',biuchen,bchen`boilorwashinlye'belongsrathertorootbheug(h)`clean,sweep'.
idg.sidebysidefrombhug-(:bhug-:bhg-)andbhg-isextremelyunlikely;compareW.Schulze
KZ.27,428=Kl.Schr.55.
PerhapsafterE.Leumann(KZ.57,190)toav.baga-`interest,portion,lot,fate',also`fortunecookie
tree',becausemarkswerescratchedintoitbypilgrims.
References:
References:WP.II128f.,WH.I445f.,863f.,E.Passlerin`Frhgesch.underSprachw.`(Wien
1948).
Page(s):
Page(s):107-108
Root/lemma: bh-1 ,bh- ,bhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen,leuchten,scheinen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbh(incompound)`shine,light,lustre',bhti`shines,(he)appears',bhti-
`light',bhna-mn.`theshiners,apparition'(compareair.bn`white',ags.bnian`polish'),bhnu-
`light,ray,sun'(:as.banut),bhma-`light,shine';
av.b-`shine,appear,seem'onlywith-(avntm`theresembling,thesimilar'),fr(fraviti`shines

out')andvi-(vib-`gleam,shine',BenvenisteBSL.32,86f.),vsp-bm(y)a-`allgleaming',bmya`light,gleaming',bnu-m.`light,ray';
arm.banam(*bhn-)`open,reveal,divulge,uncover,expose'(ifactually`point,allowtobecome
visible'),Aor.bat`si,comparegr.andalb.bj;
gr.`willappear',*bh-n-inpresent(*insteadof*-SchwyzerGr.Gr.I
694)`makesvisible,points',`appear,seem,shine,gleam'(,Aor.);
`obvious,apparent,clear',`torch';`risingofastar'(seealsounderbh-2),
,-`apparition,face,omen,sign'(compare);
,`apparent,manifest,obvious'(--);Hes.(to*=Old
Indianbhti);compare-,`glossywhite';
alb.geg.bj,tosk.bnj(=)`make,seem'(originallyprobably`bringtoanapparition');
Note:
Alb.usesatabooexplanationwhichreflectsthereligiousaspectofthecognate.
air.bn`white',obf.(*opi-bh)`apparition,beauty';
as.banut`touchwood,tinder';ags.bnian`polish'(i.e.`makegleaming'),ndd.(andoutofitnhd.)
bnen`scour,rub,clean,beans',mhd.benen`beans(*white)'(fromgot.bandwa,-w`mark,token,
sign',bandwjan,aisl.benda`giveamark,token,sign'herebelong-perhapsasu-derivativeof
participlebh-nt-`shining,seeming'-,isdoubtful.Lit.byFeist79f.);
osorb.baju,baso`burnindiscernibly,gleam',nsorb.bajom,bajase`gleam,flicker';
toch.Apa`clear,bright'(*bhno-),pai`beauty',peijods.(Duchesne-GuilleminBSL.41,164);
Apkr,pkri,a-pkrtse`open,distinct';Ap-tsnk,pa-tsk`window'(-tsnketc`gleam,
shine'),VanWindekensLexique78f.;pate,Apt(incompound)`apparition'(*bhti-),PisaniRe.
R.1st.Lornb.78,2,28.

s-extensionbh-s-: OldIndianbhs-n.(ved.alsodisyllabic),Instr.bhs`light,shine,glory,
magnificence,power',subhs-`havingbeautifulshininess',bh-sati`glares,gleams',bhsant`gleaming',bhsan.`light';
gr.Hes.,`beginstoshine'areperhaps(from-)reshapedafter
,also`lustre,shine,shiner'
Doubtfulis,whethermir.basc`red',ags.basu,baso`purple'(*bhs-ko-,-uo-)aretobeconnected,to
got.weina-basi`grape',ahd.beri`berry',actually`redberry'InadditionthefullgradesMNahd.
Buoso,aisl.Bsietc

u -extensionbh-u-: OldIndianvi-bhva-,vi-bhvan-`radiating,shining,seeming';
gr.hom.(*F)`gleamed,appeared',,-`gleaming',-,Pind.`forthebrightpeopleshining',
(ol.,pamph.)att.kontr.,Gen.,,`light,salvation',whereof
*F-inlesb.,ion.,att.`gleaming',

hom.`gleams';`allowstoshine;points,shows,evinces;makeknown'.Different
SpechtKZ.59,58f.
Isgerm.*baukna-,inafries.bken`emblem,landmark,mark,firesignal',as.bkan`mark,token,
sign,emblem,landmark',ags.bacen`mark,token,sign,banner,ensign,flag',ahd.bouhhan`mark,
token,sign'fromsuchgerm.*bau-shapedafter*taikna-`mark,token,sign'
References:
References:WP.II122f.,WH.I454f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I694,709.
Page(s):
Page(s):104-105
Root/lemma: bh-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tospeak
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sprechen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianprobablyinsabh`congregation,meeting'(`*conversation,discussion';bh-in
OldIndianindeedotherwise-uptobhnati,seeunder-onlyinthemeaning`shine,appear,seem,
shine');
arm.ban(*bhnis),Gen.-i`word,speech,reason,judgement,thing',bay,Gen.bayi`word,
verbalism'(*bh-ti-s=gr.);bayparticle`(he,she)says'(=,alsobam=,bas=lesb.
from*bhsi);
gr.,dor.`say',,dor.`knowledge,shout,call,revelation'(=lat.fma`areport,
rumor,saying,talk,tradition';,Hes.andonlywithApuleius
meetingaffmen`harangue,speech'needstobenooldequation);
`say,believe'(also,lat.fascinum,seeunder*babaonomatopoeicword),f.
`rumor',`language,speech,assertion,announcement';withablaut`voice';
lat.for,fr(from*fi(r)=ChurchSlavicbaju,ags.bian)`speak';
Note:commonlat.ph->f-shift.
Maybealb.geg.mefol`tospeak',fjal`word',tosk.flas`Ispeak':lat.for`speak'[r/lallophones].
lat.fcundus`eloquent,fluent,readyofspeech',ftum`anutterance,esp.adivineutterance;hence
destiny,fate,thewillofagod',fma`areport,rumor,saying,talk,tradition'(Denom.osk.faamat
perhaps`calls'),fbula`talk,conversation;atale,story,fable,drama,myth'(*bhdhl),fsactually
`divinecommandorlaw;sometimesfate,destiny;ingen.right,thatwhichisallowed,lawful',probably
from(ne)fsiswithinfinitivefs(s-stem)`itis(not)tobepronounced'(differentEM333);
inadditiondisfstus`dayonwhichthepraetorcouldadministerjustice,court-days.Transf.alistof
thesedays,withfestivals,etc.,theRomancalendar;aregister,record;alistofmagistrates',fsti`the
listofthesedays,calendars';asderivativeofaparticiple*bh-t-s,lat.fateor,-r,fassus`toconfess,
admit,allow;toreveal,makeknown'=osk.fatum`speak',lat.Ftuus`speakingbyinspiration',
epithetof`foretellingFaunus';
Maybealb.(*fateor)fajtor`guilty(*confess,admitguilt)',thentruncatedalb.faj`guilt'.

aisl.bn,bn`request,prayer',ags.ben`request,soccage'(*bh-ni-s;orwith-gradationasgr.
);ags.bian`brag,boast'(aslat.frfrom*fir,slav.baj);
russ.-serb.-ChurchSlavicbaju,bajati`tell,discuss,heal,cure',ChurchSlavicbasn`fable,spell,
charm',OldChurchSlavicbalji,Gen.-j`physician,medicineman,magician'.
Atapresent*bhen-basedonOldIndianbhnati`speaks';auf*bhn-u-(oraufgerm.reshuffling
afterspannan)ahd.bannanredupl.verb.`summonbyproclamation(esp.toarms);curseordamn;
pronounceanecclesiasticalcurseupon',ags.bannanredupl.verb`summon,order',
aisl.bannaschw.Verb.`forbid',whereofahd.ban,PLbanna`orderunderpenalthreat'(nhd.Bann,
Bannwald),ags.gebann,aisl.bannn.`forbid,ban'.
Toch.Ap-,p-c-`beg'(VanWindekensLexique87f.).
AfterKuiper(.XII262)here(*bh-s-)OldIndianbhikti`heals',bhij-`physician,medicineman,
magician',jav.-bis-`healing';aboutav.biazjtcompareKuiperNasalpras.44f.
References:
References:WP.II123f.,WH.I437f.,450,458f.,525f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I674f.
Page(s):
Page(s):105-106
Root/lemma: bhso- orbhsoEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindofalargebirdofprey
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`grereRaubvogelart'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhsa-`acertainbirdofprey';gr.hom.att.`aneaglekind,probably
Vulturmonachus',waspossiblefrom*bhs-nor*bhs-n;also*bhn(tobh-1).
References:
References:WP.II135.
Page(s):
Page(s):111
Root/lemma: bht- :bhtEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohit
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schlagen,stoen'
Material:
Material:Lat.fatuus`foolish,idiotic,silly,awful,tastelessfromtaste'(*frombeatenthehead,dull);
gall.Lw.lat.battu,-ere,morerecentlybatt`tobeat,knock',outofitback-borrowedcymr.bathu
`strikecoins,mint',
Illyr.Batto`appellationforrebellionleaders',alb.batoj`rocktheboat'
comparealsogall.anda-bata`blindcombatant,gladiatorfightswithahelmetwithoutopenings'with:
russ.bat`oakenstick,cudgel,club',skr.btati`hit,knock',perhapsalso(with)russ.btat
`trample,swing'etc;
perhapsolderdn.bad`fight,struggle,damage,pity',mnd.bat`damage,pity,misfortune',nhd.

Blutbad.
Unclearistherelationshipto*bhu-t-(seeunder);itmustbeassumedinsteadof*bht-isperhaps
*bhut-,orliesaroot*bh-withvariantformantthebasic,whichisperhapspresentinlat.fmex,-icis
`abruise,contusion,bloodshot'(*haematoma,effusionofbloodresultedfromblow)
Note:commonlat.ph->f-shift
References:
References:WP.II126f.,WH.I46,99,452,464.
Page(s):
Page(s):111-112
Root/lemma: bh u -1 :bh Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohit
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schlagen,stoen'
Material:
Material:a)Withpresentformation--d -:
Lat.fstis(*bhdstis)`aknobbedstick,cudgel,staff,club'(=gall.bstisinaprov.bust`treestump'
etc),fsterna`knot,burl,burr,stump,snag';
Note:commonlat.ph->f-shift,maybealb.fut,fus`hit,insert,copulate'
air.bibdu`culpable,fiend'(*bhe-bhud-uts),mir.balaim`hit'from*bhudl-...(or*boug-l-...tonhd.
pochenaboveS.98);probablyalsoair.bodar`deaf,stuns,dazes,deafens,baffles',cymr.byddar
`deaf'(*budaro-);
aisl.bauta(-aa)`hit,bump,poke',ags.batan(bot),ahd.boz(z)an(biezorschw.Verb)ds.,mhd.
boz,bz,bzm.`blow,knock',nhd.Ambo,ags.btel`hammer',
mnd.botelds.,mhd.bzel`beetle,hammer',aisl.bytill`penisofhorses';aisl.butr`shortpieceofa
treetrunk';withexpressivemtt:ndd.butt`dull,clumsy'(inadditionthefishnameButte),
mhd.butze`truncatedpiece,clump',ags.buttuc`bottom,pieceland',norw.dial.butt`stump,clot,
chunk'(alsowoodskid).Butags.bytt`flask,alargecaskorbarrel,usedesp.forwine,ale,orbeer'
derivesfromlat.buttis`barrel,vat,cask',alsocymr.both`flask';
aisl.beysta`knock,hit'(*bhaudsti-,comparelat.fstis);with-sk-suffixperhapsmhd.bsch`cudgel,
club,blow,knock'(*bhd-sko-),perhapsdifferentfrombsch`wad,bulge;bead;lip;torus;wreath;
roll;bulb',seeaboveS.101.

b)witht -formants:
Alb.mbt,mbs`suffocate,drown',skut.ms`slay,kill',compareprmism`downfallen';
Note
Note:
Commonalb.b>mbphoneticmutation
lat.conft,-re`tocheck,repress;byspeech,toputdown,silence',reft,-re`todriveback,

check,repress;torefute,disprove'(mitfrompreviouslyau),probablyalsoftu,-ere`havesexual
relationshswith(awoman),tosleepwith';
maybealb.(*ftu)fut`havesexualrelationswith(awoman),penetrate,insert,cheat'
air.fo-botha(*butt)`threatens',Verbaln.fubthad;got.baus`deaf,dumb,mute'.
References:
References:WP.II125ff.,WH.1259f.,573f.
Page(s):
Page(s):112
Root/lemma: bhu-2
Seealso:
Seealso:s.bh-1
Page(s):
Page(s):112
Root/lemma: bhebhru- ,bhebhroSeealso:
Seealso:s.bhr-`braun'
Page(s):
Page(s):113
Root/lemma: bhedh-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:topierce,dig
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`stechen,especiallyindieErdestechen,graben'
Material:
Material:Lat.fodi,-ere,fd`todig;alsotodigout;toexcavate.Transf.toprick,prod,jog',fossa
`ditch,trench,channel',fodicre`stingrepeatedly,dig,jog';
gall.bedo-`canal,ditch,trench,channel'(WartburgI313),cymr.bedd,corn.bedh,bret.bz`grave';
gall.*bodca`fallowfield'(M.-L.1184);
got.badin.`bed',ags.beddds.,ahd.etcbetti`bed,agarden-plot(tobe)filledwithplants;aplace
whereosiers,willows,etc.,aregrown',an.berm.`bedspread,eiderdown'(idg.*bhodhio-),originally
`abedburrowedintheground',comparenhd.Flubett,Beet,engl.bedalso`gardenbed,garden
plot';
lit.bed,bedia,bsti`prick,bore,dig',bada,badti`prick,bump,poke',bdas`hunger',bdrf.
`pit,pothole',OldPrussianboadis`prick,sting',em-badusisi`he/shesticks';
OldChurchSlavicbod,bosti(s-or.bas)`prick',bodl'm.`thorn,backbone'(*bodl);
toch.Apat-,pt-`toplough';
perhapsalsohitt.pd-da-i(canalsobereadpdd-da-i)`makesaholeintotheearth',compare
PedersenHitt.77.
Perhapsheregr.,m.`pit,pothole',SchwyzerGr.Gr.I262,Zus.2.Different

PeterssonHeterokl.128ff.
Probablyinadditionkelto-germ.boduo-,-`fight,struggle'ingall.PNAte-boduus,-u,Boduo-gntus,
air.bodbf.`crow,battlegoddessintheformofacrow';
aisl.bof.(*badw),Gen.bvar,ags.beaduf.,as.Badu-,ahd.Batu-(inPN)`fight,struggle'.
References:
References:WP.I126ff.,188,WP.I99,521f.,866,Trautmann29.
Page(s):
Page(s):113-114
Root/lemma: bhedh-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobow,bend
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`krmmen,beugen,drcken,plagen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbdhat`throngs,presses,plagues',Desid.bbhatsat`isshyofsomething,
feelsdisgust',ju-bdh-`bendingknee';
alb.bint,med.bindem`bebent(*beconvinced,pressured)',bashkr`together',bashkonj`unite,
assemble';
Note
Note:
Alb.provesthatfromanearlyroot*bhegh- [commonillyr.-gh->-dh-phoneticmutation]derived
Root/lemma: bhedh-2 :
:`tobow,bend'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhadh-sko- :
:`bundle,heap'(see
above).
got.bida`prayer',ahd.betaf.`request',got.bidjan(sek.-bidan)`bid,beg,ask,pray',aisl.bija,ags.
biddan,ahd.bitten,aisl.kn-berm.`kneepad',ags.cnow-gebedn.`prayer'(compareOldIndian
ju-bdh-);
Maybealb.geg.meubetu`tovow',tosk.betohem`Ivow,swear'
lit.bods`unsavory,distasteful',bodtis`nauseatebefore';
toch.peti,Apoto`worship,veneration'.
References:
References:WP.II130f.,140,185,WH.I461,495,Feist89b;differentKluge1260.
Page(s):
Page(s):114
Root/lemma: bheg-,bhengEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobreak
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zerschlagen,zerbrechen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhankti,Perf.babhja`break,rupture'(onlyafterwardsafterreshuffledthe
7thclass),bhaga-`break;billow'(comparelit.bang`billow'),bhaji-`diffraction,declension,
crookedway,sale,step,wave';

arm.bekanem`break',bek`broke';
butphryg.`bread',actually`crumb'()hasunexplainedk;
With-u-grade:alsoalb.(*beuka)buka`bread':phryg.`bread',actually`crumb'
Note:
FromanextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:b(e)u-1,bh(e)u- :
:`expr.soundofhitting'derivedRoot/
Root/
lemma: bheg-,bheng- :
:`tobreak',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhenh-, bhn h-(Adj.bhn h-s )::`thick,
fat',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheug-1 :
:`toflee,*befrightened',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheug-2 ,bheugh- :
:`to
clearaway,free',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheug-3 ,bheugh- :
:`tobow',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheug-4 :
:`to
enjoy,*consume,bite'astaboowords.
air.bongid,-boing`breaks,reaps,harvests,wins(*gains)'verbalnounbain(*bhog-ni-),encliticbach,-bech(*bhogo-m),ThurneysenGrammar447,461;Pass.preterit-bocht,perhaps=bocht
`poor';
droppingthenasalthepreteritbuichhasprobablysecondaryu(compareair.mag`field',Dat.muig<
*mages),sothatitisnotnecessary,togobackin*bheug(h)-`bend';
mcymr.di-vwng`inflexible';tomeaning`defeat,conquer'compareair.maidid`breakout'=`defeat'.
Togradepointatalsomir.boimm`morsel,bite,mouthful'from*bhog-smn;
lit.bang`billow,heap,lashings,peltingrains',prabang`excess',lett.buogs`adensecrowd',in
additionlit.bangs`rash,hasty,violent'(frombrooksanddownpours),bings`gamy'(ofhorses),
bengi,bengia,begti`finish',pabangf.`termination';
pr.pobanginnons`moves,weighs';inthemeaning`finish,end'comeintobeingthroughablaut
derailmentformswithei,ai(compareEndzelinLett.Gr.60)inlett.begasPl.`end,inclination,slope',
lit.pabaigds.,beigiandbaigi`end',lett.bidzuds.;
herelett.buogaalsostandsfor`stonyplace',herebelongsprobablyalsoruss.bga`floodedtractof
forest';differentaboutbeig-(tobhei-`hit')KuiperNasalprs.184.
Thefollowingformsaretobekeptawaybecauseoftheauslautsandbecauseofmeaningandto
indicateprobablyasonomatopoeicwords:
germ.*bang-`hit'inaisl.banga`hit',bang`din,fuss,noise',engl.bang`knock,hit',withablautmhd.
mnd.bungen`drum';ndd.bengel`club,cudgel,boor'=nhd.Bengel,engl.dial.bangle`gnarledstick',
anord.epithetbngull.
Inadditionwithintensiveconsonantincrease:
germ.*bank-inaschwed.banka,abl.bunka`hit,knock',obd.bunken`knock,bump,poke',mnd.
bunken,ndl.bonken`hit,thrash'.
Lett.bung`drum',bunga`blow,knock'deriveprobablyfromMnd.
Maybealb.bung,bungaPl.`kindofoak,Quercussessiflora(stickforbeating)'
References:
References:WP.II149f.,WH.I503,541,Trautmann26.

Page(s):
Page(s):114-115
Root/lemma: bhegEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:torun
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`davonlaufen'
Material:
Material:Hindibhg-`flee';
gr.,`flee,beafraid',`escape,fear',`startles',`frightening,
timorous';
lengthenedgradelit.bgu,bgau,bgti`run,flee',bgas,bgism.`escape,run',lett.bgu,bgt
`flee',withablautkausat.bogin,bognti`fleesomething,togettherequckly';
slav.*bginruss.bgu(Inf.bt),klr.bih(Inf.by)`run',inadditionasneologismOldChurch
Slavicpribgn,pribgntietc`flee',aswellasOldChurchSlavicbe,beati`flee'etc;
toch.Apknt(pkt)`remote,distant,apart,separated'(VanWindekensLexique96).
References:
References:WP.II184f.,Trautmann29,MeilletSlavecommun2220,235,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I717.
Page(s):
Page(s):116
Root/lemma: bheidh-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toadvise,force
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`jemandemzureden,zwingen',med.`sicheinredenlassen,vertrauen'
Material:
Material:Gr.`letsmepersuade,follow'(Aor.,hom.,;Perf.
`trust'),Akt.(sek.),Aor.`persuade,convince',,-`persuasion',
(for*)`reliable,loyal,faithful,relying',,-,-`loyalty,reliance',hom.`in
reassurance'(*--);
alb.bf.`oath,vow,pledge'(*bhoidh=OldChurchSlavicbda`need'),ostgeg.per-bej`curse,hex'
(inadditionneologismbesef.`faith,belief,pact,covenant,loyalty');
Note:alb.bf.`oath'derivedfromatruncatedalb.betim`oath'
maybeTNillyr.Besoi:alb.besoj`believe,havefaith'
lat.fd,-ere,fsussum`totrust,believe,confidein'(fsusisto-participle),fdus`reliable';foedus
(*bhoidhos),byEnniusfdus(*bheidhos)n.`trusty,true,faithful,sure',fids`trust,confidence,
reliance,belief,faith',DiusFidius`thegodoffaith,asurnameofJupiter';umbr.combifiatu(*bhidhi-)
`youshalltrust,confide,relyupon,believe,beassured';aboutosk.Fiisiais,umbr.Fise,Fiso,Fisovios.WH.I494;
Note:

Alb.alb.f,fja`religion',fejonj`performengagementceremony(marriagevows)':ANfed,OFr.
feid,feit:lat.fides;
got.baidjan`constrain,oblige',aisl.beia,ags.bdan,ahd.beitten`urge,press,push,arrogate'=
abg.causativebdo,bediti`constrain,oblige',pobditi`defeat,conquer',bedaf.`need';
hereprobablyalsogot.beidan`wait,holdon',aisl.ba,ags.bdan,ahd.btands.,schweiz.beite=
ahd.beitten,butinthemeaning`wait,holdon'.basicmeaning`await'from`trust'or`oneself
constrain,oblige'.
References:
References:WP.II139f.,185f.,WH.I493f.
Page(s):
Page(s):117
Root/lemma: bheidh-2
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`binden,flechten'
Seealso:
Seealso:s.bhidh-.
Page(s):
Page(s):117
Root/lemma: bheidEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toprick,pierce
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`spalten'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhindmi(participlebhindnt-=lat.findns,bhinn-besidesbhitt-=lat.
fissus),bhdmi`split,carve,ruptureetc',bhidyt`issplit';
probablygr.(redupl.Aor.hom.)`withwhicharestingy,avoidsparingly;spare;
avoidathing'(basicmeaningpartlyperhaps`separatemyselffromsomething=takemyselfaway',
aboveallbut`pinchoff,stingy,fromwhatcutoffoneselfonlyalittle');
lat.find,-ere,fid(probablyAor.asOldIndianOpt.bhidyam,ags.bite,ahd.bizzi`tosplit,cleave,
divide,halve'),fissum`split,cloven',fissumn.,fissraf.`cleft,fissure';
got.beitan`bite',aisl.bta`bite;penetrate(fromswordunderlikewise)',as.ags.btan,ahd.bzzan
`bite'(=OldIndianbhdati,gr.);Kaus.aisl.beita`allowtobite,allowtograze',ags.btan
`rein,curb,restrain,hunt,chase',ahd.mhd.beizen`ds.,corrode',aisl.beizl`setofteeth,bridle,rein'
(*baitislan),ags.gebtuN.Pl.,gebteln.`setofteeth';aisl.bitim.,ags.bitam.`morsel,mouthful',
ahd.bizzom.,bizzaf.`morsel,mouthful,nip';got.baitrs`bitter'(`bittingfromtaste');
changingthroughablautaisl.bitr`biting,sharp,painful',ags.biter,bitter,as.ahd.bittar`biting,sharp,
bitter';aisl.beiskr`sharp,bitter'(*bait-skaz);got.beist`sourdough'(*bhei[d]-sto-);ags.bitela`biting',
bitel`beetle,chafer',engl.beetle;
Maybealb.bisk`branch,twig(*beam)'
aisl.beitn.`ship'(originally`hollowdugoutcanoe'toaisl.bite`balk,beam'),ags.btm.`boat',mengl.

bt,outofitborrowsnhd.Bootandperhapsaisl.btrds.;mnd.beitel,btel`chisel',mhd.beizel
`sting,prick'(:OldIndianbhdur,bhdir`thunderbolt').
Thefactisthatbheid-extensionto*bhei()-`hit'seemspossible.
References:
References:WP.II138f.,WH.I500f.
Page(s):
Page(s):116-117
Root/lemma: bhei()- ,bh- (*bher- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohit
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schlagen'
Material:
Material:Av.byente`theyfight,hit'(H.LommelKZ.67,11);
arm.bir`bigstick,club,mace,joint'(*bhiro-);
gr.m.`treetruck,woodenlog',m.`toggle,muzzle';
maybealb.(*bheir)bie`hit,strike',bie`fall,die',sub.bjeri`strike',bie(*bjer)bring:illyr.TNBoii
Alb.andarm.provethatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhei()- ,bh- :
:`tohit'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bher1 :
:`tobear,carry'throughanillyr.-r>-jphoneticmutation.
ven.PNohiio-s-,ill.VNB`thecombatants,fighters'(:russ.boj),gr.-ill.PNB,VN
,kelt.-ill.VNBoii;messap.,Hes.;
lat.perfins`breakthrough,breakinpieces,shiver,shatter'Hes.;
air.ben(a)id`hits,knocks'(*bi-na-ti),ro-bth`washit',bthe`beaten',fobth`weel'(=`undertheblow'),
mbret.benaff`cut,bite',acymr.etbinam`tomangle',withoutn-Infixabret.bitat`cutloose,cutoff',
cymr.bidio`cutahedge',bid`thornhedge',mir.fid(h)b(h)a`sickle'=acymr.uiidimm`lignite',ncymr.
gwyddyf`scythe,pruningknife'=gallo-lat.vidubium`hack,mattock,hoe'(*vidu-bion`woodhoe'),
comparemir.PNFal-be`(*weapon,magicwandforkillingwolves)wolfkiller'(*vailu-bios);air.binitf.
`rennet,cleaver'(`incisive',*bi-n-ant),mir.bian`skin,fell,fur',air.bil`hatchet',acymr.bahell,
ncymr.bwyell,bwyallds.,mbret.bouhazlds.(*bhiili-),air.bimmn.`blow,knock'(*bhei-smn),corn.

bommends.,gall.*bili`treestump',frz.bille;

aisl.bldr`headofthearrow,bloodlettingiron'(*bhei-tlo-);ahd.b(h)al`hatchet'(*bhei-lo-),hence

probablygerm.*bilja-andnot*bila-inahd.ags.billn.,as.bil`sword',mhd.bil,billes`stone
mattock',nhd.Billef.`hack,mattock,hoe',mhd.billen`tohoe,chip,trim',ahd.bilthi,bilidi,nhd.Bild;
ahd.billaf.`sourdough';withformants-li-ags.bilem.`bill,beak,neb',additionalformtoengl.bill;
OldChurchSlavicbij(bjo)biti`hit',skr.bjmbti,russ.bjubitds.,therefromwithformants-dhlo:russ.-ChurchSlavicbilon.`alouserakeorcomb',skr.blo`thetransversepieceofwoodatthefront
ofawoodenrake(torakeleaveswith)',ech.bidlo`shaft,pole',russ.bo`beetle,hammer';btva
`fight,struggle,blow,knock'(:messap.),OldChurchSlavicbi`whip,scourge'(fromSlav.
nhd.Peitsche);inablautOldChurchSlavicu-bojm.`murder',skr.bj,Gen.bja`battle',russ.ech.
bojds.(:illyr.Boii).

References:
References:WP.II137f.,WH.I503f.,506,Trautmann33,LidnKZ.61,12,KarstienKZ.65,154
f.
Seealso:
Seealso:S.aboveunderbheid-.
Page(s):
Page(s):117-118
Root/lemma: bheigEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine()
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen'
Material:
Material:Apers.*bigna-`lustre,shine'indenPNBag-bign-,-;
gr.`clean,gleaming',,`clean',`smudges'(*bhoig-o-),,
(*bhig-)`impure,unclean'.
Note
Note:
Typicalg>bgr.phoneticmutation
AboutcompareKretschmerGl.15,199.
References:
References:WP.II138,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I299.
Page(s):
Page(s):118
Root/lemma: bheiEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:bee
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Biene'
Note:
Note:withn-,k-ort-extension
Material:
Material:Theshortformstillinaisl.b-fluga,alem.b,bair.beij;besidesformswithn(barely
extractedonlytheweakDekl.),asahd.binin.`bee',ablaut.baf.(*bn-=ags.bo,engl.bee),bna
(nhd.dial.Bein);
OldChurchSlavicbela,belads.(*bhikel);cymr.bydaf`beehive',pr.bitte,lit.bt,bits,lett.
bite`bee'.
Gall.*bekos`bee'(M.-L.1014),air.bechm.`bee',gl.speach`prick,sting',cymr.begeg(y)r`drone'
deviateofvowel(taboocausingdistortion).
References:
References:WP.II184f.,WH.I555f.,SpechtDekl.46.
Page(s):
Page(s):116
Root/lemma: b(h)e1 andb(h)eh

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:outside,without
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:...`auer,auerhalb,ohne'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbahi(-)`outdoor,outward,outsidefrom'(m.Abl.);
OldPrussianbhe`without'(prepositionm.Akk.),lit.b`without'(prepositionm.Gen.,andnominal
prefix),lett.bez`without'(prepositionm.Gen.,andnominalprefix);
OldChurchSlavicbezetc(dial.alsobe)`without'(prepositionm.Gen.,andnominalprefix).Herealso
lit.be`still,yet'(`*inaddition'),bt`however,but'(formationasnet`but'),bs,lett.bst`possibly,
perhaps'(*bhe+est,EndzelinStud.balt.7,32f.).
Onaccountofhereair.bs`perhaps',vorton.from*bis<*bhe-esti
References:
References:WP.II137,Trautmann28,EndzelinLett.Gr.497f.
Page(s):
Page(s):112-113
Root/lemma: bh(e)lgEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:weak,ridiculous
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:etwa`schlaff,albern'
Material:
Material:*bhlg-or*bhlg-inwruss.bhyj`evil,bad,nasty'(henceborrowedlett.blgs,lit.blgas
`feeble,weak'),bai`romp',gr.,russ.blagj`obstinate,nasty',
dial.blanj`stupid',poln.bagi`bad,nothingworth';barelytogr.,Hes.,
becauseinheavyslav.word,whichpointsgr.lightbasis;seeunder(s)p(h)elg-.
Here(apparentlywithexpressiveGemination),however,lat.flaccus`flabby;ofmen,flap-eared'.
References:
References:WP.II183f.,680,WH.I507f.
Page(s):
Page(s):124
Root/lemma: bheldEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toknock,hit
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`pochen,schlagen'
Note:
Note:perhapsoriginallyd-presentoftheonomatopoeicwordbhelMaterial:
Material:FromGerm.probablyinadditionmnd.bolte(n)`boltforadoor,dart,arrow',ahd.bolz,nhd.
Bolz,Bolzen,ags.bolt`boltforadoor,dart,arrow',schwed.bult`boltforadoor'(*bhld-),
perhapsalsonhd.Balz,Vb.balzenandbolzen,norw.mdartl.boltm.`maleforestbird;tomcat,malecat',nhd.Bolze`tomcat,male-cat';norw.mdartl.bolta`rumble,stormahead',
olderdn.bolte`curlup,rolloneself',schwed.bulta`knock',schwed.mdartl.bultra`wallow,romp',

norw.mdartl.bultra`rant,roister,romp',abl.norw.mdartl.baltra`wallow,romp';
lit.beld,-tiandbldiu,blsti`hit,knock',ablaut.bildu,bildti`din,drone,rumble',bldau,-yti
`knock,starkrumble',baldas`pestle';lett.belzt`hit'(perhapscontaminationfrom*belu=lit.bldiu
withtelz-`hit',Mhlenbach-EndzelinLett.-dt.Wb.278).
References:
References:WP.II184,WH.I560f.
Page(s):
Page(s):124
Root/lemma: bhelegEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombhel-ds.
Material: bhelg-: OldIndianbhrgas-n.`radiativelustre,shine'(*bhelgos);Bhgava,Pl.`mythical
priestsoftheflashfire';lett.balgans`whitish';
perhapshereOldChurchSlavicblag`good',russ.(oldandmtdarl.)blogoAdv.`good',eig.`light'
(contrast`dark':`mad,wicked,evil');toch.ABplk-`burn,gleam,shine,gethot',Aplk,pilko`look',
Apolkts`stars'(:lit.blgans),empalkaitte`careless,neglectful'(Negation+*palk-`gleam,shine'
besidesplk-);

bhleg-: gr.`burn,singe,ignite',`singe,tosetonfire;intr.burn,beinflames',
n.`blaze;inflammation;mucus',f.`inflammation,ignition;ferventness,passion;rutting',
Hes.(Adj.`fieryred'),`flame';
lat.flagr,-re`toblaze,burn,glow,flame,alsotoglitter.Transf.,togloworburnwithpassion;to
sufferfrom',whereforeprobablyflamma`aflame,blazingfire;Transf.asourceoflight,torch,star,
lightning;luster,glitter;thefireorglowofpassion;devouringflame,destruction'as*flagm,osk.
Flagiuperhaps`aninterpreteroflightning';
Maybealb.(*flagr)flegra`(*ardent,passionatebreathing)nostrils',flakroj`Ishine',flak`fire';
besidesflg-(red.-grades*bhlegr-,*bhlegmorbecauseof,rather*bhlogm)stand

zerogradesbhl g - , lat.fulg-inlat.fulgandfulge,-re,fuls`toflash,tolighten;ingen.,toshine,
glittergleam;fig.,tobedistinguished,toshine',fulgor,-ris`lightning;ingen.,glitter,brightness;fig.,
brightness,glory,lustre,shine',fulgus,-uris`aflashorstrokeoflightning;sometimesanobjectstruck
bylightning;ingen.,brightness',fulmen(*fulgmen)ds.;
mir.imblissiu`pupil(oftheeye);orb'(*mbhibhlgs-,VendryesRC.40,431f);
ahd.blecchen(*blakjan),mhd.blecken`becomevisible,allowtosee',nhd.blecken`showtheteeth';
ahd.blecchazzen,mhd.blecken`flash',mndl.nndl.blaken`flame,burn,glow',ags.blcern,blacern
`candlestick,flambeaux',aisl.blakra`blink,glitter,flash';hereprobablyas`burnt(comparend.blaken
fromblackeninglampflame),sooty',ags.blc`black',n.`ink',ahd.blahds.;
nasalizedgerm.*blenk-,*blank-inmhd.nhd.blinken,mhd.blinzen(*blinkatjan),nhd.blinzeln

(besideswithgerm.golderdn.blinge`blink,glitter,flash'underlikewise,s.Falk-Torpunder
blingse);ahd.blanch,mhd.blank`blinking,gleaming,gleaming,white',nhd.blank,ags.blancam.
`steed'(eig.frombrightcolor,compare:)aisl.blakkr`sallow,paled',poet.`steed'(`dunhorse,grey,
*whitehorse'),aschwed.blakker`sallow,paled,dun(horse)',butalso`black,dark'(fromGerm.
borrowsfrz.blanc,ital.bianco).Fromthisnasalformalsopr.blingis`pallid';
lit.blgnytis`soberoneselfup;lightenup',alit.blinginti`shine'.
Avarianton--perhapsinlett.blzt`shimmer',blzma(bl-ma)`reflectionofmoonlightonthe
water'.
References:
References:WPII214f.,WH.I510f.865,PedersenToch.162,218,VanWindekensLexique17,
98,EM.398.
Seealso:
Seealso:Besidebheleg-standssynonymoustobhere-,seethere.
Page(s):
Page(s):124-125
Root/lemma: bheleuEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohit;weak,ill
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schlagen,durchSchlagenkraftlosmachen,schwach,krank'
Material:
Material:Acorn.balf.,pl.-ow`disease,malady',mbr.baluent;
got.balwa-wsei`wickedness,malice,cowardice',balwjan`torment,smite',ags.bealo`evil,mad,
wicked,evil',aisl.bl,Dat.blve`misfortune',ahd.balo,Gen.balawes`ruin';got.bliggwan(*bleuuan)
`hit',ahd.bliuwan,nhd.bleuends.,mengl.blowe`blow,knock',aisl.blegem.(*blauuian-)`wedge';
abg.bol`sicker',bolti`beill'.
Aboutnhd.Blocketcseeunderbhel-5.
References:
References:WP.II189,HirtIdg.Gr.II150,Feist79,100,SpechtDekl.133.
Seealso:
Seealso:Besidesarootformbhlu-:bhlu-:bhl-,seethere.
Page(s):
Page(s):125
Root/lemma: bhelhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswell
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schwellen;Balg(aufgeblaseneTierhaut),Kissen,Polster'
Note:
Note:(extensionofbhel-`inflate,bloat'etc)
Material:
Material:OldIndianbarh-n.`sacrificialgrass,(*sacrificialbedofstraw)'=av.barzi-n.`cushion,
pillow,cushion',npers.bli`pillow,cushion';OldIndianupa-brhaa-m,upa-brhaf.`cover,
cushion';

Note
Note:
Clearlyalb.bar`grass,straw'derivedfromIndianlanguages.Hencealb.isadirectdescendantof
Sanskrit.Clearlyalb.belongstosatemfamily.
WhetherwithAsp.-Diss.againstforms-ha-hereOldIndianbrjaha-`udder'
ir.bolgaim`swell',bolgf.`bubble',bolgm.`sack,bag,belly,husk,trouser',mir.bolgachf.`swelling,
blister,bubble,blister;pox',bolgamm`gulp',cymr.bol,bola,boly`belly,sack,bag',

bul`seedcapsule,seminalshell'(PL.ofboly),bret.bolc'h`linenpod',vann.pehl-en(from*pehl-)ds.,
gall.bulga`leathersack'(outofitahd.bulga`watercontainermadeofleather');gall.Belgae`the
angry(*awarlikepeopleinthenorthofGaul)';
got.balgsm.`hose',aisl.belgrm.`strippedanimalskin,bag,belly',ahd.mhd.balg`bag,hose,
bellows,swordscabbard',ags.bielg,byl(i)g`sac,bag',engl.belly`belly',bellows`bellows'(germ.
*ali-m.,comparepr.balsinis;perhapshatalsoOldIndianbarhi-,av.barzi-idg.-i-s-as
extensiondiesesi-stem);
aisl.participlebolginn`swollen',Kaus.belgja`makeswellup',as.ags.belganstem-V.`beangry',
ahd.belgan`swellup',refl.`beangrywith',afries.participleovirbulgen`angers';
aisl.bylgja`wave',mnd.bulgeds.;*bul(h)stra-inaisl.bolstrm.`pillow,cushion',ags.bolstern.`pillow,
cushion',ahd.bolstards.,ndl.bolster`fruitskin,husk';
OldPrussianbalsinis`pillow,cushion'(*bholhi-nos),pobalso`featherbed',lett.pablstsm.`pillow'
(and`pad',seeaboveS.123);slov.blazna`pillow,cushion,mattress,adownyorfeatherbed;pad,
ballofthefootorballofthethumb,heelofhand[anat.]'(and`roofbeam,crossbeamofthesledge,
stake,stanchion',seeaboveS.123),skr.blzina`pillow,cushion,feather-bed';russ.blozenm.
`weal,callus,swelling,blister,clavus,corn'(butruss.dial.blozno`thickboard').
Hereprobablyasven.-ill.Lw.OldPrussianbalgnann.,alit.balgnas,lit.balnas`saddle'(probablyfrom
`pillow,cushion').Furtherbaltoslav.formsseeaboveS.123.
References:
References:WP.II182f.,WH.I122.compareaboutgr.`leathersack'VendryesBSL.41,
134f.
Page(s):
Page(s):125-126
Root/lemma: bhel-1 ,balto-slav.alsobhelEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:shining,white
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzend,wei',alsovonweilichenTieren,PflanzenandDingen,as
Schuppen,Hautetc
Note:
Note:tobh-1standinginthesamerelationship,asstel-tost-`stand',del-`split'to*d(i)-`divide'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhlamn.`lustre,shine,forehead',sam-bhlayati`glances'(lengthenedgrade);
balk`acrane'skind'withb-afterbak-`aheron'skind';
arm.bal`pallidness,paleness';

Maybealb.bal`badger(animalwithwhitespotsinthesnout)',balo`adogwithwhitespotonthe
forehead'.
gr.`white'Hes.,Hes.,(F)`gleaming,white,white-fronted',,
dor.-ds.,,dor.-`coot(*bald-headed)',`bald-headed',
Note:dor.-`coot(*bald-headed)',`bald-headed'relatedtoalb.alb.bal
`forehead,(*shiningforehead,*boldasacoot)'
dor.`lookshylyaround';`white,itiswhite-mottled'isprobablyillyr.Lw.;
illyr.*balta`swamp,marsh,whiteclay',outofitlat.blateaf.,`excrementlump',adalm.balta`sea
swamp';ligur.*bol`swamp,marsh'(M.-L.1191b),FlNDuriaBautica(from*Baltica),perhapshere
mareBalticum(ven.-ill.)`BalticSea'(Einhard,9.Jh),compareBonfanteBSL.37,7f.;
Note:clearlyillyr.AlbanoiTNderivedfromtheIEroot*bal`white'
alb.bal`forehead,(*boldasacoot)'(=OldPrussianballods.),balsh`whitehorseorox',baltf.,
baltm.`slime,mud,swamp,marsh,whiteclay';
maybealb.(*balakha)balluke`hairfringe'
lat.fulica(compareahd.belihha)andfulixf.`coot'(*bholik-withdial.u);butwhetherfls,-isf.`a
polecat,cat,marten;henceathief'herebelongs,isdubiousbecauseofmls,-isf.`marten,badger';
kelt.belo-`luminous,white'incymr.beleu(*bheleuo-)`marten',air.obellm.`blaze,glow,heat'(f.
`spark,glowingcoal')=cymr.ufelm.`spark,fire'(*opibhelo-),mir.Bel-tene`festivalof1stMay'(=
beacon),gall.GN(Apollo)Belenos,(Minerva)Belisama(Superlat.),FlNBelen>frz.Bienne,
schweiz.Biel;afrz.baille`paleness'(outofitmbret.baillds.)couldonablaut.gall.*balio-goback,
comparefrzPNBailleuil<*Balio-ialon;gall.belsa`field'from*belis;
got.balam.`baldhorse,horsewithablaze'(fromBelisar'ssteed[BelisarwasaByzantine
commander]),engl.dial.ball`horsewithwhitepaleness'(outofitcymr.balds),mengl.balled,engl.
bald,dn.bldet`naked,bald,bleak',ahd.belihha(comparelat.fulica),nhd.Belche`coot',BergN
Belchen(tosuffixs.BrugmannGrundriII1,511,SpechtDekl.213f.),lengthenedgradeaisl.bl
`flame',ags.bl`pyres,funeralpiles'(*bhl-).
Whereasaregerm.*pl-inags.pl,engl.pool,ahd.pfuol`pool',ablaut.ndl.peel(*pali-)`morass',
ags.pyll,engl.pill(*pulia-,older*blio-)probablyfromVen.-IH.borrows(seeabove*bol);different
PeterssonHeterokl.205;
lit.blas`white'and`snowdrop',balf.`whiteanemone'andm.`swamp,marsh,moor,fen,pool',
bal,bala,blti`becomewhite';lett.lengthenedgradebls`pallid,pale,wan';OldPrussianballof.
`forehead'and*balo`swamp,marsh'inPN;
OldChurchSlaviclengthenedgradebel`white'(*bhlo-),f.`splintinwood',poln.dial.bielf.`marshy
wood,forest',russ.dial.bil`swamp,marsh';ablaut.bala(*bhl)inruss.bala-ruina`puddle,slop',
klr.balka`marsh';
lit.bltas(*bholtos),lett.balts`white',NorthSeaBaltinaezers;
slav.substant.neutr.Adj.*bolto-(*bholto-)`swamp,marsh,pond,pool,sea'inOldChurchSlavic

blato`sea',skr.blto`sea,ordure',russ.boto`swamp,marsh';
lit.b'lnas`white'(withglottalstop,idg.*bholnos),baladis`baptism',balnda`orache',russ.
lebed,serb.lobdads.;
slav.*bolnaf.(withtrailtone,idg.*bholn)inech.slov.blna`membrane,skin,cutaneously',russ.
boon`sicklyoutgrowthontrees,sap-wood,(dial.)lump',bonf.,`splintinwood',originally
identicalwithech.blana`meadow,grassland',poln.bof.,bonien.ds.,russ.boonjen.`deeply
situatedmeadows';
perhapstoch.palsk-,plsk,Apl(t)sk`cogitate'(*see,compareOldIndiansam-bhlayati);
whetherheregr.(*bhel-so-),`cork,oakcork',`rockyground',`even(*ofland,
ground,etc.:level,flat,nothillyorsloping;ofuniformheight)',`scale,flake(onesofreptile)'
References:
References:WP.II175f.,WH.I108f.,559f.,W.SchulzeBerl.Sbb.1910,787=Kl.Schr.111,
Trautmann25,29f.,SpechtDekl.116f.
Seealso:
Seealso:Herefurtherbhel-2;bheleg-;bhlei-,-g-,-k-;bhlendh-;bhles-;bhleu-,-k-,-s-;bhluo-;
bhlndho-;bhlido-.
Page(s):
Page(s):118-120
Root/lemma: bhel-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:innamesofhenbane
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:inBezeichnungenofBilsenkrautes
Note:
Note:probablywithbhel-1identical
Material:
Material:Gall.(illyr.)belinuntiaf.,n.`hyoscyamus',tonamesofApolloBelenos(see
abovebhel-1);
ags.beolone(*bhelun),as.bilene,zerogradeolderdn.bylne(germ.*buln-),blme,schwed.
bolmrt,nhd.dial.bilme;butahd.bil(i)saisprobablykelt.Lw.(compareaprov.belsa);
slav.*belena-,*beleninr.-ChurchSlavicbelenm.,russ.belenf.,slav.*belnm.inslov.bln,
aech.bln,zerogradeslav.*blninskr.bn.
References:
References:WP.II180,WH.I99f.,Trautmann30,KretschmerGl.14,97,SpechtDekl.140.
Page(s):
Page(s):120
Root/lemma: bhel-3 ,bhlEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:togrow,spread,swell
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`aufblasen,aufschwellen,sprudeln,strotzen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbha-n.`pot,pan,vessel'(*bhlnda);afterThieme(ZDMG.92,47f.)here
av.bar-s-man-`bundleofbranches',OldIndianbrsvam.Pl.`bulge;bead;lip;torus;wreath;roll;

bulb,gums'(Lw.fromav.*barsman`cushion');compareunderahd.bilorn.
Arm.beun`fertile'(:gr.),ben-awords.(:gr.),Adontz,Ml.Boisacq9.
Gr.,`penis'(from*bhlnsor*bhelns;compareair.ball,nhd.Bulle);
Maybealb.geg.pallosh`penis':gr.`penis'
inaddition(formationas),`whale'(comparethatprobablyborrowedthrough
illyr.mediationlat.ballaena;alsomhd.bullichcallsbigfishkinds;
identicalis`moth',aboutandsupplementaryseeaboveZ.1;aboutsee
belowphel-;afterPerssonBeitr.299also()Greatmullein,plantwiththickwoolly
leaves,as*bh(e)lomos
Probablyphryg.-,-`'Hes.,also`penis';thrak.VN-.
Lat.follis`aleatherbag;apairofbellows;apurse;apuffed-outcheek'(*bhlnisor*bholnis,compare
thegerm.wordswith-ll-from-ln-);
cymr.blf.`elevation,rise,mountaintop'(*bhl);
zerogradeair.ballm.`limb,member,part,bodypart',then`deal,portion,place,spot,mark'(alsoin
thebody),henceperhapsalsocymr.ball`epidemic',balleg`sack,bag';changingthroughablautbol,
bollincymr.dyrn-fol`glove',arfolli`becomepregnant',ffroen-foll`withswollennostrils'(:);
Maybealb.bole`testicle'
zerogradewithformants-ko-andmeaningasahd.bald(seebelow):nir.bale`strong',cymr.balch,
bret.balc'h`stout,proud,hubristic,overbearing'.

bhl - (bh e l - )inaschwed.bulin,bolin`swollen',bulde,bolde,byld`hump,ulcer';aisl.bulr,bolrm.`tree


truck,trunk',mnd.mhd.bolef.`plank'(nhd.Bohle);aisl.boli`bull',ags.bulads.,bulluc`youngbull',
engl.bull,mnd.nhd.Bulle(as*bull-n=gr.*fromastem*bulla-=-);hess.bulle
`vulva';aisl.bollim.drinkingbowl'(`*sphericalvessel';mir.balln`drinkingvessel'probablyfrom
Nord.),ags.bollam.`bowl',hafodbolla`brainbox,cranium',afries.strotbolla`larynx',as.bollo
`drinkingbowl',ahd.bollaf.`vesicle,blister,fruitskinorknotoftheflax',mhd.bollef.`bud,spherical
vessel',ahd.hirnibolla`cranium',nhd.Bolle,Robollen,mhd.bullich,bolch`bigfishamongothers
cod'(compare),comparealsoahd.boln,mhd.boln`roll,throw,toss,fling'andwiththe
meaningswollen=`thick,big,large',schwed.mdartl.bl,bol`thickandlarge,strong,verydaring',
aisl.poet.bolmr`bear';hereprobablyaisl.bulki`shipload',schwed.dn.bulk`hump,nodules,
tubers';
inheterokl.paradigm()*bhelr,Gen.*bhelnsinterpretsahd.bilornm.f.`gums'(*bilurn`swelling,
bulge;bead;lip;torus;wreath;roll;bulb'),whethernotfrom*beluzn;
germ.*beln-alsoinhess.bille`penis'(:bulle),mnd.(ars-)bille,ndl.bil`buttock',schwed.fotabjlle
`ballofthefoot';
alsoalb.bili`penis',bole`testicle'
changingthroughablautahd.ballo,balla,nhd.Ball,Ballen,ahd.arsbellim.Pl.`buttocks',ags.bealluc

m.`testicles'(*bholn-),aisl.bllr`ball,sphere,testicle';aisl.bali`elevationalongthetheedgeofthe
lakebank;smallriseongroundlevel';withformants-to-andthemeaning`swollen,inflated'=
`arrogant,bold',got.bal-abaAdv.`boldly',baleif.`boldness',aisl.ballr`dreadful,dangerous',
baldinn`defiant',ags.beald`bold,audacious',ahd.bald`bold,audacious,quick,fast',nhd.baldAdv.;
inadditionags.bealdor`prince,lord,master,mister',aisl.GNBaldr.
Withcoloringgradation*bhl-probablynorw.bl`inheat,rutting,ofthesow'(changingthrough
ablautbala`rutting,beinheat').
rootformbhl-:
Gr.`gossip,talkative',-,-`betalkative';asfrombh-,Aor.
`bubbleout';
lat.fl,flre`toblow;intransit.,ofwinds,personsandinstru-ments;transit.,toblow,blowforth;to
blowonaninstrument;tocastmetals,tocoin'(probablyfrom*bhl-i),butflmina`varicoses'is
probablyLw.fromgr.;norw.dial.blma`blebontheskin,skinvesicle';aschwed.blmma
ds.;ahd.blt(t)ara,as.bldara`blister,bubble',ags.bldreds.,reduplication-stemaisl.blara
`vesicle,blister,bubble',ahd.etcblat`leaf';aisl.bl-inZs.`excessive,very';withprevalentmeaning
`blow'ahd.io-presentbljan,blen`blow,swell,blowout',ags.blwan`blow'(herewfromPerf.),
ahd.blt,ags.bld`blow,breath,breeze,gustofwind',aisl.blr`gustofwind';with-s- got.
ufblsan`inflate,bloat',aisl.blsa`blow,pant,gasp,inflate,bloat;unpers.:`swellup',ahd.blsan
`blow',blsa`bubble',blst`blast,breath,breeze',ags.blst,aisl.blstr(*blstu-)`blast,breath,
breeze,snort,rage,fury';
Maybealb.plas`blow'
lett.blnas`prank'derivesfromruss.Lw.bldis`confidencetrickster,swindler'.
Maybealb.geg.blenj`Ibuy,bargain,strikeadeal)'similarmeaningshiftaslat.c-re`hit,wound,
strike,smite;esp.,tostrikeabargain'
Hereperhapsgot.bl`blood',s.bhel-4.
References:
References:WP.II177f.,WH.I515,524f.
Seealso:
Seealso:Inadditionbhel-4`bloom'etcandtheextensionsbhelh-,bhld-,bhleg-,bhlei-,bhleu-`to
swell'etc
Page(s):
Page(s):120-122
Root/lemma: bhel-4 andbhl- ,bhl- ,bhlEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:leaf;bloom
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Blatt,Blte,blhen;ppigsprieen'
Note:
Note:probablyfrombhel-`toswell'insenseof`vegetablelushness'and`swelling=bud'
Material:
Material:Gr.`leaf'(*bhuliom),lat.foliumds.;mir.bilec`leaf'(from*bile<*bhelio-);
moreoverprobablyair.bilen.`tree';

Maybealb.(*)pyll`forest'[commonalb.shiftu>y]

bhl- , mostlybhl - in:lat.fls,-rism.`aflower,blossom.Transf.,theprime,flowerofanything,the


best,thepride;ontheface,firstbeard,down';flre,-re`tobloom,flower.Transf.,tobeinone's
prime,toprosper,flourish,beinrepute;withabl.toaboundin,swarmwith';osk.Fluusa`thegoddess
offlowers,whosefestivalwascelebratedonthe28thofApril,oftenwithunbridledlicense',
Fluusasias`ofthefestivalsofFlora',sabin.Flusare`oforbelongingtothefestivalofFlora,ofthe
Floralia'.
Mir.blthm.`bloom,blossom,flower',cymr.blawd,acorn.blodon`bloom,blossom'(*bhl-t-),mbret.
(with-men-suffix)bleuzven,nbret.bleun(v)ennds.,withs-derivativemhd.bluost`bloom,blossom',
nhd.Blust,ags.blstma,blsma,blstm`flower,blossom',an.blmstrds.,ndl.blsen`bloom'(=
mnd.blsen`blush',seebelowbhles-`shine');
got.blmam.,ahd.bluomom.`flower,blossom',aisl.blomim.ds.,blmcollective`flower,blossom';
ahd.bluojen,bluowen,as.bljan,ags.blwan`bloom';ahd.bluotf.`blossoming,bloom,blossom'=
ags.bldf.`scion,shoot,twig,branch,flower,blossom,fruit';butgot.bln.,aisl.bl,as.ags.bld,
ahd.bluot`blood'probablyto*bhel-`effervesce'.
With:ags.bldm.`breath,breeze',n.`bubble',f.`bloom,blossom',ahd.blt`bloom,blossom'
(comparealsoags.bld,ahd.blt`life,breath,breeze'andbhel-`inflate,bloat');
with:ahd.blat,as.blad,ags.bld,aisl.blan.`leaf';toch.A.pltds.
References:
References:WP.II176f.,WH.I518f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I351.
Page(s):
Page(s):122
Root/lemma: bhel-5 ,mostlywith-- (-k - )suffix:bh e l- ,bh e l-n-- ,bhele- ;bhl k Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:balk
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Bohle,Balken'
Material:
Material:Basicbhel - inOldIndianbhurjuDu.`arms,armsorshaftsofthecart'spole';gall.
*balkon`(wall)projection',cymr.balog`pinnacle'(M.-L.890).
Withgutturalextensions:
Gr.,-f.`stem,balk,beam;battlerow,array',`planks,planking'(ifonlywith
secondarynasalrenderingfromothernounsin-,so*-=OldIndianbhurij-;yetperhapswith
bhel--onlyparallel-extensionfroman-stem*bheln-from);with-k-:m.`balk,beamplank
inship'.
Lat.fulci,-re,fuls,-tum(*bhlki)`topropup,support;tostrengthen,secure;morally,tosupport,
stay,uphold'(eig.`throughbalk,beam');fulcrum(*fulc-lom)`thepostorfootofacouch(prop,rack,
restcamp)'.
Perhapsalsosufflmen`abrake,drag,hindrance'(*flg-=idg.*bhl-smen);
aisl.bialki(*belkan-)`balk,beam';ablaut.(*balkan-):ags.balca,bealca;ahd.as.balko`balk,beam';

aisl.balkr`partitionwall,dividingoff,partitioningoff',blkr`dividingoff,partitioningoff';
zerogradeags.bolcam.`gangplank';butahd.bloh(h),mhd.bloch,nhd.(ndd.)Block`clot,chunk,
balk,plank'containsidg.u,alsofromidg.*bhluko-or,whetherwithgerm.consonantincrease,from
*bhlugo-,tomir.blog`piece,fragment',furtherperhapstogot.bliggwan,ahd.bliuwan,nhd.bleuen
`hit',fromidg.*bhleu-ono-;seeunderbheleu-.
Whereasbelongprobablyto*bhelh-`toswell'fromameaningmediation`thick,tumescent'from:
lit.balien`longbeamintheharrow',balenas`crossbar,crossbeam',lett.blins,blzinsm.
`prop',ostlett.blgzdsm.`propsconnectedinthewoodsledgelevel',lett.pablstsm.`prop,handle,
grasp,handleintheplow',blzt,pablstt`prop,sustain';
russ.mdartl.(Gouv.Olonez)blozno`thickboard',slov.blazna`roofbeam,crossbeamofthesledge,
stake,stanchion';kaub.bozno`therunnersconnectingthesledgeskids'.
References:
References:WP.II181f.,WH.I559,Trautmann25f.
Page(s):
Page(s):122-123
Root/lemma: bhel-6
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosound,speak,onomatopoeicwords
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schallen,reden,brllen,bellen';Schallwurzel
Material:
Material:OldIndianbha`barking,baying'(*bhels-),bhat`talks,speaks,prattles';bhaat
(Dhatup.)`speaks,jeers,rebukes'(*bhelnd),bhati`talks,speaks'(*bhel-n)areafterKuiper
Proto-Munda32f.nichtidg.
aisl.belja`roar,bellow',mndl.belen`bark,bay';aisl.bylja,bulda`threaten,drone,roar',bylr`gustof
wind',ags.bylgan`roar,bellow',mhd.boln`cry,roar,bellow';
withgerm.ll(consonantincreaseintheonomatopoeicwords),ahd.bellan`bark,bay',ags.bellan
`roar,bellow,bark,bay,grunt';ahd.bulln`howl(fromthewind),bark,bay,roar,bellow',isl.-norw.
bulla`babble,chat';aisl.bjalla,ags.belle,engl.bell,mnd.belle`bell',nhd.(eigentl.ndd.)Bellhammel
`bellwether(withbell)';
withgerm.ld(probablyfromapresentdh-andperhapswithlit.bldutocompare,becauselatter
containsmostprobablyidg.dh)dn.baldre,norw.mdartl.baldra,schwedmdartl.ballra`rant,roister'
mnd.ndl.balderends.,dn.buldre,schwed.bullsa,mnd.ndl.bulderen,bolderen,mhd.buldern,nhd.
poltern;OldPrussianbillit`say,speak',lit.blstu,bila,blti`tostarttotalk',blu,biloti`talk',bilju,-ti
`say,talk',byl-a,-tids.,byl`speech,pronunciation,conversation,entertainment',lett.bilstu,bilu,
bilst(inZs.)`talk,address,speakto',bildt`address,speakto';lett.billt(from*bilna)`weep,cry';
withformants-so-lit.balsas`voice,sound,tone';
toch.ABpl-,pl-`praise,laud'(VanWindekensLexique89).
References:
References:WP.II182,WH.I516,Trautmann25.
Seealso:
Seealso:Fromthisderived*bhl-`bleat'.

Page(s):
Page(s):123-124
Root/lemma: bhendhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobind
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`binden'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbadhnti,onlylaterbandhati`binds,fetters,captures,takesprisoner,put
together',av.bandayaiti`binds',participleOldIndianbaddh-,av.ap.basta-,OldIndianbndhanan.`ligation',bandh-m.`ligation,strap',
Note
Note:
Probablyfromav.ap.basta-n.`ligation'derivedalb.bes`pact,covenant,faith,belief,armistice',
previouslyillyr.TNBesoi[commonalb.shiftst>s];clearlyillyr.displayssimultaneoussatemand
centumcharacteristicssinceitwascreatedbeforethesplitofIndoEuropeanfamily.Becausethe
institutionofbesa isthemostimportantpaganmediumthatsurpassesmonotheisticreligionsinalb.
psyche,thatmeansalb.arethedescendantsofillyr.Onlyalb.andIndiclanguagesrelatetothefact
ofbloodbond.Theinstitutionofbesa markstheancientcodeofbloodrevengeandthevictoryof
patriarchyorthebloodlineofthefather.
av.banda-m.`band,manacle'(:aisl.as.bant,ahd.bantn.,nhd.Band;got.bandi,ags.bendf.ds.;
lit.band`cattle',seeunder);OldIndianbndhu-m.`kinsman,relative'(as).
Gr.`rope,hawser,rope,cable'(from*,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I287,compareBrugmann
IF.11,104f.,alsoforand),`father-in-law'(*`linkedbymarriage');
hereafterPedersen(REtIE.1,192)also`suffer'as`isbound,isentrapped',asalsolat.
offend`tostrikeagainst,knock;tohitupon,fallinwith;toshock,offend,displease;intransit.to
knock,strike;torunaground;tostumble,makeamistake,togiveoffence(withdat.);alsototake
offence',dfend`(*releasefromtheentanglement)torepel,repulse,wardoff,driveaway(2)to
defend,protect;esp.todefendincourt;inargument,tomaintainapropositionorstatement;to
sustainapart';(coverslate,butold),withsoundrearrangementhom.att.`crib'
(*bhndhn;underabasicmeaning`twisted,wovenbasket'askelt.benna`carriagebasket');
thrak.-`bind'(vglKretschmerEinl.236);alb.bes`pact,covenant,faith,belief,armistice';
illyr.TNBesoi
lat.offendimentum,offendix`theknotofaband,orthebanditself,chinstrapunderpriest'scap,apex
(aRomanpriest'scap),fastenedwithtwostringsorbands';
gall.benna`kindofvehicle',galat.,cymr.benn`wagon,cart'(outofitags.binn,and
throughroman.mediationnhd.dial.benne`carriageboxes',ndl.ben`basket,trough';basicform
*bhendh-n);mir.buinne`strap,bangle'(*bhondhi);
got.ags.bindan,aisl.binda,ahd.bintan`bind',got.andbundnan`isunfastened',got.bandietcsee
above;
lit.bedras`partner,comrade'(formantassociatedwithgr.),band`herdofcattle'(eig.`the

tied(down)cattle,theboundcattle').
Herealsogot.banstsm.`barn'(*bhondh-sti;compareinothermeaningafries.bst`matrimonial
union'from*bhondh-stu-`bond';
ndd.banse`silo,garner,barn',ags.*bs,engl.boose`cattleshed',ags.bsig`crib',aisl.bssm.
`roomforkeeping,cattlestall'(*band-sa-);
jt.bende`dividedoffroomincattleshed'erasesprobablyeverydoubtabouttherelationshipof
abovegroupwithbinden.
References:
References:WP.II152,WH.I102,Feist79,80f.,93.
Page(s):
Page(s):127
Root/lemma: bhendEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosing,rejoice
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:etwa`singen,schnklingen,jauchzen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhandat`receivescheeringshout,ispraised,glares,gleams',bhndiha-`in
loudestcheering,shrilly,screaming,bestofallpraising',

bhandna-`cheering',bhandn`merrytintinnabulation,cheer'(doubtsthemeaningpartly);zero
gradeair.mir.bind`melodic',abret.bann`melodious,harmonious'.
References:
References:WP.II151f.
Page(s):
Page(s):126-127
Root/lemma: bhenh-, bhn h-(Adj.bhn h-s )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:thick,fat
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`dick,dicht,feist'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbah-`dense,rich,much,alotof'`compoundsSup.bahyas-,bahiha-(=
gr.);

bahul-`thick,dense,vast,spacious,big,large,rich,much,alotof'(=gr.Adv.byAristot.,if
thesenotnewerformation);bhat(uncovered)`increase,multiply',bhhayat`clamps,fastens,
strengthens';
av.bzah-n.`height,depth',bnu-m.ds.,bal.bz`much,alotof',baz`dense';
gr.`thick,dense,fat,obese'(compounds),n.`thickness,fatness'(occursafter
for*=av.bzah-),`thick;thickness,fatness';
aisl.bingr`heap',aschwed.bingeds.,ahd.bungo`tuber,bulb',nhd.Bachbunge;inadditionwith
intens.consonant-sharpeningaisl.bunki`stowedawayshipload',norw.bunka(andbunga)`small
heap,swelling,blister',ndl.bonk`clump,lump'underlikewise;

Note:
Alb.bung`kindofedibleoakfruit':with-u-gradealb.(*beuka)buka`bread':phryg.`bread',
actually`crumb'provethatfromanextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:b(e)u-1,bh(e)u- :
:`expr.soundof
hitting'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheg-,bheng- :
:`tobreak',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhenh-, bhn h-(Adj.
bhn h-s )::`thick,fat',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheug-1 :
:`toflee,*befrightened',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheug2 ,bheugh- :
:`toclearaway,free',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheug-3 ,bheugh- :
:`tobow',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:
bheug-4 :
:`toenjoy,*consume,bite'astaboowords.
lett.bezs`dense,thick',bezums`thickness,fatness';
lat.pinguis`fat;oily;rich,fertile;n.assubst.fatness,fat.Transf.thick,dense;heavy,stupid;easy,
quiet'hasperhapsoriginatedthroughhybridizationof*fingu-is=,bah-withthattoopmus,
respectivewords;
toch.pkante,pkatte`greatness,bulk,extent'(VanWindekensLexique96);
hitt.pa-an-ku-(panku-)`all,ingeneral'.
References:
References:WP.II151,CouvreurH177.
Page(s):
Page(s):127-128
Root/lemma: bhenEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohit,wound
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schlagen,verwunden';alsovondurchdenSchlagbserGeisterbewirkter
Krankheit(avest.;comparetodiesemAberglaubenHaversIF.25,380f.)
Material:
Material:Av.bnayn`itmakesmesick',banta-`sickens,wasteaway';
got.banja`blow,knock,wound,ulcer',aisl.ben,ags.bennf.,as.beniwunda`wound';aisl.banim.
`death;murderer',ags.bana,ahd.as.bano`killer,murderer',ahd.bano,mhd.bane,ban`death,ruin';
perhapsalsomhd.bane,banf.andm.`pathway,way,alley'as`*byallmeansthroughanwood,
forest'or`*a(well-)beatentrack,awayusedoften';mir.epitf.`scythe,pruningknife'from*eks-bhent;corn.bony`axe';butcymr.bon-clust`slapintheface,boxontheear'containsbon`stick'.
Av.bata-,if`groundcoarsely,fromthegrain',couldberelatedas*bhnto-,butbecauseofthe
uncertainmeaningisonlytonamewithreservation.
References:
References:WP.II149,Feist80.
Page(s):
Page(s):126
Root/lemma: bheredhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tocut;board
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schneiden'

Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheredh- :
:`tocut;board'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhereh- :
:`high;mountain,
*sharp'[commonillyr.-balt-h->-dh-phoneticmutation].
Material:
Material:OldIndianbardhaka-`cutting,clipping',m.`carpenter',ata-bradh-na-`having100metal
points';perhapsgr.`destroy,smash',`destroy,smash,devastate';

bhredhos- inas.ags.bred`board',ahd.bretn.,therefromahd.britissa,nhd.Pritsche;
bhr d ho- ingot.ftu-bardn.`splint',aisl.bordn.`board,table,desk',ags.bordn.ds.,ahd.bortds.=
umbr.forfo-ds.infurfant`theylayontheboard';probablywithitidenticalaisl.bor`edge,border,
ship'srim',ahd.mhd.bortds.(nhd.BordfromNdd.),ags.bord`board,edge,shield';ags.bordam.
`edge,ornament,decoration',ahd.borto,nhd.Borte;
bhordho- inaisl.bar`edge,border',norw.dial.bardds.
Fromgerm.*bur-deriveskr.bdo,russ.brdoetc`weaver'sreed'andlett.birdef.`weaver'srack'.
References:
References:WP.II163,174,DevotoMl.Pedersen227f.,MeilletSlavecommun275.
Page(s):
Page(s):138
Root/lemma: bheregEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:expr.tosound,roar,cry,etc.,*sharpvoice
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:inSchallworten`brummen,bellen,lrmenunderlikewise'
Note:
Note:comparebher-ds.aswellasthatbybhreg-`break,rupture'and`crack,creak'encountering
onomatopoeicsounds
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhereg- :
:`expr.tosound,roar,cry,etc.,*sharpvoice'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
bhereh- :
:`high;mountain,*sharp'.
Material:
Material:Ags.beorcanstem-V.,bearkian(*barkn),engl.bark`bark,bay',aisl.berkja`bark,bay,
rumble,rage,clamor';
lit.(em.)burgti`drone,grumble,quarrel,squabble,beunfriendly',burgsus`crosspatch,grouch';
presumablyalsoskr.brgljati`mumble,murmur,chat',brgalica`turtledove'.
Besidessimilarbhereq-: lett.brcu,brkt`cry',russ.bre,brecht`yelp,cry,quarrel,squabble,
lie',brechnj`emptygossip',skr.brm,brhati`pant,gasp,loudcough'(*bhreq-s-),brkm,
brktati`pant,sniff,snort'.
Somewhatdifferentbecauseoftheclearonomatopoeicwordsarethefollowingwords,whichintheir
partiali-andu-vocalisminthesebybher(e)-`roast'remindpresentvocaldifferences,whichare
explainedfromdifferentsoundimitation:
gr.`asmallbird'(transpositionfrom*:lat.frig-);

lat.frig,-ere`squeak(ofsmallchildren)',frigutti,-re`chirp,twitter(frombirds),lisp',laterfringuli,
fringultids.,frigul,-re`cry(fromthejackdaw)',fring(u)illa`finch,sparrow';
maybealb.(*fringuilla)frglloj`shiver,tremble(likeabird)'
russ.berglz`goldfinch',skr.brglijez`Sittasyriaca',ech.brhel`Eurasiangoldenoriole,golden
oriole',mhr.`woodpecker',poln.bargiel`mountaintitmouse'.
Similarones,butindeednewonomatopoeicwordsarelat.merulusfrindit,lit.briz-gti`bleat,grouse,
drone,hum,grumble'.
References:
References:WP.II171f.,WH.I548.
Page(s):
Page(s):138-139
Root/lemma: bherehEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:high;mountain
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`hoch,erhaben'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhereh- :
:`high;mountain'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bher- ,bhr- :
:`to
shine;white,*ashwood,ashen,birchtree,elm'
Material:
Material:OldIndianKaus.barhyati`increases',brhti`makesfat,obese,strengthens,uplifts',
presumablybarha-s,-m`tailfeather,tailofabird,esp.fromapeacock';brhnt-`big,large,high,
convex,elevated,noble,sublime',also`high,loud(ofthevoice)',fern.brhat(=ir.Brigit,germ.
Burgund),av.brzant-(npers.buland),f.brzait`high',incompoundbrzi-(:*brzra-),brz`high'and`height,mountain'(=npers.burzds.,ir.bri;theNom.av.barSubst.couldcontainar.-ar-,
butalsoar.-r-,BartholomaeIF.9,261),zerogradeav.uz-barzayeni`Ishallallowtogrowup'(in
addition-`improveluck',iran.*barzana-),barzan-m.barzah-n.`height',barnu-m.
`elevation,height,sky,heaven,head',barzyah-`higher',barzita-`thehighest,themostsuitable';
npers.bl`height'(*barz-),burz(seeabove);
OldIndianbrhnt-standsforalso`big,large,vast,grand,thick,massive'andbrhati`makesfat,
obese,invigorates,strengthens,increases,furthers',bhAdv.`dense,tight,firm,strong,
proficient;very,absolutely',paribrha-`standingfirm,dense,solid'.
Arm.berj`height'inerkna-,lerna-berj`sky-,mountainous'(*bherhos),barjr`high'(*bhrhu-),(ham)banam(*barjnam,Aor.barji)`liftup'etc.

Berg-inPNtheMediterraneancountries:thrak.,maked.,ill.Berginium(Bruttium:
Bergae),lig.Bergomum,kelto-lig.Bergusia,hisp.Bergantiaetcaboutp-inkleinas.,,
maked.kret.suppositionsbyKretschmerGl.22,100f.,KraheZNF.19,64.
Lat.for(c)tis,alat.forctus,dial.horctus,horctis`physically,strong,powerful,robust;morally,brave,
courageous,steadfast,bold,audacious'(from*forg-tos,idg.*bhrh-tos=OldIndianbrh).
Cymr.bera`heap'(=nhd.Berg),acorn.bret.bernds.(-rh-n-s.PedersenKG.I105),gall.PN
Bergusia,zerogrademir.br,Akk.brig`hill'(seeabove),cymr.bry`high,above',fem.,cymr.corn.

bret.bre`hill',gall.Litano-brigaamongothersPN;gall.Brigantes,people'sname(either
`thesublime,noble'or`troglodyte,cavedweller,cliffdweller';OldIndianbrhant-),BrigantiaPN
`Bregenz(westernAustria)'andnameofafemininedivinity,air.Brigit(*bhrhnt)`nameofafamous
saintandgenerallywomen'sname'(alsoOldIndianbrhatisusedaswoman'sname,alsoahd.
Purgunt),cymr.braint`privilege,prerogative'(eig.`highness'),pl.breiniau,inadditionmcymr.
breenhin,ncymr.brenin`king',corn.brentyn,bryntynds.(*brigantnos).
Got.bargahei`mountainrange,mountainousregion',aisl.bjargandberg,ahd.as.berg`mountain',
ags.beorh,beorg`height,burialmound',engl.barrow`burialmound'(comparearm.-berj,cymr.bera,
OldIndianbarha-);
germ.*burgund(=OldIndianbrhat,kelt.*brigant,ir.Brigit)inBurgund,oldestnameofBornholm
(Danishisland)(eig.`thehigh-rising')andnameDanishandnorw.islands,ahd.Purguntwomen's
name,inadditionBurgundines,familyname.
Got.baurgsf.`town,city,tower',ahd.burgetc`castle'isgenuinegerm.equivalentofav.brz-,kelt.
brig-withthemeaning`fortifiedheightasrefuge';Withitiscoincidentthoughlat.burgus`castle,fort',
thatisborrowedfromgr.`tower',anorientalloanwordfromurart.burgana`palace,fortress'
derives(820v.Chr.,s.AdontzREtIE1,465),whereofwouldhavealsoderivedarm.burgn,aram.
burgin,burgon`tower'etc.afterKretschmerthoughgerm.Lw.
Maybealb.burg`prison'
Thiscontemplates*berh`save,hide,shelter',originallyostensibly`providingsancturayfor
someoneatarefuge'asretrogradederivativeto*bherh-`mountain'(Gl.22,113);s.aboveS.145.
OldChurchSlavicbrg`bank,border,shore,slope',skr.brjeg`hill,bank,border,shore',russ.
bregds.,isprobablynotgerm.Lw.,butratherven.-ill.origin;BrcknerKZ.46,232,PerssonBeitr.
927;
Maybealb.bregu`bank,border,shore,slope'.
fromlatterwithbrgasgenuineSlavicwordsrelatedklr.o-boh,ech.brah`haystack'etcbelongs
rathertoOldChurchSlavicbrg`care'(*preserve,save,hide,shelter),asstog:.
Maybealb.breng`care,sadness,sorrow',brengos`sadden,worry'
Withothervowelgradation*bhregh-perhapsinags.brego,breogo`master,mister,ruler,prince,
lord',aisl.bragr`best,mostexquisite,mostdistinguished,leader,chief,prince',mhd.brogen`rise,
directupwards,wantonbrag'.
Toch.ABprk-`rise',Aprknt,pirko`therising',Aprkr,parkre,prkre`tall';
perhapsAprkr,prkre`tight,firm,solid'(comparelat.fortis);hitt.pr-ku-u(parkus)`high'(:arm.
barjr).
Maybealb.(*parkus)pragu`threshold,elevationbeforethedoor':hitt.pr-ku-u(parkus)`high'
References:
References:WP.II173f.,WH.I124,535f.,853,Feist75f.,85f.,Trautmann30f.,VanWindekens
Lexique90,CouvreurH178.
Page(s):
Page(s):140-141

Root/lemma: bherem-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tostickout;edge,hem
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`hervorstehen,eineSpitzeorKantebilden;Kante,Spitze'
Material: bhorm-:
Aisl.barmr`edge,hem',eybarmr`theedgeofanisland',norw.dial.barm`extremity,border,brim,
edge,rim'(e.g.inthesail),ndd.barm,berme`aledgeatthebottomofabankorcutting,tocatch
earththatmayrolldowntheslope,ortostrengthenthebank;anarrowshelforpathbetweenthe
bottomofaparapetandtheditch'.

bhrem-:bhrom- :
Perhapslat.frns,frondisf.`aleaf,foliage;meton.,achapletorcrownofleaves'(*bhrom-di-,as
glnsfrom*glandi-);
Note:commonlat.ph->f-shift
an.brumn.`leafbuds',ahd.brom,brumds.,schweiz.brom`flowerbud,youngtwig,branch',ablaut.
brmeds.
Inabasicmeaning`bristly,thorn'goback:ags.brmm.`broom'(*bhrmo-),mnd.brm`blackberry
bush,broom',ahd.brmom.,brmaf.`briar,blackberrybush',brmberi,nhd.Brombeere,ags.
brmel,engl.bramble(protogerm.*brmil),ablaut.mnl.bremme,ahd.brimma`broom'andmnd.
brme,brummeds.
Withthemeaning`edge,border':mhd.brmn.`border,edging,edge',nhd.verbrmen,changing
throughablautmengl.brimme,engl.brim`edge'.
References:
References:WP.II102.
Page(s):
Page(s):142
Root/lemma: bherem-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobuzz,drone
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`brummen,summen,surren'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhramar-`bee';
gr.,-f.`zither',becauseofsuffixesloanwordInitialsoundvariant*brem- probablyin
`boom,blaster,sough,rustle,bawl,blaster',m.`noise,crackling',f.`thunder'
(*-);
lat.frem,-ere`roar,murmur,growl;withacc.tomurmuroutsomething,grumble,complain';frontsia
`thunderandlightning'isLw.fromgr.(to);
Maybealb.frym`breath,exhalation',frynj`blow'

cymr.brefu`bleat,roar,bellow';ahd.breman`drone,grumble,roar,bellow',ags.bremman`roar,
bellow',brymmn.`flood,sea',mhd.brimmends.,ablaut.brummen`drone,grumble'(inaddition
brunft`heat,rut,ruttingseason');mnd.brummenandbrammends.,ahd.as.bremo`gadfly,brake',
mhd.breme,as.bremmia,ahd.brimisse,nhd.Bremeand(fromdemNdd.)Bremse;
poln.brzmie`sound,clink,buzz'(*brm-),bulg.brm`buzz,drone,hum',brmkamds.,brmb-al,
-ar,-r`bumblebee,beetle,chafer'.
Maybealb.geg.diminutive(*brum-el)brumull,tosk.brumbull`bumblebee,beetle,bug'[commonalb.
m>mb phoneticmutation]
Asextensions*bhrem-perhapsheretheonomatopoeicwords:OldIndianbhrga-`giantblackbee';
poln.brzk`sound,tinkling,clinking;gadfly,brake',russ.brjkat`clang,clink,clatter',ech.brouk
`beetle,chafer';lit.brnkterti`fallchinking'etc;
lit.brenzgu,brengsti`clang,clink,knock',ablaut.branzgu,brangsti`sound,clink';slav.brzgin
russ.brjzgiPl.`emptygossip';russ.-ChurchSlavicbrjazdati`sound,clink'.
References:
References:WP.II202f.,WH.I544f.,Trautmann37.
Page(s):
Page(s):142-143
Root/lemma: bheresEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:quick
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schnell'
Material:
Material:Lat.festn,-re`tohasten,hurry;transit.,tohasten,accelerate',Denom.von*festi(n)-,n-`haste,hurry',Erweit.to*festi-(from*fersti-)incnfestim`immediately,withoutdelay'(from*com
fest`withhaste,hurry');
mir.bras`quick,fast,stormy'(*bhresto-),cymr.brysds.(*bhrsto-),mbret.bresic,brezec`hasty';
lit.bruz-g-s`quick,fast',bruz-d-s`movable,nimble',besidesburz-d-lisds.,burz-dti`runtoand
fro';
slav.*brzinOldChurchSlavicbrzoAdv.`quick,fast',skr.brz`quick,fast',russ.borzj`quick,
fast,fiery',besides*brzdinwruss.brzdoAdv.`quick,fast',skr.brzdcaf.`rapids,speedin
stream'.
Perhapshereligur.FlNBersula,schweiz.FlNBirsig(KraheZONF9,45).
Maybealb.(*bersul)vrsul,`rushforward,attack',truncated(*vrsul)sul`rush,attack'[commonalb.
b->v-shift].
References:
References:WP.II175,WH.I259,488f.,Trautmann40,SpechtDekl.192.
Page(s):
Page(s):143
Root/lemma: bh(e)reu- :bh(e)r -

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toboil,tobewild
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sichheftigbewegen,wallen,especiallyvomAufbrausenbeimGren,Brauen,
Kochenetc'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombher-2.
Material:
Material:A.ablautbheru-(bheru-),bhr-:
OldIndianbhurvi-`restless,wild',bhurvn-`uncontrollablemovementofwater'.
Arm.bark`sharp,sour,cruel,savage'(barkanam`Igetangry'),whichisverymuchambiguous,itis
constructedherefromDumzilBSL.40,52as*bhru-,likewiseberkrim`Iamglad'as*bheru-;very
doubtful!
Gr.,Hes.(*bher-u-)and`mixture,rubbish,chaff,crap,muck',
,`knead,jumble,mingle,sully,besmirch',probablyalso-`gestures,
behavesimpatiently(esp.fromwildhorses);berollicking,wanton'commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ssphoneticmutation.
Thrak.(seebelow).
Alb.brumm.,brumf.`sourdough',mbruj,mbrnj`knead'.
Lat.ferve,-re,ferv,-re`tobeboilinghot,toboil,seethe,glow.Transf.,tobeinquickmovement,
toseethe;tobeexcitedbypassion,rage'(aboutfermentums.bher-2 );dfrtum`leaven,yeast;a
kindofbeer.Transf.anger,passion'(:thrak.,,`akindofbarleybeer';from
thrak.*brti(gr.),derivesillyr.brsa`skinsofpressedgrapes',protoextensionalb.brsds.,
fromwhichserb.bersa,brsa,brza`mouldonthewine';lat.brsafromdemVenet.orMessap.).
Note
Note:
Notonlyalb.isthedirectdescendantofillyr.butAlbansinAlbaLonga
AlbaLongabroughttheirbeerformula
fromIllyricum(Albanoiillyr.TN)toItaly.Slaviclanguagesborrowedtheircognatesfromillyr.
Mir.berbaim`cook,simmer,seethe',cymr.berwi,bret.birvi`simmer,seethe,boil',bero,berv
`cooked,boiled',gall.GNBorvo(fromspa,mineralspring),comparewithothersuffixBormaboveS.
133;perhapsalsofrz.bourbe`slime,mud'fromgall.*borv`mineralwater';air.bruth`blaze,glow,
fury',mir.bruith`cook',enbruithe`broth,meatbroth'(toen-`water',seeunderpen-2 ),acymr.brut
`courage,spirit,vivacity;alsopride,arrogance',ncymr.brwd`hot'(cymmrwd`mortar'from*kom-bruto-,comparemir.combruith`simmer,seethe,boil'),brydio`seethe,froth',acorn.bredion`dealer,
broker'(Umlaut),abret.brot`jealousy',nbret.broud`hot,fermenting'.
Aboutgerm.bru-formsseeunderB.
B.ablautbhr u - and(partiallyagain)bhr - :
Atfirstinwordsfor`wellspring'=`bubblingover'(r/n-stem,perhapsbhru r ,, bhru n - , bhrun- );arm.
abiur,abeur(Gen.aber)`wellspring'(from*bhrw(a)r=)gr.,-`stream,brook'(*F,-,hom.,consigns);mir.tipraf.`wellspring'(maybefromair.*tiprar<*to-eksbhrur),Gen.tiprat(*to-eks-bhruntos);air.-tiprai`streamsagainst...`(*to-eks-bhru-t);fromstem
bhrun-thecaseobliquifromasen-stemprotogerm.*brun,*brun(e)n-,got.brunna,ahd.brunno,ags.

brunna,burna`well,waterhole,spring'(aisl.brunn),withmetathesisnhd.(ndd.)Born.
Maybealb.buronj`spring,originate',burim`origin,source,spring,bubblingwater(asifboiling)':
russ.bruj`current';alsoalb.(*bruth)burth`Cyclameneuropaeum(burningofdonkey'smouth)'
where-thisadiminutivealb.ending.
Note:
Alb.showsthatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bh(e)reu- :bh(e)r - :
:`toboil,tobewild'isanextendedRoot/
Root/
lemma: bher-2 :
:`toboil,swell;togethigh'(seebelow)whilethelatterrootevolvedfromRoot/
Root/
lemma: bher-1
: `tobear,carry'.
Withsimilarmeaningruss.bruj`current',brut`rapidlyflowing,streamingin',wruss.brji`urinate,
passwater'(thismeaningalsoinmhd.brunnenandinnhd.dial.brunzen,bair.brunnlen`urinate,
passwater'fromBrunnen),formalnexttolit.br(i)ujs,br(i)utis`pushforwardwithbruteforce'
(*bhru-),lett.braulgs`horny,lustful';alsoOldPrussianbrewingi`conducive,helpful'

bhre-n-u- (presentwithnasalinfix,comparenhd.brennen)withwithrespectonlickingflameslies
beforeingot.ahd.as.brinnan,ais.brinna,ags.beornan,birnan`burn',Kaus.got.brannjan,aisl.
brenna,ahd.brennan,ags.brnan`burn',whereforeamongothersahd.brant`blaze',brunst`burn,
blaze',aisl.bruni,ags.bryne`blaze',ahd.bronado,ags.brunaa`itchiness,heatinthebody',
schwed.brnad`rutting';
bhru - :bhruu - in:ahd.briuwan,ags.browan`brew',aschwed.bryggja(from*bryggwa)ds.;germ.
*brua-in:aisl.ags.bro,ahd.pro`broth'(:defrtum,air.bruth,thrak.;mhd.brodelen,nhd.
brodeln);
germ.*braua-in:aisl.brau,ags.brad,ahd.brt`bread'(fromtheferment);aboutahd.wintesprt
`storm;tempest,whirlwind's.Kluge11692.

References:
References:WP.II167f.,WH.I333f.,487.
Page(s):
Page(s):143-145
Root/lemma: bher- ,bhrEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine;white,*ashwood,ashen,birchtree,elm
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen,wei'
Note:
Note:equivalentwithbherk-,s.d.thegroupsbhere-,bherek-shine,appear,seemtobe
extensionstobher-`bright,brown'.Similartoextensionbheleg-besidesbhel-`shine'.
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhrjat`glares,gleams,shines';Oldpers.brzaitids.(*bhr),npers.
barzdan`shine',barz`jewellery';
bsl.*brsk-frombhrg-sk-inlit.brkta,brko,brkti`break,(dawn),(fromtheday)',apbrkis
`timearounddaybreak';slov.brsk,ech.besk,poln.brzask`daybreak,dawn',poln.obrzaskn
`becomebright',brzeszczysi`itdawns,thedaybreaks',withAssimil.ofauslauts-sk-tothe

soundingwordanlautOldChurchSlavicpobrzg`dawn,twilight,daybreak',russ.brezg,poln.
brzazgds.
Withgradationbh(e)r-probablyschwed.brokig`varicolored',norw.mdartl.brk`ayoungsalmon
withtransversebands(',alsoasbrkaf.`large-scalemottledanimal'.
Withlengthenedgradethe1.syllable:got.barhts`bright,gleaming,distinct',ahd.beraht,mhd.berht
`gleaming'(alsoinnamesahd.Bert-,-bert,-brecht),ags.beorht`gleaming,radiating'(engl.bright),
aisl.biartr`light,bright';cymr.berth`gleaming,beautiful',PNbret.Berth-walart,ir.Flaith-bertach;lit.
javabrt`thegrainbecomeswhite';probablyalsonorw.mdartl.bjerk`verybright'(comparenoch
berk`whitetrout',schwed.bjrkna`Abramisblicca').
reductiongradealb.barth(bardhi)`white'(*bhro-).
Note
Note:
Commonalb.-->-dh-phoneticmutation
Illyr.Bardhylus`Illyrianking'acompoundofillyr.barth(*bher-)`white'+illyr.hyllus`sun,star'.
Innamesofthebirch
birch(slav.partlyelm
elm,lat.ashtree
ashtree):
OldIndianbhrj-m.`akindofbirch';osset.brz`birch';dak.PNBersovia;lat.farnus`ash
tree'(*fr[a]g-s-no-s,originallystuffadj.`ashen',aswellas:)frxinusds.(tobeginprobablywith,

*bher-s-ens);twofolddevelopmentof-er-infarnusandfrxinuswouldbecausedbyoldaccent
differenceasinpalma=gr.*,comparedwithltus=;
Maybealb.geg.frashn`ash-tree':lat.frxinus`ash-tree';
ahd.birihha(*bher-i),ags.beorc,birce,aisl.bjrk(*bher)`birch';
lit.brasm.,Pl.brai`birch',ablaut.brtvaf.`birchforest';birliai`birchtwigs',lett.brzsm.,Old
Prussianberse`birch';russ.berza,skr.brza,ch.bieza`birch'(theoldcolormeaningstillin
bulg.brz`whitespotted'=norw.bjrks..,slov.brza`nameofawhitespottedcowornanny
goat');
Maybealb.brez`stripe'
withformants-to-(=got.barhts)andintonationchangeslav.*berstinruss.brestm.`elm,
framework',skr.brjest,ech.brestds.,butwiththemeaning`birch'againstruss.berstaf.,bersto
n.`birchbark',ech.besta`upperbirchbark'.
Ahd.-brechtcould,ifthisvocalizationinsteadof-ber(h)tnotainnovationis,areappliedtobherek-,as
alsoingot.barhts,cymr.berth,hitt.parkui.
References:
References:WP.II170f.,WH.I458,510f.,544,Trautmann32,37f.,SpechtDekl.57.
Page(s):
Page(s):139-140
Root/lemma: bherk - ,bhrk -

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen'
Note:
Note:equivalentwithbher-, bhr-ds.(seethere,alsobecauseofambiguouswords)
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhrat`blazes,shines'(uncovered);
gr.,,Hes.,comparebutS.134;
perhapshereair.brecc`mottled,speckled,*tabby',cymr.brychds.,gall.PNBriccius(from*bhrk-,
withexpressiveconsonantstretch);
uncertainsuppositionsabouttheoriginofcymr.breuddwyd`dream',mir.bruatards.byPedersen
Litteris7,18,PokornyIF.Anzeiger39,12f.;whetherfrom*bhroghdh-eiti-,-ro-
mhd.brehen`suddenandstrongflash',aisl.brj,br(*brehn)`flash',braga,braga`sparkle,glitter,
flame,burn',brag`(*blink)moment',withoriginallybareprs.-dh-alsoaisl.brega,preteritbr
`quick,fastmove,swing,reproach',ags.bregdan,brdanst.V.`quick,fastmove,swing',engl.braid
`flax,wattle,braid',upbraid`reproach',ahd.brettan,mhd.bretten`pull,tear,twitch,weave'(in
additionahd.brdel,ags.brdel,olderbrigdels`bridle,rein');
withformants-u o - got.braininbraaaugins`,inaflash,atthemoment'
(compareaisl.augnabragn.`blink,winkingtheeyes')andlengthenedgradees*brhw,*brwin
aisl.brf.`eyelash',ags.brw,braw,brgm.`eyelid',as.brha`eyebrow',slegi-brwa`eyelid',
ahd.brwaf.`brow',wint-prwa`eyelash'(themeaning`brow'orientedfrom*r-`brow',idg.*bhr-);
thatinspiteofSchwyzerGr.Gr.I.350,4636andSpechtDekl.83,162ahd.brwacouldgonotback
to*bhru,isprovedthroughthegrammat.variationinAgs.,theformwith-ku-assumes(SieversBrunner200).

Hereprobablyakindoffishahd.brahs(i)a,brahsina,as.bressemo`bream,freshwaterbream',norw.
brasma,brasmeds.,ablaut.aisl.brosma`akindofcodfish'.
Hitt.prkui(parkui)`clean,pure',pr-ku-nu-uz-zi(parkunuzi)`purified,clean'.
References:
References:WP.II169,Feist76f.,103f.,CouvreurH327.
Page(s):
Page(s):141-142
Root/lemma: bherhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohide,keep
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bergen,verwahren'
Material:
Material:Got.bargan`save,store,keep',aisl.bjarga,ags.beorgan,ahd.bergan,as.gibergan
`save,store';changingthroughablautags.byrgan`bury',byrgen(*burgizn),byrgels,
as.burgisli`burial,funeral'andahd.bor(a)gn`spare,lookafter,entrust,borrow',ags.borgian`look
after,watchover,keep,borrow'.
Note:

Alb.-illyr.andcelt.-slav.languagesprovethatfromazerogradeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhereh- :
`high;mountain'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bherh- :
:`tohide,keep'.Cognatesderivingfromthosetwo
rootsmarkofwaveofIEpeoplewhointroducedburialmoundsinEurope.
Maybealb.nasalized(*bergo)breng`concern,sadness(foradeadperson)',brengos`sadden':
OldChurchSlavicbrg,brti`care,worry'.
Slav.*berginOldChurchSlavicbrg,brti`care,worry'innebrti`neglect',russ.bereg,ber
`beware,preserve,protect,spare,lookafter,spare',skr.olderbrem,brijei`guard,watch,preserve,
protect,care,worry;holdfestivities';changingthroughablautklr.oboh,gen.oborha`haystack',
ech.brah`haystack,heap',poln.brg`barn,haystack'(outofitlit.brgasds.);zerogradeech.brh
`cave,cottage,tent';ostlit.birginti`spare'.
Perhapsheregallo-rom.(rht.-ill.)barg`coveredthatchedhut',whetherfrom*borg;TagliaviniZrP.
46,48f.,BonfanteBSL.36,141f.
References:
References:WP.II172,Trautmann31,Feist76.
Seealso:
Seealso:compareaboveS.141.
Page(s):
Page(s):145
Root/lemma: bher-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobear,carry
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`tragen,bringen'etc(alsoLeibesfruchttragen;med.`ferri
ferri'),also`aufheben,
erheben'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:Therootbher-,formstheexceptionalboththemat.andathemat.
present,becausethedurativerecognizesneitherAor.norPerf.inIdg.
Note:
Note:Besidebher-,withthem.vowelbhere- ,seesaheavybasisbher :bhr- .
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhrati`carries',av.baraitids.(and`ride'),Oldpers.barantiy3.Pl.ds.(=arm.
berem,phryg.-,gr.,lat.fer,air.biru,alb.bie,got.baira,
OldChurchSlavicbero);OldIndianbhrti(alsoasgr.,lat.fertoldunthem.form),bibhrti,
bbharti,bibhrm,bibhrati(comparethatprobablywith=bibhrmederived-
`bringin,takein'),them.abibhran,bibhrama-andav.-bbarmi;
Perf.babhraandjabhra(hybridizationofbabhrawithjahrafromhrti);
participleOldIndianbhrt-,av.brte-;Supin.OldIndianbhrtum;Kaus.OldIndianbhryati=Iter.
av.braya-;
Sup.av.bairita-`hecherishesbest,cares,looksafter'(=gr.`mostsuperior,best',probably
`hecarriestherichest,mostfertile');
OldIndianbhrt`carrying,sustenance,livelihood,food,wage'=av.brtis`carrying'(=lat.fors,
got.gabars,arm.bard);OldIndianbhrty`food,nourishment,care,cultivation'(comparegot.

barei);
OldIndianbhrman-n.`preservation,nourishment,care,cultivation;load'(=gr.,OldChurch
Slavicbrm),heavybasisinbharman-n.ds.;bhartram`arm'(`*wherewithonecarries');
OldIndianbhra-`acquiring,carryingoff,profit,gain,booty;burden'
Maybealb.barr`burden':OldIndianbhr`bundle,work,load';
npers.bar`fruit'(=gr.,OldChurchSlavics-bor);OldIndian-bhar-`bearing,carrying,
bringingetc',av.-bards.(=arm.-vor,gr.-,e.g.=OldIndiandurbhara-);
maybealb.bar`grass,herb'relatedtonpers.bar`fruit'.
OldIndianbhraa-m`carrying,bringing,providing,support'(=Inf.got.baran);OldIndianbhrtar-,
bhartr-`bearer,provider',prbhartar-`carrier(ofthesacrifice)',av.fra-brtar-`carrierofthings,
secondarypriest'(comparelat.fertr-ius,umbr.arsfertur),fem.OldIndianbhartr,av.barr
`supporter,upholder,mother';lengthenedgradeOldIndianbhr`bundle,work,load',bhrin`bearing,carrying',bhrman-(n.)`bringing,attendance',bhrya-`tobear,carry,support,nourish'
(==ahd.brior=*bhrio-ingr.);ba-bhr-`bearing,carrying,borne'.
Arm.berem`bear,bring'(Aor.eber=,bharat),ben,Gen.bein`burden,load'(comparegr.
`dowry'),ber`yield,fruit,fertility'and`movement,run',-ber`bringing,bearing,carrying',e.g.in
lusaber`light-bringing,morningstar',secondaryinsteadof-vor,e.g.lusa-vor`light-bringing'(compare
lat.Lci-fer,gr.-);bari`good',barv-ok`good,best';bard`heap;compound',lengthened
grade*bhr-inbun`hand,fist;force,might';
phryg.()(also)`(injury,evil)cause,carry';
gr`bear'(onlypresentsystem,onceparticiple;Ipv.),med.`movesme
fast'(alsoOldIndianbharat,lat.ferr,compareabovearm.berandunderAlb.),Iter.`bear
etc'(=alb.mbaj);about`thebest,noble',Kompar.seeaboveS.128and
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I3002,535,538;abouts.Boisacqs.v.andS.132;
Note:
commonalb.b->mb->m-phoneticmutationasinalb.geg.maj`bear'
,withthem.Vok.`bier,stretcher'(lat.feretrum`alitter,bier'fromdemGr.);
`fruit,fieldcrop,agriculturalcrop,unbornchild;fruitofone'swomb,fetus';`dowry',ol.with
them.vowelf.ds.;`yield,tax',-`bearing,carrying',:`carrying,plentiful
yield,fullness,wealth';[]`means:container/vesselwithtwogrips/handles';
`burden,load,cargo';`quiver';-`thecharioteer'sandthecombatants'holdingpartof
thewarchariot';`thief'(=lat.fr),,.Hes.;fromderived
`spyonthethief',thengenerally`spyon,track',p:`housesearch';`boxforthe
storageofclothes'dueto*bhrios`wearable,bearable'.
Fromtheheavybasisbh(e)r- ():Fut.-,Aor.-,-joinedtogether(with-`let
pass',with-`letin,putin',with-`bringout,letout,unburden');paradigmaticwith()--
(seeabovetoOldIndianbibhrm).
Ligur.FlNPorco-bera`guidingfish',Gando-bera`guidingscree'.

Mess.maberan,berametc,tabara`priestess'(*to-bher),dor.-ill..
,Hes.(togr.`dowry'),doubtful,Hes.
Note:
Illyr.,Mess.andlateralb.displaysatemcharacteristicsthesameasOldIndianandav.Notonlyillyr.
shareswithOldIndianandav.thecognatesfor`bear'butalsotheinstitutionofpriesthoodandearth
fertility:Mess.maberan,berametc,tabara`priestess':av.fra-brtar-`carrierofthings,secondary
priest'(comparelat.fertr-ius,umbr.arsfertur),fem.OldIndianbhartr,av.barr`supporter,
upholder,mother';
Alb.[causativebjer]bie(*bher),2.Pl.bini`bring,bear,lead,guide',also`fall,fail,hit',ber,beronje
`dart,arrow';kompon.*dz-bier,vdjeretc`fall,lose,destroy',ndzjer`bringout',zbjer`fall,lose';also
bieinthemeaning`fall'(compareetc),whereforedzbor,vdoretc`snow'(prefixdz-,dand*bhreig.`thefallingdown,fallingoff');
iterative*bhoriintosk.mbanj,mbaj,oldermba,geg.mba,mbaj`keep,tend,lookafter,observe,
bear',nordostgeg.alsousedfromcarryingpregnantanimals,withrestoredralsombar,bar`bear,
drag';[commonalb.b->mb-phoneticmutation]
Note
Note:
Alb.(*nd-bor)dbor,dzbor,vdor,bdor,xbor,bor`snow'isatranslatedGermaniccognate.
Albaniannd-`below,low'+(*bher)`fallen'=Swedishnederbrd`snowfall'(nedan`below'+brd
`descent,fall(birth,descent,ancestry,lineage,parentage)'=Germanniederschlagsmenge(niederschlagsmenge).
Alb.abbreviated(*nde-bor)zbor`snow':rum.zbura`fly,flyout,flight,flit,tower,flash,career,
sweep,hover,sail,dart,dash,flee,fleet,slip,glide',zbor`flight,soar,soaring,fly,flying,race,
volitation,gliding,towering'.
Latvianbirt`tosnow(*fall,descend)':Latvian:brt`scatter'fromOldChurchSlavic:brati`gather,
select'[verb],ber:Polishzbr`(church)gathering':Russiansobr`church,assembly,meeting'
Alsoalb.bor`(fallen)snow':Latvianbirt`topour,fall,rain,snow,hail':Hungarianporhn.`snow'.
Altaicetymology:
Protoform:
Protoform:*pru
Meaning:
Meaning:`tosnow,rain'
Turkicprotoform:
Turkicprotoform:*boraMongolianprotoform:
Mongolianprotoform:*borua
Tungusprotoform:
Tungusprotoform:*purKoreanprotoform:
Koreanprotoform:*pora
Japaneseprotoform:
Japaneseprotoform:*pr-

Note:
Note:Poppe21,Ozawa288-289,1,188-189,69.Cf.*boru,acontaminationwith
whichshouldexplainMong.*b-(onewouldexpect*h-withlowtoneandshortness).
Kaus.*bhreiingr.-alb.bonj,pass.bonemfrommatingofthemaresandcows,eig.`makebear,
makepregnant',anddzbonj(etc)`chaseaway,driveout,driveaway'(*`makefallaway,makeflee');
mbar`good,lucky',barr`load'(*bhorn,comparegot.barnn.`kid,child');mberat`pregnant',bark
`belly'etc,bar`grass,herb'(*bhoro-`yield');
Note:
Maybealb.(*brauk)barku`belly'derivesfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhreu-s-1 :
:`toswell'(seebelow).

bir`son'(*bher-,comparegot.baur`son'),bij,gr.cal.bil`daughter'(withdiminutivesuffix-l,-j)
:ags.byre`son';
Note:
Maybealb.l/raremereallophonesasinalb.gjarpn,gjalpr`snake'.

burr(*baur)`man,husband'(comparetomeaningahd.baro`man,husband';alb.basicform
*bhornos,reduplication-stembesidesgot.barn);presumablyalsomburr`praise',mburem`boast,
brag,beproud'.
Maybekurd.bere`offspring'
Lat.fer,ferre`tobear,bring,carry;tobringforth,produce;tobringtoaplaceoraperson,fetch,
offer;tobearaway,carryoff;tobearalong,moveforward,putinmotion.Transf.,tomove,impel,
carryaway;withoutobject,tolead,tend'(asgr.onlypresentsystem),umbr.fertu`youshall
bear'etc,volsk.ferom`bear,carry',marruc.ferenter`theyarecarried,theyareborn'(comparefrom
compoundad-,affer:got.atbara;effer:,air.as-biur);ferx`fertile';
Lat.ferculum`aframe,litter,bier,tray;offood,acourseordish',praefericulum`wideofferingvessel';
*fertor`thebearer',assumedfromfertrius`asedanwhichservesforcarrying'and=umbr.a-fertur,
arsfertur`thepriestofsomeparticulargod';fertilis`fertile',pl.fertlidAbl.Sg.;-ferincompound
secondaryinsteadof-for`bearing,carrying,bringing';fordaf.`pregnant'(do-extensionofAdj.
*bhor-s`bearing,carrying',s.WH.I527);fr`thief'(=gr.,s.o.;tolat.s.WH.I569);

forsNom.(=idg.*bhrtis),forteAbl.`chance,luck'=pl.fortePl.`chance,hap,luck,fate,fortune';
fortna`chance,fate,lot,luck,fortune.Transf.,lot,condition,state,modeoflife;property,
possessions'(fromtu-stem*bhr-tu-s).
Note:commonlat.ph->f-shift.
Air.1.Sg.biru,-biur,3.Sg.berid`bear,carry',as-biur`tell',do-biur`give',cymr.cymeraf`take'etc;
mir.bertm.`bundle,load',f.`feat,dead,act,plan,birth'etc,birit`sow'=OldIndianbhranti`bearing,
carrying';
air.mir.brethand(eig.Dat.Akk.)brith,breith(Gen.brithe`carrying,parturition(Verbaln.tobiru);
birth;judgement'(*bhrt);cymr.bryd`thought,notion'(rather*bhrtu-as*bhrti-,s.Lewis-Pedersen
345),corn.brys`thought,notion',brys`womb';gall.uergo-bretusOfficetitle,whetherfor*-britos;

ir.barn`judge',cymr.bret.barn`judgement'(probably*bhornos,compareabovealb.burre;Pedersen
KG.I51nimmt-r-,i.e.er,an);

air.brth,gen.-o`court',cymr.brawd`judgement',corn.bresds.,bret.breut`addresstothejury;
summation;summingup;plea',Pl.breujou`theassizesofjustice,judgmentsofacourtoflaw',gall.
Brtu-spantiumPN,`fromjudgment'(*bher-tu-);gall.*com-boros`theamassed',outofit
mhd.kumber`rubble,heapofrubble',nhd.Kummer.

Got.baran`bear,carry,bring,beget,spawn,togivebirthtochildren'(brusjs`parents');
aisl.bera`bear,carry,bear,endure,bring,produce,givebirthtochildren',ags.ahd.beran`bear,
carry,beget,spawn,togivebirthtochildren',nhd.gebren;
got.aisl.ahd.as.barn,ags.bearn`kid,child';got.barms`breast',schwed.dan.barm`breast,lap',
aisl.bamr`bosom',ahd.as.barm`lap',ags.bearmds.(=gr.s.S.137);ahd.baro`man,
husband';
schwed.mdartl.bjre(*eron-),bare(*aron-)`(carrying,i.e.)luck-bringingmagicalcreature';aisl.Pl.
barar,barir,brur`barrow,bier',ags.bearwe,engl.barrow,ostfries.barwe,ndl.berrie`barrow,bier';
lengthenedgradeahd.-bri,nhd.-bar(e.g.fruchtbar=bearingfruit,bearing,carrying),ags.bre
(wstmre`fertile'),aisl.brr`capableforcarrying,bearable';
ahd.as.bra,ags.brf.`barrow,bier'(alsoaisl.bra,mengl.mnd.bre`wave'perhapshereas
`theliftingone',comparebelowthegroupfromahd.burian`soar,rise');
zerogradegot.bar`theborn',aisl.burr,ags.byre`son';got.gabarn.`moneycollectedfrom
people,(),tax',gabarm.`feast,festival'(togabaran`collect,gather'),mhd.urbor,urbarf.n.
`interestofaproperty',m.`tax-payer';ahd.borf.`upperspace,height',ahd.inbor(e)`attheheight,
upwards',mhd.enbor(e),nhd.empor,ahd.burian,mhd.brn`raise,uplift';hereobd.borzen
`overhang'=ags.borettan`swing'(germ.*-atian),inadditionnhd.Brzelunderpurzeln;ahd.giburian,
mhd.gebrn`occur,happen,closejuridically,tobedue',as.giburian,ags.gebyrian,aisl.byrja`be
proper,befit,besuitable',aisl.byrjaalso`begin',eig.*`lift,raise';
Maybealb.buronj`begin,gush,spring,originate'
ags.byre,gebyrem.`favorableoccasion,opportunity',got.gabarjabaadv.`willing,fain,yearning',
gabarjus`lust,desire';fromtheconceptof`aroused,lifted,high'arosefromthestrengthening
senseofahd.bora-,e.g.inbora-tall`verytall,veryhigh',nexttowhicho-gradeas.bar-inbarwirdig
`verysolemn,honorable,noble';presumablyalsoaisl.byrrm.,ags.byre`favorablewind',mnd.borelos`withoutwind'as`(theship)bearing,carrying'.
Got.gabarsf.`birth,parentage,ancestry,gender,sex',aisl.burrm.`carrying,parturition,birth',
byrf.`birth',ags.gebyrdf.,ahd.giburt,as.giburd`birth',also`fate,destiny'(=OldIndianbhrt-,lat.
fors);got.baurei`burden,load',ahd.burdf.`burden',*bhrtin-:-tn;aisl.byrdr,ags.byren,byrden
ds.
OldChurchSlavicber,brati(brati)`gather,collect,take',skr.brmbrtids.,russ.berbratds.
etc(slav.*bratiderivedfromanolder*brtiafterthepreteritestembsl.*bir-),OldChurchSlavic
brm`load,burden',skr.brme,russ.mdartl.bermja,a.biem(*bher-men-),OldChurchSlavic
s-bor`congregation,meeting';ChurchSlavicbrd`pregnant',russ.beraja`pregnant(fromthe

mare)',skr.brdads.fromcows(*bher-di),informssimilarlylat.forda;OldChurchSlavicbrano
`dish,nourishment,food'seeunderbhares-`barley'.
Lit.brnas`youngling;farmlaborer',alit.`kid,child',lett.brns`kid,child';probablylett.bars`heap,
bulk,mass'.
Herewithspecializationondeliveringtheseminalgrain:transitivelit.beri,bria,berti`strew,
distribute'(fromgrain,thenalsofromflour,ash,cinderetc),lett.beu,brtds.,inablautintransitivelit.
byr,bira,brti`strew,distribute,fallout',lett.birstu,biru,birt`fallout,falloff,drop',etc.
Toch.pr-`bear,carry,bring,get,fetch',perhapsalsoinAkos-pre`howmuch'ku-pre`if',
tpre`if',tpr(k)`yet',whethertogr.-...-`aslongas'(see129).
Abouthitt.bar-a-zi`hunts,scuds,chases's.PedersenHitt.185.
Spechtwillrestoreherealso(Dekl.148),withi-andu-forms,ags.brid,bird`youngbird',germ.brtis`wife,woman,bride',OldIndianbhr-`embryo',lett.brana,ch.brnka(*bhru-nka)`placenta,
afterbirth'.S.butunderbh(e)reu-`gush,wellup,soak'.
References:
References:WP.II153f.,WH.I483f.,527,569,865,866,Trautmann31,E.HermannStud.Bait.
3,65f.
Page(s):
Page(s):128-132
Root/lemma: bher-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toboil,swell;togethigh
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:etwa`aufwallen',vonquellendemorsiedendemWasser(alsovomAufbrausen
beimGhren,Kochen,aswellasvomfire)`sichheftigbewegen'
Note:
Note:oftenwithm- forms;alsoasheavybasisbher- :bhr - ,bh(e)ri- ,bh(e)r - .comparebher-6.
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhurti(*bhr--ti)`moves,shrugs,jerks,flounces,flounders',Intens.jr-bhurti
ds.;also:`flickers,fromfire';bhurayti`shrugs,jerks,isrestless;setsinviolentmovement,stirs,stirs
up'withm- formsOldIndianbhramati,bhrmyati`wandersaround,turnsround',

bhram-`whirlingflame,whirlpool',bhmi-`movable,nimble;whirlwind'(seeunderaisl.brimietc);
bhri`violent,angry,irate,wild,keen,eager',mightbebasedas*bhrni-likewiseontheheavy
basis;
hereprobablyav.avabaraiti`streamsfrom',uzbarnte`theystreamforth()',barntiayn`during
oneday,whereitsqualls,storms'.
Fromgr.(*()`boilsup,surgeup,beinrestlessstir'(:OldIndianjrbhurti);
presumablyalso`mixup,mix'(iforiginallyfrombubblingupfromcooking;basicform*bhori
withu-colouringconditionedbythelabialofthereductionvowel),wherefore`chaos,ina
mess',`perplexity',`mix,mingle,stirchaos,knead,bewilder'.
Aboutlig.andven.namesseeunder.

Alb.burm`fullyripe'(*fullycooked)from*bhormo-.
Maybealb.burim`spring,bubblingup',buronj`tospring,bubble'
FromLat.probablyfretum-i`n.astrait,sound,estuary,firth,channel;theseaingen.,usuallyplur.;
fig.,disturbance,turmoil',fretus,-sm.`astrait;aninterval,difference(surgingofthesea,esp.strait,
stream,foaming,heat)',fretle`fryingpan';

fermentum`leaven,sourdough,yeast;akindofbeer.Transf.anger,passion,'(:ags.beorma,engl.
barm,nd.barme,fromwhichnhd.Burme`brewer'syeast');alsofervreS.144;
Air.topur,nir.tobar`wellspring'(*to-uks-boro-),mir.commar=cymr.cymmer`confluence'(*kombero-);lig.FlNComberanea;mir.fobar`wellspring,subterraneanstream,brook'=cymr.gofer
`stream,brook',bret.gouverds.(*u[p]o-bero-),cymr.beru`drip,trickle',mbret.beraff`flow',gall.FlN
Vober,frz.Woevre,Voivreetc;withm- formskelto-lig.aquaeBormiae,GNBorm,hisp.PN
Bormte,FlNBorma,dak.PN,ven.FlNFormi(butgall.GNBorvbelongstobhereu`boil').bermir.bro`flame'seeunder.
Ags.beormam.etc(seeabove);fromofarootform*bh(e)r- :bh(e)r-: ahd.brdamm.`breath,
breeze,heat',mhd.brdem`haze,mist',nhd.Brodem,ags.br`haze,mist,breath,breeze,blow'
(engl.breath),aisl.brr`stormy,hottempered,hasty',br`tarredwood,creosoted',brna`melt',
intrans.,ahd.brtan,ags.brdan`fry';ablaut.mnd.brien`singe,brood',mhd.brejen,bren,nhd.
brhen,ags.brdf.,engl.brood`brood,breed,breeding';mhd.bruotf.`heat,Brut',ahd.bruoten
`brood';unknownoriginareahd.brtom.`softeatablemeat'(Bratenpreviouslyarereinterpreted
mhd.timeto`roastedmeat'),nhd.Wildpret,anord.brdo`calf',latelat.borrowsbrdo`ham',ags.
brdem.,aisl.br`rawmeat'.
Besidetheveryproductiverootformbhereu- (seethere)hastoberecognizedprobablyalso
bh(e)r i - , bh(e)r - .ThesearebasedonOldIndianjar-bhur-ti,gr.*-,*-(see
above);
withm - formantpresumablygr.,`makesmeanxious,spring,snort'commongr.illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation;
aisl.brimi`fire';mengl.brim`blaze,glow',probablyalsoaisl.brimn.`surf,surge,breakers',ags.brim
n.`sea';inbrhen,Brodem,bratenpresentmeaningcolouringturnsagaininnorw.prim`akindof
cheesepreparedfromsourwheysunderstrongcooking'(alsonhd.Brimsenkse),mdartl.alsobrm
`ds.;alsocrust,sedimentofboileddownliquid'(nhd.bair.Brimsen,Brinzen`whatsettleswiththe
mushbrownedinthefryingpan');besideswithformant-uo-veryprobablyahd.bro,mhd.br(e),ags.
brw`porridge,mash'(as`*south,hot;cooked'),briwan`cook';moreoveralsomir.bro`flame'
(*bhriuo-).
Ans - extensionperhapsinOldIndianbhrati`wavers,staggers,sways',norw.mdartl.brsa`blaze,
flare,shine,showoff;setonfire',brs`fire,flame',brisk`agile,lively,alert,awake,smart'.
Maybealb.brisk`sharp,smart,keen;knife'
References:
References:WP.II157f.,WH.I482f.,546,865.
Seealso:
Seealso:comparetherelatedrootformsbhereg-`cook',bhereu-`boil',bhreus-`toswell',bhrg-,
bhrg-`cook,fry'

Page(s):
Page(s):132-133
Root/lemma: bher-3
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toscrape,cut,etc.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`witheinemscharfenWerkzeugbearbeiten,ritzen,schneiden,reiben,spalten'
Material:
Material:OldIndian(gramm.)bhrnti()`injures,hurts,disables'=npers.burrad`cuts,slices';av.
tii-bra-`withwithsharpedge'(=arm.bir,comparealsoalb.borg();perhapshereOldIndian
bhrvati`chews,consumes'(av.baoirya-`whatmustbechewed',baourva-`chewing')from*bharatiis
transfiguredthroughinfluenceofOldIndiancrvati`chewsup'.
Arm.beran`mouth'(originally`cleft,fissure,orifice'),-bir-`diggingup'ingetna-,erkra-,hoa-bir
`digginguptheground,ransacking'(*bhro-),inadditionbrem(*birem)`digsout,hollowsout,drills
out',br-i`hack,mattock,hoe';bah,Gen.-i`spade'(*bhrti-,perhaps*bhorti-=russ.bort),bor,Gen.

-oy`scurf'.

Gr.*`split,cutup,divide'(vEM),`plow'=ahd.born),n.`plough,
plow()',m.=(*bheros),`plowedup',`cliffwithgaps,gorge,ravine,gulch'(in
additionrom.barranca`gorge,ravine,gulch',M.-L.693a),jon.n.`raggedpiece,deal,
portion';hereperhapsm.`mossvillus'as*-.Ak-extensionin`wrinkle',
`wrinkly'Hes.

Perhapshere(IJ.13,157n.100)mak.(compareHes.),basic
meaning`woolvillus',gr.lesb.thess.,dor.ds.,`shabbydress',lat.
burraf.`stragglygarment',respectively`wool',reburrus`woolwithbristlinghair'.
Alb.bie(2.pl.birni,Imp.bier)`knocks,hits,playsaninstrument;whether(hitthere)'.
Alb.brim`hole'(*bhrm),birds.(*bher),geg.brj,tosk.brnj`gnaw,argue';britm`September

andOctober'(ifeig.`harvest,autumn',dueto*bhrti-`thereaping');bres`bitterroot,chicory'(`bitter'
=`incisive';-sfrom-ti,borg())`splinter,chip'(*bhr-m.form.-ig).
Maybealb.mbres`print,shock'[commonalb.b->mb-shift]
Lat.feri,-re`tostrike,knock,smite,hit;esp.tostrikedead,slay,kill;colloq.,tocheat'(seealsoWH.
1481toferentrius`alight-armedsoldier,skirmisher').Aboutforma`form,figure's.WH.I530f.

for,-re`tobore,pierce'(meaningasahd.born,butinablautdifferent;denominativeof*bhor`the
drilling'),formen`hole,opening,aperture';forus,-`thegangwayofaship;ablockofseatsinthe
theater;plur.,tiersofcellsinabeehive';butforum(alat.alsoforus)`anopensquare,marketplace'not
as`spacesurroundedbyplanks'here(umbr.furo,furu`forum');seeunderdhu e r- .
Mir.bern,bernaf.`cleft,gap,slit',bernach`cleft';
probablyalsomir.bairenn`cliffpiece'(inadditionbairnech`musselplate');air.barae,mir.bara(Dat.
barainn)`rage,fury',bairnech`angry,irate',cymr.bar,baran`rage,fury'.
Aisl.berja(preteritbara)`hit,bump,poke',berjask`fight',bardage`battle',ahd.berjan,mhd.berjen,
bern`hit,knock,knead',ags.bered`low-spirited'(germ.*arjan=slav.borj),afries.ber`attack';

mhd.brf.`balk,beam,bar,gate,barrier,enclosedland'(:lat.forus,-um),engl.bar`bar,gate,
barrier',aisl.berlings-ss`balk,beam';germ.isprobably(differentWartburgI260)alsomhd.barre
`balk,beam,bar,bolt'androm.familyoffrz.barre,barrireetc(-rr-from-rz-);

*aru-ha,-ga-`castratedpig'(perhapswithslav.*borv-basedon*bhoru-s`castratedanimal'and
endingin-ha-:-ga-after*farha-`pork,pig'extended)in:ahd.barug,barh,nhd.Barg,Barch(Borg,
Borch);
Maybealb.bariu`shepherd,herdsman(ofpigs)'phoneticallyequaltolett.bau,bru,brt`scold,
chide'(seebelow)notatruncatedgr.`herdsman,shepherd'.
ags.bearg,bearh,engl.barrow,aisl.-brgr`acastratedboar'(inadditionalsoaisl.val-bassi`wild
boar'as*barhsans.Falk-rpunderbasseN.);ahd.as.born,ags.borian,aisl.bora,-aa`bore'
(seeabove);ahd.bora`borer',ags.bor,byresds.;aisl.bora`hole'(auga-,eyra-bora).
Lit.bras,lett.bars`grainswath,stripofcutgrain';lit.bar(andbari),brti`scold,chide,vilify',refl.
`bequarrelsome',lett.bau,bru,brt`scold,chide'(==sl.borj);
Maybealb.(*brti)brtas`scold,yell,scream',mbaroj,`extinguish,finish,end,makeashamed',alb.
geg.(*bar-)mbare,marre`shame,sthtobescolded',[commonalb.b->mb-shift].
lit.barns(Akk.barn)`quarrel'(=OldChurchSlavicbran);lit.burn`mouth'=bulg.brna`lip'(basic
form*bhorn,compareaboveir.bernandtomeaningarm.beran).
Herewithbalt.forms:lett.berzt`rub,scour,rub,clean',intrans.birzt`crumb,spall,crumble',brze
`sowingfurrow',lit.birsf.`fieldfurrow'.
Withofabasicmeaning`notch':lit.brtaiPl.`lot,fate,charm,spell'=lett.burts`mark,token,signthe
magician,alphabeticletter',lit.brti`conjure,performmagic',lett.burt`conjure,performmagic',
burtains`performwood-carvingnotch';gr.`remedy,magicalcure,magicpotion;philtre'
(probablynotidg.)hasnothingtodowithit.
OldChurchSlavicborj,brati`fight'(frequentreflexive),russ.borj,bort`subjugate,prostrate',refl.
`fight',poln.dial.brsie`wrestle,struggle';OldChurchSlavicbran`fight,struggle',aruss.boron
`fight,struggle',russ.bron`forbid',ech.bra`weapon,armament,armor'underlikewise,russ.zabr`fence,plankfence';
maybealb.(*bro)mbronj`defend',mburoj`shield,armour':poln.broi`defend'[commonalb.b>mb-shift]
(aslat.forusontheconcept`board'rejecting:compareruss.alt.zaborolo`woodentownwall,
scaffold,trestle',ech.zbradlo`handrail,parapet'underlikewise);russ.boron`harrow',andwith
slav.-zda-formsslav.*borzdainOldChurchSlavicbrazda,russ.borozd`furrow';
maybealb.brazda`furrow'aSlavicloanword.
russ.brov`hog,castratedboar,(dial.)boar,castratedbull',skr.brv`sheep,cattle',mdartl.
`castratedpig',slovak.brav`castratedpig',poln.mdartl.browek`fattenedboar,porker'(seeabove
germ.*aruha-);*brt`drilling,cavity'(*bhorti-)inruss.bort`thehollowofthetreeinwhatbees
havenested'etc.
References:
References:WP.II159f.,WH.I481f.,537,865,866,Trautmann27,Mhlenbach-Endzelin354.

Seealso:
Seealso:comparetherelatedrootformsbheredh-,bhri-(bhrig-,-k-,seetherealsoaboutbher-),
bhreu-,bhreu-q-,-k-`cut,clip',bhreus-`break,rupture',bherug-`gullet'.
Page(s):
Page(s):133-135
Root/lemma: bher-4
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toroar,buzz,onomatopoeicwords
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:inSchallworten`brummen,summen'underlikewise
Note:
Note:Anextensionatmostin*bherem-`drone,grumble'andtreatedonomatopoeicwordsunder
bherg-`drone,grumble'.
Material:
Material:Arm.bo,-oy`bumblebee,hornet',toredupl.OldIndianbambhara-(unbel.)`bee',
bambharli(unbel.)`fly',bambh-rava-`thebellowofthecows';
gr.`kindofwasp'(formationas,);similarlyalsoskr.bmbar
`bumblebee',klr.bombr`cockchafer'.
Maybealb.(*bmbar)bumballa`bumblebee'[commonalb.r>lshift]
Hereatleastpartly(withfracturedreduplication)alsothebsl.groupfromlit.barbti`clang,clink',
birbi,-iau,birbti`buzz',burbi,burbti`drone,grumble,bubble,seethe'underlikewise;
Maybealb.(burbut-)burbuqe`ladybug'acompound*burbi`bug'+kuqe`red'(lat.coccinus`scarletcolored')=ital.coccinella`ladybug,ladybird'
klr.borborsyPl.`sullentalk',skr.brblati`chat'underlikewise,inwhichindeedthemeaning`talk
indistinctly,stammer'wouldgobacktothegroupofOldIndianbarbaretc(see*baba).
References:
References:WP.II161f.,Trautmann39f.
Page(s):
Page(s):135-136
Root/lemma: bher-5
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:shining;brown
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzend,hellbraun'
Note:
Note:extensionsofbher-`shine,appear,seem',bhere-,bherek-`shine'.
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhalla,bhallakabhallka-`bear'(-ll-from-rl-);ahd.bero,ags.bera`bear'
(*bheron-),aisl.birnds.(*bhernu-,whoseuaslikefromOldIndianbhallka-fromthestem
*bheru-derivemight)=ags.beorn`warrior,chieftain';
aisl.bersi`bear'(sasinFuchs:got.fauh,Luchs:schwed.lo);ablaut.lit.bras,lett.brs`brown
(fromhorses)';
gr.Hes.(*[]aor*FIffinallyexactlyto:)Hes.,,

`toad,frog'(*`thebrownone'=ahd.brn);ifas`blanketofclouds'to7.bher-
nep.bhuro`brown'(*bhrro-);ahd.mhd.brn`gleaming,brown',ags.brn,aisl.brnnds.;russ.
mdartl.brynt`white,grayshimmer',changingthroughablautbruntds.(*bhrou-no-)and(from
*bhr-ono-,-eno-)russ.-ChurchSlavicbron`white;varicolored(fromhorses)',russ.bron(and
mdartl.bryn),klr.brety`becomedun(ofadullordingybrowncolour,dullgreyish-brown),ripen',
OldChurchSlavicbrnije(brenije)`ordure,excrement',slov.brn`rivermud';
OldIndianbabhr-`reddishbrown;giantichneumonkind',av.bawra-,bawri-`beaver';lat.fiber,fibr
`beaver'(alsofebers.WH.I491;probablyihaschangedfore,asalso)kelt.(onlyinnames):*bibros,
*bibrusingall.PNandFlNBibracte,abrit.VNBibroci,mir.VNBibraige(*bibru-rgion),PNBibar
(*Bibrus)besides*bebrosingall.FlN*Bebr,frz.Bivre;Bebronn,frz.Beuvronne,Brevenneetc;
ahd.bibar,ags.beofor(oldestbebr),mnd.bever,aisl.birrds.(urg.*eru-);comparealsonhd.FlN
Bever,oldBiverna;
lit.bbras,bbras,bbrusds.(dissimil.debrsunderlikewise),OldPrussianbebrusds.;aboutlit.
bruisetc`roach(lat.Leuciscusrutilus)',OldPrussianbrun-seds.s.SpechtDekl.120;
slav.*bebrinpoln.FlNBiebrza,russ.etcbobr(zuro-reduplications.Berneker47;besidesperhaps
*bbrinskr.dbar`beaver'andaruss.bebrjan`frombeaverfur').comparenochlat.fibrnus`ofthe
beaver,beaver',volsk.Fibrnusbrookname,av.bawraini-`ofthebeaver';ahd.bibarn,gall.bebrinus
(Schol.Iuv.),lit.bbrinisds.;
toch.Bperne,Aparno`luminous',therefromBperne,Apar`majesty,grandeur'.
References:
References:WP.II166f.,WH.I490f.,VanWindekensLexique93.
Seealso:
Seealso:comparefurtherbhel-1withsimilarmeaning.
Page(s):
Page(s):136-137
Root/lemma: bher-6
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toroast,cook
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`rsten,backen,kochen'
Note:
Note:withg-extensions,beforepartlyi-,u-vowels;itderivedfrombher-2`moveviolently,surge,boil,
cook'.
Material:
Material:1.formswithout-i-or-u-:bhereg - :
OldIndianbhurjanta`cooking'(*bhereg-);bhrjjti`roasts',bhra`roasted',bhrra-`fryingpan',

bharj(j)ayati`roasts,brt',bharjana-`roasting',

mpers.bartands.;presumablyis*bhra-(*bhora-inbhurjanta),*bhar-ar.rootformandind.-jj
onlyinpresent*bhr-sk,fromwhichderived*bhr()s,asgr.from*-.

Lat.fertum`akindofsacrificialcake',alat.ferctum(firctum,s.Ernoutl.dial.lat.165),participle
*ferg`bake',osk.fertalis`theceremonieswheresacrificialcakeswereneeded'.

Note:
commonlat.ph->f-shift.
Maybealb.(**ferg)frgonj`bake';alsotruncatedalb.(*fertalis)fli`sacrifice'.
Lit.brgelas`basic,simplebeer',lett.birga`haze,mist,fume,smoke,coalsmoke',OldPrussian
aubirgo`cookshop',birgakarkis`abigsoupladle'(withven.-illyr.g).
2.formswithi,ei:
Npers.biri-tan`fry',barzan`oven',bal.brjag,brijag`fry',npers.biryn(*brina-)`roasted',pam.
(shifted)wirzam`roast'underlikewise(Iran.*brij-,*braij-).
Lat.frg,-ere`roast,dehydrate,desiccate',umbr.frehtu`cooked,boiled'.
3.formswith:bhr-:
gr.`roast,dry',`roasted;firebrand',`drywood',`vesselfor
roastingbarley'.
Itisextraordinarythatintheonomatopoeicwordsofgr.`abird',lat.frig`(*roast,parch)
squeak',poln.bargiel`mountaintitmouse',russ.berglz`goldfinch'thedistributionoftheformswith
u,withi,andwithouteither,isthesamelikeinthewordsforcook.
References:
References:WP.II165f.,WH.I486f.,548f.
Page(s):
Page(s):137
Root/lemma: bher-7
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toweave
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`flechten,weben'
Material:
Material:Hom.=att.n.(*F)`kerchief,cloth,canvas,fabric,velum,cover';
(),Hes.;`pannier,mat';
lit.burva`akindofgarment',lett.burvesPl.`smallsail'(-u-suffixasingr.*F),lett.burasds.,lit.
br`sail'.S.tovocalismWaldeStreitberg-Festschrift176.
References:
References:WP.II164,SpechtDekl.182.
Page(s):
Page(s):137-138
Root/lemma: bhes-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosmear,spread
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`abreiben,zerreiben,ausstreuen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbbhasti`chewsup',3.Pl.bpsati;bhsma-n.`ash'resultedthroughverbal

extensionsofps(i)- , ps/i/- , ps(i)- , ps- inOldIndianpsti`consumes',gr.,`rub',


ds.,`touch',`baldheaded',f.,dor.`pebble',`ruboff',
`grind,pulverize';
,`soot,smoke';f.`sand,beach,seaside'from*,compare
`frail,breakable'(*bhs-bh-)andlat.sabulum`coarsesand,gravel'(*bhs-bhlo-);
withalreadyidg.sporadicalterationofanlaut.bhs-tos-:gr.`sand'(=mhd.samt);through
variouscontaminationsandds.,inaddition`naked,bald,bleak,bare',
`drop'etc;
alb.fi,pi,mi`sweep,thresh';
Maybealb.feh,pef,mef`cover,hide,sweepaway'[commonalb.p->mp->m-phonetic
mutation].
lat.sabulum`sand'(seeabove),wherewithEM.881comparesarm.awazds.;
mhd.samt(*samatho-)besidesahd.sant`sand'(*samtho-,germ.sanda-,outofitfinn.santa);
toch.Aps-`diffuse,sprinkle'().
References:
References:WP.II189,Boisacq48,1074,Kluge11s.v.Sand,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I328f.,676;
SpechtDekl.255,325,VanWindekensLexique91.
Page(s):
Page(s):145-146
Root/lemma: bhes-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toblow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`hauchen,blasen'
Note:
Note:probablyonomatopoeicwords
Material:
Material:OldIndianbbhasti`blows',bhstrf.`bellows,hose',bhastf.`rump',bhsasn.
`abdominalpart';
gr.-`blow'(tosuffixs.HirtIdg.Gr.3,256),`breath,breeze,soul'.
Hereprobably-`coolsoff'(originallythroughblast),`coldness',s`cold'etcinspite
ofBenvenisteBSL.33,165ff.;afterSchwyzerGr.Gr.I329onomatopoeic,asalso`lisping'.
References:
References:WP.II69,WH.I477,Boisacq1075,UhlenbeckOldIndianW.186,198.
Page(s):
Page(s):146
Root/lemma: bheudh- ,nasal.bhu-n-dhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobeawake,aware
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wachsein,wecken,beobachten;geweckt,geistigrege,aufmerksamsein,

erkennen,orandereinadditionveranlassen(aufpassenmachen,kundtun,gebieten;darbieten)'
Material:
Material:Themat.presentinOldIndianbdhati,bdhate`awakened,awakens,isawake,notices,
becomesaware',av.baoaiti`perceives',withpait-`whereupondirectone'sattention'(=gr.
,germ.*biuan,abg.bljudo);Aor.OldIndianbhudnta(=),Perf.bubdha,
bubudhim(:germ.*bau,*buum),participlebuddh-`awakened,wise;recognized'(==gr.`ignorant;unfamiliar');
maybealb.(*bubudhim)bubullim`thunder(*hear)'[commonalb.:lat.dh>llshift].
OldIndianbuddh-f.`understanding,mind,opinion,intention'(=av.paiti-busti-f.`noticing',gr.
`investigating,questions;knowledge,tidings');causativeinOldIndianbdhyati`awakens;teaches,
informs',av.baoayeiti`perceives,feels'(=abg.bud,buditi,lit.pasibaudyti);ofstateverbinOld
Indianbudhyt`awakes,becomesaware;recognizes',av.buiyeiti`becomesaware',frabuidyamn
`awakening';OldIndianboddhr-m.`connoisseur,expert'(:gr.-`questioning');av.
baoah-n.`awareness,perceptivity',Adj.`perceiving'(:hom.-`unexplored,unacquainted;
ignorant');av.zani-bura-`keenlywatching'(:abg.bdr,lit.budrs);av.baoii-`fragrancy'(=Old
Indianbdhi-`plenarycognition');
gr.and(:lit.bund,air.ad-bond-)`tolearn;tofindout,perceive,watch'
(,,),`knowledge,tidings';,f.`question';
maybealb.(*peus)pyes`askquestions',pyetje`question':gr.,f.`question'.
Proto-Slavicform:
Proto-Slavicform:pytati:OldChurchSlavic:
OldChurchSlavic:pytati`examine,scrutinize'[verb],Russian:
Russian:pytt'
`torture,torment,tryfor'[verb],Slovak:
Slovak:pytat'`ask'[verb],Polish:
Polish:pyta`ask'[verb],SerboSerboCroatian:
Croatian:ptati`ask'[verb],Slovene:
Slovene:ptati`ask'[verb],Othercognates:
Othercognates:lat.putre`cutoff
branches,estimate,consider,think'[verb].
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheudh- ,nasal.bhu-n-dh- :
:`tobeawake,aware'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
peu-1 ,peu - :p - :
:`toclean,sift',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:peu-2 :
:`toresearch,tounderstand'(see
below).
cymr.bodd(*bhudh)`freewill,approval',corn.both`volition'(:aisl.bo),air.buide`contentedness,
gratitude';herealsoair.ad-bond-`announce,promulgate',uss-bond-`calloff,cancel,refuse'(e.g.
Verbaln.obbad);zerogradeair.robud`admonishment',cymr.rhybudd`warning',rhybuddio`warn'(:
russ.probudt`awaken');
got.anabiudan`order,dispose',farbiudan`forbid',aisl.bja`offer,bid,giverecognition',ags.
bodan,as.biodan,ahd.biotan`offer,bid,proffer',nhd.bieten`gebieten,verbieten,Gebieteigentl.
`(areaof)command';aisl.bon.,ags.gebodn.,mhd.botn.`commandment',ahd.etcboto
`summoner',ahd.butil(nhd.Bttel),ags.bydel`summoner,courtservant';got.bius,-dis`table,
desk';aisl.bjr,ags.bod,ahd.beot,piot`table,desk;dish',eig.`whichisofferedontray'(in
additionalsoahd.biutta,nhd.Beute`kneadingordoughtrough;doughtray;hutch,beehive').
With(compareHirtIdg.Gr.II96):got.anabsnsf.`commandment'(*-bhudh-sni-),as.ambsanf.
ds.,ags.bysenf.`model,example',aisl.bysnn.`wonder,miracle'(from`*warning'),bysna
`foretoken,warn';

lit.bund,bsti`wakeup,arouse'and(withoutnasalinfix)bud,budti`watch',bdinu,-inti`waken,
arouse,revive',budrs`watchful,wakeful';causativebaudi,basti`punish,curse,chastise,
castigate';refl.`intend,mean,aim'(*bhoudhi),badiava`socage,compulsorylabour',
lit.bausls`command,order',lett.baslis`command',lett.bauma,bame`rumor,defamation'
(*bhoudhm-),lit.pasibaudyti`rise,standup,sally',baudnti`tocheerup,livenup;gingerup,
encourage,arouse,awakenone'slust',OldPrussianetbaudints`toraisefromthedead,reawaken'.
Themat.presentinabg.bljudo,bljusti`lookafter;protect,beware,lookout',russ.bljud,bljust
`observe,notice'(aboutslav.-jufromidg.eus.MeilletSlavecommun258).

causativeinabg.budo,buditi`waken,arouse,revive',russ.buu,budtds.(etc;alsoinruss.
bden`workday',probablyeig.`workingday'or`dayforcorve');stativeverbwith-suffixinabg.
bd,bdti`watch',perfective(withne-/no-suffixasingr.--,wo--from-nno-,
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I700)vz-bn`awake'(*bhud-no-,shapedfromAor.oftypegr.,etc,s.
Berneker106f.;
Maybetruncatedalb.(*zbudzi)zgjoj`awaken':OldChurchSlavic:ubuditi`awaken'[verb];v
zbuditi`awaken'[verb];phoneticallyequalalb.-gj-:poln.-dzi-soundsbudzi`awaken,arouse'[verb],
perf.zbudzi`awaken,arouse'.
alsoaboutskr.bdnjdn`ChristmasEve',bdnjk`woodenlogwhichonelaysintheinthefireof
ChristmasEve'etc),abg.s-na-bdti`';abg.bdr`;willing,ready',bdrds.,
russ.bdryj`alert,awake,smart,strong,fresh',skr.bdar`agile,lively'.
Toch.paut-,Apot`honour'(VanWindekensLexique87).
References:
References:WP.II147f.,Feist41,97,MeilletSlavecommun2202f.
Page(s):
Page(s):150-152
Root/lemma: bheug-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toflee,*befrightened
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`fliehen'
Note:
Note:afterKretschmer(Gl.30,138)tobheug(h)-2(av.baog-intheintransitivemeaning`escape')
Material:
Material:Gr.(Aor.,Perf.)`flee',f.(=lat.fuga)`escape,afleeing,flight,
runningaway',hom.(*)ds.,Akk.-`toflight,toflee'ofconsonant-stem*-;
perhapsinven.PN(Westdeutschl.)`refuge,escapecastle';
lat.fugi,fg,-ere`totaketoflight,runaway;topassaway,disappear.Transit.,tofleefrom,run
awayfrom,avoid;withinfin.,'fugequaerere',donotseek;ofthings,toescapethenoticeofaperson',
fugaf.`flight,runningaway;esp.flightfromone'scountry,exile,banishment.Transf.,swiftcourse,
speed;avoiding(withgenit.)';
Note:commonlat.ph->f-shift

maybealb.fugonj`run'
lit.bgstu,bgau,bgtiintr.`befrightened',kaus.baugnti`jemd.getafright',baugs`timorous'.
References:
References:WP.II144,146,WH.I556f.,KretschmerGl.30,138.
Page(s):
Page(s):152
Root/lemma: bheug-2 ,bheughEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toclearaway,free
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wegtun,reinigen,befreien';intrans.`sichretten'
Material:
Material:Av.baog-,bunja-`loosen,escape,theyescapebefore'(bunjainti`release,escape',
bjayamn`discarding',bunjayt`heescapes'),bjimAkk.`cleaning,purification',z-buj-`from
needofreleasing',baoxtar-`liberator';
Maybealb.(*bhujissa)bujis,bujisaaor.`bloom',buj`fuss':plibhujissa-`released,free'
pehl.paz.bxtan`escape,release',sdbal.bjag`unbolt,loosen,unbind',aspers.Lw.arm.buem
`heal,save,relieve',boi`healing,deliverance';pliparibhujati`purifies,cleans,sweepsfrom';but
plibhujissa-`released(frompreviouslyslave)'=OldIndianbhujiy-`free,independent'(Lex.,inthe
Lit.as`exploitable',Subst.`maid;maidservant,servant'),tobheug-4.
Illyr.PNBuctor,ven.Fuctor(:av.baoxtar-),Fugonia,vhuia,vhou-ontios,etc
Note
Note:
Hereillyr.Buctor:ven.Fuctor:av.baoxtar-`liberator'provesthatav.asatemlanguagecandisplay
centumcharacteristics.Alb.followsthesameillyr.-ven.patternin-tor,-tarsuffixes.Thetendencyin
illyr.-g->-ct-showstheintermediaryphasefromcentumtosateminlateralb.:commonalb.-g(h)->
-th-,-k->-t-phoneticmutationinthemiddleoftheword.
Got.usbaugjan`sweepup,sweepout,sweepaway',nhd.dial.Bocht`rubbish,crap,muck';moreover
probablyalsomhd.biuchen`cookinlye',originally`clean',bchef.`lye'(withsecondaryablaut).
Thedoublenessgerm.gh:ar.g-alsobybheugh-(nhd.biegen):bheug-(OldIndianbhujatietc)
`bend'.Probablyidenticalwithit.
References:
References:WP.II145,WH.I560,KretschmerGl.30,138.
Page(s):
Page(s):152
Root/lemma: bheug-3 ,bheughEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`biegen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhujti`bends,pushesaway',bhugn-`bent,curved',bhja-`arm',bhuj
`twist,arm',bhg`coilofasnake;ring'(:ahd.boug);nibhuj-`push',Pass.`flunk,escape;toget

away';
perhapsbierheralb.but`soft,flexible'from*bhug(h)-to-`pliable';
commonalb.-g(h)->-th-,-k->-t-phoneticmutationinthemiddleoftheword.
ir.fid-bocc`woodenbow',probablyalsobocc`tender'(`*pliable'),nir.bog`soft'(from*buggo-),KZ.33,
77,FickII4;forabret.buc`rotten,putrid;loose,crumbling,friable,flabby',pl.bocion`rotten,decayed',
nbret.amsirpoug`soft,mildweather',allowedtoexpectbrit.-ch-=ir.-gg-,PedersenKG.I161
considersborrowingfromIr.
InGerm.*bheugh-:got.biugan,ahd.biogan`bend',aisl.participleboginn`bent,curved';ablaut.ags.
bgan`bebent',withfram`flee';
Kaus.aisl.beygja,as.bgian,ags.began,ahd.bougen,nhd.beugen;aisl.bigr`bent,curved',ahd.
biugo`curve';aisl.bogi,ags.boga(engl.bow),ahd.bogo,nhd.Bogen(ahd.swibogo`Christmas
candlearcs(whichliterallymeansanarchedbuttress)'from*swi[bi-]bogo);perhapsinadditiongot.
bugjan`letout,lend,buy',aisl.byggia`obtainawife',ags.bycgan,as.buggian`buy'(comparenhd.
dial.`bebentbysomething'=`acquire,take');inadditionprobablylett.baugaandbagurs`hill'.
Intensive(withintensification)germ.*bukjaninmhd.bcken,schweiz.bukche;mnd.bucken,afries.
buckia`tostoop,bendforward,benddown'(WissmannNom.postverb.171,181).
References:
References:WP.II145f.,WH.I556,Feist96.
Page(s):
Page(s):152-153
Root/lemma: bheug-4
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toenjoy,*consume,bite
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`genieen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhukt(withInstr.,newerAkk.)`enjoys',comparebhunkti,bhujati`grants
pleasure,enjoys,consumes',bubhuk`hunger',bhga-`enjoyment';
aboutOldIndianbhujiy-seeaboveunderbheug-2;
commonOldIndianh->k-phoneticmutation
alb.bungf.,bunk,bungum.`kindofedibleoakfruit'(as`nourishingornutritioustree',post-verbal=
`foodgranter');
Note:
Alb.bung`kindofedibleoakfruit':with-u-gradealb.(*beuka)buka`bread':phryg.`bread',
actually`crumb'provethatfromanextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:b(e)u-1,bh(e)u- :
:`expr.soundof
hitting'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheg-,bheng- :
:`tobreak',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhenh-, bhn h-(Adj.
bhn h-s )::`thick,fat',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheug-1 :
:`toflee,*befrightened',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheug2 ,bheugh- :
:`toclearaway,free',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bheug-3 ,bheugh- :
:`tobow',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:
bheug-4 :
:`toenjoy,*consume,bite'astaboowords.

lat.fungor`tooccupyoneselfwithanything,toperform,execute,undergo,usuallywithabl.;absol.in
specialsense,tobeaffected,suffer',withAkk.,laterAbl.,dfungor`toperform,discharge,havedone
with,bringtoanend,survive',perfungor`toperformfully,execute,discharge;togothrough,endure'.
References:
References:WH.I565f.,WackernagelSynt.I68,JoklL.-k.Unters.179.
Page(s):
Page(s):153
Root/lemma: bheu- ,bheu - (bhu - ,bhu - ):bh u - :bhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobe;togrow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:ursprnglich`wachsen,gedeihen'
Note:
Note:(probably=`toswell'),compareOldIndianprbhta-withOldIndianbhri-etcunder*b(e)u,bh(e)u-`inflate,bloat,toswell',
fromwhich`originate,become,be',farther`whereusuallyoneis,live';i o /- presentbhu - ii , bhu ii e -si, bhu - -si etcasverb`be'suppliesoftenparadigmofes-`be';extendedrootbheu -, bhu iMaterial:
Material:OldIndianbhvati`is,thereis,happens,prospers,becomes'=av.bavaiti`becomes,
originates;happens;willbe',Oldpers.bavatiy`becomes';Fut.OldIndianbhaviyti,
av.byeitiparticiplebyant-`willcomeintoexistence'(latter=lit.bsiu,ChurchSlavicbyteje
`',
comparegr.);Aor.OldIndianbht(=gr.)andbhvat,Perf.babhva,participlePerf.Akt.
babhvn,f.babhv(:gr.,,lit.bvo,OldChurchSlavicbyvati),Inf.bhvitum,
Absol.bhtv(comparelit.btpassive`tobe',OldPrussianbtonInf.);
OldIndianbht-,av.bta-`become,being,OldIndianbht-m`entity'(:lit.bta`been',aisl.bf.
`dwelling',russ.byt`entity,wayoflife,lifestyle';withgr.,air.-both`onewas',bothf.
`cottage',lit.btas`house');pr-bhta-`rich,numerous',npers.Inf.bdan`be';
OldIndianbhti-,bht-f.`being,well-being,goodcondition,prospering;flourishing'(av.bti-m.
`namedava'=OldChurchSlavicza-,po-,pr-byt,russ.byt,Inf.OldChurchSlavicbyti,lit.bti;
withgr.).
Pass.OldIndianbhyate;kaus.bhvayati`bringsintoexistence;looksafterandnurtures,refreshes',
participlebhvita-also`pleasantlyexcited,ingoodmood'(=OldChurchSlaviciz-baviti`free,
release'),withders.lengthenedgradebhv-`being,development,becoming,affection'(:russ.zabvaf.`conversation,entertainment')besidesbhav-`development,welfare,salvation';

bhavtram`world'(ablaut.withgr.`nature,gender,sex'andlit.bkl`dwelling'etc,andwith
germ.*bula-and*bla-,nexttowhichwithformants-dhlo-ech.bydlo);bhavana-m`the
development,becoming;dwelling,house(:alb.bane,butmir.ban`unwavering,steadfast'from
*bhou-no-),ablaut.bhvana-m`entity';
OldIndianbh-f.`earth,world',bhm,bhmi-,av.ap.bm-,npers.bm`earth',OldIndian
bhman-n.`earth,world,being'(=gr.),bhmn-m.`fullness,wealth,bulk,mass,wealth';prabh-`mighty,salient';

s-stembhavi-u-`becoming,thriving',bhati`makesthrive,strengthens',bhayati`bedecks,
blazons',bhana-m`amulet,jewellery'.
The-basis*bh(e)u - , asitseems,inOldIndianbbhavtiIntens.andbhv-tva-`future';aboutiran.
b-formsseeunder.
Arm.bois,Gen.busoy`sprout,herb,plant',busanim`burstforth,springforth',furtherperhapsboin,
Gen.bunoi`nest'(*bheu-no-),zerogradebun,Gen.bnoi`stem'.
Thrak.PN-.
Gr.(lesb.asosk.fuia,seeunder),`beget'(Aor.),`become,grow'(compare
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I,686),probablyneologismstoAor.`was,became',besides(neologism)
;`growth,plant,kid,child,ulcer',`growth;nature,character',n.`plant,growth,
ulcer',`nature',n.`stem,gender,sex,kindof',`municipalityandfromitlocated
department'(:OldChurchSlavicbyl,l-participlebylje);lengthenedgrades*bh[u]lo-perhapsin
,`hidingplace,nook,bolt-hole,denofwildanimals',`sleepinacave',
`aseafishwhichishiddeninthemud';butaisl.bln.`acampforanimalsandpeople',isnotfrombl
(probablyfrom*bla)`dwelling'miscellaneousword;inadditionzerogradeschwed.mdartl.bylja,
blja`smallnest'from*bulja.
As2.compound-partin,-[*F].Aboutseeunder.
Illyr.VNBuni,PNB(:alb.bun).
Messap.,Hes.(:ahd.br);
alb.buj,bj(*bunj)`stay,stayovernight,spendthenight',burr,burr(*buro-)`man,husband',ban
`dwelling,abode,residence,halfdilapidatedhouse'(*bhouon:OldIndianbhavanam),banoj`stay,
dwell';bun()`chalet'(*bhun);perhapsalsobt`earth,bottom,world,people'(*bhu-tor*bhut).
Note
Note:
Clearlyalb.ban,Illyr.VNBuni,PNB,Messap.,Thrak.PN-provethat
illyr.wasindeedasatemlanguagedisplayingalsocentumcharacteristics.Thecommonalb.shiftt>
nt>ninheritedfromillyr.andthrak.provesthecommonoriginofthoseBalkanlang.
Lat.fu(alat.f)`Ihavebeen'from*f-ai,rearrangementofolderAor.*fm(=gr.-,OldIndianbht`hewas'),fu-trus`future,abouttobe',forem`wouldbe',fore`willbe',alat.Konj.fuam,fuat`be'
(*bhuum;comparelit.bvo`was'from*bhu-ut),besides-bam(*bhum:osk.fu-fans`theywere',
air.-b`Iwas')inleg-bametc,comparelat.-fal.-b(from*bhu)inam-b,alat.ven-b,fal.pipaf
etcwithdemir.b-future(do-rmiub`Iwillenumerate'from*to-rm--bu),intensivefutvit`he/she
was';
osk.fu-fans`theywere',fu-fens`theywere',fusd=lat.foret,fust(=umbr.fust)`he/shewillbe'and
`he/shewillhavebeen',fuidKonj.-Perf.`he/shewillhavebeen';butaboutfutr`daughter's.VetterGl.
29,235,242ff.againstWH.I557,867;
umbr.fust`he/sheisgoingtobe',furent`theyaregoingtobe'(*fuset,*fusent),fefure`theywillhave
been',futu`youwillbe'(fuuetdorfu-td).

Aio/-presenttoroot*bh-:*bhu-iiliesbeforeinlat.f,fer`ofpersonsandthings,tobemade,
comeintoexistence;withpredicate,tobecome,beappointed;withgenit.,tobevaluedat;ofactions,
tobedone;ofevents,tohappen',theinsteadofiscorrelatedtofs,ft(*bhu--si,*bhu--ti);osk.fiiet
(*bhuiient)`theybecome,theyaremade',umbr.fito`gooddeeds,benefits',fuia`he/shewillbecome,
he/shewillbemade',fuiest`he/shewillmake'(*bhu-ibesides*bhuiiasinlesb.,seeabove);
lat.nominalformationonlyindubius`doubtful;act.,wavering;inopinion,doubting;uncertain;asto
action,hesitating,irresolute;pass.,uncertain,doubted,doubtful,dangerous,critical'(*dubhuiio-s
`ofdoubleform,consistingoftwoparts',compareumbr.di-fue`splitintotwoparts'<*dui-bhuiom),
probus`good,excellent,fine;morallygood,upright,virtuous,right'(*pro-bhuos:OldIndianprabhu-
`salient,superb'),osk.amprufid`dishonest,lackingprobity',prfatted`hasshown,marked,
indicated,manifested,proven',umbr.prufe`upright,honest,proper';lat.superbus`haughty,exalted,
proud;arrogant,overbearing;brilliant,splendid'.
Aboutlat.moribundusseeNiedermannMl.Meillet104,BenvenisteMSL.34,189.
Air.ba`benefit'(*bhu-iom),ban`steadfast,good'(*bhouno-,inadditioncymr.bun`queen,wife,
woman');mir.baile`home,place'(*bhu-liio-);
air.buith`be'(originallyDat.of-stemboth<*bhut=cymr.bod,corn.bos,bret.bout=air.bothf.
`cottage',cymr.bodf.`dwelling':lit.btas`house';moreoveralsomir.for-baid`burialcloth,shroud,
barrow,bier'),Fut.-ba`willbe'(=lat.fiat),preterit1.Sg.b(*bhum),3.Sg.bo(*bhue),Pass.
preterit-both`onewas'(*bhu-to-);theparadigmoftheverbSubst.andthecopulaexistsfromforms
vones-andbheu-,e.g.hat1.Sg.presentKonj.air.bu(*bh-es)theanlautrelatedtobheu-;
air.-bu`Icaretobe',mcymr.bydaf,corn.bethaf,mbret.bezaffds.(*bhuii=lat.f,besides*bhu-in
air.bth,mcymr.bit`([ImperativeFutureTense]youwillbe'=lat.ft);
gall.PNVindo-bios(*-bhuiios),comparecymr.gwyn-fyd`luck'(`weieworld',byd),air.su-b(a)e
`pleasure,joy'(*su-bhuiio-),du-b(a)e(du=gr.-)`mourning,grief';
got.bauan`stay,dwell,inhabit',aldbauan`leadalife',gabauan`erectahouse'(*bhu,vocalismas
inOldIndianbhvayati,bhva-,slav.baviti),
aisl.ba(bj,binn)`stay,dwell,bringingoodcondition,equip',ags.banandbuw(i)an(bde,
geben)`stay,dwell,farm'(besidesags.bgian,afries.bgia`stay,dwell',phonetictypebasedon
got.stjafrom*stwijandasinitialvowel),ahd.ban(bta,giban)`stay,dwell,farm',nhd.
bauen;aisl.byggja`liveataplace,farm,populate',later`construct,build'(from
*buwwjan*bewwjan);aisl.bn.`domicile,household',ags.bn.`dwelling'(Pl.byn.ofi-stem
*bwi-=aisl.byrm.`dwelling,residentialsite,court';similarlylit.bvis`permanentstay,residence'),
ahd.b,mhd.b,Gen.bwesm.,seldomn.`tillingofthefield,dwelling,edifice',nhd.Bau;
aisl.bf.`dwelling,tent,cottage';aschwed.b,mnd.bde,mhd.buodeandbde`cottage,tent',
nhd.Bude(*bh[u]-t);mnd.bdel`fortune',bl`estate',ags.boldandbotln.`dwelling,house',
*byldan,engl.tobuild`tobuild',afries.boldandbdel`house,householdutensil,household
appliance,property'(*bla-fromidg.*bh[u]tlo-and*bula-,comparelit.bklandwestsl.bydlo),
alsoaisl.bln.`dwelling'[(seeabovealsotobl`den(ofanimals)'];
aisl.brn.`pantry,zenana(partofahouseforwomeninIndia)',ags.brm.`cottage,room',ahd.br
m.`house,cage',nhd.(Vogel-)Bauer,whereofahd.nhgibr,ags.nahgebr,nhd.Nachbar,engl.
neighbourandahd.gibr(o),mhd.gebr(e),thenbr,nhd.Bauer`farmer,peasant';

ags.bo`Iam'(*bhuii=lat.f,air.-bu),besidesbom,ahd.bimetcafter*imfrom*es-`be',as
ahd.bis(t),ags.bisafteris.
Perhapsgot.bagms,ahd.bum,ags.bam`tree'from*bhou()mo-`'andaisl.byggn.`barley',
as.Gen.PLbew`sowing,seed,yield',ags.bown.`barley'(*bewwa-)as`thetilled,thesown'.
Maybealb.(*bam)bim`plant',alb.geg.ba`ripen,become',bafshsub.`be!'
Lit.bti(lett.bt,OldPrussianbot)`be',btSupin.`tobe'(OldPrussianbtonInf.),participlebtas
`been',Fut.bsiu(lett.bu),preteritbvo`hewas'(comparealsobuv-ju,-ti`caretobe'andOld
ChurchSlavicIter.byvati);Opt.OldPrussianbousai`heis',preteritbi,be`hewas'(froman
expandedbasiswith-i-);
lit.bvism.`being,life',buvinti`stayhereandthereawhile',OldPrussianbuwinait`live!';
lett.bana`being,entity,condition',OldPrussianbousennis`state,condition';lit.btas,Old
Prussian(Akk.)buttan`house';
lit.bklas(*btla-)`nest,den,hideout,lairofwildanimals',pabklas`tool,utensil;apparition,ghost',
bkl,bkl`presence(ofmind),dwelling',ostlit.bklds.(seeabove;inadditionbukls`wise,sly,
cunning');
OldChurchSlavicbyti`become,be',lo-participlebyl`been'(therefrombylje`herb;healthyherb',
comparetomeaning),Aor.b`was'(*bhu-t);
Imperf.bae,Fut.participleChurchSlavicbyteje,byteje`',Kondiz.3.Pl.b(*bhunt),participleza-bven`forgotten',besidesmiscellaneousparticiple*byte.g.inruss.zabtyj
`forgotten',compareinadditionalsoSubst.russ.byt`entity,wayoflife,lifestyle'underlikewise,
apoln.byto`nourishment,food',OldChurchSlaviciz-bytk`affluence,remnant'underlikewise,
bytje`theexistence';
maybealb.mbetje`residue,leftover',mbetet`isleft',mbeturin`trash'[commonalb.b->mb-shift]
OldChurchSlaviczabyt`oblivion',pobyt`victory',prbyt`abode,residence',russ.byt`entity,
creature;facts(ofthecase),facts(ofthematter),matteroffact';presentOldChurchSlavicbd
`become,',asFut.:`willbecome'(iflat.Adj.in-bundus);
maybereducedalb.(*bd)doFuture:`willbecome'
Kaus.OldChurchSlavicizbaviti`free,release'underlikewise(:OldIndianbhva-yati,compareto
vocalismalsogot.bauanandOldChurchSlaviczabava`stay,activity,pastime');ech.bydlo
`whereabouts,dwelling',poln.bydo`cattle'(from*`state,prosperity,possessions').
Maybealb.(*zabava)zbavit`entertain,(*pastime)'
Perhapshere(PedersenToch.2281)toch.pyautk-,Apyotk-,ABpyutk-`comeintobeing',med.
`bringabout'.
Fromthebasisbh(e)u -:
npers.Imp.bd`be!';Oldpers.Opt.b-yhisplacedbyWackernagelKZ.46,270=OldIndianbhy-,-t;

gr.n.`germ,sprout,scion,shoot'=,`produce,sow,plant';
lit.alt.bit(i)`hewas',alsoKondit.1.Pl.(sktum-)bime;lett.biju,bija`Iwas,hewas'(lett.bijextendedfromathemat.*bhu-);ablaut.OldPrussianbi,seeabove;
maybealb.bujis`germ,sprout,scion,shoot,bloom'
OldChurchSlavicKondit.2.3.Sg.bi`were,wouldbe'(*bhus,*bhu-t),whereforesecondary1.Sg.
bi-mwithprimaryending.
References:
References:WP.II140f.,WH.I375f.,504f.,557f.,865,867,EM.812f.,1004f.,Trautmann40f.,
Feist83f.
Spechtwillplace(KZ.59,58f.)undercitationofgr.F`light,salvation'=OldIndianbhava`blessing;benediction,boon,salvation',--etcunsererootas*bhau-,notas*bheu-.
seealsoaboveS.91.
Page(s):
Page(s):146-150
Root/lemma: bhgh- :bhghEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toresist
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`streiten'
Material:
Material:Gall.bgaudae`insurgentguerilla'(suffixasinalauda,bascauda),air.bgaid`fights,
brags,threatens',bgf.`fight,struggle',mcymr.bwyo(*bgi-)`hit',

kymwy(:mir.combgds.)`fight',-boawc=mir.bgach`warlike';whethercymr.bai`fault,error',beio
`rebuke'inadditionbelongs,itmustcontainidg.*bhgh-;
ahd.bgan,(bgn)`squabble,quarrel',aisl.bga,bgja`oppose,resist',ahd.bga`quarrel,fight',
as.bgm.`vainglory,boastfulness',mhd.bc,-gesm.`loudyelling,quarrel',aisl.bge,bgi
`adversary',bgr`difficult,hard,sullen,obstructive';itispresumedwhethergerm.familyisnot
borrowedfromKelt.,ablautgerm.:kelt.(idg.);
lett.buztis`beangry'(*bhgh-),EndzelinKZ.52,118;
russ.bazel`bawler,crier',bazgala`malicious'(ScheftelowitzKZ.54,242);
perhapstoch.pakwre`evil,bad'(Adverb),Apknt`hindrance'(*bhgh-),VanWindekensLexique
85,96.
References:
References:WP.II130.
Page(s):
Page(s):115
Root/lemma: bh 2 ,bh
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindofparticle
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:PartikelespeciallytheBeteuerungandHervorhebung

Material:
Material:Av.b,bt,b,bit(thelatter,aslit.be,probablywithstrengtheningparticle*id)particles
oftheprotestationandemphasis,ba`yea,intruth'(`ifOldIndianbaham'BartholomaeWb.953);
Maybeemphasizingparticlealb.bah`absolutelynot'[alb.preservedtheoldlaryngeal-]
arm.ba,bayemphasizingparticle;
got.baconditionalparticle(hereiba,ibai`if,because'Konj.`thatnot',ni-ba,nibai`possiblynot
yet',Konj.`ifnot',ja-bai`if',ahd.ibu,oba,mhd.ob(e)`if,whether'etc,s.Kluge11422);
lit.b`yes,ofcourse;certainly;sure',ben`atleast,notonlybutalso',ostlit.b(=OldPrussianbhe),
be(seeabove)`and',be,b,bs,bainterrogativeparticle,OldPrussianbeggi`for';OldChurch
Slavic(etc)bo`for',ibo`',ubo`also',nebon`forindeed';changingthroughablautklr.ba
`yes,ofcourse;certainly;sure',ech.poln.ba`trusted,yea,intruth'.
maybealb.po`if,whether,yes':poln.ba`yea,intruth'.
References:
References:WP.II136,Trautmann22f.
Page(s):
Page(s):113
Root/lemma: bh- :bhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:towarm,fry,*bath
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wrmen,rsten'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bh- :bh- :
:`towarm,fry,*bath':Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhoso-s :
:`naked'derived
fromOssetic:bgng[adj]`naked'ofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:nog- ,nogod(h)o- ,nog-no- :
:naked'
commonIndoIranianm-/n->bhphoneticmutation:gr.-illyr..
Material:
Material:Ahd.ben,bjan,nhd.bhen(*bhi)`warmwithcovers,bakebread',inadditionwith
idg.-to-suffixaisl.ba`steambath',as.bath,ags.b,ahd.bad`spa,bath';inadditionalsonorw.
dial.bara`cleanwithwarmwater',schwed.bara`warmup'.
Note:
Thecognatesaisl.ba`steambath',as.bath,ags.b,ahd.bad`spa,bath'arecreatedaccording
toalb.phoneticlaws-g>-th,-d;maybeeuphemisticalb.mbath`getdressed,wear',zbath`get
naked,getundressed(tohaveabath)'
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bh- :bh- :
:`towarm,fry,*bath':Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhoso-s :
:`naked'asin::Ahd.
bar`naked,bare'(*baza-),nhd.bar,ags.br,aisl.berr`naked,bare';lit.bsas,lett.bass,Old
ChurchSlavicbos`barefoot';arm.bok`barefoot'(*bhosogo-).
thereofwithg-extensionbhgingr.`roast,fry',ags.bacan,bc,ahd.bahhan,aisl.baka,-aads.,mhd.sichbecheln`bask,
getwarm,loungeinthesun';besideswithintensiveconsonant-sharpeningahd.backan,nhd.backen;

gr.-illyr.;Hes.(v.BlumentalIF.49,175);
Inadditionperhaps(as`burningdesire,ardentwish')russ.bat,bat`wish,want,whereupon
starve',ech.baiti,perf.zabahnouti`askforsomething'.
References:
References:WP.II187.
Page(s):
Page(s):113
Root/lemma: bhidhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:vessel,cauldron
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Topf,Kbel,Fa'
Note:
Fromanearlyroot*bhegh- [commonillyr.-gh->-dh-phoneticmutation]derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
bhedh-2 :
:`tobow,bend',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhadh-sko- :
:`bundle,heap'andin-igradeRoot/
Root/
lemma: bhidh- :
:vessel,cauldron(seeabove).
Material:
Material:gr.n.`barrel,vat,cask,winecask',,att.ds.,lat.fidlia(*fides-li)
`earthenwarevessel,pot,pan';presumablyaisl.biaf.`milktub',norw.biden.`buttertub'(*bidjan-),
bidnen.`vessel'.
Therefromlat.fiscus`abasket;henceamoney-bag,purse;thestatetreasury;undertheempire,the
emperor'sprivypurse',fiscina`asmallbasket'(from*bhidh-sko-)maybereconstructedforitsfamilya
basicmeaning`twistedvessel',itbelongsprobablytoarootbheidh-`bind,flax,wattle,braid'.
References:
References:WP.II185,WH.I492f.,506.
Page(s):
Page(s):153
Root/lemma: bhili- ,bhiloEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:harmonious,friendly
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`ebenmig,angemessen,gut,freundlich'
Material:
Material:Mir.bil(*bhili-)`good',gall.Bili-inPNBili-catus,Biliciusetc,ahd.bila-`kind,gracious',
newerbili-,bil-in1.partofpeople'sname;ags.bile-wit`simple,just,innocent'=mhd.bilewiz,bilwiz
`fairydemon,ghost'(eigentl.`goodghost');ahd.bil-lch`proper';abstractnoun*biliinas.
unbilithunga`unconventionality',mhd.unbilde,unbileden.`wrong;injustice,theincomprehensible',
nhd.Unbilde,toadjectivemhd.unbil`unjust;unfair',substantivizedschweiz.Unbill.Aboutnhd.Bild
seeunderbhei()-`hit',whereforeR.Loewe(KZ.51,187ff.)willplacealsoUnbilde.
Gr.`dear,friend'etcplacesKretschmer(IF.45,267f.)aspreGreektolyd.bilis`be';againstit
LoeweaaO.,whichexplainsthestressofthefirstsyllablefromthevocative.
References:
References:WP.II185,Kluge11underBild,billig,Unbill,Weichbild.

Page(s):
Page(s):153-154
Root/lemma: bhlagh-menEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:priest
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Zauberpriester';originallyprobablyNeutrum`Opferhandlung'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhlagh-men- :
:`priest'derivedfromtheextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhla- :
:`tohit',
meaningAryanpriestsassumedtheywouldgainthegraceofgodsthroughimmolation.
Material:
Material:Air.brahmn-m.`magicpriest',brhman-n.`spell,charm,devotion';messap.
`priest';lat.flmen,-inism.`thepriestofsomeparticulargod,sacrificialpriest'(nottheold*-n).
BecauseofthenumerouscongruitiesinthereligiousterminologybetweentheItalicandIndicthisis
equationofthepreferredexplanationofflmenfrom*bhld-(s)men,angebl.`sacrifice,immolation'(to
got.bltan`worship',an.blta,ags.bltan,ahd.bluozan`sacrifice',an.bltn.`sacrifice,oblation'
[-es-stem,comparefinn.luote`chant,incantation'fromprotogerm.*bltes],ahd.bluostarn.ds.,etc).
comparealsoDumzilREtIE.1,377,stillcomparesarm.bajal`striveafter'.
Maybealb.lut`chant,pray':finn.luote`chant,incantation'
References:
References:WP.II209,WH.I512f.,865f.,Feist100f.,580a.
Page(s):
Page(s):154
Root/lemma: bhlaEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohit
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schlagen'
Material:
Material:Lat.flagrum`whip,scourge',flagellumds.`awhip,scourge;thethongofajavelin;ayoung
sprout,vine-shoot;plur.thearmsofapolypus;fig.`thestingofconscience',withlengthenedgrade
probablyflgit,-re`toentreat,ask,demandearnestly;todemandtoknow;tosummonbeforea
courtofjustice'(originallyprobablywithblowsandthreats),flgitium`adisgracefulaction,shameful
crime;shame,disgrace;meton.,scoundrel,rascal'(originally`publiccastigationandsuppression';
conflages`placesexposedtoallthewinds,placeblownbythewinds'PaulFest.35aappearsaspoil
forconflgs);
Maybealb.flak`hurl'
aisl.andnnorw.dial.blaka,blakra`strikebackandforth,fan,flutter,flap',aisl.blak`blow,knock',aisl.
blekkja(*blakjan)`hit'(norw.`flicker'),schwed.mdartl.blkkta(*blakatjan),mndl.blaken`fan,flutter,
shiver'(inGerm.phoneticcoincidencewiththefamilyofaisl.blakra`blink,glitter,flash'etc,seebelow
*bheleg-`shine';soise.g.norw.blakra`fan'aswellas`shine').
Lit.blakaandbloki(-k-from--sq-)`flingsidelong,travelhereandthere,runaroundhereand
there'.

References:
References:WP.II209,WH.I511f.
Page(s):
Page(s):154
Root/lemma: bhlegEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswell
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sichaufblhen,schwellen'
Note:
Note:extensionv.`inflate,bloat'
Material:
Material:Gr.,-f.`vein',Phot.;ahd.bolca,bulchunna(*bhlg-)`a
roundswelling;inwater,abubble'.
References:
References:WP.II215,WH.I519f.
Page(s):
Page(s):155
Root/lemma: bhlei-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswell
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`aufblasen,schwellen,strotzen,berflieen'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombhel-ds.
Material:
Material:Norw.dial.bleime,aschwed.blma`blebontheskin'(comparenorw.blemads.under
bhel-,bh(e)l-);dn.blegn(e)`vesicle'(*blajjinn),ags.blegenf.,engl.blain,mnd.bleine,olderdn.
blen(e),aschwed.blena`vesicle'(*blajinn).
Thatgr.:`doorpillar,doorpost'eig.`(*tumid=)thickbalk,beam'isrequiredonlyofforeign

confirmation(Prellwitz2andBoisacqs.v.;basicform*bhl-uor-s);`haematoma,
effusionofblood'iscorruptedfromlat.flmina`abloodyswellingorcongestionofbloodaboutthe
ankles'.

bhleis-: aisl.blstra`blow,whistle'(comparegot.-blsanunderbhel-,bh(e)l--;newvariationwithi
totheimitationofthebrighttone);perhapsserb.blhm,blhati`flood;spit;havediarrhea';blhnm,
blhnuti`splash,spray',bulg.bli,blkn,blkvam`poursoutofme,flowsout'(ifnotasprotoslav.
*blychajtou-variantfromgr.etc).
bhleid- (presumablyd-present*bhlid).
Gr.`overflowofhumidity,thereofswellup',Hes.,
Hes.,Hes.,,-,-`ferment,seethe,boom,blaster',
`scum,froth,foam,slobber'(-=n`');presumablyalso`surgingofthesea,
thetumultoffighting',(*,formsafteronomatopoeicwordsas
,);commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation
perhapsheremir.bled`bellowing,braying,roar'(outofitcymr.bloeddds.);

engl.bloat`tobloat,bulge,swell'(*blaitn=);
lett.blstu,bldu,blztandbliu,-du,-st`growfat,putonweight'.
References:
References:WP.II210f.
Page(s):
Page(s):156
Root/lemma: bhleiqEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombhli-(:bhel-)ds.,asbhli-.
Material:
Material:Ags.blge(*blaigin-)`gudgeon(typeoffreshwaterfish)';mnl.mnd.blei(g)andbleger,
nhd.Bleihe,Blei`fishnames';besidesmhd.blicke`carp',
nhd.Blicke(norw.dial.blekka,nhd.Blecke`dace(*whitefish)'fromthee-rootbhleg-);inother
meaningchange(`shine:glance,look')aisl.blgr`lookingstaringlyandrigidly',blgja`stare'
Inadditionruss.blknut`bleach,fade,wither,wilt',blklyj`sallow,paled,faint,languid,wilted;faded,
flaccid,withered',blkot`fool'sparsley,Aethusacynapium',poln.blakn`fade,expire'.
References:
References:WP.II211.
Page(s):
Page(s):157
Root/lemma: bhlendhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:pale,reddish
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`fahl,rtlich';`undeutlichschimmern';`trbeseinormachen'(alsodurch
Umrhrenofwateretc);`irren,schlechtsehen';`Dmmerung'
Note:
Note:Itbelongsprobablytobhel-1 .
Material:
Material:OldIndianbradhn-(*bhlndh-no-)`reddish,dun';
germ.*blundaz(*bhlndh-o)inmlat.blundus,ital.biondo,frz.blond,fromwhichmhd.blunt,nhd.
blond;
got.blinds`blind',aisl.blindr`blind,undistinguishable',as.ags.blind,ahd.blint`blind',also`dark,
cloudy,dull,notobvious';got.blandansik`mingle,diffuse,intermingle',aisl.blanda`mix'(blendingr
`mixture'),as.ags.blandan,ahd.blantan,mhd.blanden`mix,tarnish'(nhd.Blendling`hybrid,
mongrel,halfbreed');togerm.acomparetheiterative-causative:ahd.blendan(*blandjan)`darken,
blind',ags.blendan`blind'(:blandtis,OldChurchSlavicblditi);aisl.blunda`closetheeyes',blundr
`slumber',mengl.blundren`stir,bewilder',nengl.blunder`begrosslymistaken,wander';
lit.blendi,blsti`sleep;stirflourintosoup,talknonsense,becomecloudy',lett.blendu,blenst`have
pooreye-sight,beshort-sighted';lit.blandas,-tis`lowtheeyesdown,beashamed',lett.bludties

`ds.;roam,beashamed',
Maybealb.geg.(*flenj)fl,tosk.fle`die,sleep';[rarealb.ph->f-phoneticmutation,foundingr.and
lat.]
lit.bladas`sleepiness,turbidweather,cloudiness',blands`dim,cloudy,thick(soup),murky;dark';
lit.blsta,blndo,blsti`dim,dusky,cloudy,becomedark;becomecloudy,fromwater',

prblind(andpriebland)`dusk,twilight';herealsoblid,blends,blnd`sallow';
maybealb.geg.bl,blini,tosk.bliri`lindentree'n/rstem
OldChurchSlavicbld,blsti`err;wander;',bld`gossip,prank',slov.bl-dem,blsti
`maunder,drivel,fantasize',aech.blsti(2.Sg.blede)`maunder,drivel';OldChurchSlavicbld
`debauchery,depravity,adultery',poln.bd`mistake,delusion',OldChurchSlavicbld,blditi
`err,indulgeindebauchery',skr.bldm,blditi`err,wander,cheat,deceive,spoil,caress'etc.
maybealb.geg.bl,tosk.blenj`(*cheat),barter,buy'similarshiftofthemeaningingr.
`cheat,barter,exchange'.
References:
References:WP.II216,218,Trautmann34f.,EndzelinKZ.52,112,SpechtDekl.58,117.
Page(s):
Page(s):157-158
Root/lemma: bhlesEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen'
Note::
Note::uptonowonlyintheGerm.provableextensionfrombhel- `shine'
Material:
Material:Mhd.blas`naked,bald,bleak,pallid'(nhd.bla)n.`torch,burningcandle',ags.blse
`torch,fire',engl.blaze`blaze,glow;whiteforeheadspot',
ahd.blas-ros`horsewithwithabrightspot'(withabrightspotontheforehead),mnd.bles,blesse
(*blasj)`paleness',aisl.*bles-inblesttr`markedwithawhitespot'andincompoundon-blesi.
References:
References:WP.II217.
Page(s):
Page(s):158
Root/lemma: bhleu-(k)-,(-s-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toburn
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`brennen'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombhel- `shine'.
Material:
Material:*bhleu-s-ingr.-`blazedbythefire',,`searall
around';aisl.blysn.`flame',ags.blysam.`flame,torch',mnd.bls`torch',ags.blyscon`blush',engl.

blush.
*bhleuk-inmhd.bliehen`burningluminously',ahd.bluhhen.
Thewestslav.formsasech.bltti`shimmer',blskati`shine'(besidesOldChurchSlavicbltati
etc,seebelow*bhlei-)areagainstitprobablyreshufflingafter*lyskati,poln.yska`flash,shine'etc
-meaningnotdirectaccordingly,respectivelyonlyfromaprimordialmeaning`shine'tojustify,
TrautmannGGA.1911,245compareswithmhd.bliehen:lit.blunk,blkti`becomepale,loseone's
color'.
References:
References:WP.II214.
Page(s):
Page(s):159-160
Root/lemma: bhleusEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:weak,mild
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:etwa`schlaff'
Note:
Note:Perhapstobheleu-.
Material:
Material:Schwed.mdartl.bloslin`weak',norweg.blyr`mild,lukewarm',blyra`weakling,wimp',nhd.
schwb.blsche(n)`slow,idle':lit.apsi-blausti`despond,despair,becomesad'.
References:
References:WP.II214.
Page(s):
Page(s):160
Root/lemma: bhleuEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toblow;toswell,flow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`aufblasen(schnauben,brllen),schwellen,strotzen,berwallen,flieen'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombhel-`(inflate,bloat),swellup'
Material:
Material:Gr.(F)`tobefullof,toaboundwith,tobeburstingwith,tobebristling,bebrimful',
(*,lengthenedgrade),ephes.(*F)epithetofDionysosasavegetation
God;presumablyfromthelushnessofgrowthalsoatt.,jon.`reedplant';
(*F)`swell,tobefullof,toaboundwith,tobeburstingwith,tobebristling,beinbloom,
blossom',`growingexcessively'or`exceedinglysucculent',,`epithetof
DionysosandtheKoreasvegetationdivinities'probablyalso,`bark,husk';
changingthroughablaut`surgeup,bubble,chat;befruitful',Hes.
m.`gossip',`gossip,prank;buffoon';
lit.bliuju,bliviau,bliuti`roar,bellow,bleat',blivauti`roar,bellow',lett.bl'anu,bl'atds.;Old
ChurchSlavicbl'uj,bl'vati`spit,vomit'(basedonoldpreteritestem,comparelit.blivofromidg.
*bhluu-);inadditionperhapsalsoOldPrussianbleusky`reed'(wouldbecorrectinthemeaningtogr.

!).
Withas - extensionnd.blstern`violentblow,storm,pant,sniff,snort',engl.bluster`boom,blaster,
rant,roister'andskr.bljuzgati`streamnoisily,chatsillystuff';alsoskr.blhatietc(seeunderbhleis-).
Withdentalformant:mhd.bldern`chat,prate'(rathernewonomatopoeicword;compareKluge11
underplaudern);ratherschweiz.bloder`bigbubbleetc',blodern`effervesce,surge,boil',nhd.
Pluderhosen;perhapsskr.bltiti`speakabsurd,speakinappropriate',Berneker62;aboutahd.
blt(t)ara`bubble'(*bl-dr-)s.S.121;
with-d- (originallypresentforming):`flowsabout,dissolves,becomesoft',
`muddy,sludgy,slushy,squashy,squishy,slobbery,sloppily',`breakopen,fromulcers'.

g - extensionbhleug- (comparetherootformbhleg- ):
gr.-`wine-drunken';`tobubbleup,boilup,surgeup,overflow,alsowithwords';
,`bubble';but-`blister,shieldhump'staysaway;
lat.flu,-ere,flxi,flctum,newerflxum`toflow;ofasolidobject,toflow,dripwithanyliquid,
stream,pour;ofabstr.things,toproceed,issue,spread;ofcircumstances,totend;oflanguage,to
flow;tosink,droop',flctus,-s`current,wave,astreaming,flowing.Transf.,commotion,
disturbance',flmen(*fleugsmen)`flowingwater;henceariver,stream',conflgsalat.`confluence
oftwostretchesofwater',fluvius`river'(frompresentflufrom),flustraNom.PL`calm(atsea)'
(*flugstrom);ifhere(withnasalization)cymr.blyngu`becomeangry',blwng`angry,irate',bret.blouhi
`rebuke'
References:
References:WP.II213f.,WH.I519f.,Trautmann35;differentEM.372.
Page(s):
Page(s):158-159
Root/lemma: bhl d - ,bhl d Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toboil;tochatter,boast
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`aufsprudeln,heraussprudeln,alsovonWorten'
Material:
Material:Gr.`babbler',`gossip';Hes.;`bubble,
seethe,foam';moreoveralsoAor.(intrans.)`tear';comparetomeaninglat.fragor`a
breaking;anoiseofbreaking,crack,crash';
withvaryinglengthenedgradebhld- air.indlidi`brags,boasts',indldud`boasting'(*ind-bld-`puff
oneselfupormakeinflatedwords')andlett.bldu,blzt`chat';
zerogradeahd.uz-ar-pulzit`boil,bubbleout';
nhd.platzen,pltschernareprobablycertainlyofnewonomatopoeicwordformation.
References:
References:WP.II210,216,WH.I515,518.
Seealso:
Seealso:tobhel-3.

Page(s):
Page(s):155
Root/lemma: bhl i - ,bhlEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombhli-ds.,asbhleiqMaterial:
Material:Ags.blcan`shine',as,blkan`shine',ahd.blhhanst.-V.`becomepallid',mhd.blchenst.V.`shine,blush',aisl.blkja,bleik`appear,gleam,shine';
aisl.bleikr,ags.blc,ahd.bleih`pallid,pale,wan';ahd.bleihha`dace,roach',norw.bleikjaandblika
ds.;aisl.blikn.`brightlustre,shine;gold,goldplating',
ahd.bleh`(*shiny)thinmetalpanel',nhd.Blech,mnd.blickds.;ags.blikem.(*bliki-)`bareplace';
ahd.blic,-eches`quickhighlight,flash,lightning',mhd.blic,-ekes`lustre,shine,look,lightning',nhd.
Blick,ahd.blecchazzen(*blekatjan),mhd.bliczen,nhd.blitzen;as.bliksmo`lightning',aschwed.blixa
`blink',nschwed.also`flash'.
Lit.blizg,-ti`flicker,shine',blkiu,blykti`sparkle,glitter,shimmer,shine',blykt,blyka,
blkti`blanch,pale',ablaut.blaiktas,-tis`clearup,ofthesky';lett.blaiskums`spot,mark',melnblaiskai`darkgrey'.
Russ.-ChurchSlavicblsk`lustre,shine'(*bhloi-sko-);changingthroughablautOldChurchSlavic
blisk`lustre,shine'and*blskinech.blesk,Gen.oldblsku`lightning',OldChurchSlavicblt,
bltati`shine',Iter.bliscajo,bliscatis.
References:
References:WP.II21If.,EM.398,Trautmann34,MeilletSlavecommun2133,SpechtDekl.144.
Page(s):
Page(s):156-157
Root/lemma: bhl i -1 :bhli- :bhlEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen',alsovonNarben
Note:
Note:extensionfrombhel-ds.
Material:
Material:Germ.*blia-(*bhlei-tio-orrather*bhl-tio-)`light,cheerful,fair(ofsky,heaven,thenofthe
looks,appearance,themood:)cheerful'ingot.bleis`merciful,mild',
aisl.blr`mild(ofweather),friendly,pleasant',ags.ble`cheerful,friendly',ahd.bldi`cheerful,
blithe,glad,friendly',as.blthn,ahd.blden`beglad'.
As.bln.`paint,color',Adj.`coloured',afries.bl(e)n`paint,color',bli`beautiful',ags.blon.`paint,
color,apparition,form'(probably*blja-).
Onaccountofgerm.*blwa`lead'(ahd.blo,-wes,as.bl,aisl.bly)withlit.blyvas`purple,mauve,

violet-blue'correspondingcoloradj.withformants-uo-ofourroot(toacceptnhd.blaucongruent,
indeedunoccupiedkelt.*bluo-from*bhluo-aswellspring,wasconceivable),wouldbedebatable,
butthemostlikely.
Here(afterSpechtDekl.117)russ.bli-zn`threadbreak,flawinfabric',ech.poln.blizna`scar';
becauseoftheparallelformsunderbhlu-1barelywithWH.I517tobhl-.
Lit.blvas`purple,mauve,violet-blue';perhapslit.blavas`sober'(ifnotas*blaidvastorelated
*bhlido-s),blaivas,-tis`clearup,becomesober';perhapslett.blnt`lurk,afurtive(glance),blink'.
Toch.A.plyaske`meditation'(VanWindekensLexique97).
References:
References:WP.II210.
Seealso:
Seealso:seealsounderbhlu-1andbhlido-s.
Page(s):
Page(s):155-156
Root/lemma: bhlu-1 :bhlu- :bhlEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`glnzen',alsovonweiemHautausschlag,Narben,Schinnetc
Note:
Note:derivativestobhel-1.
Material:
Material:Russ.blju-`ivy'(SpechtDekl.117);poln.bysk(*bhl-sk-)`lightning';sorb.bl'u-zn
`scar',wruss.blu-zn`weavingflaw';lett.blau-zgas,blau-znas,lit.bl-zganos`dandruff',lett.bl-zga
`peelingskin',blu-zga`smallparticles,drilldust'etc
Maybealb.bluanj`grind,mill'
References:
References:SpechtDekl.117.
Seealso:
Seealso:comparetheparallelformationunderbhli-1.
Page(s):
Page(s):159
Root/lemma: bhlu-2 :bhlu- :bhlEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:bad
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schwach,elend'(probablyfrom`geschlagen')
Note:
Note:bh(e)lu-isapparent,manifest,obviousparallelformationtobheleu-`hit'.
Material:
Material:Gr.,(bothdissimil.from*)`slight,evil,bad';
got.blauian`abolish'(eigentl.`makeweak'),aisl.blaur`timorous',ags.bla`daft,shy',with
io-suffixas.bldi`shamefaced',ahd.bldi,mhd.blde`frail,breakable,shy,timid',nhd.blde;
besidesidg.*bhlu-to- standsad- extensioninaisl.blautr`mushy,softish,delicate,mollycoddle,

timorous',ags.blat`arm,woeful,wretched,miserable',mndd.blt,mhd.blz`bare',nhd.blo(ahd.
blowithstrangemeaning`stout,proud');
lengthenedgradebhlu- inags.un-bloh`fearless'(suffix-ko-),withgramm.variation;aisl.bljgr
`timid',blyg`thegenitals'(*leugi),changingthroughablautahd.blgoAdv.,mhd.blc,bliuc
`shy',ahd.blgisn,blchisn`doubt',ags.blycgan(*blugjan)`frighten'(trans.);comparelit.blktu,
-ti`becomelimp'.
References:
References:WP.II208f.,HirtIdg.Gr.II150,Feist99,SpechtDekl.133.
Page(s):
Page(s):159
Root/lemma: bhl-u o -s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindofcolour(blue,gold)
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:vonlichtenFarben`blau,gelb,blond'
Note:
Note:alsobhl - u o -s ,bhl-ro-s ,bhl-ro-s ,derivativesfromtherootbhel-1,bhelMaterial:
Material:Lat.flvus`goldenbrown,red-yellow,blond',osk.FlaviiesG.Sg.`oforbelongingtothe
collegeofpriestsfortheFlavianfamily'(fromidg.*bhl-),besidesfulvus`red-yellow,brown-yellow'
from*bhl-uo-s;flrus`yellow',alsoPN,from*bhlros=gall.*blros(Wartburg),mir.blr`forehead
withwhitespot,spot,field',cymr.blawr`gray',besides*bhl-ro-inmnd.blre`paleness,blessige,
whitespottedcow'.
Maybealb.blernj`blossom,begreen'(seebelowRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhlido-s :
:`pale')
Ahd.blo,nhd.blau(mhd.blalso`gold,yellow'),ags.*blwor*blw,aisl.blr`blue'from*bhl-uos;s.alsoS.155;
air.bl`yellowish'islateags.Lw.Aboutgerm.*blwa-`lead'seeunderbhlei-1.
Lit.blvas,lett.blvs`bluish,gold,yellow'aregerm.Lw.
References:
References:WP.II212,WH.I513f.,differentEM367.
Page(s):
Page(s):160
Root/lemma: bhlEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohowl,weep
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`heulen,lautweinen,blken'
Material:
Material:Lat.fle,flre(*bhli)`toweep;todrip,trickle;transit.,toweepfor,lament,bewail;
flendus,tobelamented';
lett.blju,blt`bleat';
r.-ChurchSlavicblju,bljati`bleat'(besidesskr.bljm,bljati`bleat'etc,with);mhd.bljen`bleat'
(germ.*bljan=lat.fle);ahd.blzan,nnd.blssen,ags.bltan,engl.tobleat`bleat',ags.

blagettan,blgettan`cry',ndd.blagen.`kid,child';mhd.blren,blerren`bleat,cry';
Maybealb.(*blge-)blegrij`bleat'
nhd.plrren,plren(also`weep,cry'),ndl.blaren`bleat',engl.toblare`roar,bellow';changing
throughablautmhd.blrjen,blelen(*blljan),dissimil.brelen`roar,bellow';zerogrademhd.bral
`shriek',schwb.brall`cry'.
References:
References:WP.II120,WH.I516.
Seealso:
Seealso:comparebhel-6andtheonomatopoeicwordsbl-.
Page(s):
Page(s):154-155
Root/lemma: bhlido-s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:pale
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`licht,bla'
Note:
Note:tobhli-`shine',fromextensionrootform*bhli-dMaterial:
Material:OldChurchSlavicbled`pallid,pale,wan'=ags.blt`pallid,livid';ahd.bleizza`paleness'.
Perhapslit.blavas`sober'(iffrom*blaid-vas;orfromtheanextensionrootbhlei-,s.d.),

blaivas,-tis`becomesober;clearup,fromthesky'.Alb.blernj`blossom,begreen'fromadj.*bler
from*bled-r(e=idg.aioroi),blhur`pale,wan,pallid'.
Inadditionprobablytheillyr.PNBlaedarus.
Note
Note:
Alb.isoneofillyr.dialects.
Alb.alsoshowsthatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhlido-s :
:`pale',derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhl-u o -s :
:`a
kindofcolour(blue,gold)'.
References:
References:WP.II217,Trautmann34,SpechtDekl.197.
Page(s):
Page(s):160
Root/lemma: bhl- (:*bhlig- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohit
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schlagen,schmeien'
Note:
Note:alsobhlu - (gr.kelt.),toindicatefromuo-present*bhl-u.
Material:
Material:ol.ion.`push,press,squeeze'(aboutseeunderdhlas-`contuse,squeeze');
cymr.blifm.`catapult,pallista',blifaidd`quick,fast';

lat.flg,-ere`hit,beatordashdown'(*bhl,oratmostwiththroughflxi,flctumassessesu-loss
from*fligu);
maybealb.(*bhl-)mbledh`squeeze(thehandintoafist)'[commonalb.->-dhshift]
lett.blazt`squeeze,clash,hit',blizt`hit';OldChurchSlavicbliz,blizAdv.`nigh,near'(eigentl.
`adjacent').
References:
References:WPII217,WH.I517,EM.369.
Seealso:
Seealso:aboutruss.bliznseeunderbhli-1.
Page(s):
Page(s):160-161
Root/lemma: bhlos-q- ;-gEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:expr.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:inSchallworten
Material:
Material:Ir.blosc,Gen.bloisc`din,fuss,noise'(bhlosko-);comparealsobroscds.under*bhres-;
lit.blzgu,-tiintr.`clatter',blzginti`clatter,rattle,clash'.
References:
References:WP.II218.
Page(s):
Page(s):161
Root/lemma: bhl k Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:wool,cloth
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Woll-orWergflocke,Gewebe'
Material:
Material:Lat.floccus`aflockofwool'(*flcos)toahd.blahaf.`coarsebedlinen(esp.tocoversor
substratums)',nhd.Blahe,Blache,lt.dn.blaa`oakum',nowblaar(eig.Pl.),schwed.blnor,blr
ds.,aschwed.blan,blads.(germ.*blahw-),an.blja(*blahjn-)`linen,sheet'.
Page(s):
Page(s):161
Root/lemma: bhogEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:runningwater
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`flieendesWasser,Bach'
Material:
Material:Mir.balf.`runningwater'(*bhogl),barm.`diarrhoea'(*bhogro-);protogerm.*baki-,
ahd.bah,nhd.Bach,besides*bakja-inaisl.bekkr,ags.beccm.ds.
WithregardtoOldIndianbhag-,lit.bang`billow'couldberelatedtotherootbheg-`shatter,
break,rupture'.

References:
References:WP.II149f.,187.
Page(s):
Page(s):161
Root/lemma: bhokEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toburn
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`flammen,brennen'
Material:
Material:Lat.focus`afireplace,hearth;meton.,house,family,home;sometimesaltar-fireorfuneral
pyre';presumablytoarm.bosor`red'(`*fiery'),boc`flame'(*bhok-s-o-).
References:
References:WP.II186,WH.I521.
Page(s):
Page(s):162
Root/lemma: bholoEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:smoke,steam
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:etwa`Dunst,Dampf,warmaufsteigenderGeruch'
Material:
Material:itisassociatedperhapsair.bolad,nir.boladhandbaladh`smell,odor'andlett.buls,bula
`mistymuggyair,heightsmoke,dryness';
itcouldformthebasisidg.bhol-(Irish):bhel-(lett.);perhapsiswithaboveetymologyalsoPeterssons
Etym.Miszellen34connectionofbulswithcombinablearm.bal`fog,mist,darkness'(iforiginally
`haze,mist')
References:
References:WP.II189.
Page(s):
Page(s):162
Root/lemma: bhorgo-s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:unfriendly
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`barsch,unfreundlich'
Material:
Material:Arm.bark`violent,angry,irate;herb,bitter,sharpfromtaste'(*bhrgos);air.borb,borp
`crazy';mir.borb(*burbo-,idg.*bhorgo-)`raw,ignorant',lett.bargs`stern,hard,unfriendly,pitiless';
schwed.mdartl.bark`willful,unfriendlyperson',barkun`rough,harsh'.
References:
References:WP.II188,Trautmann27.
Seealso:
Seealso:comparealsobhag-2.
Page(s):
Page(s):163

Root/lemma: bhoso-s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:naked
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`nackt'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bh- :bh- :
:`towarm,fry,*bath':Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhoso-s :
:`naked'derived
fromOssetic:bgng[adj]`naked'ofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:nog- ,nogod(h)o- ,nog-no- :
:naked'
commonIndoIranianm-/n->bhphoneticmutation.
Material:
Avestan:LAv.mana-[adj]`naked'(<PIr.*magna-)
Khotanese:bnaa-[adj]`naked'(<PIr.*bagnaka-)
Sogdian:(Buddh.)n'k[adj]`naked',(Chr.)ny[adj]`naked'
MiddlePersian:brahnag[adj]`naked'(withsecondary-r-)
Ossetic:bgng[adj]`naked'
OtherIraniancognates:Khwar.nn'k[adj]`naked'
Ahd.bar`naked,bare'(*baza-),nhd.bar,ags.br,aisl.berr`naked,bare';lit.bsas,lett.bass,Old
ChurchSlavicbos`barefoot';arm.bok`barefoot'(*bhosogo-).
Maybealb.geg.(*bhas-)zbath-`barefoot',mbath`wearshoes'[commonalb.-s>-thshift]:lett.bass
`barefoot'.
Asgr.-probablytobhes-`abrade,scrape'(and`grind'),alsooriginallyfrombarren,(naked)
sharpplaces,compareKretschmerKZ.31,414.
References:
References:WP.II189,MeilletEsquisse38,Trautmann28.
Page(s):
Page(s):163
Root/lemma: bhoudhiEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:victory
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Sieg'
Material:
Material:Air.baidn.`victory',abrit.FNBoudicca`thevictorious',cymr.budd`profit,gain',buddig
`victorious'(*bhoudhko-)=air.badachds.;agerm.GNBaudi-hillia`victoryfighter'.
References:
References:WP.II186,GutenbrunnerGerm.Gttern.43.
Page(s):
Page(s):163

Root/lemma: bhoukos
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindofbuzzinginsect
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`summendesInsekt'
Material:
Material:Lat.fcus,-m.`adronebee'=ags.bawm.`gadfly,brake',ndd.bauds.
References:
References:WP.II184,WH.I555f.
Page(s):
Page(s):163
Root/lemma: bh g h- orbh g hEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:lowland,swamp
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Schlamm,Sumpf'
Material:
Material:Mnl.baggerm.`slime,mud',outofitnhd.baggern`drainthemud';russ.bagn`low,
marshyplace',ech.bahno`swamp,marsh,morass',poln.bagnods.
References:
References:WP.II187,PeterssonHeterokl.123f.
Page(s):
Page(s):161
Root/lemma: bhi- :bhi- :bh- (bhii-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tofear
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sichfrchten'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhyat`beafraid'(from*bhietai=slav.bojet),av.bayente,byente`theyare
infear',mpers.bsnd`theyareinfear'(uriran.*bai-sk-);OldIndianbibhti`beafraid',sek.toinitial
Perf.m.Prsensbed.bibhya`Iaminfear'(bibhyt,bibhtana,abibht,participlebibhvn=av.
biwiv`wereafraid');OldIndianbhiyn-`wereafraid';bh-f.,bhti-f.(:lett.Inf.btis)`fear',
bhm-`dreadful',bht-`wereafraid,horrified',bhr-`timorous,shy,coward'(ifr=idg.l,
changingthroughablautwithlit.bil,bails);npers.bk`fear'(from*bhyaka-);withidg.
simplificationofitobeforeconsonanthereOldIndianbhma-perhaps`fierceness,fury',
bhmit-`fierce,grim'.
Gr.,m.`ape'(from*`ugly',zerograde*bhidh-).
Lat.foedus(*bhoidhos)`foul,filthy,horrible,disgusting'.
Ahd.bibn,as.bibn,ags.beofian,aisl.bifa,-aaandbifra(theseinendingdirectedafter*titrn
`tremble')tourg.*iai-mi;*inisprobablyonlyaftertotheothercoexistencefrom-n-and-nsecondaryverbbesidesonefromthePerfectformdevelopedgrade*in.
Bsl.originallypresent*bhi-,preterit-stem*bhii-,Inf.*bhti;OldPrussianbitwei`fear,dread',
kausat.pobaiint`punish,curse';lit.bijas,bijtis(alsonotreflexive)`beafraid',lett.bstus,bijus,
btisandbijjus,bijtis`beafraid';lit.baijs`dreadful,terrible,hideous';baida,-ti`frighten',lett.

badu,badtandbidt`daunt,scare';
Maybealb.geg.mbajt`beafraid',nukmamban`Iamafraid'
inadditionlit.bais`fright'(*baid-s-),baiss`terrible,horrid',baisiti`smudge,besmear'(andOld
ChurchSlavicbs`devil',*bd-s);lit.baim`fear';bilds.(bailus`timorous').
OldChurchSlavicboj,bojatis`beafraid'.
Furtherformation*bhii - es-, *bhs-inOldIndianbhysat`beafraid',udbhysa-`beafraidd',av.
Perf.biwivha(i.e.biwyha)`stimulatedfright,wasdreadful';OldIndianbhayat`frightens',
bhaa-`causingfright';
ahd.bsa`north-eastwind',bisn`runaroundmadly',br`boar'etcleadtoagerm.*bs-,*bz-`storm
aheadjumpily';compareWimannNom.postverb.78.
References:
References:WP.II124f.,186,WH.I522f.,Trautmann24,Kluge11underBiese.
Page(s):
Page(s):161-162
Root/lemma: bhrag- (betterbhr-g- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosmell,scent
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`riechen'
Material:
Material:Lat.fragr,-re`toemitasmell,esp.asweetsmell',denominative*bhrg-ro-s`smelling';
ahd.bracko(nhd.Bracke),mnd.mnl.bracke`beagle,sleuth,harrier,trackhound'(outofitital.bracco
etc),inadditionmlat.barm-braccus`lapdog';comparemhd.brhen`smell'(*bri);alsoanything
forrootbhr,aboveS.133.
Itremainsremotegall.brca`trouser';seeunderbhre-1`break,rupture'.
References:
References:WP.II192,WH.I540,Kluge11underBracke.
Page(s):
Page(s):163
Root/lemma: bhr t erMeaning:
Meaning:brother
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`AngehrigerderGrofamilie,Bruder,Blutsverwandter'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhrtar-,av.Oldpers.brtar-`brother';osset.rvd`brother,kinsman,relative';
arm.ebair,Gen.ebaurds.;(*bhrtr,*bhrtrs);
MaybeEtruscan(*rvad)ruva`brother'fromosset.rvad`brother,relative'
Illyr.bra`brother!(vocative)'>alb.bre`brother!(vocative)'
maybeKurdishbira`brother':turk.birader`brother'.

neuphryg.`brother';mys.-phryg.braterais=,gr.(ion.)Hes.,att.
,`memberofa(family,fraternity,brotherhood)';
ven.vhraterei`brother';
maybealb.vlla`brother':Estonianveli`brother':Lithuanian:
Lithuanian:brlis`brother'[mio]1;broterlis
`brother(dim.)'[mio];Latvian:
Latvian:brlis`brother'[mio];brtartis`brother(dim.)'[mio];OldPrussian:
OldPrussian:
brti(Ench.)`brother';brole(EV)`brother';bratrkai(Ench.)`brother(dim.)'[Nomp];
Alsoalb.tosk.(*vhraterei)vllazri`memberofa(family,fraternity,brotherhood)';
lat.frter`brother',osk.fratrm,umbr.fratrum,fratrom`brothers'etcaroundspteslat.frtruiss.
WH.I542);
air.brth(a)ir`brother,memberofabigfamily',cymr.sg.brawd,brodyr,acorn.broder,mbret.breuzr,
nbret.breur,Pl.breudeurds.;
got.brar,aisl.brir,ahd.bruoder,ags.bror`brother';
Shortformsinadditionahd.MNBuobo,mhd.buobe`boy',ags.MNBfa,Bja(>engl.boy),norw.
dial.boa`brother'etc;furtherahd.MNBuole,mhd.buole`kinsman,relative,lover',mnd.ble
`kinsman,relative,brother'etc(seeKluge11underBube,Buhle);OldPrussianbrti(Vok.brote)
`brother',lit.broterlis,shortformbrois,batis,brlis,lett.b(r)lis`babybrother',brtartis`dear
brother!';

OldChurchSlavicbratr,brat`brother',shortformserb.baa,ch.bt'ads.,russ.btja,bka
`father,priest'.
Alsoalb.geg.bac`father,leader':serb.baa`father,priest'.
comparenochOldIndianbhrtr-m`brotherhood';gr.,jon.ds.;OldIndianbhrtrya-m
:gr.,OldChurchSlavicbratrja,bratjads.,lat.frtria`wife,womanofbrothers'.
Toch.Apracar(Dualpratri),procer.
References:
References:WP.II193,WH.I541f.,866,SpechtKZ62,249,FraenkelREtIE2,6f.,RischMus.
Helv.1,118.
Page(s):
Page(s):163-164
Root/lemma: bhred(h)Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:towade,wander
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`waten',inBsl.also`plantschen,dieZeitvergeuden;Unsinnschwatzen'
Material:
Material:Thrak.PNB;lig.VNBrodionti;comparegall.FlNBredanna,frz.LaBrenne,PN
B(Bayern).
Alb.breth,Aor.brodha`(*wade)wander'.
Lit.bred(ostlit.brend),brida,brsti`wade',Iter.brada,-ti`wade',brast,brastv`ford(miry)',

brad`slime,mud',brdasm.`fishing'(=slav.brod),withsek.ablautbrdism.`wading,wayinthe
water',Iter.braida,-ti`wadearoundcontinuously';lett.brenu(mdartl.bredu=ostlit.brend),
bridu,brist,Iter.bradt`wade;treadwithfeet;speakfoolishly',braslism.`ford',brdism.`while,short
time';OldPrussianChucunbrast`throughthedevil'sway';zerogradeir=*rnochinlit.bird`wet
ordure',OldPrussianBirdaw,seaname.
Russ.-ChurchSlavicbredu,bresti`wadethroughaford'(zerogradepresent*brdinneprbrdom
`notwadingthroughwater',Aor.pribrde,compareaech.pbrde`willwade',poln.brnc`wade'
from*brdnti),russ.bred,brest`goslowly,fishwiththetrainnet',brdit`chatnonsense,
fantasize',bred,bredna`willow'(`standingthereofteninthewater'),r.-ChurchSlavic,russ.(etc)
brod`ford',iter.r.-ChurchSlavicbroditi`wade',russ.brodt`goslowly,slink,wanderaround;
ferment,seethe',skr.brditi`wade'.
References:
References:WP.II201f.,Trautmann37,Mhlenbach-Endzelin332f.
Page(s):
Page(s):164
Root/lemma: bhre-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobreak
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`brechen,krachen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiangiri-bhrj-`burstingoutfromthemountains';
lat.frang,-ere,frgi(:got.*brkum),frctum`breakinpieces,dashtopieces,shiver,shatter,
fracture',fragilis`frail,breakable,easilybroken,brittle,fragile'etc(*bhreg-),fragorm.`abreaking;a

crashing,anoiseofbreaking,crack,crash,noise,din';with(afterfrctusetc):suffrgium`avoting
tablet,avote,noisyapplause,approval;therighttovote,franchise;ingen.judgment;approval,
support';suffrginsf.`thehollowsoftheknee(suffragines,aresocalledbecausetheyarebroken
underneath=subtusfranguntur,thatis,theybenddownwardsandnotupwardslikethearm)',eigentl.
`bend,kink';
mir.braigid`farts',Verbaln.braimm,cymr.corn.bramm.`breakingwind,fart',mir.t-air-brech`crash,
blast';butgall.brca`breeches'(compareHes.)isgerm.Lw.,
air.brc`trouser'isags.Lw.
Maybealb.(*brca)brek`underwear';
got.brikan,as.brekan,ags.brecan,ahd.brehhan`break,rupture'(lat.frgimus=got.*brkum,nhd.
brachen),ablaut.got.brakja`wrestlingmatch';lengthenedgrademhd.brachef.`breakinginthe
ground,unbrokenrecumbentunsowedlandaftertheharvest',ags.-brcian`pressin',ahd.prahhen,
brahhen,mhd.braechen,nhd.prgen(*brkjan),Causativetobrechen;zerogradegot.gabrukaf.
`piece,fragment,gobbet'(*bhreg-)==ags.brycem.`thebreak,lump',ahd.bruh`break,cracked';
ags.brocian`press',broc`woefulness';withgeminationahd.brocco`broken',nhd.Brocken;

hereperhapsnorw.brakem.`juniper'(asbriskds.tobhres- `break,crack,cracking'),mhd.brakem.
f.`twig,branch',engl.brake`brushwood,thornbushes,fern',ablaut.norw.burknem.`fern',compare
alsonorw.brukn.`shrubbery,bush';

anasal.forminnorw.dial.brankn.`affliction,defect',branka`injure,break,rupture';withthe
meaning`din,fuss,noise'hereaisl.braka`crack,creak',brakn.`row,din,fuss,noise',mhd.ags.
brachm.ds.,ahd.mhd.as.braht`din,fuss,noise,clamor',withchangedmeaningnhd.Pracht;ags.
breahtmm.`argument,quarrel',as.brahtum`din,fuss,noise,clamorousmass';
germ.*brk-`rump',newer`trouser'inags.brcPl.`buttocks',engl.breechds.,aisl.brk,Pl.brkr
`thigh,trouser',ags.brc,ahd.bruoh,nhd.Bruchds.,schweiz.bruech`pubicregion';geminatedags.
etcbraccas`britches';
here(rathertobhres-)belonglit.brak,brakti`crack,creak'(*bhre-sk),lett.brakkt,brakstt
ds.
Aparallelroot*bhre(n)gh-seeksWood(KZ.45,61)inOldIndianbrhti`wrenches,tearsfrom',aisl.
branga`damage'.
OldIndianbrgala-m`piece,gobbet,lump'isnotidg.(KuiperProto-Munda49).
References:
References:WP.II200,WH.I113f,539f.,541,Feist104ff.,176,WimannNom.postverb.11,
58,123,181.
Page(s):
Page(s):165
Root/lemma: bhre-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tostick()
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`steifemporstehen'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombher- `standup,edge,bristle'etc,seeksPerssonBeitr.22f.A.2in:
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhraj-`stiffness(ofthemember),rigor()';isl.norw.brok`stiffgrass,grass
bristles';quitedubiousalsoinaisl.brkr(*bhoru-s),mnd.borke,
nhd.(eig.ndd.)Borke`rough,outerbark'(fromtheroughangularitySimilarisgr.`hard,
roughskin,esp.pig'sskin'tounextensiontoplacerootbher-).
Ananalogeg-extensionfromofai-basisbhrei- couldatmostexistinnorw.brikja`stickuphigh,to
showoff,shine',brik`atallwomankeepingherheadhigh',briken`fresh,agile,lively;showy,
gleaming,pleasant',brikna`glory,magnificence,lustre,shine,pleasure,joy'(WoodKZ.45,66),ifnot
perhaps`shine,shineout'isthebasisofthismeaning.

Brikenaillyr.PN
Abhri-k- presumablyingr.,-`shuddering,quiver,stare',,-,`stareup;
shiver(*flicker)'commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation;cymr.bret.brig`acme,apex'
(*bhrko-).
Maybealb.(*,)frik`shuddering,fear',older(*)friksoj`makeshiver,scare'.
References:
References:WP.II201.
Page(s):
Page(s):166

Root/lemma: bhrendhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswell,sprout
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`aufschwellen;schwanger,Fruchtkernansetzend'
Note:
Note:OnlyforKelt.tocoverToch.andBalt.-Slav.
Material:
Material:Air.probablyinbrenn-(*bhrendh-u-)`springup,bubble,effervesce',e.g.bebarnatar3Pl.
preterit,withto-ess-:do-n-eprinn`gushesforth',mir.to-oss-:toiprinnit`interiorflow,flowinto',Kaus.
mir.bruinnid`allowstogushforth,streamsout'etc;comparealsoThurneysenGrammar461;
Maybealb.brenda,prbrenda`inside,inward,(*inwardinflow)',brendsi`inside,entrails':Old
Prussianpobrendints`weighted'
lit.brstu,brndau,brsti`swell,ripen',participlebrnds`ripening',brstu,brndau,brsti`gush,well
up(e.g.frompeas)',brand`ripeness,richharvest',brands`grainy';lett.bristu,briu,brist
`gush,wellup,toswell,ripen',brus`thick,strong';OldPrussianpobrendints`weighted',sen
brendekermnen`pregnant',i.e.`withbodyfruit';
slav.*brdinaech.ja-badek,apoln.ja-brzd`twig,branchofgrapevine'(besidesoneverschied.
slav.*brdinkaub.bod`fruit-tree');relationshiptobher-(bhren-)`overhang,protrude'is
absolutelyagreeable;
toch.Apratsak,Bpratsk-`breast'.
References:
References:WP.II205,Trautmann35f.,VanWindekensLexique99.
Page(s):
Page(s):167-168
Root/lemma: bhrenk- ,bhronkEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobring
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bringen'
Material:
Material:Cymr.he-brwng`bring,glide,slide,guide,lead'(*sembronk-),hebryngiad`guide,leader',
acorn.hebrenchiat`leader',mcorn.hem-bronk`willguide,lead',hem-brynkys,hom-bronkys`guided',
mbret.ham-brouc,nbr.am-brouk`guide,lead';
got.briggan,brhta,ahd.bringan,brhta,alsoas.(woalsobrengian),ags.bringanandbreng(e)an
preteritbrhte(from*branhta)`bring';
toch.Bprak-,ABprnk-`depart'.
Angebl.contaminatedfromdenrootbher-andenek-;finallyE.FraenkelKZ.58,2861f.;63,198.
Maybealb.gegmepru,aor.prura`tobring'
References:
References:WP.II204,Lewis-Pedersen40,Feist105,VanWindekensLexique99.

Page(s):
Page(s):168
Root/lemma: bhre(n)k Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toerr
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`toFallekommen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhrate,bhrayate`falls,overthrows',participlebhra-,bhraa-`fall,
loss',butinRV.onlyfromnasalbasisbhryan(Kaus.),mbhraat(Aor.),ni-bhra-`not
succumbing';alsobhraa-withoriginallybarepresent,thenfurthergrownexuberantlynasalization
orolddoubleformsAir.brc`lie,falsity'(*bhrenk)isthehalfmeaningnotsocertainwithOld
Indianbhras-tocompare,thatchoseninthelattersense.
Kuiper(Nasalpras.141f.)builds*bhrek-minextto*bhre-n-k;nevertheless,hisetymological
comparisonsarenotpersuasive.
References:
References:WP.II204.
Seealso:
Seealso:Tobhre-1
Page(s):
Page(s):168
Root/lemma: bhren-to-s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:herdsman,*wanderer,horn
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Geweihtrger,Hirt'
Material:
Messap.(from*)`'Hes.,`deerhead'Hes.,brundads.,shortform
(besidesBrenda)toPNBrundisium,
older`Brindisi',illyr.VN;ven.FlNBrinta`Brenta';stilltodayinital.mountain
namesandplantnames(BertoldiIF.52,206f.);
compareinadditionalb.br,brni`horn,antler'(*bhr-no-),Plur.geg.brena;raetorom.brenta
`pannier';
maybealb.brinja`rib,bone'
Note:
Clearlyalb.isanillyr.Dialect;alb.bredh`wander'suggeststhatthereisalinkbetweenRoot/
Root/
lemma: bhred(h)- :
:`towade,wander'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhren-to-s :
:`herdsman,*wanderer'.
nschwed.dial.brind(e),norw.(withgfromd)bringe`maleelk'(*bhrents),ablaut.norw.brund`baby
malereindeer'(*bhrnts);
lett.bridis`deer,deerstag',whetherfromofaidg.additionalform*bhrendis,mustbetheoriginoflit.
bredis,OldPrussianbraydism.`elk';ifgerm.Lw.

Note:
Balticlang.werecreatedbeforeSlaviclang.hencethevocabularysharedbyBalticandalb.isofillyr.
origin.
Perhapstobhren- `overhang,edge';differentSpechtDekl.120.
References:
References:WP.II205,WH.I116f.,551,852,A.MayerKZ66,79ff.,KraheFestgabeBulle191f.
Page(s):
Page(s):168-169
Root/lemma: bhrenEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tostickout;edge
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`hervorstehen;Kanteunderlikewise'
Note:
Note:asbher- ds.
Material:
Material:Ir.braine`frontpartoftheship;guide,leader;edge,border',corn.brenniatds.
Withformantst:lat.frns,-tism.,newf.`theforehead,brow,front';aisl.brandr`sword'(*bhron-t-);
inwidermeaning`stick,board;sword'againstitprobablyfrom*bhrondho-tobherdh-`cut,clip'.
Withformantsd:
d:ags.brant,aisl.brattr`high,sharp'(*bhrondos),lett.brudin`ridgeoftheroof'.

bhren-q- :germ.*branha-inaschwed.br-,nschwed.br-`sharp'inPN;aisl.bringa`breast,thorax,
breastboneofbirds',nisl.bringr`smallhill';
maybealb.(*bhren)brinj`rib,chestbone,hillside'
Note:
Alb.provesthatfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhren-to-s :
:`herdsman,*wanderer,*horn'derivedfroman
extendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhren- :
:`tostickout;edge'.
lit.brank`theswelling',brankti,branksti`jutoutstiffly(ofbones,laths)';ablaut.brnkstu,brnkti
`toswell';slav.*brkn,*brkntiinruss.nabrjknut`tobloat,bulge,swell'etc.

bhren-g- perhapsinaisl.brekka(*brinkn)`steephill',olderdn.brink,brank`upright',mengl.nengl.
brink`edge,border,bank,shore',mnd.brink`edgeofafield,fieldmargin,meadow',mndl.brinc,nndl.
brink`edge,grassstrip,borderofgrass,grassfield'.
References:
References:WP.II203f.,WH.I551,Trautmann36.
Page(s):
Page(s):167
Root/lemma: bhresEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobreak
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bersten,brechen'and`krachen,prasseln'(asbeimBrechen)

Material:
Material:Mir.brosc,broscarm.`din,fuss,noise';comparealsobloscunderbhlosq-;
ahd.brestan`break,crack,break,rupture',unpers.`lack,defect',ags.berstands.,aisl.bersta`break,
crack,creak';ahd.brest(o)`disability,defect',
nhd.Gebresten;ahd.brust`break,defect',ags.byrstm.`damage';ahd.brastn`crackle',aisl.brasta
`rant,roister,brag,boast';without-t-norw.brasn.`clatter,brushwood';
with-k-:norw.brisk`juniper';mhd.braschen`crack,creak,cry,brag,boast';
lit.braktietc,seeunderbhre-1.
References:
References:WP.I206.
Page(s):
Page(s):169
Root/lemma: bhreu-k - (-k- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tostrike;tothrow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`streichen,streifen'
Note:
Note:onlybalto-slav.,probablyextensionfrombhr u -1 .For-k-compareaboveS.18Anm.
Material:
Material:Lit.braukibraukiabrakti`whisk,stroke;moveslowly';lett.brucubruubrukt`move';
ablaut.lit.brukbrukabrkti`waveflax,wedge',lett.brukt`crumble',brucint`abrade,strokethe
scythe';
Iterat.lit.braukti,lett.bract`stroke'(withunoriginalintonation)andlit.brkism.`stripe,line',lett.
brcef.`scratch,scar',inadditionlit.brkn,bruknsf.,lett.brklenef.`cranberry';
slav.*bru*brusiti(originallyiterative)inbulg.brsja(brusich)`shakeoff,getridof,beatoff,chop,
cut,reject',skr.brsimbrsiti`whet',ech.brousitids.,inadditionOldChurchSlavicubrus
`veronica(theimpressionofthefaceofJesusbelievedbysometobemiraculouslymadeonaheadclothwithwhichStVeronicawipedhisfaceashewenttohiscrucifixion;theclothusedforthis)',skr.
brs(Gen.brsa),russ.brus(Gen.brsa;mostlybrusk)`grindstone,whetstone';russ.etcbrusnka
`cranberry'(`lightlystrippable');ablaut.r.-ChurchSlavicbrsnuti`scrape,shave',russ.brost(dial.
brokt),brsit`throw',brsnut`peelflax',bros`offal'etcinablauttobulg.br`ruboff'.With
theiterativegrade:OldChurchSlavics-brysati`scrape',brysalo`apainter'sbrushorpencil;style'.
Perhapshereskr.-ChurchSlavicbrut`nail',bulg.brutds.as*brukt,comparetomeaninglit.brkti
`putbyforce',toformlett.braukts`knifeforcleaningtheflax'.
Maybealb.(*breuks)pres`cut,peel',mpreh`whet,sharpen',mbreh`harness,yoke,putbyforce'
[commonalb.p->mp-,b->mb-shift],mbres`bruise,beat'.
Perhapsheretheillyr.VNBreuci,PNBreucusandthegall.PNB-,todayBrumath
(Alsace);inadditionplacesKrahe(Gl.17,159)illyr.VN:Breones(from*Breuones).
Note:

Illyr.VN:Breones(from*Breuones)evolvedaccordingtoalb.phoneticlaws-t>-nt>-n
hence*Breuones<*Breuontes.Butonlyalb.displaysthecommon-k>-th,-tshiftfoundinillyr.VN
Breuci:illyr.VN(from*Breuones),hencealb.isadialectofillyr.Bothalb.andolderillyr.
displaycentumandsatemcharacteristics.
Finallygall.PNB-,todayBrumath(Alsace);hasevolvedaccordingtoillyr.alb.phonetic
laws-g>-thasalb.(mag-)math`big'.
Aboutruss.brykt`kick,reject'etcs.Berneker93.
References:
References:WP.II197,Trautmann36f.,PokornyUrillyrier119.
Page(s):
Page(s):170
Root/lemma: bhreu-s-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswell
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schwellen;sprieen'
Note:
Note:(compareabovebhreu-)
Material:
Material:Air.brf.,Gen.bronn`belly,body'(*bhrus[n]:-nos),brach`big-bellied'(*bruskos),
cymr.brum.`venter,uterus'(*bhreuso-);
Maybealb.bark,barku(*bhrauk)`belly':air.brach`big-bellied'
air.bruinne`breast'(*bhrusnio-),acymr.ncymr.bronnf.`breast',bret.bronn,bronds.(*bhrusn)in
placenamesalso`roundhill',mcymr.brynn,ncymr.brynm.(*bhrusnio-)`hill'(fromKelt.derivesgot.
brunjf.`(breast)-armor',ahd.brunja,brunna`coatofmail');
Maybealb.brinj`rib,side,hillside':got.brunjf.`(breast)-armor'
Alb.provesthatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhreu-s-1 :
:`toswell'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhreu-k - (-k- )::
`tostrike;tothrow'.Hencecentumlanguagespredatesatemlanguagebecauseofthe-k>-h>-s
phoneticmutations.
air.brollach`bosom'(*bhrus-lo-withformants-ko-);mir.brasach`withlarge,widebreast'(from
bhreus-to-=as.briost).
Mhd.briustern`swellup',aisl.-brysturf.Pl.`beestings'(alsobroddrds.from*bruz-da-z),schweiz.
brieschtds.(besidesbrieschds.from*bhreus-ko-);as.briostN.Pl.,ags.brost,aisl.brist`breast',
zerogradegot.brustsf.Pl.,ahd.brust,nhd.Brust;as.brustian`bud'(slav.*brst`bud'),nhd.Brschen(frommd.)`mammaryglandofcows',schwb.Brste,bair.Brsel,Briesel,Briesds.,dn.
brissel,schwed.kalfbrss,withk-suffixdn.bryske,engl.brisket`breastoftheanimals'.
Aisl.brisk`gristle',mhd.brsche,nhd.Brausche`swelling,blister',nhd.dial.brausche,brauschig
`swollen;ofstyle,turgid,bombastic,torose',brauschen`swellup'.
Maybealb.(*brausch)bark`belly'
Russ.brjcho`lowerabdomen,belly,paunch',dial.brjchnut`yield,gush,wellup,tobloat,bulge,

swell',ech.alt.buch,bucho,nowadaysbich,bicho`belly'etc(*bhreuso-s,-m);
herealsoklr.brost`f.dial.brostm.`bud',bulg.brs(t)m.`youngsprouts',skr.brstm.ds.,brstina
`foliage,leaves'.
Maybealb.bisht(n)aj`legume,pod',bisht`tail(shoot)'
hereklr.brost`f.dial.brostm.`bud',bulg.Brs(t)m.`youngershoots',skr.br^stm.ds.,brstina
`foliage'.
References:
References:WP.II197f.,Feist107f.,108f.
Page(s):
Page(s):170-171
Root/lemma: bhreu-s-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobreak
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zerbrechen,zerschlagen,zerkrmelnunderlikewise'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombhr u -1 .
Material:
Material:Alb.breshn,breshr`hail',ifeig.`granule,mica'(e=idg.eu);lat.frustum`abit,piece,
morsel,gobbet'(from*bhrusto-);
air.bru`shatter,smash'(*bhrsi,gall.brus-,frz.bruiser),mir.brire,brile`piece,fragment',bruan
ds.,bruar`fragment,brokenpiece',brosna(*brus-tonio-)`faggot,brushwoodbundle',gall.*bruski
`undergrowth,brushwood',afrz.broceds.,mir.brusc`tinybit'etc;air.bronnaim`damage'
(*bhrusnmi)(subjunctiverobriafrom*bris-`break,rupture'borrows,seeunderbhri- );
mcymr.breu,ncymr.brau`frail,easilybroken',mcorn.brew`broken'(*bhruso-);mbret.brusun`tiny
bit'(*broust-);
ags.briesan(*brausjan),brysan(*brsjan)`break,rupturetrans.,shatter',engl.bruise`injure',
probablyalsoahd.brsma,mhd.brsem,brseme,brsme`bit,flake,crumb';ags.brosnian
`molder'.
References:
References:WP.II198f.,WH.I553.
Page(s):
Page(s):171
Root/lemma: bhreus-3 ,bhr s Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toboil;tosound,etc.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`brausen,wallen,rauschen,hervorquellenor-sprieen,sichbauschen,Bschel,
Gestrppunderlikewise'
Note:
Note:esp.ingerm.words;perhapstobhreu-s-1 ;alsoanewonomatopoeicwordcouldhavehelped
(similarlyakr.brjm,brjiti`buzz,humfromanswarmofbees',Berneker89).
Material:
Material:Mhd.brsen`boom,blaster,roar',brs`theboom',ndd.brsen`boom,blaster,simmer,

seethe,boil;behasty(frompeople);spreadout,grownewshoot(fromplants);sprinkle,besprinkle'
(comparenhd.Brause)(outofitdn.bruseds.),ndl.bruisen,previousbruischen`foam,froth,bubble,
roar,boom,blaster',ndd.brskends.,mhd.brsche`douche,shower,spray,sprinkler',aschwed.
brsa`stormahead',norw.mdartl.brsa`stormgust',aisl.brusi`he-goat,billygoat',isl.bruskr
`tussock,besom',engl.brush`bristlebrush,paintbrush,brush,tail(offoxes)',brushwood`shrubbery,
bush,shrubbery',mengl.bruschen,engl.tobrush`combwithabrush',norw.dial.brauska,bruska
andbrausta,brusta`makeroom,rushoutforcefully';schwed.bruska`rustle,rant,roister'.
Withgerm.*bruska-z`brushwood',*bruskan`crackle,rustle'(-sk-couldbeidg.zg)onecomparesthe
baltoslav.groupslit.brzgaiPl.`brushwood',briauzg`babbler',bruzg,-ti`rustle',russ.brjuzgju,t`mumble,murmur',brjut`drone,grumble,murmur,growl'etc;yetaretheverbperhapsare
onlybaltoslav.onomatopoeicwordformation.Becauseofthegerm.meaning`spray'isperhapson
theotherhandtobecomparedwithruss.brzgaju,-at`spray,sprinkle,bubble'etc.
References:
References:WP.II199f.,Trautmann38.
Page(s):
Page(s):171-172
Root/lemma: bhreu- ,bhreu-dEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswell,sprout
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sprieen,schwellen'
Material:
Material:Lat.frutex,-icism.`ashrub,bush;asatermofreproach,blockhead'basedonprobablyon
aparticiple*bhrts`sproutedout';air.broth`awn,hair';hered-present:mhd.briezen,brz`bud,
swell',ahd.mhd.broz`bud,sprout'.
References:
References:WP.II195,WH.I554.
Seealso:
Seealso:comparebhreu-s-1`toswell',bhrughno-`twig,branch'.
Page(s):
Page(s):169
Root/lemma: bhri- ,bhr Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:topierce,cutwithsmth.sharp
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`withscharfemWerkzeugschneiden,etc'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombher-.
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhrnti`behurt'(Pf.bibhryaDhtup.),av.pairibrnnti`becutallaround',
brir-taa-`dashingsharply',mpers.brn`determined,fixed'.
Maybealb.geg.pre-`pierce,cut'
Thrak.()`barber'.
Lat.fri,-re`rub,grind,crumb,spall,crumble',fric,-re`torub,rubdown,ruboff'(from*fri-co-s
`rubbing,scraping'),refrvafaba`groundbean',frvolus(from*fr-vo-s`triturated'),`breakable,trifling,

worthless;n.pl.assubst.sticksoffurniture'.
Maybealb.(**frico-)frkonj`rub'possiblelat.loanword.
Withfrvolustobecomparedcymr.briw`broke;wound';briwo`break,rupture,injure';
withss-extensionheregall.-lat.brsre`break,shatter',frz.briseretcgallorom.*briscre`curdle,
coagulate,harden',schweiz.bretschids.(Wartburg),air.brissid`breaks'(fromparticiplePert.*bristo),mir.bressf.`din,fuss,noise,fight,struggle',breissemds.,air.PNBres-(u)al(*bristo-ualos),corn.
mbret.bresel`fight',bret.bresa`quarrel',mir.brise`frail,breakable',br.breskds.;comparethe
parallelformationunderbhreus-2.
Hereuponprobablyalsocymr.brwydr`fight,struggle',air.briathar`word,*argument'as*bhrei-tr
`quarrel,argument'(tocymr.brwyd`torn,perforates'),comparelit.brti`scold,chide',refl.`be
quarrelsome',OldChurchSlavicbrati`fight',s.bher-2.
Maybealb.geg.brit,tosk.brtas`toscold,chide,quarrel,yell':lit.brti`scold,chide'.
Herepresumablymndl.brne,nndl.brijn,mengl.brne,nengl.brine`saltedwater,saltbrine'(fromthe
sharptastelikepartlyslav.brid).
OldChurchSlavicbritva`razor',russ.-ChurchSlavicbriju,briti`shave,shear',bri`razor';Old
ChurchSlavicbrid`',russ.-mdartl.bridkj`sharp,cold',skr.bridak`sharp,sour';OldChurch
Slavicbrselije`shards',russ.-ChurchSlavicbrselije,brsel`shard'(protoslav..also
probably*brsel)as*bhri-d-selo-.
Maybealb.brisk`razor'
-extensionbhrei-- presumablyinlit.briu,brti`scratch,scrape',Iter.brai-,-tids.,andaisl.
brkf.`board,lowwoodenwall,lowbar';comparewith*bhrei--parallelg -extensiontheeinf.root
bher-inlett.beriu,berzu,bert`rub,scour,clean'andgr.s.andaufak extension*bhrei-k- traceablegr.s.;brtinotbetterwithidg.b-toags.prica
`point',mnd.pricken,mhd.pfrecken`prick'etc,besidesthatwithotherrootauslautnorw.mdartl.prisa
`prick,stir,tease,irritate',preima,preina`banter,stir,tease,irritate'etc(aboutageandorigingerm.
wordsnothingiscertain).
References:
References:WP.II194f.,WH.116,549,VendryesRC29,206.
Page(s):
Page(s):166-167
Root/lemma: bhr u -1 ,bhr Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:topierce,break
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`withscharfemWerkzeugschneiden,abschabenetc',especiallygerm.
`zerschlagen,brechen'
Note:
Note:extensionfrombherMaterial:
Material:OldIndianbhr-m`embryo'(namedaftertheburstcaul);
mhd.briune,brne`lowerabdomen,vulva';ahd.brdi`frail,breakable'(*bhrou-tio-),aisl.broma

`piece,fragment'(*bhrumn);at-presentinags.breoan`break,rupture';probablyd-presentbased
ongerm.familyofags.brotan`break,rupture',aisl.brita`break,rupture',brotim.`heapoffelled
trees,barrier',brautf.`way,alley'(comparenhd.Bahnbrechen,frz.routefromrupta),breyta
(*brautjan)`alter,change,modify',breyskr`frail,breakable,brittle';ahd.bruz,bruzz`fragileness';
aisl.brytia=ags.bryttian`divide,share,allot,distribute';aisl.brytim.`colter,ploughcoulter,prepruner,i.e.themostdistinguishedofthefarmhands;kindofestatemanager,landagent'=agsl.brytta
m.`dispenser,distributer'.
Togerm.*reutanperhapsalsoair.fris-brudi`reject'.
Lett.brana,braa`scurf,dandruff,flake,scale,abandonedskinorshell,caul,entrails'(basic
meaning`scrapings',vglslav.brsnti`scrape,stripe'underbhreu-k-);
ech.br-n-ka(*bhrun-)`placenta,afterbirth'.
References:
References:WP.II195f.,W.SchulzeKZ.50,259=Kl.Schr.216.
Seealso:
Seealso:S.theextensionbhreu-k-,bhreu-s-2.
Page(s):
Page(s):169
Root/lemma: bhru-2 ,bhrEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:edge
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Kante,scharferRand'
Note:
Note:Thegroupisextendedfrombher-`standup;edge'.
Material:
Material:Air.br`edge,bank,border,shore',bruachds.(*br-ko-);
aisl.brn`edge',whereofbryna`whet',bryni`whetstone';ags.mhd.brn`sharp'(fromweapons).
Lit.briaun`edge,border,cornice'(*bhrun),ablaut.withaisl.brn.
References:
References:WP.II196f.,W.SchulzeKZ.50,259=Kl.Schr.216.
Page(s):
Page(s):170
Root/lemma: bhroisqo- ,bhrisqoEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:bitter
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`herbvonGeschmack'
Material:
Material:Russ.-ChurchSlavicobrzgnuti,obrzgnuti`becomesauer',ech.besk`sharptaste',
poln.brzazg`unpleasant,sharptaste;badmood',
russ.brezgt(oldbrzgati)`nauseate,feeldisgust';
Maybealb.geg.(prezi-)przi`tonauseate,feeldisgust'

atfirsttonorw.brisk`bittertaste',brisken`bitter,sharp';probablytobhri-`cut,clip'(asmndl.brne
`saltwater,brine').
Maybealb.brisk,brisqePl.`sharp,bitter;razor',brisqePl.`razors'
References:
References:WP.II206.
Page(s):
Page(s):172
Root/lemma: bhrugh-noEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:twig
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Zweig,Stengel'
Note:
Note:perhapsinrelationshiptobhreu-`sprout'
Material:
Material:Cymr.brwyn-enf.`bulrush',acorn.brunnengl.`juncus,bulrush',bret.broenn-ennds.(from
urk.*brugno-);ags.brogn(e)f.`twig,branch,bush',norw.dial.brogn(e)`treebranch,cloverstalk,
raspberrybush'.
References:
References:WP.II208.
Page(s):
Page(s):174
Root/lemma: bhrgEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:fruit
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Frucht;genieen,gebrauchen'
Note:
Note:perhapsoldest`tocutofforpeelofffruitforeating'andthento*bhreu-`cut,clip'(compare
theretomeaningOldIndianbhrvati`chews,consumes',alsobsl.*bhreu-q-,-k-`grazeover,chip')
Material:
Material:Lat.frx,-gisf.`fruit'=umbr.AkkPl.frif,fri`fruits',lat.frg(Dat.*`useful,honest,discreet,
moderate'=)`fruitful',fruor,-i,frctusandfruitussum`relish'(from*frgor,whichhasenteredfor
*frgor),frniscor`relish'(*frg-nscor),frmentum`corn,grain',osk.fruktatiuf(*frgettins)
`frctus'.
Maybealb.(*frg-)fruth`measles,breakingoftheskin(diseaseoffruitandhumans)',frut`fruit'
[commonalb.-k,-g>-th,-dhshift]
Got.brkjan,ahd.brhhan,as.brkan,ags.brcan`need,lack',got.brks,ahd.brhhi,ags.bryce
`usable'.
References:
References:WP.II208,WH.I552f.
Page(s):
Page(s):173
Root/lemma: bhr-1

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:brow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Augenbraue'
Note:
Note:partlywithinitialvowel,idg.o-ora-(fullrootform);afterPerssonBeitr.17liesadark
compositionpart*ok-`eye'(with.consonant-Assimilation)before.
Material:
Material:OldIndianbhr-f.,Akk.bhrvam`brow',av.brvat-f.(Du.)`brows',npers.ebr,brds.
(HbschmannIA.10,24);
gr.,-f.`brow',figurative`raisededge,hilledge'(afterMeilletBSL27,129f.withgr.vocal
prosthesis);maked.`'(changedfromKretschmerEinl.287inF;heldon
fromMeillet,s.Boisacq733Anm.3,becauseoftheotherwisestatedformandbecauseofav.
brvat-);
Note:
Accordingtogr.phoneticmutations-k>-p,-g>-b;henceRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ok- :
:tosee;eye>gr.
--`eye'.Fromtherederivedmaked.,gr.,-f.`brow';commongr.l>r
phoneticshift.
Maybezerogradealb.(*:*vrenkula>vetullaf.`brow':vrenjt(*vrenk-)`frown'commonalb.
-kh>tphoneticmutation.:Khotanese:brrauka-l`brow':Sogdian:(Buddh.)r'wkh`eyebrow'(*brk-):OtherIraniancognates:Khwar.(')rwc[pl.tantum]`eyebrow';San.vrc`eyebrow'.
mir.bradGen.Du.,bri,briNom.Du.f.`brows'(todiphthongs.ThurneysenGrammar199),air.
forbruAkk.Pl.(*bhrns:Akk.),forbrGen.Pl.`eyebrows';uncleararemir.Pl.abrait(*abrantesor*abrant)`eyelids,brows',likewisembr.abrant`brow',cymr.amrant`eyelid',Specht(Dekl.83,
162)wouldliketoputtolat.frns`theforehead,brow,front';butvocalismandmeaningdeviate;
ags.br,aisl.brn,Pl.brynn`brow'(conservativestem,from*ruwn-).
lit.bruvsm.`brow',em.alsobrnsPl.,OldPrussianwubrif.`eyelash'(seemsatranspositionfrom
*bruwi);
abg.brv(originallyNom.*bry,askry:krv),skr.-ChurchSlavicobrv,skr.brvaetc`brow'.
Ane-Abl.bhru-withsyllabicbecomerregardsTrautmannKZ.44,223inlit.birwe=bruvs.
Toch.Aprwn-,prwne(Dual)`eyebrows'.
References:
References:WP.II206f.,Trautmann38.
Page(s):
Page(s):172-173
Root/lemma: bhr-2 ,bhruEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:beam,bridge
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Balken,Prgel';alsoasbergangabouteinGewsser:`Brcke'
Material:
Material:Aisl.brf.`bridge';aisl.bryggia`wharf,pier'ndd.brggeds.,ahd.brucca,as.-bruggia,

ags.brycg`bridge',bair.Bruck`BretterbankamOfen',ags.brycgian`pave'(originallywiththrashed
wood),schweiz.brgi(ahd.*brug)`woodscaffolding',brgel`woodenlog',mhd.brgel`cudgel,
club',nhd.Prgel(`bridge'isalso`balk,rod;trackmadeofbeams');
gall.brva`bridge'(*bhrua);
abg.brvno`balk,beam',skr.brvf.`balk,beam,bridgemadeofbeams'(etc,s.aboutslav.forms
Berneker92).
Unclearisthegutturalinthegerm.forms:*brug-from*bruu-,ork-suffixS.Kluge11under`Brcke
=bridge'andSpechtDekl.2113f.,acceptstheconnectionwithbhr-1.
References:
References:WP.II207.
Page(s):
Page(s):173
Root/lemma: bhudh-m(e)n
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:bottom
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Boden'
Note:
Note:single-linguisticinpartto*bhudh-mo-,partlyto*bhudh-no-,besideswithalreadyidg.
metathesis*bhundho->*bhundo-
Material:
Material:OldIndianbudhn-`ground,bottom';av.bnds.(*bhundhno-),outofitborrowsarm.
bunds.,duringarm.an-dund-k``abyss'from*bhundh-seemsassimilated.Fromprotoiran.*bundhas
derivestscherem.punda`bottom,ground'.
Gr.(*-)m.`bottom,sole,baseofavessel',m.ds.(forafter
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I71,333).
Maked.PN(*bhudhn),dissimil.
Lat.fundus,-m.`ground;thebottomorbaseofanything;afarm,estate'(*bhundhos),profundus
`deep'=mir.bond,bonnm.`sole,foundation,groundwork,basis,pad,prop'.
maybealb.(*fundus),fund`bottom,end',fundos`sink(tothebottom)'
Ahd.bodam,nhd.Boden,as.bodom,ags.*bom>mengl.bothemm.besidesags.botmm.>
engl.bottomandags.bodan`bottom,ground',
Maybealb.(bod-)bot`bottom,ground,earth,world'
an.botn`bottom',ags.byme`bilge,floor,bottom'besidesbytme,bytneds.,aisl.bytna`tocometo
thebottom',withuncleardentalchange;itseemstolieabasicprotogerm.*buma-,probablyistobe

explainedanalogically;comparePeterssonHeterokl.18,Sievers-Brunner167,Kluge11undersiedeln.
Aboutnhd.Bhne,originally`woodenfloor(madefromfloorboards)',angebl.fromgerm.*bun,idg.

*budhni,s.Kluge11underBhne.

References:
References:WP.II190,WH.I564f.,867,PorzigWuS.15,112ff.(againstitKretschmerGl.22,

116);comparealsoVendryesMSL.18,305ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):174
Root/lemma: bh o-s ,nicknamebhukko-s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:goat
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Bock'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:(fem.In-`goat,nannygoat')
Material:
Material:Zigeun.buzni`goat';av.bzam.`he-goat',npers.buz`goat,he-goat;billygoat';
arm.buz`lamb';
mir.bocc,pocc,nir.boc,poc,cymr.bwch,corn.boch,bret.bouc'h`he-goat;billygoat',inaddition
mir.boccnach`ghost,bogeyman';
germ.*bukka-(afterPedersenLitteris7,23f.borrowedfromKelt.)inaisl.bukkr,bokkr,bokki,ags.
bucca,nengl.buck,ahd.mhd.boc,-ekes,nhd.Bock.
TheaberrantconsonantinOldIndianbukka-`he-goat'(uncovered)isprobablyfrombukkati`barks'
(seeunderbeu-1,bu-)influencedhypocoristicreshuffling*bhja-=av.bza-.Alsonpers.dial.boa
`younggoat',pm.bu,bseemtobearesultofsimilarreorganization.
References:
References:WP.II189f.,PedersenLitteris7,23f.,MartinetGmination182.
Page(s):
Page(s):174
Root/lemma: bh e rug- ,bhrug- ,bhorgEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:throat
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Schlund,Luftrhre'
Material:
Material:Arm.erbuc`breast,brisketofkilledanimals'(*bhrugo-);gr.,-,later(after
),-`windpipe,gullet';lat.frmenn.`(agruelorporridgemadeofcorn,andused
insacrifices)larynx,gullet'(*frg-smen);withoutuaisl.barki`neck'(bhor-g-,formallycloserto
`cleft,gap,abyss')
Similartolit.burna,arm.beran`mouth'(eigentl.`orifice')tobher- `cut,clip'underconception`cleft,
gap=gullet'.
References:
References:WP.II171,WH.I482,551f.,866,LidnMl.Pedersen92,SpechtDekl.162.
Page(s):
Page(s):145
Root/lemma: bis-(t)liEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:gall

Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Galle'
Material:
Material:Lat.blis(*bislis,older*bistlis)f.`gall,bile';cymr.bustlm.,acorn.bistel,bret.bestl(*bistlo-,-tli-)`gall';gallo-rom.*bistlos(Wartburg).
References:
References:WP.II111,WH.I105f.
Page(s):
Page(s):102
Root/lemma: blatEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tochat
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`plappernunderlikewiseSchallbedeutungen'aswellashnlicheSchallworte
schwerbestimmbarenAlters
Material:
Material:Lat.blater,-re`chatter,babble,emptygossip;alsofromshoutofthecamel,ram,frog',
blati,-re`babble,prattle';
mndd.plad(d)eren`chat,prate',nndd.pladdern`splash,besprinkle',schwed.pladder`loosegossip',
dn.bladre`spreadlosegossip',olderalso`splash',lackingofconsonantshiftinonomatopoeicword.
Similartoonomatopoeicwordsarendd.plapperen(nhd.plappern),mhd.plappenandblappen,
ahd.blabizn`babble'andmndd.plderen`babble'(mhd.pldern,nhd.plaudern).
comparewithpartlysimilarmeaningbhld-`tobubbleup,chat',bhel-`sound'andbal-,balbal-under
baba-(e.g.lit.blebntiwithnhd.plappernsimilarformation).
References:
References:WP.II120,WH.I109.
Page(s):
Page(s):102
Root/lemma: blEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobleat
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`blken'
Note:
Note:imitationofthesheepsoundwithdifferentgutturalextensions;intheGerm.withconsonant
shiftomittedasaresultofcontinualnewimitation.
Material:
Material:Gr.`bleat',`thebleating';russ.(etc)blekati(old),blekott`bleat';mndd.
bleken,blken`bleat,bark,bay'(outofitnhd.blken),norw.mdartl.blkta(*blkatjan)`bleat';alb.
bl'egrsds.
Note:
Commonalb.n>rrhotacism.Alb.showsthatfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:bhl- :
:`tohowl,weep'derived
Root/lemma: bl- :
:`tobleat';hencethesupportfortheglottaltheorybh->b- .
References:
References:WP.II120f.,WH.I95.

Seealso:
Seealso:comparealsobhl-`howl'etc
Page(s):
Page(s):102
Root/lemma: blou- (bhlou- ),plouEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:flea
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Floh'
Note:
Note:Withk-ands-suffixesandtabootranspositionandanlautalteration.
Material:
Material:Withp: OldIndianpli-,arm.lu(*plus-),alb.plesht,lat.plex(*pusl-ex),idg.*plouk-in
ahd.flh,ags.flah.
Note:
Commonarm.(oftenalb.)initialpl->l-phoneticmutationalsocommonlat.plou->pule-phonetic
mutationsincelat.prefersinitialconsonant+vowelorder.Lat.phoneticshiftcanbeexplainedtonly
throughglottaltheoryphlou->pule[ph>pu]
Withb (orbh ):afgh.vraa,gr.(*blusi),balto-slav.*blusinlit.blus,lett.blusa,pr.PN
Blus-kaym,russ.-ChurchSlavicblcha,skr.bha,russ.boch.
References:
References:MeilletMSL.22,142,539f.,Trautmann35,SpechtDekl.42f.,203,235.
Page(s):
Page(s):102
Root/lemma: bolEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tuber
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Knolle,rundeSchwellung'
Material:
Material:Arm.bok`radish',gr.`onion,bulb'(also,dissimilatedatt.`crap,
muck,dung',,ifpossiblyoriginallyfromnannygoatsorhorses),
,`clodofearth';OldIndianblba-ja-`Eleusineindica,atypeofgrass',if`nodules
comingoutfromtheroot',lat.bulbus`onion,bulb,tuber'isborrowedfrom.
Redukt.-gradeorwithAssimil.inVok.the2.syllablearm.palar`pustule,bubble'.
References:
References:WP.II111f.,WH.I122.
Page(s):
Page(s):103
Root/lemma: brangh-,brongh-
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:hoarse
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`heiser'

Material:
Material:Gr.`hoarseness',`behoarse',air.brong(a)ide`hoarse';butgr.Aor.
`cracks'probablystaysaway.
References:
References:WP.I683f.,II119.
Page(s):
Page(s):103
Root/lemma: breuqEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tojump,*throw,thrust,poke,touch,run
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`springen,schnellen'
Material:
Material:Perhapscombinedsogr.,(),`locust,
grasshopper'(probablyafter`cruncheswiththeteeth',andsloven.brknem,bkniti,
brkam,bkati,bcati`bumpwiththefeet,kick,shootthewayupwiththefingers,touch';
MaybeIllyr.TNBreuci:sogr.`locust,grasshopper(mythologicalmonster)';
alb.(*breuk)prek`touch,frisk,violate',pres`cruncheswiththeteeth,cut'[tabooword]:Slovene:
Slovene:
bsati`lead,touch':Lithuanian:
Lithuanian:brkti`poke,thrust,press,scutch(flax)'[verb];Russian:
Russian:brost'
`throw,(dial.)scutchflax'[verb];brokt'(dial.)`throw'[verb];Serbo-Croatian:
Serbo-Croatian:bcati`throw'[verb];
russ.brykt`kickwiththebackleg',klr.brykty`friskmischievously,run'etc
Note:
MaybetheoriginalcognatewasofBaltic-Illyrianorigin:Lithuanian:
Lithuanian:braktas`woodenknifefor
cleaningflax'[mo],brakti`erase,scutch(flax)',brkti`poke,thrust,press,scutch(flax)'[verb]

References:
References:WP.II119,SpechtIdg.Dekl.251f.
Page(s):
Page(s):103
Root/lemma: bronkEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tolock
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`einschlieen,einengen'
Material:
Material:Got.anapraggan`press'to*pranga-`restriction,constriction'inaschwed.prang`narrow
alley',mengl.prange`narrowness',engl.dial.proug`menufork',
Maybealb.pranga`restriction,fetter,chain,handcuff':germPranger`pillory'
mndd.prangen`press',pranger`pole',mhd.pfrengen`wedge',ahd.pfragina`bar,gate,barrier',tolit.
braktasm.`poleforhanging(*gallows)',lett.brankti(lit.Lw.)`fittingtightly'.
References:
References:WP.II119,677f..Feist43,Kluge11underPranger.

Page(s):
Page(s):103
Root/lemma: buEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:lip,kiss
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Lippe,Ku'
Note:
Note:asanimitationofthekisssound,burstingofthesuckinglipfastenerfrominside,thusactually
differentlyfrombu-,bhu- `inflate'withnormalsprayingafteroutside.
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:bu- :
:`lip,kiss'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ku- ,kus- (*kukh-)::`tokiss'common
Celtic-Greekk->p-phoneticmutation.
Material:
Material:Npers.bsdan`kiss';alb.buz`lip';
Maybealb.(*pus)puth`kiss'[commonalb.-s>-thshift]:schwed.puss`kiss'.
mir.bus,pus`lip',busc,pusc`kiss'(inadditionpresumablygall.PNBussumrosandbuutton
`mouth,kiss');
nhd.Buss`kiss',bussen`kiss',Busserl`kiss',engl.buss,schwed.(withregularconsonantshift)puss
`kiss';lit.buioti`kiss',butheonomatopoeicword,soundofthekissdentalinterjection.poln.buzia
`mouth,face;kiss'.
Note:
Thesamephoneticconstructionforpoln.buzia`mouth,face;kiss':alb.buz,buza`lip':rum.buz
`lip':ital.bacio`mouth,face;kiss',olderlat.basiatio-onisf.`kissing,akiss'.
References:
References:WP.I113f.,WH.II98.
Page(s):
Page(s):103
Root/lemma: dak r uEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tears
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Trne'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:n.
Material:
Gr.,,`tears';outofitborrowsaltlat.dacruma,lat.lacruma,lacrimads.(with
sabin.l);
Note:
Commonlat.dh->ll-,d->l-phoneticmutation.
Maybealb.(*lac-)lag`tomoist,damp,wet'[taboowordasinalb.lagensyt`crysilently']:abret.

dacr-(lon)`moist,damp,wet'
Alsoalb.(*lok-)lot`tear'[commonalb.-k>-th,-tphoneticmutationsimilartoalb.(*mag-)math`big'.
air.drn.,cymr.deigr(couldgobacktoPl.*dakrtheo-Dekl.),Pl.dagrau,abret.dacr-(lon)`moist,
damp,wet',corn.dagr`tears'(Island-Celtic*dakrom`see,look'ThurneysenKZ.48,66f);germ.*thrandtagr-:got.tagrn.`tears',anord.trn.(from*tahr-),ags.thher,tear,teagorm.,ahd.zaharm.
(nhd.ZhrefromdemPl.;whetherinGerm.stillfromoldu-stemorithaschangedoutofito-stem
hasgoneout,isdoubtful).
Idg.*dakruisprobablyfrom*drakrudissimilatedbecauseofahd.trahan,as.Pl.trahni`tears',mnd.
trnds.and`(fromfatofsqueezedoutdropsthroughcooking:)fishoil',mhd.traherds.(-erprobably
afterzaherhaschanged)andarm.artasuk`tears',Sg.artausrfrom*drakur.
OntheotherhandonesearchesconnectionwithOldIndianru,ara-m`tears',av.asrazan`pouringtears',lit.aar,ara`tears',lett.asarads.;probablysheerrhymeword,so*akro-`acer,
sharp,bitter'asepithetofthetears(`bittertears')partiallyusedinplaceofdakru,wherebyittookover
itsu-inflectioncomparealsoMhlenbach-EndzelinI142f.
Note:
FromearlyItalic,IllyrianpeoplethecognatefortearspassedtoAltaiclanguages:
Protoform:
Protoform:*lg(*-)
Meaning:
Meaning:toweep,cry
Turkicprotoform:
Turkicprotoform:*jg-(la-)
Tungusprotoform:
Tungusprotoform:*ligiReferences:
References:WP.I769,WH.I746f.
Seealso:
Seealso:seeaboveS.23underakru.
Page(s):
Page(s):179
Root/lemma: diu r ,Gen.daiu r s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:brother-in-law
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`theBruderofGatten,Schwager'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandvr-,arm.taigr,gr.(*F),lat.lvir(inendingreshapedaftervir;thel
fordprobablySabine),ahd.zeihhur,ags.tcor(presumablythroughhybridizationwithanequivalent
fromlit.ligonas`brotherofwife'),lit.dievers(for*diev=OldIndiandvr-;olderconservativeGen.
dievers),lett.diveris,OldChurchSlavicdver(i-,io-andconservativestem).
Note:
TheBalticcognatelit.ligonas`brotherofthewife'provestheBalkanoriginofBalticlanguages
inheritinglat.d->l-phoneticmutation.

References:
References:WP.I767,WH.I787,SpechtKZ62,249f.,Trautmann43.
Page(s):
Page(s):179
Root/lemma: du- ,du- ,d Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toburn
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:1.`brennen',2.`verletzen,qulen,vernichten,feindselig'
Note:
Note:uncertainly,whetherinbothmeaningoriginallyidentical(possiblypartlyas`burningpain',
partly`destroybyfire,burndownhostilesettlements')
Material:
Material:OldIndiandunti`burns(trans),afflicts',dn-`burnt,afflicted',Pass.dyat`burns'(intr.),
kaus.dvayati`burns'(trans),dv-(withablautchangedav)`blaze',df.`affliction,pain',
doman-`blaze,agony'(-u-asin);
Note:
OldIndianandalb.provethatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:du- ,du- ,d - :
:`toburn'derivedfromRoot/
Root/
lemma: dheu-4 ,dheu - (presumably:dhu - ,comparetheextensiondhu-k-,dhu-s-)::`toreel,
dissipate,blow,*smokeetc.`.

arm.erkn(to)`throesofchildbirth';
Note:commonbalt.-illyr.d->zerophoneticmutationreflectedinarm.
gr.(*F-)`setonfire,inflame',Perf.`beinflames,beonfire'(:OldIndiandudva),
participle(Hes.,Hes.),n.,,-f.
`torch'(to:vonatt.,s.SchwyzerGr.Gr.I266),`easilyignitable=todry'(*
from*F-),`burningpieceofwood'(*F=lakon.);`hostile',dor.
(Trag.),`afflicted,woeful,wretched,miserable';hom.`slay,kill,murder'(att.
`ds.,devastate'),,-`tumultofwar,fight,struggle',hom.Lok.`inthebattle'(toNom.
*,idg.*dusSchwyzerGr.Gr.I578),-`killedinthefight';probably`affliction',
`fallinthemisfortune'(,Od.),`unlucky'.
About(mostlyPl.),ol.Akk.Pl.`pain',`causepain,afflict,sadden'seeunder
ed-`eat';perhapshere(`stormy,hottempered')Hes.
Alb.dhun(*dusn-)`affliction,pain,force,violence,horribleaction;disgrace,insult'(dhunon`revile,
violate';dhun`bitter',originally`unpleasant'orassl.gork`bitter':gorti`burn')with*du-s(presumablyaszerogradeof-es-stem=orasgr.(F));tosk.der`bitter'(*deu-no-);
lat.presumablyduellum,bellum`war,fight'(WH.I100f.),withunclearsuffix.
Note:commonlat.dw->b-phoneticmutation
air.dm`singe,burn'(aboutair.dm`get,exert'seeunderdeu()-),Verbalnom.dud=OldIndian
davathu-`blaze,fire';atd`kindle,inflame'from*ad-douth,cymr.cynneu`kindle,inflame'under
likewise,alsobret.devi,cymr.deifio`burn'(withvfromwbeforei)here(ThurneysenKZ.61,253,

LothRC.42,58);air.Gen.condid,mir.connad,condud`firewood',cymr.cynnud`firing',corn.kunys,
bret.keuneud`firewood'(PedersenKG.I108,II39,basicformperhaps*kom-dauto-);cymr.etewyn
`firebrand'(*ate-dau-ino-),bret.collectiveeteods.
ahd.zuscen`burn';after:braunherealsoags.tosca`frog',schwed.mdartl.toskds.;perhaps
(with*eu,seeunder)anord.tjnn.`damage,wrong;injustice,derision,ridicule',ags.tonam.,tone
f.`damage',as.tiono`evil,harm,wrong;injustice,enmity',whereofanord.tyna`destroy,lose',ags.
tenan`plague,anger,slander',as.gitiunean`actwrongagainstsomebody'.*
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*)InspiteofOsthoffIA.1,82haskeptawaythefamilyofnhd.znden,got.tundnan`isignited',

tandjan`ignite,setonfire',mhd.zinden,becauseofthatiandawouldnotbeprobablyfirstablaut
neologisminu;afterThurneysenIA.83,32ast-andjantoair.ad-and-`kindle,inflame'.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------BernekerIF.10,158placesherealsolit.diuti`placedowninordertodry',lett.aut`dry,burn
incense,smoke'as*du-ti,asalsoalb.andgerm.eu-formscancontainidg.u;therelationshipof
this*du-to*du-isunclear;ortodieu-`sky,heaven'
References:
References:WP.I767ff.,WH.I100f.
Page(s):
Page(s):179-181
Root/lemma: dEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toflow;river
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`flssig,flieen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiand-na-n.`liquidflowingfromthetemplesoftheelephantfortherutting',d-nun.f.`everydrippingliquid,drop,dew',av.dnu-f.`river,stream',osset.don`water,river';russ.FlN
Don,(Greek)skyth.FlN;
Alsotypicalintensivereduplicationillyr.(*don-don)DodonaEpirus
russ.FlNDnieprandDniestr,oldDanaprisandDanastiusfromskyth.*Dnuapara`backriver'and
*Dnunazdya-`frontriver';
av.VNDnavPl.`riverinhabitant'(becomeinRgvedawaterdemons,fem.GNDnu-),skyth.
nomadicpeople,alsoinGreece,hence()gr.VN,gypt.Danuna;withformants-mo- arm.
tamuk`humid,wet,moist',tamkanam`wet,mositen;ofwater,collectinpools,andofsolids,tobe
liquefied;wet,moistened,soaked'andpresumablygr.(protogr.or)`fatofanimalsand
people',wherewithalb.dhjam`fat,bacon,tallow,suet'isnotconnectedinaclearedwayyet;thefat
canbenamedaswiththeroastliquidlygrowingones(compareOldChurchSlavicloj`softfat,lard,
grease':lijati`pour').Herealsokelt.Dnuvius`Danuberiver',
gall.ONCondte`theconfluenceoftworivers;asaplace-nameConfluentes';sixengl.FlDon
(*dnu-),cymr.FlNDonwy(*dnuui).

Benvenisteplacestoarm.tam-ukyethett.dame(n)k-`falllikerain'(BSL33,143).
References:
References:WP.I763,M.FrsterThemse145f.,KretschmerGl.24,1ff.,15ff.,Ml.Pedersen76
ff.,BenvenisteBSL33,143.
Page(s):
Page(s):175
Root/lemma: d :d- anddi- :di- :d Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshare,divide
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`teilen,zerschneiden,zerreien'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:originallyathemat.Wurzelprsens.
Material:
Material:OldIndiandti,dyti`clips,cuts,mows,separates,divides',participledin-,dit-,
composesava-tta`cropped,truncated,cutoff',dti`thedistributing',

dnam`theabscission,trimming',dnmn.`distribution,deal,portion',dtun.`deal,portion',dtrm.(=)`reaper,mower',dtrm`allottedshare',dtramn.`sickle',npers.dra`remuneration',
ds`sickle';OldIndianday`communion,concern,commiseration'=dyate(*di-etai)`divides,
possesslot,haspity;destructs'.
Maybenasalizedforminalb.(*dyate)ndanj`cut,separate,allot,share'.
gr.med.`divide,allot,share'withprobablyafterFut.andandthefollowingwords
preserved(phoneticlawsKonj.375`isdestroyed');,-,,
hom.also,-`share,meal,sacrifice,oblation'(:OldIndiandtu);`guest'(as
`servingthemeal'),`colter,ploughcoulter,pre-pruner.`(:OldIndiandtr-),`share'(:
OldIndiandtrm;thisofthesegr.wordsispartlyaccordingtophoneticlaws-i,i-partly
analogical,asinkret.Perf.to,comparealsokret.`division',
`distributoroffruit'),`host',probablyalsom.`god,goddess;fate,destiny,personslot
inlife'(actually`prorating;or`godofthedeadasacorpseeater',PorzigIF.41,169ff.,Kretschmer
Gl.14,228f.;aboutofArchilochos`'seebelow*dens -`highmentalpower');,
Fut.-,Aor.-`divide,carve,slit,destroy'(dueto*F-`sliced,destructed'),-
Hes.,n.`interest,usury'(duetoaparticiple*d-n-s=OldIndiandin-,compare
);
gall.arcanto-danos`minting'as`distributingsilver'.
Withformants-mo- :dmos f.`people':gr.,dor.m.`(people'sdivision)people,area;
thesingleregioninAthens',air.dmf.`retinue,troop,multitude,crowd',acymr.dauu`boy,serf,
servant',ncymr.daw,dawf`son-in-law';apparentlyolderfem.o- stem;inadditionhett.da-ma-a-i
(dama)`another,foreigner,stranger',from`*foreignpeople',originally`*people',PedersenHitt.51
ff.
Withformants-lo- perhapsOldChurchSlavicdl`deal,portion'(*di-lo-)(seeunder*del- `split');
aboutair.fo-dlimetcs.justthere.Herebelongsprobablyalsogot.dails`deal,portion',runeninschr.
da[i]liun`divide',aisl.deill,ags.dl,ahd.teilm.`deal,portion';

Maybealb.dallonj`separate,distinguish'
aisl.deilaf.`division,disunion',ahd.teilaf.`division';aisl.deila,ags.dlan,ahd.teilan`divide'etcIt
couldhardlyderivefromSlav.,probablyitderivesfromVen.-Illyr.,becausetherootform*di-is
attestedinsdillyr.PNDae-tor.Anadditionalformidg.dhi-besidesdi-wouldbeunplausible.
Withzerograded- :arm.ti,Gen.tioy`age,years,days,time'(*<d-t(i)-or*d-to-,*d-t),ahd.ztf.
(n.Isidor),as.ags.td,anord.tf.`time,hour'(*t-,idg.*d-t-,ursprgl`periodoftime'),inaddition
anord.tr`usual,ordinary,frequent,often',ags.tdan`occur',anord.ta`aspire,strive';anord.t-na
`topicktopieces,takeapart,weed,takeout,remove,clean';
Aboutgot.til`fitting'etcseeunderad-2 ,butgot.dailsunderdel-3 ;hereagainstitahd.zila
`sequence,row,line',westfl.tle`sheafrow',nhd.Zeile,probablyfrom*t-l-.

p- extensiondp- , dp- ; dp-no- , -ni- `sacrificialmeal':


OldIndiandpayati`divides';arm.taun(*dap-ni-)`festival';gr.(*)`tear,rend,mangle,
lacerate,disassemble',withintensivereduplication`tear,rend,()squander,
dissipateinluxury',f.`expenditure,esp.arisingfromhospitality(:daps)',
`lavish,wasteful',`consume'(outofitlat.dapin`serveup(asfood),providefor'),
(Empedokles),`(*wasteful)exuberant,rich,generous';lat.daps`(*share)a
sacrificialfeast,religiousbanquet;ingen.,meal,feast,banquet',damnum`loss,damage,defect,
fine',damnsus`ruinous'(*dap-no-:,differentPedersenHitt42);
maybeillyr.Epidamnos(Eppi-'*horse'+*dap-no'*sacrifice'),alsoalb.geg.dam(*dap-no)`damage':
lat.damnum.
anord.tafn(*dap-no-)`sacrificialanimal,sacrificialmeal',comparedengerm.GNTanfana(Tacit.),if
from*tafnana,MarstranderNTS.1,159.
FromGerm.onestilladdsalot,whatwasameaning-developmentfrom`splitup,cutup,divide'to
`tear,pluck,shortlytouch,makeshortclumsymovement'underlikewisewouldassume;infollowing
themeaningfrom,damnumderivesaschw.tappaandtapa`putanendto,lose',aisl.tapa
ds.;afries.tapia`pluck',ags.tppef.`clothstripes',mengl.tappen(engl.tap)`hitlightly',mnd.
tappen,tpen(lengtheninginopensyllable)`pick,pluck';anord.tpr`barelytouching',isl.tpta
(*tpatjan)`justtouch',norw.mdartl.tpla`touchlightly,treadquietly';butnorw.mdartl.taap(e)m.,
dn.taabe`fool,rogue,awkward;clumsyperson',norw.taapen`weak,feeble,ineligible',tpen.
`insignificant;unimportantthing',anord.tpiligr`concise',withotherlabialgradesschwed.mdartl.
tabb,tabbe`gawk',tabbet`oafish',areprobablyonomatopoeicwords,alsoasndd.tappe,schweiz.
tpe,nhd.Tappe`paw',aswellastappen,tppischetc;s.alsounderdhabh-1 .
Likewisearetobekeptawayahd.zabaln,nhd.zappeln,aswellasahd.zapfo,nhd.Zapfen,
ags.tppads.(germ.*tappon-);alsoonlygerm.wordswithiandu(compareSpechtDekl.152
f.):mengl.tippen,engl.tip`touchquietly,bumpquietly',nhd.tippen,mhd.zipfen`(inswiftmovement)
trip,scurry',anord.tifask`walkontiptoe;trip',mhd.zipf`tip,cusp,peak',nasalizedmnd.timpef.`tip,
end',ags.timplian`holdwithnails';ontheotherhandnorw.mdartl.tuppa,nhd.zupfen,anord.
toppr`tuftofhair,summit,acme,apex',ags.toppm.`cusp,peak,crest,summit,tip',toppam.
`filament',ahd.zopf`pigtail,braid,plait,endofathing';mnd.tubbe,tobbe`spigot',tobben`pluck,
rend',sddt.zfeln`waver'(aszapfeln);perhapsherealsoahd.zumpo`penis',mhd.zumpf(e),nhd.
Zumpt,whereatunderdumb-.

Heretoch.Atp`ate',VanWindekensLexique187.

t - extensiond-t- (comparebutdasparticipled-t-s ):
gr.`divide,tear,rend,consume'(Fut.,Aor.hom.,att.),
wherefore`division',`lot',commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation
`dividing,splitting'(thiscertainlyfrom*-:OldIndiand-tr-`reaper,mower'),
`undivided';isgr.neologism(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I676)andnotidg.*d-t-;
got.ungatass`disarrayed,disorderly'(compare-),mndl.getes`besubmitting,suitable';ahd.
zetten`(distributing)strew,outspread',nhd.verzette(l)n,probablyalsoanord.teja`outspreaddung',
tan.`(*outstretched)dung';ahd.zota,zataf.`tuftofwool,hairhangingdowntogether,filamentor
wool'(therefromzaturra`aharlot,prostitute'),ags.tttec(expressivestt)`scrap,shred,tatter,rag',
an.tturr`scrap,shred';altdn.tothae,olderdn.anddn.mdartl.tde,taade`,retard,delay,
hinder'.
Besideswithu-Vok.anord.toddi`smallpiece',holl.todde`scrap,shred',ahd.zota,zotta`topknot',
nhd.Zotte,Zote;mhd.zoten`goslowly',nhd.zotteln,ostfries.todden`pull,tear,drag'underlikewise;
aboutnhd.zauderns.Kluge11704.
toch.Att-k`divide,carve,slit'.

s - extensiond-es-:
OldIndiandsyati`sufferslack,swelters,languishes',upadsyati`goesout,isexhausted';
norw.dial.tasa`wearout',schwed.dial.tasa`pluckwool,outspreadhay',ndd.tasen`pluck',nhd.
Zaser,olderZasel`fibre,filament',norw.dial.tasem.`weakperson',tasma`languish',tasa`become
feeble';ablaut.dn.mdartl.tse`workslowly',ndd.tsen`workheavily',identicalwithnorw.dn.
tse`disentangle,wearout,pullout';compareinsimilarmeaningnorw.tasse`goquietly',taspa`go
slowlyandsluggishly',mhd.zaspen`scratch,gosluggishly',ahd.zascn`seize,snatch,tearaway'
(actually`drag')=nhd.dial.zaschen,zschen`drag,pull,tear,workslowly',zschenf.`atraininthe
dress';aboutahd.tasca`pouch,pocket's.Kluge11612.

Maybetruncatedalb.geg.(*zascn)mezan`toseize,snatch,tearaway'
hitt.te-`keeponeselfawayfrom'(3.Sg.preteritti-e-a-a).
Maybealb.geg.(*te)teshaPl.`clothes,belongings,rags',tesh`speckofdust,littlesplinter,torn
piece'
Besideswithi-vocalism(idg.*di-sasextensiontod-Oronlygerm.neologism):
schwed.dial.teisa,tesa`pulltopieces',dn.dial.tese`pluck(e.g.wool)',ags.tsan`pulltopieces',
ahd.zeisan,zias`ruffle;tousle,pluckwool';ostfries.holl.teisteren`rend',ags.tsel,ahd.zeisala
`teasel',norw.mdartl.test`willowfibre,ringlet,hairlock',withnorw.tst`fibre,filament',tsl
`shrubbery',withmhd.zispen`gosluggishly'(aszaspen),probablyalso()ags.teoswian`plague,
disparage',teoso`insult,deceit,malice'.
Finallywithu-vocalism:norw.dial.tosa`rub,wearout,pluck',also`flub,workslowly',tose`frail
person',tos`fibers,raggedrigging',tossa`strew,distribute,outspread',mengl.ttsen`tousle,ruffle',

mnd.tsen`rend,pull',ahd.zirzsn`tousle,ruffle',mhd.zsach`brushwood',zsef.`brushwood,
hairlock'underlikewise;perhapstolat.dmus`athornbush,bramblebrushwood,shrub'(*ds-mo-s)
andair.doss`bush'.
FromPIEthisrootpassedtoAltaic:
Protoform:
Protoform:*dma
Meaning:
Meaning:ill,sick,bad
Turkicprotoform:
Turkicprotoform:*jAman
Tungusprotoform:
Tungusprotoform:*damJapaneseprotoform:
Japaneseprotoform:*dmNote:
Note:DespiteSKE75thereisnoreasonatalltosupposeaChineseoriginoftheTurkicform(MC
ja-mn'savage,barbarian'istoodistantsemantically;theusageofPT*jamanforabaddisease,
sicknessisveryclosetoJapaneseandmaysuggestthattheoriginalmeaningoftheroot
was'ill(ness),sick(ness)').

References:
References:WP.I763ff.,WH.I322,323f.,859;SchwyzerGr.Gr.I676.
Seealso:
Seealso:outatleastbasicallyasextensionsfromd-`cut,split'agreeablerootdel- `split',del`whereuponitissplitapart',der- `split,flay'seeunderseeunderitsownheadwords.
Page(s):
Page(s):175-179
Root/lemma: deihEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toprick;tick
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`prickeln,kitzeln'`zwickelndesInsekt'
Material:
Material:Arm.ti`tick';
mir.dega,Akk.degaid(*digt-)`Hirschkfer';
germ.*tkan-,withintensivesharpening*tikkan-,inags.ticiam.(liestiicaorticca),engl.tikeandtick
`woodtick,sheeplouse',mnd.Zeckem.f.`woodtick',nhd.Zecke;besidesamediationform*tkaninmnd.teke,mhd.Zeche,engl.tekeds.;
norw.dial.tikka,ndd.ticken`stumblelightly',mhd.zickends.;ahd.zechon`pulsate,banter,skirmish';
engl.tickle`titillate';nasalizedags.tindiands.
Aconnectionwithdhig-`prick'isnotprovable.
References:
References:WP.I777.
Page(s):
Page(s):187-188

Root/lemma: deik Englishmeaning:


Englishmeaning:toshow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zeigen'
Note:
Note:fromwhichlat.andgerm.partly`pointtosomethingwithwords,say',developedpluralalso
`showtheright,pointtotheculprit,accuse'
Material:
Material:OldIndianddei,diti,dayati`shows,pointat',av.das-Aor.di-`show'(dasayeiti,
disyeiti,dadit)`show;assignsomethingtosomebody,adjudge',participleOldIndiandi-(=lat.
dictus);dii`instruction,regulation',av.diti-`directive,doctrine'(=lat.dicti,ags.tiht
`accusation',ahd.in-,bizihtds.,nhd.Verzicht),OldIndiandi-f.`instruction,direction',di
`direction'(=`right,justice',fromwhichprobablylat.diciscausa`forform'ssake,forthesakeof
appearances'),de`(direction),region'=an.teigrseeunder;
gr.,secondary`points,shows,evinces',kret.-`',`the
display'(withsecondarylengthenedgrade),seeabove,,,;thePerf.Med.
,and`averment,proof,example'notwithidg.g,butgr.innovation;
lat.dcere`toindicate;toappoint;mostcommonly,tosay,speak,tell,mention;inpass.withinfin.,to
besaidto;tomention,speakof,tellof,relate;toname,call;tomean,referto',dcre`announce
solemnly,award,consecrate,dedicate,setapart,devote,offer',osk.dekum`say',umbr.teitu,deitu
`(Fut.Imper.)youwillsay,declare',changingthroughablautosk.dicust`willhavesaid',umbr.
dersicustds.,osk.da-dkatted`ddcavit',lat.dci`power,sovereignty,authority',indcre`indicate,
display,show,offer',index`aninformer;asign,token;theforefinger;atitle;atouchstone'(asalso
OldIndiandein`forefinger'),idex`ajudge;inplur.,apanelofjurors',vindex(vindicre=vim
dicere),causidicus;abouturir.*Ekuo-decas,Lugudec(c)as(Gen.Sg.)seeunderdek - 1 .
got.gateihan`indicate,promulgate',anord.ta,newerti`show,depict,represent,explain,
announce',ags.ton`indicate,promulgate',ahd.zhan`accuse,blame',zeihen`;
maybealb.zihem`quarrel,argue'
whereforeanord.tgenn`(*show,pointout,reveal,advise,teach)noble',tgnf.`rank;nobleman,
husband';ahd.zeign`show',whereofzeiga`instruction';inzihtetcseeabove;furtheranord.teigrm.
`linearpartofmeadow'(`*direction'=OldIndiandes`region,place,land'),changingthrough
ablautags.tg,th`meadow,pasture',mnd.t(g)m.publiccollectiveplaceofavillage',ahd.zch
`forum'.
Herepresumablywiththemeaning`finger'(=`*pointer')andsecondary,butalreadyold`toe',ahd.
zha,ags.the,t,anord.t`toe'(*diku),mnd.twe,nhd.andsdd.zweds.(*doik-u),andthat
probablyfrom*dicitusthroughdissimilationagainstthetonelesstresultedlat.digitus`finger,toe'.
Hitt.tek-ku-a-nu-mi`makesrecognizable,points,shows,evinces'hereafterSturtevantLang.6,27
f.,227ff.;doubtstheformationbecauseofE.ForrerbyFeist204.
Besidesidg.doi- ingot.taiknsf.`mark,token,sign,wonder,miracle',taiknn.ds.,ahd.(etc)zeihhan
n.`mark,token,sign',ags.tcan,engl.teach`instruct',anord.teikna`show,signify,designate',ahd.
zeihhonn`draw,depict,sign',got.taiknjan`show',ahd.zeihinends.
Fromgerm.*taiknaderivesfinn.taika-`omen,sign'.

Whetherdeik-anddei-fromdei-`brightshine'(also`see')areextendedas`allowtosee,allowto
shine'
References:
References:WP.I776f.,WH.I348f.,351,860,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I696f.,Feist204,472.
Page(s):
Page(s):188-189
Root/lemma: dei-1 ,dei - ,d- ,di Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshine;day;sun;skygod,god
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`hellglnzen,schimmern,scheinen'
Note:
Note:(older`*dartrays')
Note:
TheoriginoftheskygodwasAnatolia,wheretheSumeriansungodUtuwascalledfathergod:Utu+
Root/lemma: pt(r) Gen.ptr-s ,-s :
:`father'-`fatherUtu
Utu':LuvianDUTU-wa-az:107iii8;
KBoXXIX25ii6*,DUTU-wa-za`sungod'.

Material:
Material:OldIndiand-d-ti`seems,shines',3.Pl.ddyati,Impf.3.Sg.ddt,Imper.2.Sg.didh,
su-d-t-)`havingnicebrilliance',Kaus.dpyati`ignites,illuminates',dpyate`blazes,shines,seems'
(aboutdvyatiseeunder),ddi-`shining,seeming'(duetofromd-de-ti);similar*doi-d-o-(broken
Redupl.)inanord.teitr`cheerful,blithe,glad'(eigentl.`radiating'),ags.ttn`caress',tt-(innames)
`blithe,glad',ahd.zeiz`tender,graceful'(compareheiterand`clear,bright'as`blithe,glad';
UhlenbeckOldIndianWb.126);perhapsherealsolit.ddis`big,large'as`handsome,considerable';
gr.hom.(Imperfect)`hesaw,discerned,perceived',,Hes.,arkad.
Konj.,hom.Aor.`toappear',Konj.,comparedwitharkad.Aor.[]
withafter,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I6816;commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation
Maybealb.(*)diel`(*bright)sun'[commonalb.-e->-ie-shift].
hom.`visible'(*;withmetr.lengthening),ds.(from*,from
whichalsoHesychs;hom.`verydistinct,clear,bright'(from*-);

*doilo- presumablyinags.sweo-tol(from*tl)`apparent,manifest,obvious,distinct,clear,bright'
andinmir.del`beetle,chafer'(`shiningblackinsect')aswellasinir.rivernamesDaol(*doil)as
`theshining'.Hereprobablyalsolit.dails`dainty,pretty',dilinti`smooth,adorn'.
Withformants-tlo- presumablyherebeingfoundonlyinthecompoundgerm.*tla-:zdal-,nhd.
Zeidel-,nd.tl-`honey'('clearness,shine-clearhoney').
AgainstPedersensraisingfromhett.te-e-a-`dream'(Murilis69)s.CouvreurH53andaboveS.
178.

u - extension:dei e u- (:di u- , diu - , di u - )`bright,divinereveredskyandbrightday:


Diphth.stemNom.di us (dii us ),Akk.di um , Vok.di u, Lok.di u i anddi u, Dat.diu i, Gen.
diu - s , -s ; di us-ptr `skyfather,heavenlyfather'.

OldIndiandyu(diyu)`sky,heaven',Akk.dym,Lok.dyv,div,Dat.div,Gen.div(and
dy),Instr.Pl.dy-bhi;
gr.(=dy-),Akk.Z(=dym),Vok.(*diu),Gen.(F),Dat.(Lok.)(F)(

lengthened,,Z;aboutbyPherekydesofSyross.SchwyzerGr.Gr.I5774);the
Gen.*diuesinthess.-,prien.-(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I547);
Mayberum.zeu`god':alb.zot`god':rum.zei,zeitate,zn`goddess':alb.zanaf.`nymph,
goddess',zotaf.m.`gods':gr.[commonalb.n>nt>tphoneticmutation].
inLat.theoldparadigmhassplitintwowhichdesignatethenameoftheuppermostGodandthe
`day';similarlyintheOsk.andUmbr.:
Note:commonlat.illyr.d->l-phoneticmutation:
lat.IuppiterfromI-piter,umbr.JupaterVok.=,toNom.OldIndiandyupit`fatherofthe
sky,heavenlyfather',,Dat.umbr.Iuvepatre,illyr.(Hes.)-;lat.Gen.Iouis
(altlat.alsoDiovis,alsoasNom.),osk.Dive`Jove',uvilam,olderdiuvilam`*iovilam',ivilas
`*iovilae'etc,compareGentilNlat.Ilius(*Iovilios);
Maybe[fromillyr.(Hes.)-]thecompoundalb.(*-)diel`sungod,sun',older
diel`Sunday(dayofthesun)',wherealb.followslat.paradigmwhichdesignatesthenameofthe
uppermostGodandthe`day'.
Alsoalb.(*Jove-di,*jeudi)enjte`Thursday'similartofr.jeudi`Thursday',ital.jovedi`Thursday'.
lat.Dispiter(whereofDilis`relatingtoJupiter;'(flamen)dialis',thepriestofJupiter')withAkk.d(i)im
haschangedafterNom.dis,otherwisewouldprevailinthemeaning`day',whiletothenameof`sky
God'theablautgrade*diou-from*dieu-wouldbeaccomplishedunderthepressureofVok.*dieu-(up
toDispiter,alsoumbr.Di,Dei`[mascacc.sing.]god,[neutvoc.sing.]god',contractedfromdi-,so
thatDi(m)=*dim);theoldNom.*disfrom*diusstillstandinginadditiontoVdiovis,Viovis,Vdis`old-rm.UnderworldGod';
inthemeaning`day'lat.disseeabove(m.;asf.inthemeaning`date,daymonthyear(accordingto
thecalendar),period,time'presumablyafternox),yetbesidestheolderNom.di us stillinnu-dis
tertius`nowisthe3.day',furtherdi`byday'(Lok.*diuor*diu),`foralongtime',`alongtimeago'
outofit`long'.
diminutivelat.dicula`alittleday,ashorttime',osk.[d]ikls`days',zicolom.`day';
Maybealb.diel`sun',diel`Sunday,(dayofthesun)'arediminutiveillyr.forms.
air.de,procliticda`day'(fromaftertheAkk.*diimhaschanged*diis),cymr.dydd,corn.deth,
dyth,bret.deiz`day'(also);air.in-du`today',cymr.etche-ddyw`today'(atfirstfrom*-dii,probably
=lat.di).
Fromtheablautgradediu - inthemeaning`day';
OldIndiandv`duringtheday',divdiv`daybyday'(divmNom.otherwise`sky,heaven'),
naktdivam`nightandday',sudivm`aniceday',sudiv-`havinganiceday',arm.tiv`day',gr.
`inthemiddleoftheday(appearing)'(dueto*F,compare);lat.dius,interdius`of
theday,inthedaytime,byday'(withlat.syncopefromGen.*dius);bi-,tri-duum(*diuom)`periodof

two,threedays';

es- stemdiu e s- presumedfromOldIndiandivas`day',formaltodak.`commonmullein,


hightaper',probablyfrom*diuesem`luminousplant'(Detschev,Dak.Pflanzenn.14ff.);butgr.
(*-F)`clear,cheerful',older`clearweather',toOldIndiansu-divm(above);
compareSommerNominalkomp.73ff.

*diu i os inOldIndiandivy-,divi-`celestial',divyni`theheavenlyspace',gr.(from*F,
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I472a)`divine,heavenly',lat.dus`divine,god-like;hencefine,noble;also
(apparently)outofdoors,intheopenair'(differentfromdvus!),dum`openspaceofheaven',sub
do;Dinaderivingfrom*Divina,`thevirgingoddessofthemoonandhunting'*Divi();compare
etr.Tiv`moon',tives`months',afterKretschmerGl.13,111f.fromital.*divi,andorph.
`Selene(goddessofthemoon)'from*-F`allkindsofilluminators'.
ablautgradedi u - inOldIndiandyu-mnm`splendorofthesky',dyu-mnt-`bright,light',verbaldyut`gleam,shine'indytat,Aor.ved.dyaut`shines'(withtprobablyaftersvit-`bebright');compare
alsoOldChurchSlavicdd`rain',russ.dod',aech.de,etc,from*dusdiu-`badweather',
TrubetzkojZ.sl.Ph.4,62ff.
Note:
ProbablyfromafusionofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu e s- ,dhu s - ,dheus- ,dh s - `todissipate,blow,etc.
*scatter,dust,rain,breathe,perish,die'+Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dei-1 ,dei - ,d- ,di - :
:`toshine;day;
sun;skygod,god'derivedslav.(*dus-diu-):OldChurchSlavic:
OldChurchSlavic:dd`rain'[mjo](seebelow).

o- stemdiu o -s `god,thedivine':
OldIndiandv`god'(dv`goddess'),av.dava-`demon';
lat.deusanddvus,byoffromtheparadigm*deiuos(>deos),Gen.*deiu(>dv);osk.deva
`goddess'(osk.deivinais=lat.dvnis;umbr.deueia`[fem.Acc.sing.]ofadeity,goddess';
maybealb.dif`giant'
osk.deiuatud`toswearanoath'=lett.dievtis`swear,vow';lat.dves`rich,wealthy;withabl.or
genit.,richin',eigentl.`standingundertheprotectionoftheGods',asslav.bogat,s.SchulzeKZ.45,
190);
gall.GNDvona,PNDvo-gnta,air.dia,Gen.d`god',acymr.duiu-(tit)`goddess,deity',mcymr.
ncymr.duw,acorn.duy,bret.dou`god';
anord.tvarPl.`gods'(*deius)aswellasanord.Tyr(agerm.teiwaz)`thegodofwar',ags.Tg,Gen.
Twes`Mars',ahd.Zo,Zio;
apreu.deiw(a)s,lit.divas`god'(deiv`goddess,ghost'from*deiui,divosnliai`sonsofthe
sky',finn.Lw.taiwas`sky,heaven'),lett.devs(verbalderivativeliesbeforeinlit.deivtis`say
farewell',lett.dievtisseeabove),compareTrautmann50,Mhlenbach-EndzelinI484,485f.
AgainstitareOldChurchSlavicdivm.`wonder,miracle',divo,-esen.ds.(-es-stemprobably
previouslyafterudo,-eseds),divn`wonderful',didn'tderivefromconcept`god,deity',but(as
from)positionitselftoklr.dyvl',dyvtysja`see,look,show',ech.dvamse`look,
see,observe',whichbehavestoOldIndiand-de-ti`shines'inthemeaningase.g.mhd.blick`lustre,

shine,lightning'and`lookoftheeyes',nhd.glnzen:slav.gldati`see,show'.

en- stem*deien- (thematicdeino- , dino- )onlyinthemeaning`day':


Note:
Theextensionen- stem*deien- (thematicdeino- , dino- )isofIllyrianorigin.Theattributenounsthat
derivedfromadjectivesinillyr.alb.take-ta,-ntasuffixwhichwasthenreducedtocommonalb.n>nt
>tphoneticmutation.(seealb.numbers)
originallyconservativestillinOldChurchSlavicdn,Gen.dne`day';OldIndiandna-m(esp.in
compounds`day',lat.nundinae`themarket-dayheldduringeveryninthday',
maybealb.(*dna)dita`day':OldIndiandna-m(esp.incompounds`day'[commonalb.n>nt>t
phoneticmutation]
air.denus`aperiodoftime',trdenus`threedays'time,threedays';alb.gdhinj`makeday'from
*-dini;
maybealb.gdhinj`thedaybreaks'isacompoundofzerograde*ego`I'+dna`Imaketheday'.
zerogradelit.dien,lett.dena,OldPrussianAkk.f.deinan`day'(Mhlenbach-EndzelinI432f.,
BgaKalbair.S.227f.);got.sinteins`daily,perpetual,everlasting';perhapshereahd.len(gi)zin
`springtime'from*langat-tinas`havinglongdays'.
Kretschmerleadsbacktogr.T-`sonsofZeus',etr.Tin,Tinia`Juppiter'ofapre-GreekTin`Diespiter(Zeusfather)',respectivelyital.*Dinus(idg.*din-`day,sky,heaven')(Gl.13,111;14,303
ff.,19,207;s.alsoSchwyzerGr.Gr.I65);buttheolderformis!

r- extensiondi-ro- , d-ro- in:


germ.*tra-(*di-ro-)and*tra-(*dro-)inahd.zri,ziari`precious,lovely,delightful,nice,superb,
pretty,splendid,beautiful',ziar`beauty,ornament,adornment',ziarn`adorn,embellish',mnd.tr
`lustre,shine,fame,prospering;flourishing,goodconstitution',treandtre`habit,kindandway',ags.
as.tr`honour,fame',anord.trrds.;norw.dial.tr`alertness,lookout,peering,light,lustre,shine',tra
`peek,sparkle,glitter';
inadditionlit.dyrti,droti`gawk,lurk',dairtis,lett.dartis`stareabout',OldPrussianendyrtwei
(underlikewise,seeBgaKalbair.s.227f.,Mhlenbach-EndzelinI432f.)`watch,see'(butbulg.
d`search,seek'absents,s.Berneker201);
toch.Atiri`kindandway'.
Abouthitt.iwat-`day',iwanni-`god'(from*diu-),hierogl.-hitt.tina-`god',ijri`appears'(*di-)
s.PedersenHitt.57,175f.
ToOldIndiandvyati`plays,shows,throwsdice'(supposedly`throwstheeye')comparewithother
ablautdytm`dicegame',furtherdvanam`thegame,dicegame',andabovedytate`shines',
dyuti`lustre,shine',dyumnt-`bright,light'.Whetherherealsoav.-dvyeinti`bestironeself,strive
for'as`whereuponitissplitapart'compareWackernagel,Berl.Sbb.1918,396f.
Thefactthatourrootas`vibratinglight'originallyonehasbeenfromdei- `hurry,whirl',seems

conceivable.
Note
Note:
Alb.cognate(*tiwali)diel`sun'correspondstoLuvian:tiwali(ya)-`oftheSun-(god)'andHitt.diu
`(sun)god'.
Hitt.diu`(sun)god',LuvianDiwata-`Sun-god'Attestations:[VSg]Di-wa-ta:KBoXXII137iii8.
Commentary:HittitizedversionofLuvianDTiwat-;tiwali(ya)-`oftheSun-(god)'Attestations:[VSg]tiwa-a-li-ya:45ii18,ti-wa-li-ya:48ii11;XV35i21;KBoVIII69,5.
Commentary:AsperStarke,StBoT31.147,iyo-adj.toTiwat-with-l-for-d-.Seealsotiwari(ya)-.
Luvian:tiwari(ya)-`oftheSun-(god)'Attestations:[N-APlNt]ti-wa-ri-ya:KBoII3iii40.
Commentary:AsperPopko,KZ97.228f,andStarke,StBoT31.147,iyo-adj.toTiwat-with-r-for-d-.
LuvianDTiwat-`Sun-god'Attestations:[N/VSg](D)Ti-wa-az:68,16;91,8,DUTU-wa-az:107iii8;KBo
XXIX25ii6*,DUTU-wa-za:78,9;48ii19;107ii12,DUTU-az:127,9();133ii13;IX31ii30;KBo

XXIX40,6;HT1ii6,DUTU-za:45ii25.26;74,9,[VSg]ti-wa-ta():19,12(bis);XXXII70,6(),ti-u-wata():KBoVII68iii3,[ASg]DUTU-an:KBoIX143iii(!)10,[DSg]DUTU-ti-i:107iii10,DUTU-ti:36,6;
KBoXXII254Vo7,[GenAdj][NSgC]DTi-wa-d[a-a-i-i]:108,5,[DSg]DUTU-a-an-za-a[n]:90,7
(sic!).

Commentary:OnthelastexampleseeMelchert,GsCarter.Cf.also107iii11andXXXII13,11*.The
assignmentofthetiwataformshereistentative.Cf.thesolutionofStarke,StBoT31.149!
Note
Note:
TheskygodoriginatedinAnatoliawherehehadthreeeyeswhichsignifiedthesun,themoonand
Jupiter.Ancientpeopledidn'tmakeacleardistinctionbetweenthebrightestplanetsandthesun.
Actuallythemoonwasasungoddess.Hergenderwasdeterminedbymooncyclesidenticalwith
women'smenstrualcycles.TheoldestcognatesfortheskygodarefoundinAnatolianlanguagesand
Albanian.ThosetonguesmakenodistinctionbetweenJupiterandthesun.AncientIndoEuropeans
believedthattherewereseveralsunsnotjustone.Asthebrightestcelestialbodyatnightsky,Jupiter
wasidentifiedastheaspectofthesunatnight-orjustanothersun.Becauseoftheirextremeluster
JupiterandoftenMarswereallconsideredminorsungods.Thisisthereasonwhythebrightest
planetbecameknowninillyr.-`fathergod'.ProbablyAnatolianlanguagesborrowedthe
sungodcognatefromSumerianUtu
Utu`sungod'.
References:
References:WP.I772f.,WH.I345f.,347,349f.,355,357f.,727,732,860,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I
576f.
Page(s):
Page(s):183-187
Root/lemma: dei -2 (di - ,di - ,d- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toswing,move

Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sichschwingen,herumwirbeln(balt.andpartlygriech.);eilen,nacheilen,
streben'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandyati`flies,hovers';gr.m.`whirl,whirlpool;roundvessel,roundthreshing
floor',(Hom.),ol.(compare,HoffmannGr.D.II484)`whirl,whirlpool',
,,ol.`spininwhirlorcircle,swing,brandish';intr.`turnmebydancingincircles';
pass.`roamaround,reelaround,roll(theeyes)whirl(fromriver),spindancingaround',ol.
`thresh';hom.`flee',`chaseaway'(withostentatiousdistributiontheintr.andtr.
meaninginactiveandMedium),hom.`tohurry',`flee',`rush',()
`fleeting'(after,:tothematicanalogicalinsteadof*neologism),
`pursue'(contaminatedfromFand,MeilletMSL.23,50f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I702);
hom.(Fut.hom.)`strivefor,betroubledabout,search,seek',nachhom.also
`investigate'(*--),nexttowhichdueto*--att.`strivefor,letmebeconcernedwith';
herewithoriginally*di-:`storm,violentmovement,particularlyofthesea',`whirlpool,
violentmovementofwater'
compareaboutgr.wordscontainingtheSchwyzerGr.Or.I330,833.
Air.dan`quick,fast',dne`quickness';lett.deju,dit`dance',dedelt`goidly'.Aboutlit.dain`folk
song'(todej`lamentation')compareMhlenbach-EndzelinI432withLit.
Quitedoubtfulcymr.dig`mad,wicked,evil',russ.dkij`wild',lit.dkas`minxish,wanton,bratty,
unengaged,leisured,unemployed,idle,lazy',lett.dks`freeofwork',OldChurchSlavicdivj`wild'
(Berneker203f.,Mhlenbach-EndzelinI478,Trautmann54).
Notheregr.`reed'(newion.andoccasionaldor.metr.lengtheningSchulze
Qunderep.205,Boisacq196),`shake',`roveaboutinthesea'andlett.duonis,dui
`reed,bulrushes'.
References:
References:WP.I774ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):187
Root/lemma: dek - 1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:totake,*offerasacrifice,observeacustom
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`nehmen,aufnehmen',daher`begren,Ehreerweisen'.Austhemeaning
`annehmen,gernaufnehmen'flietdiemeaning`gutpassend,geeignet,sichschicken,ziemen,es
jemandemrechtmachen;asunannehmbardarstellen,etwaseinemgutshining,seemingmachen,
lehren,lernen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandaasyti`proveshonour,veneratesagod,isgracious'(Denomin.of*daas-=
lat.decus),daf.`state,status,fate,destiny';av.dasmn.`property,belongingspiece';OldIndian
Desiderat.dkat`isconsecrated',dk`consecration'(*di-dk-s-withsecondary),dkati`is
proficient,makesitright,iscompliant',dka-`proficient,skilful'(butav.dax-`instruct,teach,
instruct',npers.dax`business,toil'stayawaybecauseoftheGutturals),lengthenedgradeOld
Indiandnti,di,dati`offerasacrifice,give,proveshonour,grants',dvs-`honoringthe
Gods,godly,pious';av.dta-`receive,obtains,attains'(participle);

afterFriskEtymaArmen.25f.herearm.ncay`gift'from*nd-tisti-(urarm.-tis-from*dk-);
whethertesanem`Ibehold'(compareunder);differentMeilletEsquisse135;
gr.(ion.ol.kret.)`takein,accept',att.,athemat.hom.3.Pl.(after*,
Infin.),Aor.,participle,compareHes.(insteadof
);ispreservedin`[absorption]beam',Hes.(outofitlat.doga`asortofvessel
(perhapsameasure)'),Hes.,`tocaptivate,fascinate,beimpressive',
-`thetakeofpresents',(participleAor.)`watercontainer,watercarrier',`distinguished'(metr.lengthening);nasalpresent*v(:OldIndiandnti)in
participle`renderinghomage,honoring,greeting',to`togreet';intensive
ds.,-`greet'(for*-()-afterthepresentauf-);-couldbe
read-(idg.),-also-,and-couldbemetr.lengtheningfor-(SchwyzerGrGr.I
648,697);causative(=lat.doce`toteach,instruct(withacc.ofpersonorthing);withclause,
toinformthatorhow;'docerefabulam',toteachaplaytotheactors,tobringout,exhibit',`it
seemstome'(`issuitabletome');f.`opinion,fame'(*-),n.`decision',
`respectable,approved';`tosee,discern,perceive,observe;tothink,suppose,imagine,
expect',-`anticipate,expect';aboutseeunderdens-1 .
Maybealb.geg.doke`custom,ritual,tradition(observed)',(*deuk-)dukem`appear,seem'.
Alb.showsthatfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dek - 1 :
:`totake'derivedthenasalizedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:tong-1
(*teng- )::`tothink,feel'.
alb.ndieh`tofeel'(*dek-sk-);ndesh`find,encounter'probablyslav.Lw.S.underds-;
lat.decet,-re`itisproper,itisfitting(physicallyormorally)',decus,-orisn.`distinction,honor,glory,
grace;moraldignity,virtue;ofpersons,pride,glory',dignus`worthy,deserving;esp.ofpersons,
usuallywithabl.orgenit.ofthings,worthhaving,deserved,suitable,fitting'(from*dec-nos,eigentl.
`adornedwith');umbr.ticitdecet`(seeinadditionEM.257);causativedoce,-re`instruct'(`lets
acceptsomething');disc,-ere,didci`tolearn,gettoknow;'discerefidibus',tolearntoplayonthe
lyre;ingen.,toreceiveinformation,findout;tobecomeacquaintedwith,learntorecognize'(from*dielk-sk);
air.dech`thebest'(=lat.decus);alsoinPNEchuid(*ekvodeks),Gen.Echdach,Luguid,Gen.
Luigdech(urir.Lugu-deccaswithcc=k),whetherdoesnotstandforeforolderi;thentodeik-`point',
inthemeaning`order'.
Perhapsheregerm.*tehuninags.teohhian,tiohhian`mean,decide,define,ordain,determine',
teohh,tiohh`troop,multitude,crowd,groupofpeople',ton(*tehn)`decide,define,ordain,
determine',ahd.gizehn`bringinorder',mhd.zeche`alignment,guild,brotherhood,colliery,
association',nhd.Zeche,mhd.zesem(*teksma-)`uninterruptedrow',whereforeperhapswith
lengthenedgrade(*t-u)got.twa`order',gatwjan`dispose';s.abovealsounderdeu - `move
spatiallyforward'.
DoubtfulOldChurchSlavicde,desiti`find',skr.dsmdsiti`meet',refl.`meetsomebody',ech.
po-desitiandu-desiti`catchup,catch';changingthroughablautruss.-ChurchSlavicdositi`find,
meet';s.alsounderds- .
Toch.Atk-`adjudicate,decide,determine';dubiousAtskm(*tkskm)`similar',Van
WindekensLexique137;PisaniR.R.1st.Lomb.76,2,30.

Fores-stemOldIndiandaas(yti),lat.decusthewordsstandfor`right'(SpechtKZ.62,218).

dek s - withvariantsuffixes:
commonOldIndianh->k-phoneticmutation
OldIndiandkia-,dakia-`ontheright,tothesouth,skilful',av.daina-`right',lit.dinasds.,
dein`therighthand',OldChurchSlavicdesn`right';gr.=lat.dexter,-tra,-trum
(compoundsdexterior,Superl.dextimus),osk.destrst(abbreviatedfrom*destrust)`itisontheright',
umbr.destrame`ontherightside';gr.`right,heraldingluck,skilful,adroit'(from-with
formants-Fo-,comparegall.Dexsivadea);(thesuffix-uo-probablyafter*laiuos,skaiuos`links')
air.dess`ontheright,tothesouth',cymr.deheu(*deksovo-)ds.,got.tahswa,ahd.zeso`right',got.
tahsw-ahd.zes(a)wa`therighthand';alb.djatht`right'(thatfromG.MeyeridenticalwithitChurch
Slavicdestisprobablycorruptionfordesn,s.Berneker187).
Note
Note:
TheetymologyofG.Meyerseemserroneousbecauseofthecommonalb.-k->-th-phonetic
mutationsimilaraslat.dexter,-tra,-trumisasuffixedformofoldPIERoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dek - 1 :
:`to
take'.The-ter,-trasuffixhasbeenattestedinav.illyr.alb.andlat.Hencebefore-tra,-tersuffixthe-kbecomesusually-ks-inalltheabovementionedlanguages.Hencealb.(*dek-)djath-t`right'evolved
fromthecommonalb.-k->-th-phoneticmutationlikeinalb.(mag-)math`big'while-tisthe
commonalb.suffixasinalb.maj-t`left'fromlat.male`badly,ill,wrongly,wickedly,unfortunately,
extremely'.
References:
References:WP.I782f.,WH.I330f.,346f,,Trautmann53,54,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I648,678,684,
697,WistrandInstrumentalis14ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):189-191
Root/lemma: dek - 2 (:dok - ,dk - )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:totear
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`reien,zerreien,zerfassern'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandas`protrudingsheetfilamentsattheendoffabric,fringes';ir.dal`lock,curl
ofhair'(*doklo-);got.tagln.`singlehair',anord.tagln.`thehairinthehorse'stail',ags.tgl(engl.tail)
m.`tail',ahd.zagel`tail,sting,prick,malemember,rod';
got.tahjan`rend,pull,tear,tug',distahjan`scatter',isl.teja,ta`teasels',norw.dial.tja(*tahjan)
andtaa(*tahn)`fray,tear';
anord.tg,Pl.tgerandtgarf.`fibre,filament',mhd.zch,zhef.`wick,slowmatch(wick)';in
othermeaning(`tugging-lugging,pullingout')norw.mdartl.taag`slowandenduring',
maybealb.tegel`sewing'
mnd.tge,ostfries.tge`stringy,tenacious'andahd.zag`hesitating,undecided,shy,timid'
whereforezagn`bedesperateandundecided';
perhapshereas`fromwhichonetearshimself'or`ragged,rimosepiece',mhd.zackem.f.,nhd.

Zacke,mengl.takke`fibula,clasp,alargenail',engl.tack`peg,smallnail',withotherfinalsound
tagg,taggem.`juttingcusp,peak,prong,spike';orbelongsZacketolett.dgums`nose,shoepoint'
Maybealb.tak`shoeheel(spike)'
perhapshereas`inwhichonetearshimself'or`ragged,crackedpiece',mhd.zackem.f.,nhd.
Zacke,mengl.takke`fibula',engl.tack`pencil,smallnail',withotherfinalsoundtagg,taggem.
`excellentpoint,point';orZacketolett.degumshear`nose,shoepoint'
References:
References:WP.I785.
Seealso:
Seealso:seealsounderdenk - .
Page(s):
Page(s):191
Root/lemma: dek m ,dek m - t ,dek u - (*du e -k m - t )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:ten
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zehn'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dek m ,dek m - t ,dek u - (*du e -k m - t )::`ten'isanextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:du (u)
(*du e i- )::`two'.Thesubsequentroots*u -k m t - :
:`twenty'andk m t m `hundred'aremutatedforms
oftheroot*du e -k m - t :
:`ten'.Theybothreflectthecommonillyr.-baltd->zerophoneticmutation.
Material:
Material:OldIndianda,av.dasa;arm.tasn(afterMeilletEsquisse42from*dek-,asruss.

(tri)dcat`30'from(tri-)dseti),gr.,lat.decem(dn`perten'from*deknoi;PNDecius=osk.
Dekis,Gen.Dekkieis),osk.deketasi,Nom.Pl.degetasis`managerofthetithes'(*deken-tsio-),
umbr.desen-(duf)`twelve',air.deich,cymr.deg,corn.bret.dek,got.tahun(-nasinsibun,niun),an.
tiu,ags.tien,tyn,as.tehan,ahd.zehan(aprobablyfromdencompounds,BrugmannII2,18),
toch.Ak,Bak;finn.deksan`10'isafterJoklPr.ling.BaudouindeCourtenay104borrowsfrom
Idg.).
Inthesubstantivenumberdek m - t(i) , eigentl.`decade',goback:
OldIndiandaat-,daati-f.`decade',alb.djet,gr.,-(tos.SchwyzerGr.Gr.I498,597),
got.tihun-thund`hundred'(actually`tendecades'),anord.tiundf.ds.,apreu.dessmpts`ten',lit.
dimt,olddimtis,lett.olddesimt,metath.desmit,olddesmits(comparedesmitem.f.`ten');Old
ChurchSlavicdest(conservativestemin-t,MeilletSlavecomm.2428);

dek u - probablyinlat.decuria`abodyoftenmen;aclass,division,esp.ofjurors;aparty,club'(out
ofitborrowsnhd.Decher..`tenpieces';latelat.*teguriaisassumedthroughschweiz.Ziger`ten
poundsofmilk';probablyidenticalwithmhd.ziger`curd')=umbr.dequrier,tekuries`decuries,feastof
decuries';compareosk.-umbr.dekvia-inosk.(va)Dekkviarim`(away)appropriatetoadecury',
umbr.tekvias`awaytoadecury';inadditionprobablygerm.*tigu-`decade'ingot.fidwor-tigjus`40',
aisl.fjrer-tiger,ags.fower-tig,ahd.fiorzugds.OlderexplanationsbyWH.I327f.andFeist150.
seealsounderundercenturiaunderKluge11underDecher.

Maybealb.tek`oddnumber'
Changingthroughablaut((d ) k m t - (Dual),(d)k m t- (Plur.)infiguresoften(onlyformationsupto50
areprovableasidg.),e.g.OldIndiantrit`30',av.riss,arm.ere-sun,gr.(from*;furtherdetailsbySchwyzerGr.Gr.I592),lat.tri-gint(withunexplainedg),gallo-lat.Abl.Pl.
TRICONTIS,air.trcho(withaftertr`3'),bret.tregont(*trikomtes),acymr.trimuceint(intheending
afteruceint`20');s.alsounderu-kmt`20'.
ordinalsdek e mo-s anddek m - to-s:

dek e mo-s inOldIndiandaam-,av.dasma-,osset.dsm;lat.decimus,therefromdecumnus


`ofthetenth.(1)relatingtotheprovincialtaxofatenth;m.assubst.thefarmerofsuchatax.(2)
belongingtothetenthlegion;m.pl.assubst.itsmembers.(3)belongingtothetenthcohort',later
`considerable',osk.Dekm-annis`*Decumaniis`,comparealsoENDecumius,outofitentl.etr.
tecumnal,latinizedbackDecumenus;gall.decametos,air.dechmad,mcymr.decvet,corn.degves.

dek m - to-s ingr.(seealsoSchwyzerGr.Gr.I595);got.tahunda,anord.tunda,ahd.


zehanto,zehendo,ags.teogea;apreu.dessmts,lit.deimtas,lett.desmitais,olderdesimtai;Old
ChurchSlavicdest;toch.Aknt,Bkante,kace(linguisticsinglesarm.tasn-erord,alb.idhjet);
Note:
Anatolianlanguagesshowapatternsimilartoalb.SoLycianaitta(*okt(u)ta)`eight':alb.teta
`eight';Lycianutta`nine':alb.nanda`nine'.Thereforealb.shtata`seven'derivedfroma
truncated*sa(p)tata`seven'laterOldIndiansapttha,av.haptaa-,as.sivotho,ags.seofoa,lit.
septitas;alsoOldIndiansaptat-,av.haptiti-70;inalb.-ta,-tareattributeendingsthatwere
solidifiedinAnatolianandIndiccognates.Theattributeta(usedinthegenitiveandadjectives)is
uniquetoalb.languagealone.
Thereforealb.teta`eight'isazerogradeofLycianaitta(*okt(u)ta)`eight'.Itwasinitiallyanordinal
numberusedasanattribute[comparelat.octugint`80'].
Alb.tosk.nanta,geg.nanda`nine'derivedfromLycianutta`nine'.
Alb.gjashta(seks-ta)`six'[commonalb.s->gj-phoneticmutation]:OldIndian`six',ah`sixth'wasinitiallyanordinalnumber.
Hencealb.die-ta`ten'derivedfromaprotoRomancecognate*die+commonalb.-tasuffixusedin
attributenouns;similarlyin:Portuguese
Portuguesedez,Galiciandez,Spanish
Spanishdiez,Ladinodies,Asturian
diez,Aragonesediez,Auvergnatdi,Limosindie,RumantschGrischundiesch,Sursilvandiesch,
Valladerdesch,Ladindesc,Italian
Italiandieci,Venetiandieseetc.
Herek m t m `hundred'from*(d)km t m `(ten)dekades':
OldIndianatm,av.satm(outofitfinn.sata,krimgot.sada);
gr.,ark.(fromdissimil.*smkmtom`ahundred'compareSchwyzerGr.Gr.I592f.),
abbreviated*in*-etc(in,400',`fourhundred');
Note:

Gr.(*hekaton)<*(d)km t m `(ten)dekades'iscrucialtocrucialfortracingthecauseofold
laryngealappearanceinIE.Hencelaryngealswerecreatedafterthelossofinitlald-inIE.Gr.and
Anatoliantonguesreflectthecommonillyr.-baltd->zerophoneticmutation.
lat.centum(inadditionducentum,ducent`200',compareOldIndiandvi-atamfrom*dui-kmtm;
trecent`300',quadringent`400',etc;centsimus`thehundredth'aftervcsimus,trcsimus
from*uei-,*tr-kmt-temo-s);
air.ct,cymr.cant,bret.kant,corn.cans;
got.as.ags.hund,ahd.hund`100'(incompoundsfrom200),butan.hund-ra(togot.raian`count')
`120pieces(10dozens)'(`120'),outofitags.hundred;mhd.nhd.hundertfromas.hunderod;
lit.imtas,lett.smts;
OldChurchSlavicetcstoisbarelyiran.Lw.(MeilletSlavecommun.263);
toch.Aknt,Bknte.
Alb.geg.d,tosk.di`two'hencealb.(*hnt)alb.nj-qind`one-hundred'[commonalb.>iphonetic
mutation],hencealb.displayscentumcharacteristicswhilerum.sut`ahundred'displaysthesatem
natureofrum.
Inadditionar - derivativeinlat.centuriaf.`adivisionof100;acompanyofsoldiers;acentury,apart
oftheRomanpeople,asdividedbyServiusTullius'(asdecuria),an.hundari,ahd.huntarin.`a
divisionof100,administrativedistrict',abg.storicads.,lit.imteripas`characterizedbyahundred',
imtr-gis`hundred-year-old'.
References:
References:WP.I785f.,WH.I200f.,327ff.,859,Feist150,471f.,Trautmann53,305.
Page(s):
Page(s):191-192
Root/lemma: del-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toputby;tocount,tell
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zielen,berechnen,nachstellen',also`listigschdigen'and`zhlen,erzhlen'
Material:
Material:Perhapsarm.to`line,row',toem`lineup';
gr.`artifice,bait',`outwit,circumvent',`smalldaggeroftheassassinator'(about
`sprit'seeunderdel-3 );
fromGr.havebeenborrowedlat.dolus`adevice,artifice;fraud,deceit,guile;atrapartifice,
deception',dol`apike,sword-stick,asmallforesail',osk.Akk.dolom,Abl.dolud`adevice,artifice;
fraud,deceit,guile;atrap';
maybealb.(*tl)tall`tease,trick':anord.tlf.`deceit,guilefulness'.
anord.taln.`bill,account,invoice,calculus,reckoning,calculation,number,speech'(ags.tln.
`calculation,row',gital`number'),therefroman.telja`recount,narrate,relate',ags.tellan,ahd.zellen
(Fem.anord.tola`speech,number,bill,account,invoice,calculus,reckoning,calculation'),ags.talu

`narration,row',ahd.zala`number,report,account'(therefroman.tala`talk',ags.talian`reckon,
consider,think,tell',ahd.zaln`calculate,count,pay');g-extensioninengl.talk`talk';froms-stem
*talaz-n.:got.talzian`instruct',untals`indocile,disobedient',inadditionags.getl`rash,hasty,
quick,fast',as.gitalahd.gizal`quick,fast';withtheindolus`adevice,artifice;fraud,deceit,guile;a
trap'presentcoloringofmeaninglengthenedgradeanord.tlf.`deceit,guilefulness',ags.tlf.
`reprimand,slander,derision',ahd.zla`pestering,temptation;snare,danger',zln`tearaway,rob';
zerogradeags.tyllan`allure,entice'(*dln-).
Originalresemblancewithdel-`split'isdoubtful;perhapsfromthehatchetbeingaimedatthewoodto
besplitorfromthetechniqueofrunes(numbermarksasincision)
About*dil-ingot.ga-tils`fitting',etc,seeunderad-2 ;probablybarelyfromofanadditionalform
*dail-here.Anassociationwith*del-Perssonattemptedrootextension115,PedersenKZ.39,372,
whilethey,derivingfromd-,di-`divide',*del-and*dail-,d-l-graspedasparallelextensions.
References:
References:WP.I808f.
Page(s):
Page(s):193
Root/lemma: del-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toshake
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wackeln,schwanken'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandulf.`thewavering',withsecondarylengthenedgrade:dlayat`swings,
sways',-ti`swings,whirlsup',dlita-`fluctuating,movesbyoscillating';lit.delsti`tarry,hesitate',
dulinti`amble,bum';
withd - extensiondoubtful()OldIndiandui-f.`asmallturtle,tortoise'(`waddling'),ratherags.tealt
`doubtful,uncertain,wavering',tealt(r)ian`waver,wobble,sway,bedoubtful,uncertain',engl.tilt
`incline',mndl.touteren`waver,wobble,sway,swing',norw.mdartl.tylta`treadquietly,likeontoes',
schwed.tulta`walkwithsmall,insecuresteps,likechildren';
witht - extensionahd.zeltri,mhd.zelter,md.zelder`pacesetter,goingonatrot,trotting',nhd.Zelter,
anord.tjaldarids.(influenceoflat.toltrius`pacesetter,goingonatrot,trotting';compareisl.tlta
`marchinstep,matchintempo'from*talutn;therelationshiptothatmentionedbyPliniusspan.
wordsthieldones`pacesetter,goingonatrot,trotting'isunclear),anord.tjaldr`Haematopus
ostralegus,Eurasianoystercatcher'(`thetrudger');butratherwith-ll-from-ln-anord.tolla`hang
loose',tyllast`toddle,walkontiptoe;trip'.compareFalk-Torpunderkjeld,tulle.
Maybealb.tul`bonelessmeat,pulp,legmeat(alsomeathanginglose)'
References:
References:WP.I.809.
Page(s):
Page(s):193-194
Root/lemma: del-3 (dol- ),delEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosplit,divide

Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`spalten,schnitzen,kunstvollbehauen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandlyati`splits,makesbreak,crack',dlati`cracks'(meaninginfluencedby
phlati`brokenintwo',GntertReimw.48),dalit-`split,pullapart,blossomed,flourished',

dalamn.`deal,portion,piece,half,leaf',dalf.`clodofearth';butPrakr.l,-`bough',probably
alsoda-,-m`stick,bludgeon,beating,punishment'areafterKuiperProto-Munda65,75notidg.;
arm.probablyta`imprinting,impression,mark,token,sign,stave',taem`stamps,brands'
(ScheftelowitzBB.29,27;*del-);
gr.,`wroughtartificially',Intens.-`workskillfully,decorate'(dissimil.
from*--,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I647);(changingthroughablautkypr.)`(*writing
board)awriting-tablet'(`woodfissure,smoothlyslammedwoodboard',s.Boisacq174m.Lit.andto
meaningesp.SchulzeKZ.45,235;comparetotheformundernhd.tent);perhapshere`sprit,
smallsail'(outofitlat.dolm.`apike,sword-stick;asmallforesail');quitedoubtfulwhereas-,`cakesoftheflourofroastedbarley'--as`crushed,coarsely
ground'(=`*split'Prellwitz2104between);lengthenedgrade`destroy,smash,damage'
(nottolat.dle`toblotout,efface;ingen.,todestroy,annihilate');reducedgradeion.
`annihilated',-`disturbedsenses'Aisch.;el.-withel.from(seeBoisacq
182;againstitWackernagelGl.14,51);withthemeaningchange`(theheart)tear,maltreat,cause
pain'gr.Hes.(*deli),(.,
);comparealsolett.dlt`torment,smite,agonize'andlat.dole`tosufferpain,physicalor
mental,tobepained,togrieve;ofthings,tocausepain',dolor`pain,physicalormental;esp.
disappointment,resentment.Transf.,causeofsorrow;rhet.,pathos';

alb.dalloj`separate,distinguish,divide',djal`kid,child,offspring(*offshoot)'(*delno-;comparemir.
del`rod');
lat.dol,-re`tohewwithanaxe,toworkroughly',dolbra`apick-axe,mattock,hoe',lengthened
gradedlium`awine-jar,cask,barrel,vat'(asprotoslav.*dly`barrel,vat,cask'seeunder);dole,
dolorseeabove(butdleisbecauseofPerf.dlviprobablynewformationfromdlvi`has
erased,effaced,obliterated,blottedout');
air.delbf.`shape,form',acymr.delu,ncymr.delw`image,figure,effigy',corn.del,aswithcausative
ablautair.dolb(a)id`shaped',doilbthid`aworkerinclay,potter'(tokelt.*delu,*dolu-,comparestemslav.dly);perhapsair.fo-dlim`discern,separate,exclude'(etc,s.PedersenKG.II502f.),
acorn.didaul`havingnopartin,notsharingin;wantingin,destituteof'(compareOldIndianandbalt.slav,wordsfor`deal,portion'),perhapsair.fo-dlim`discerno,sejungo'(etc.,seePedersenKG.II502
f.),acorn.didaul`expers'(compareOldIndianandbalt.-slav,wordsfor`part'),cymr.gwa-ddol`a
portionordowry'aso-formsbesides(justaswellbutas*dl-correlateto*d(i)-`divide');
probablymir.del`staff,rod'(as`splitpiecewood'),corn.dele`antenna'(ortoidg.*dhl-,
whosecertainattachmentsindeedpointonlya-vocalism;withmeaning-transferalb.djal`kid,child,
youth,youngling'seebelowdhl-);
mnd.tol,tolle`pointoftwig,branch',holl.tol`spinningtop'(`*peg,plug'),mhd.zol(l)m.,zollef.
`cylindricbitofwood,clot,chunk,block,toggle',zolasmeasurementoflength`inch',s-zolle`icicle',
anorw.horntylla`yoke,woodpiececonnectingthehornsoftwooxengoinginthebottomplate'(*dln-);butmhd.zulle,zlle,nhd.Zlle`riverboat,barge'isprobablyinspiteofPerssonBeitr.174not
genuinegerm.,butLw.fromdemSlav.,s.Kluge11underZlle`riverboat,barge';otherformations

holl.tolk`stick,rod,chopstick',schwed.tolk`wedge',mhd.zolch`clot,chunk,block,(*blockhead),
lubber'(whetheranord.tlknn.`gilloffish'as`thesplit'Falk-Torpundertkn);with-dndd.talter
`rag,scrap,shred'(HolthausenAfneuereSpr.121,292);
witht-suffixgerm.*telda-`*stretchedtentpole'(:gr.)inanord.tiald`curtain,cover,rug,tent',
ags.teldn.`tent',ahd.nhd.zelt,actually`stretchedcover';inadditionahd.zelto,nhd.Zelten,
Zeltkuchen;orbetteras`shredded,ground'(seeabove)totoch.Btselt-,tslt-`chew';from
Germ.LidnaaO.stillranksaschwed.tialdra,tildra`cairn'in(*telrn-or-rn`*shaft,pole,peg,
plugasasaboundarymarker');
lit.dyl,dlti(delu,dilti),lett.dlu,dilstu,dilt`wearout,polish'(from`*toplane'),dlt`wearout,
torment,smite';lit.ps-dylis(mnuo)`mooninthelastquarter',deli`decreasingmoon',causative
lett.dldt`wearout,liquidate,ruboff,destroy',diluot`skive,abrade,polish';
outofitderivedtheconceptofsmoothnessjustifiedprobablythetransferencethereoflit.dlna(by
Juszkiewiczalsodna),lett.delna`innerflathand',OldChurchSlavicdlan`palm',russ.olddolon,
nowadaysreconvertedladn`palm;flatplaceonthethreshingfloor,threshingfloor'(Berneker208,
Trautmann51,differentMhlenbach-EndzelinI454);
lit.dals,ostlit.dali`deal,portion,inheritance;alms'(=OldIndiandal-`clodofearth'),dalij,dalti
`divide',lett.dal`a`deal,portion,lot',dalt`divide',OldPrussiandellieis`divide,share!',dellks`deal,
portion'(efroma,TrautmannOldPrussian100),russ.(etc)dlja`deal,portion,lot'(inadditionOld
ChurchSlavicodolti`defeat,conquer'=`*have,obtainthebestpart',Berneker206).compare
Mhlenbach-EndzelinI435.
DoubtfulOldChurchSlavicdl`deal,portion':eitheras*dlo-shere,orratherwithidg.aias*dai-lotorootd(i)-`divide';aboutgot.dails,nhd.Teilseeaboveunderd-,di-.
Protoslav.-stem*dly,Gen.*dlve(:air.delbfrom*delu)inruss.-ChurchSlavicdelvi(*dlvi)
Lok.Sg.,N.Pl.`barrel,vat,cask',mbulg.dli(*dly),Lok.Sg.dlvi`barrel,vat,cask',nbulg.delva
(*dlva)`bigclayvesselwithtwohandles';
toch.Atlo,Btallwo`unlucky',VanWindekensLexique136();ratherBtsalt-,tslt-`chew',
PedersenToch.Sprachg.18f.
extensiondel-gh-, dl-egh-;dolgho- etc`sickle,blade'.
Indo-iran.*dargha-(dolgho- )isassumedthroughmordvin.Lw.tarvas`sickle';comparepamirdial.
lrgds.;
air.dlongid`hesplits',dluige(*dlogio-)`thefissured',mir.dluigim`split';
anord.telgja`hew,cutout',talga`thecutting,carving',talgo-knfr`sliceknife',alsoanord.tjalga`thin
twig,branch,longarm',ags.telgam.`twig,branch,bough',telgorm.f.,telgram.`twig,branch,scion',
mhd.zelge,zelch`bough,twig,branch',ahd.zuelga`twig,branch'(whosezw-probablypreviouslyis
takenoverfromzwig);
aboutlit.dalgis,Gen.-iom.,lett.dalgs,OldPrussiandoalgis`scythe'seeunderdhelg-;

dolgh inserb.dlaga`boardforthesplintofbrokenbones',poln.mdartl.doka`flooringfrom
planks',ech.dlha(dlaha)`board,splint,baseoftheground',dliti(dlaiti),dlditi`pave,hitthe
screed'(Berneker207).

Asfor*del-`whereuponitissplitapart'isalsoforthatwithitperhapsoriginallyresemble*del-`split'
giventhepossibility,thatdel-isanextensionfromd[i]-`divide,share'.
References:
References:WP.I809ff.,WH.364ff.,LidnKZ.56,216ff.,PedersenToch.Sprachg.18f.
Page(s):
Page(s):194-196
Root/lemma: del-4
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:torain
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`trpfeln'
Material:
Material:Arm.te`heavyrain',team,-em,-um`torain,shower,sprinkle,irrigate',tim(*teim),
Gen.tmoi;
mir.deltm.`dew';alsoFlN;bret.delt`humid,wet,moist';
germ.*dol-k-or*dol-gho-indan.schwed.norw.talg`tallow,suet',ags.*tealg,mengl.talgh,engl.
tallow,nnl.talk,nhd.Talg(fromNdd.);ablaut.anord.tolgr(*tl-k-)ds.
Note:
mir.deltm.`dew';bret.delt`humid,wet,moist'displayalb.-illyr-k>-th,-tsubsequentphonetic
mutations.
References:
References:PeterssonHeterokl.198f.,differentKluge11under`tallow,suet'.
Page(s):
Page(s):196
Root/lemma: del-5
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:long
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`lang',verbal`indieLngeziehen'
Note:
Note:toputawaymoreconfidentlyonlyforSlav.,butprobablythebasisforthewidespread
extensiondelgh- and(d)longho- (seefinallyPerssonBeitr.889,903Anm.1)
Material:
Material:Perhapshereanord.talma`hinder',mnd.talmen`loiter,beslowintalkingandatwork,
stupidtalk',norw.mdartl.tla`hesitate,wait,holdon',tle`rogue,fool'(PerssonBeitr.889);
OldChurchSlavicpro-dliti`',russ.dlit`protract,hesitate',dlinf.`length',ech.dlef.
`length',dlti`hesitate',etc(Berneker252);perhapsvdalj`far,aloof'(MeilletMSL.14,373;
Berneker177besidesothersupplements).

delgh- , dgh-:
zerogradeOldIndiandrgh-=av.darga-,dara-,Oldpers.darga-`long',zerogradecompounds
Superl.drghyas-,drghiha-`longer,foralongtime',av.drjyAdv.`further',drjitmAdv.
`longest',npers.dirz(actuallycomparative)`long',OldIndiandrghimn-,drghmn-m.`length,

duration',av.drjn.`stretch,length';
gr.`continuous,persistent,enduring'(`*dragout'),`continue',`long'(toi
s.SchwyzerGr.Gr.I278,differentSpechtDekl.126),`thelongracecourse';
aboutalb.glatetcseeunder;
Note:
Clearlyalb.(*da-lu-ga-a-ti)glat`long'derivedfromhitt.da-lu-ga-a-ti(dalugasti)n.`length':Old
ChurchSlavicdlgota`length'(=OldIndiandrghat):protoslav..*dlgost,poln.dugoetcds.
Alb.andbalt.formsagreeindroppingtheinitiald->zero,whichmeansthatbalt.cognatesoriginated
fromprotoillyr.:
Alb.(*da-lu-ga-a-ti)glat`long,tall,high':lit.lgas,f.ilg,lett.ilgs,OldPrussianilgaandilgiAdv.
`long';alb.istheonlyIElang.where(*da-lu-ga-a-ti)glat`long'meansalso`tall,high'hencethe
nameAlbaLongacapitalofEtruscansettlersisanalb.conceptofbuildingfortressesonhilltopsof
futureRome.
lat.presumablyindulge`tobeforbearing,patient,indulgent;togiveoneselfupto,indulgein;grant,
allow,concede'(:,basicmeaningthen`bepatienttosomebodycomparedwith,holdon
patiently')from*en-dolgh-ei.
cymr.dal,dala,daly`hold,stop',bret.dalc'h`possession',derc'hel`hold,stop'(rdiss.froml,compare
participledalc'het)presumablywithders.meaning-developmentasnhd.`afterwhichlast'to`long'
(basicform*del()gh-;ZupitzaBB.25,90f.,PedersenKG.I52,106);
maybenasalizedalb.ndal`hold,stop'.
got.tulgus`tight,firm,steadfast'(`*long,persistent,enduring'),as.tulgoAdv.`very',ags.tulge,
compoundstylg`better,rather',Superl.tylgest`best';
balt.withunexplainedd-loss(seeunder):lit.lgas,f.ilg,lett.ilgs,OldPrussianilgaandilgiAdv.
`long';
OldChurchSlavicdlg,serb.dg,aech.dlh,russ.dgij`long'(=OldIndiandrgh-),inaddition
serb.df.`length';OldChurchSlavicdlgota`length'(=OldIndiandrghat);protoslav..*dlgost,
poln.dugoetcds.;
hitt.Nom.Pl.da-lu-ga-e-e(dalugaes)`long',da-lu-ga-a-ti(dalugasti)n.`length'.

/d/longho-s:
a)mpers.drang,npers.dirang`long'(butalb.glat,gjat,gjat`long'atfirstfrom*dlaght-);
b)lat.longus`long;'navis',aman-of-war;poet.,spacious;oftime,long,oflongduration;esp.toolong,
tedious;ofpersons,prolix,tedious',got.laggs,ags.ahd.nhd.lang(ahd.langn`becomelong,seem
long,long,want',etc);butair.etclong`ship'seemstobeborrowedfromlat.(navis)longa;
nevertheless,becauseofsecondmeaning`vessel'andmir.coblach`fleet'(*kom-uo-log-or*-lug-)
thoughLoth(RC.43,133f.)holdsthatwordforgenuineCeltic;comparealsoabrit.FlN(Ptol.)
andgall.VN-
-(Aude);anlaut.dl-remainspreservedotherwiseCeltic.Inthe

groupb)woulddisplayanalreadycommonwestidg.simplification,mightbeconnectedwiththed-loss
ofbalt.ilgas.comparealsoSpechtDekl.126.
MaybeAlbaLonga(Rome)capitalofillyr.-Etrus.:illyr.AlbanoiTN
References:
References:WP.I812f.,WH.I694f.,820f.,Trautmann55,PedersenHitt.34f.
Page(s):
Page(s):196-197
Root/lemma: demelEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:worm
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Wurm'
Material:
Material:Epidaur.f.Akk.Pl.,Hes.;
perhapsalb.dhemj`caterpillar,inchworm'(couldstandfor*dhemli),dhmze,dhimz`meat
maggot'.
Note:
Inalb.dhmze,dhimz`meatmaggot'-zisalb.diminutivesuffix.
References:
References:WP.I790.
Page(s):
Page(s):201
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:(dem- ),dom- ,d o mEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:totame
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zhmen,bndigen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandmyti`istamed;tamed'(*dm-ieti),dt-`tamed'(*dm-ts);Kaus.damyati
`tames,overmasters'(*domei),participledamita-;damitr-`tamer';damitv`taming',damyti
`tames'(*domio=lat.domo);dam-`domesticating',dma-`taming';
osset.domun`tame',npers.dam`domesticatedanimal';afterPisaniCrest.Indeur.2113here(as
*dm-so-s)ds-`fiend,non-Aryan',eigentl.`slave',butbecauseoftheincrediblestemformation;
gr.,ion.-,Aor.-()(for*-)`tame',varioussecondaryreshaped,as
etc,`theall-subduer,all-tamer',dor.`tamed'(*dm-ts),hom.
and,-`untamed,unrestrained,unwed,unmarried',ion.Perf.,`tamer',
`taming,domestication';
formswithrootvoweloaremissinginGr.;
lat.dom(*domi=damyti),doms(*domsi=ahd.zams)`todomesticate,tame,break,
subdue,master',Perf.domu(from*dom-uai),participledomitus(reshapedafterdomuanddomitor
from*dmtos,idg.*dm-to-s),domitor`tamer'(=OldIndiandamitr-);domitus,-sm.`taming'

(compareOldIndiandamitv);
air.damnaim`bind(tight,firm),tame(horses)',Verbalnom.damnadanddomnad(probably=
gr.);phoneticmixturewithdamnaimfromlat.damn,alsotheunruledmhasprobablyarisen
fromparticipledammainti;air.dam-`acquiesce,endure,grant'(e.g.daimid`admittedto'probably=
OldIndiandmyti,composesnidaim`notenduring,notsuffering';Perf.dmairfromlengthened
grade*dm-),withad-`admit'(e.g.3.PLataimet),withfo-`endure'(e.g.1.Sg.fo-daimim),cymr.
addef,bret.asav`admit',acymr.niceinguodeimisauchGl.`havenotenduredwell',ncymr.goddef
`suffer,endure,allow',corn.gothaf`bear,endure',bret.gouzav,gouzavus.(butcymr.dofi`tame',
acymr.dometic`domesticated',ar-domaul`docile',cymr.df,bret.doff`tame,domesticated'stems
fromlat.domre,sothatnativeformswithowereabsentinKelt.);
got.ga-tamjan,anord.temja,ags.temian,mnd.temmen,ahd.zemmen`tame'(Kaus.*domi=Old
Indiandamyati);ahd.zamnds.(=lat.dom-re),anord.tamr,ags.tam,ahd.zam`domesticated,
tamed,subdued,mastered'(unclear,whetherback-formationfromverb,orifthepass.meaninghas
arisenfrom`domestication=thetamed',sothatinhistoricconnectionwithOldIndiandma-
`taming').
BecauseofOldIndiandamya-`totame'and`youngbull,whichstillshouldbetamed'andbecauseof
gr.ontheonehand`overmastering,taming'(,Anakreon),ontheotherhand`young
(stilltobetamed)bull',wherefore`youngcow',`ds.`;also`younggirl',`calf',
isprobablyalb.dnt,dhnt,geg.dhnt`smallcattle,sheepandgoats,sheep'(*demtor
*demtos,respectively*domt,-tos),dem`bovineanimal,cattle,youngbull'(=OldIndian
damya-),aswellasalsogall.GNDamonaf.andair.dam`ox'(*damos),damallaid`deer'(`*wildox'),
aswellascymr.dafad,acorn.dauat,bret.davat`sheep(then=gr.-)toadd(originally
appellationofdomesticatedbovineanimal);lat.dammaordmaisprobablyborrowedfromKelt.or
fromelsewhere;unclearisags.df.`roedeer'(outofitacorn.da`afallow-deer,chamois,antelope'),
engl.doe,alem.tds.,compareHolthausenAltengl.etym.Wb.68;fromafrz.daim`fallow-deer'
derivesbret.demds.;germ.additionalformss.byFalk-Torpunderdaadyrm.Lit.;correspondingto
niedersterr.zamer,zamerl`youngox'(MuchZfdA.42,167;protogerm.*aor*o).
Hitt.da-ma-a-zi`thronged',preterit3.Pl.ta-ma-a-ir,PedersenHitt.95f.
MaybethosecognatesderivedfromTumuzitheshepherdinSumerian.
References:
References:WP.1788f.,WHI367f.,861,MeilletBSL.33,110.
Page(s):
Page(s):199-200
Root/lemma: dem- ,demEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobuild;house
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bauen',originallyprobably`zusammenfgen'
Material:
Material:Gr.`build',fromtheheavybasisparticiplePerf.Pass.,dor.(Pindar)
`newlybuilt',
n.`physique,shape'(,att.inschr.-`spanningcrossbeamsinthemiddleofthe
building',yet[]couldalsobesuffix).

Themeaning`settle,fit'ingot.ga-timan,as.teman,ahd.zeman`suit,fit',whereforelengthened
gradegot.ga-tmiaAdv.`befitting',mnd.be-tme`fitting',ahd.gi-zmi`proper'andabstractzero
gradesahd.zumft,mhd.zumft,zunft`propriety,rule,association,guild'(*dti-)=mir.dt
`disposition,temperament'(air.dtlae`bold,daring'),mcymr.dant`temperament,character'(mostly
Plur.deint),basicform*d-to-,LothRC46,252f.comparemcymr.cynnefin`trustful'(*kom-damno-).

ro -stemaisl.timbr`timber',as.timbar,ags.timber`timber,edifice,building,building',ahd.zimbar
`timber,building,dwelling,chamber',whereofgot.timrjan`build',anord.timbra,ahd.zimberenand
zimbaron`build,docarpentry,dowoodwork'.
rootnounsd m -, d m -, dm -, d - `house'.
OldIndianptirdn`householder',av.dngpatoi`masterof(*lordofthehouse)'withGen.*dem-s,
asalsogr.-`master,mister'(seeRischIF.59,12,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I547f.),OldIndian
dmpati`lord,master'(newshiftingtogetherfrom*dnpati-[=av.dngpati-],lessprobablywith
Lok.ar.*damas`masterinthehouse');
av.Lok.dm,dmi`inthehouse',Lok.Pl.dhv,Nom.-dfromprotoar.*-dsinui-nameofa
mountainrange(`havingone'shousebytheaurora'),whereforeprobablyav.ha-dmiLok.`inthe
samehouse';
arm.tunNom.Akk.`house'(*dm),Instr.tamb(*dbhi),whereuponGen.Dat.tan;
gr.-Lok.,originally`insideinhouse'(alsoreshapedto-,-,),perhapsalso
(*d[m])asNom.Akk.Sg.n.orLok.;,originallyAkk.Sg.mask.*dm-withstructure
inNeutr.afterunderlikewise;derivative,,(`mistressofthehouse');
as1.compositionpartin-`wife'(*dm-rt`governingofthehouse'),`floor(originallyof
thehouse)'from*dpedom(outofitaftertheconcurrentof-and-asintensiveprefix;
soperhapsalsoion.`templemaleservant,templefemaleservant'for*-)=schwed.
tomt,aisl.topt`placeforedifice,building'innorw.Mdarten`loam'(germ.*tumfetiz,idg.*dped-),
comparealsolit.dimstis`courtyard,property;courtyard'(2.part*sto-sto*st-`stand').

o- stemdomo-s: OldIndiandma-`house,dwelling',gr.`house'(`etcHes),
-(*-)`builder',lat.Lok.dom`toahouse'(=OldIndiandm`inahouse,toa
house'),dominus`master,mister'from*domo-no-s.
u- stemdomu-s (BrugmannGrdr.II21,180presumesanadv.Lok.*domasoriginator):lat.domus,
-sf.`ahouse,dwelling-house,building,mansion,palace'(outofitismir.dom-,dam-liacc`stone
house',aur-dam`pronaos(thespaceinfrontofthebodyofatemple,enclosedbyaporticoand
projectingside-walls)'undertakenwiththethingtogether);
OldChurchSlavicdomm.`house',russ.dma`athouse'(*dom[u]);*domov:aruss.domov
`afterthehouse';presumedlyalsothroughOldIndiandm-nas-`housemate'andarm.tanu-tr
`householder';
Maybealb.dhoma`room':OldIndiandma-`house'.
astem*dmu-inion.,Gen.`prisonerofwar,farmlaborer',`bondmaid',kret.
f.`peopleinslavery,populationinserfdom';

ar.*dmna-inav.dmna-,nmna-n.`house',alsoOldIndianmna-`edifice,building,dwelling';
lit.nmas,Pl.nama`house,dwelling'isdissimilatedfrom*damas,incompoundsasnam-dars
`homemaker',s.WH.I861.
Note:
Itisacommontraitofalb.andlit.todroptheinitialda-asinRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:del-5 :
:`long':balt.with
unexplaineddloss(seebelow):lit.lgas,f.ilg,lett.ilgs,OldPrussianilgaandilgiAdv.`long';alb.
glat`long'BalticandAlbanianlanguagesoftendroptheinitialda->zero.Thisisacommonbalt.-alb.
phoneticmutation.Hencelit.nmasderivedfromanasalizedform*ndmas.
Air.damnae`material',cymr.defnydd,mbret.daffnezcouldhaveoriginallysignified`timber'.
Toch.Btem-,Atam-,ABtm-`create,beget,beborn'andBtsam-,ABtsm-,Aam-,m-,perhaps
afterPedersenToch.Sprachg.217here;
inadditionalsoBc(o)mel,Acmol(*cmelu)`birth',VanWindekensLexique51.
Anoldbranchingoftherootisdem-`tame',originallyprobably`tieupinthehouse,domesticate'.
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dem- ,dem- :
:`tobuild;house'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hei-2 :hi- :heimen-, *heimn- ::`winter;snow'.Buttheh > dphoneticmutationhasbeenrecordedinillyr.alb.
alone.Thismakesprotoillyr.theoldestIEbranch.
References:
References:WP.I786ff.;WH.I367,369f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I480,524,547f.,625,Trautmann
44.
Page(s):
Page(s):198-199
Root/lemma: denk Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobite
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`beien'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:denk - :
:`tobite'derivedfromillyr.derivativeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:embh- ,m b h- :
`tobite;tooth'commonillyr.->d-phoneticmutation.
Material:
Material:OldIndiandati`bites'(*dnkti),Perf.dada(thereafteralsoapresentdati),Kaus.
dayate`makesbite',da-`bite,gadfly,brake',

daana-m`thebitting',dara-,dstr`sharptooth,fang'=av.tii-dstra-`withsharpteeth,
toothed'(for-dtra-s.BartholomaeAiran.Wb.653);
gr.`bite'(*dnkn),Aor.(=Impf.OldIndiandaam),whereforeFut.(aberion.
),Perf.,(aswellas`bite')withablautneologism(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I
770);,`bitinganimal';inadditionprobably`withbitingteeth',perhapsoriginally

`tooth'or`bite'(Liddell-Scott,differentSchwyzerGr.Gr.I620,723),probablyhybridizationof*
`biting'with,therefromderived(withAssimil.ofoin),etc`scratch,itch',
`thescratch';
alb.geg.dan(*donkn),tosk.dar`pliers';
ahd.zangar`biting,sharp',mnd.tanger`ds.,vicious,strong,fresh';anord.tng(Gen.tengrand
tangar),ags.tang,tange,ahd.zanga`pliers'(*donk),i.e.`theclenchingoftheteeth';withfurther
shiftingto`topress(lips)together',probablyas.bitengi`movingcloseto,oppressive',ags.getang
ds.,getenge`nearto,closeto,oppressive,thronging,pressing',ahd.gizengi`passingby,moving
nearby',Adv.gizango,whereforeanord.tengja(*tangjan)`join',ags.tengan`assail,urge,press,
push,aspiretomoveforward',getengan`makeadhere,beobedient'(ags.intingam.`weary,weak',

sam-tinges`atonce',getingan,st.V.,`pressin'afterFickIII4152neologism);

besidesingramm.variationgerm.*tanhu-`adjoiningtightly,appendant,tough'inags.th`tough';
mnd.t`abiding,tough',ahd.zhi,nhd.zh;anord.tn.`stampedplacebeforethehouse'(finn.Lw.
tanhua`corral,pen,fold');
perhapsoriginallydifferentfromtheroot*dk-`tear',although*denk-perhapsasnasalizedformto
*dkand`bite'couldbeunderstoodas`tearwiththeteeth'.
References:
References:WP.I790f.
Page(s):
Page(s):201
Root/lemma: dens-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:talent,forceofmind;tolearn
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`hoheGeisteskraft,weiserRatschlu';verbal:`lehren,lernen'
Material: densos n.:OldIndiandsas-n.`powerfulwonder,wisefeat'=av.dahah-`dexterity,
adroitness'(inadditionOldIndiandasu-`powerfulwonder',da-`verypowerfulwonder'=av.
dhita-`verywise,thewisest');OldIndianpurudsas-`richinmiracles'(=gr.
`much-counselling'Hes),dsana-m,dasn`magicpower,witchcraft';ingr.after
zerogradeformswith*[]-=*ds-to*unvocalized:hom.N.Pl.`piecesofadvice',
Sg.byHesych,(dor.)(-)Hes.=(ion.),Adv.
Chios.

ds-r-s `sensible,verywise':OldIndiandasr-`miraculous'=av.dara-`skilful';doubtfulgr.
epithetofPersephone,perhaps`theknowingorthepowerofwonder';`havingclever
sense'toholdas*[]-toOldIndiandas-r-as-to--,ifitnotoriginallyifit
hasnotsignifiedoriginallyonly`thesensedirectedonthefight'(compare-`killedinthe
battle',:`inthebattle';s.finallyBechtelLexil.92)andonly,afterthisthemeaningwasforgotten,
theambiguousconnectioncamethroughin,seeunder,tocomeintousageinsenseof`wise'.
ds-mo-: OldIndiandasm-`powerofwonder(fromGods)'=av.dahma-`expert,inauguratedin
religiousquestions'.
Maybealb.dasma`wedding,ceremony(religiousrite)'

Verbalforms:partlyreduplicated`handleknowledge,instruct,teach':
av.ddaih`Iaminstructed'(inadditionzerogradedstvf.`apprenticeship,doctrine,dogma');
perhapsgr.Aor.`taught',Aor.Pass.,`learn',participlePerf.`erudite,
expert,skillful',316`examine,question',(Soph.)`ignorant,wherein
inexperienced';inaddition(Hom.)`sensible,wise',`ignorant,wherein
inexperienced',Hes.ByArchilochosfrg.3,4isunclear()`skillful,
experienced'.
DebrunnerMel.Boisacq1,251ff.hasshownthat`instruct,teach'belongstoandnot
tolat.disc`tolearn,learntoknow,acquire,becomeacquaintedwith'(seeaboveunderdek-).The
factthatalso-(as*ds-)istobeputtooursroot,canbeexplainedbestofallbythefactthatone
accepts,from(*--)hasbeenabstractedanerroneousroot*-(M.Scheller
briefl.);
comparefinallySchwyzerGr.Gr.I307andseeunderdens-2.
References:
References:WP.I793.
Page(s):
Page(s):201-202
Root/lemma: dens-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:dense
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`dicht'
Material:
Material:Gr.`dense':lat.dnsusds.;thedirectderivationfrom*dnssdoesnotcontradict
theexplanationof*from*dns(seeaboveunderdens-1);indeedfromW.Schulze(Kl.Schr.116
f.)thestatedexamplesof--fromidg.-ns-areabsolutelynotproving.Ontheotherhand
`coverwithdensevegetation'couldgobackto-(:),butetcwouldbarelybe
formedbyabstractionto-`(*densely)shady'(*-).MeilletMSL.22,63willdefinein
asexpressivegemination()commongr.-illyr.-ks->-ss-phoneticmutation.Aboutphok.
PNs.WH.I468.
Aboutalb.dnt`makedense',etcseeunderdhen-3.
Note:
Alb.geg.dend(*den-)`makedense'commonalb.n>ndphoneticmutation.
Lat.dnse,-re(Perf.dnsonlybyCharisiusGr.-Lat.I262,4)`tomakethick,condense,press
together',denominativeofdnsus`dense'(*densosor*dnsos,event.*dnsuos).
Hitt.dassu(Dat.Sg.ta-a-u-u-i)`strong(*thick)'.
References:
References:WP.I793f.,WH.I341f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I307.
Page(s):
Page(s):202-203

Home

Root/lemma: dephEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tostamp,push
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`stampfen,stoen,kreten'
Material:
Material:Arm.top`el(-em,-eci)`hit';gr.`knead,drum;tumble',argiv.`fuller',with
s-extension(Aor.participle)`knead;tan,converthideintoleather'(outofitlat.deps
`toknead'),`tannedskin';`leather'(*);serb.dpm,dpiti`bump,poke,hit',
poln.depta`tread'.
maybealb.dboj`driveaway'
Note:
ItseemsthatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:deph- :
:`tostamp,push'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dh b h-1 ,
nasalizeddhamb(h) -::`toastonish,bespeechless'
References:
References:WP.I786,WH.I342,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I298,351.
Page(s):
Page(s):203
Root/lemma: derbhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:towind,puttogether,*scratch,scrape,rub
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`winden,zusammendrehen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandrbhti`joined,patchedtogether,winded',participlesndrbdha-`groupof
shrubsplantedtogether',drbdh-f.`convolution,concatenation,daisychain',av.drwa-n.`bundle
ofmuscles'Pl.`flesh(ofmuscles)',OldIndiandarbh-m.`hassock,clumpofgrass,grass',darbhaan.`netting';
Maybetruncatedalb.dredha`convolution',dredh`curl':OldIndiandrbdh-f.`convolution',av.
drwa-n.`bundleofmuscles'Pl.`flesh(ofmuscles)'.
arm.ton`,funiculus,anoose,halter,snare,trap'(*dorbhn-);
gr.`basket'iscontaminatedfrom*andds.(GntertIF.45,347);
ags.tearflian(*tarbaln)`rolloneself',ahd.zerben,preteritzarptarefl.`turn,turnround';e-grademhd.
zirbenschw.V.`turnincircles,whirl',nhd.mdartl.schweiz.zirbelnds.,nhd.Zirbeldrse,Zirbelwind
(probablyalsoZirbel`pineal',seeunderderu- );zerogradeags.torfian`throw,lapidate'(compare
drehen:engl.throw),asanord.tyrfa`coverwithturf',anord.torfn.`turf',torfaf.`peatclod',ags.turff.
`turf,lawn',ahd.zurba,zurff.`lawn'(nhd.TorffromNdd.);ags.ge-tyrfan`tostrike,afflict';
maybealb.diminutive(*turfel)turfulloj`snort,blow':ags.ge-tyrfan`tostrike,afflict'.

wruss.drob`basket,carton,box',russ.oldu-dorobf.`pot,pan',dial.u-doroba`lowpot,
pan'(`*wickerworkpotcoatedwithloam'),wruss.dorb'i`crook,bend';zerograde*drbainruss.
derb`Rodeland,Neubruch',derbovt`cleanfromthemoss,fromthelawn;uprootthegrowing',
derbt`pluck,tear,rend',serb.drbcati`scrape,scratch',ech.drbmanddrbu,drbati`scratch,
scrape,rub;thrash',withlengthenedgraderuss.derbit`pluck,rend'(perhapshatsichinlatter
familyabh-extensionfromder- `flay',slav.derdratieingemischt).S.Berneker211,254withLit.
References:
References:WP.I808.
Page(s):
Page(s):211-212
Root/lemma: der(ep)Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosee,*mirror
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sehen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandrpana-m.`mirror';gr.,`see'(withlengthenedgrade2.
syllable).
Note:
TheRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:der(ep)- :
:`tosee,*mirror'couldhavederivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:derbh- :
`towind,puttogether,*scratch,scrape,rub,polish'

References:
References:WP.I803;toforms-ep-compareKuiperNasalpras.60f.
Seealso:
Seealso:comparealso`sehe'andderk -`see'.
Page(s):
Page(s):212
Root/lemma: der- ,drEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:towork
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`arbeiten'
Material:
Material:Gr.(*)`make,do',Konj.,ol.3.Pl.,Aor.att.,hom.
`worker,servant',`action',,...Hes.,`inactive,
ineffective,weak';
Maybealb.nasalizedformnder(*der-)`hangloose';
hom.`makeonlylesspowerful,fainting,unconscious';hom.andion.(seeBechtel
Lexil.104)`do';
lit.dar(i)au,darti,lett.dart`do,make';inspiteofMhlenbach-Endzelins.v.dartnottolit.derti`be
usable',lett.dert`arrange,employ,engage'etc,becausethemeaningdeviatestoostrongly.

References:
References:WP.I803,SpechtKZ.62,110,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I6757,694.
Page(s):
Page(s):212
Root/lemma: derghEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tograsp
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`fassen'
Material:
Material:Arm.trcak`brushwoodbundle'(probablyfrom*turc-ak,*turc-from*dorghso-,Petersson
KZ.47,265);
gr.,att.`grasp',`griping',`handful,fascicle,sheaf',
`bindsheaves',,ark.el.,gortyn.(i.e.v;s.alsoBoisacq109)`drachma'
(`*handfulofmetalsticks,'),,-f.`hand',Pl.Hes.;
mir.dremm,nir.dream`troop,multitude,crowd,dividingofpeople'(*drgh-smo-),bret.dramm
`bundle,fascicle,sheaf'(falseback-formationtoPl.dremmen);
ahd.zarga`sideedgingaroom,edge',anord.targaf.`shield',ags.targef.(nord.Lw.)`smallshield'
(actually`shieldbrim'),elsss.(seeSutterlinIF.29,126)(ks-)zorgm.`vessel,patenonthreelow
feet'(=gr.-);
References:
References:WP.I807f.
Page(s):
Page(s):212-213
Root/lemma: derk Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tolook
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`blicken'
Note:
Note:punctual,whereforeinOldIndianandintrinsicinIr.linkedsuppletivelywithacursivepresent
otherroot
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:derk - :
:tolookderivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:her-3 undher- ,hr- :
:toshine,
shimmer+zerogradeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ok- :
:tosee;eye
Material:
Material:OldIndian[presentispyati]Perf.dadra`haveseen',Aor.adarat,adrkt(drk),
participledr-,kaus.daryati`makesee';av.dars-`behold',Perf.ddarsa,participledrta-;
OldIndiand-f.`sight',ahard-`lookingday',upa-d-f.`sight',di-f.`sight',av.aibdrti-ds.
(Gen.Sg.darti),OldIndiandarat-`visible,respectable',av.darsa-m.`sight,gaze,look';
commonOldIndianh->k-phoneticmutation
gr.`look,keeptheeyesopen,bealive',,,`vision'(withachanged
lengthenedgradecomparedwithOldIndiandri-),`sight',`look,gaze',-
`heavytobehold'(=OldIndiandarcata-),Adv.`onelookingupfrombelow'(*-=Old
Indiandrc-,orfrom*--),n.`eye',,-`dragon,snake'(frombanishing,

paralyzinglook),fem.;
alb.drit`light'(*drkt);
Note:
Accordingtoalb.phoneticlawsalb.drit`light'derivedfrom(drika)not(*drkt)becauseofthe
commonalb.-k->-th-phoneticmutations,-tcommonalb.suffix;
maybealb.(*darcata-),dark`supper,eveningmeal,evening';(*drech-),drek`dinnermeal,midday':
air.an-dracht`loathsome,dark'.
afterBonfante(RIGI.19,174)hereumbr.terkantur`seen,discerned,perceived'(d.h.`shallbeseen,
discerned,perceived');
air.[presentad-cu]ad-con-darc`haveseen'(etc,s.PedersenKG.II487f.;presentadrodarcar`can
beseen'),derc`eye',air-dirc`illustrious',bret.derc'h`sight',abret.erderc`evidentis',zerogradeir.
drechf.(*drk)`face',cymr.drychm.(*drksos)`sight,mirror',cymr.drem,trem,bret.dremm`face'
(*drk-sm),air.an-dracht`loathsome,dark'(an-neg.+*drecht=alb.drit);
got.ga-tarhjan`makedistinct'(=OldIndiandarayati);germ.*tora-`sight'(==OldIndiandr-)in
norw.PNTorget,Torghattenetc,idg.to-suffixingerm.*turhta-:ags.torht,as.toroht,ahd.zoraht,
newerzorft`bright,distinct'.
References:
References:WP.I806f.
Seealso:
Seealso:Perhapswithder(ep)- (aboveS.212)remote,distantrelated.
Page(s):
Page(s):213
Root/lemma: der-1 (:dr- ,d e r -)ordr- :drEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:handspan,*hands
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`SpannederHand'
Material:
Material:Gr.`palm,spanofthehand'(measurementoflength),`thedistance
fromthewristtothefingertip',hom.`16spanslong',zerogradeark.Akk.
Hes.(lak.Hes.isfalsespellingfor,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I506);
alb.(*duor-)dor`hand'from*drom(M.LaPianaIF.58,98);[conservativestemofpluralforms(alb.
phonetictrait)]
Phoneticmutations:alb.(*duor-)dor`hand':gr.`palm,spanofthehand':lett.(*duor-)dre,
dris`fist';protoillyr.alb.duo->do-,gr.duo->do-,lett.duo->d-.
Note
Note:
ClearlyRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:der-1 (:dr- ,d e r -)ordr- :dr- :
:`handspan'derivedthroughRoot/
Root/

lemma: hesor-1 ,hesr- :


:`hand';Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:hesto-2 :
:`hand,arm'throughillyr.
intermediary.Thephoneticshiftkh>t,h>disauniquealb.phoneticmutation.Hencealb.dor

`hand'derivedfromtruncatedhesor.ThesourceofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:der-1 (:dr- ,d e r -)ordr- :

dr- :
:`handspan'isofIllyrianoriginandthenitspreadtootherlanguages.

ThatmeansHomericIliadisatranslationofIllyrianIliad.TheGreektranslationleftmanyillyr.
cognatesoftheIllyrianIliadunchanged.Thereisnodoubtthatgr.`handspan'isasuffixed
illyr.dora`hand'consequentlyIliadwasbroughttoBalkanlanguagesbyIllyrians.
aisl.tarra`outspread',terrads.
Onlyunderabeginningduer-:dur-ordur-:dur:dur-tojustifymajorkey-phoneticalcomparison
withkelt.dur-no-inair.dorn`fist,hand',cymr.dwrn`hand',dyrnod(mcymr.dyrnawt)`slapintheface,
boxontheear',dyrnaid(mcymr.dyrneit)`handful',bret.dorn`hand',dournek`whohasbighands';
however,thesewordsalsostandoffinthecoloringofmeaning`pursed,clenchedhand,fist,fisticuff,
punch'sofarfromgr.thattheydonotdemandanassociationwiththem.
Ontheotherhandforkelt.*durno-oneconsidersrelationshipwithlett.dre,dris`fist';thisistolett.
duu,dru,durt`prick,bump,poke'toput(comparepugnus:pungo);ifsoalsokelt.dur-no-
compareMhlenbach-EndzelinI529andseeunderder-4 .
Note:
Fromalb.geg.(*dur),dorhand,(*dur),duerPl.`hands'itseemsthattheoldestrootwasalb.Pl.
(*dur),duerPl.`hands'[conservativestemofpluralforms(alb.phonetictrait)].Hencetheoriginalof
protoillyr.-gr.ideawasRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:du (u) :
:`two'meaningtwohands.ThatmeansbothRoot/
Root/
lemma: der-1 (:dr- ,d e r -)ordr- :dr- :
:`handspan,hands'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:du (u) :
:`two,
*twohands'derivedfromolderAnatolianlanguagesRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hesor-1 ,hesr- :
:`hand'
becauseofthecommonalb.h->d-phoneticmutation.
References:
References:WP.I794f.
Page(s):
Page(s):203
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:(der-2 ),redupl.der-der- ,dr d o r- ,brokenredupl.dor-d- ,dr - dEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tomurmur,tochat(expr.)
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`murren,brummen,plaudern';Schallwort
Material:
Material:OldIndiandardur-`frog,flute';air.deirdrethar`raged',PNDeirdriuf.(*der-der-i);bulg.
drd`babble;grumble',serb.drdljati`chatter',sloven.drdrti`clatter,burr';
Maybealb.drdllit`chatter,prattle',derdh`pourout(*talkalot)'
AlsoDardanoi(*dardant)illyr.TN:gr.Hes:lit.dardti,lett.dardt,drdt`creak'
probably`talkindistinctly';commonillyr.alb.n>nt>tphoneticmutation.
withfracturedreduplication:gr.Hes.,ir.dord`bass',fo-dord`growl,bass',an-dord
`clearvoice'(`not-bass'),cymr.dwrdd`din,fuss,noise'(cymr.twrdd`din,fuss,noise't-hastaken
overfromtwrfds.),air.dordaid`bellow,roar'(fromdeer);lit.dardti,lett.dardt,drdt`creak';toch.
Atsrt-`wail,weep,cry'(PedersenToch.Sprachg.19),withsecondarypalatalizationert-(Van
WindekensLexique145).

References:
References:WP.I795,Mhlenbach-EndzelinI447.
Seealso:
Seealso:Thekelt.,tochar.andbaltoslav.wordscouldalsobelongtodher-3 .
Page(s):
Page(s):203-204
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:(der-3 ),dr- ,dreb- ,drem- ,dreuEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:torun
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`laufen,treten,trippeln'
Material: dr- :
OldIndiandrti`runs,hurries',Intens.dridrti`wandersaround,ispoor',dri-dra-`wandering,
beggarly';
gr.-`runaway',Fut.,Aor.;,ion.`escape',
`strivingnottoescape',`fugitive',`runaway,splits,separatesfrom'(compareto
--OldIndianKaus.drpayati`bringstorun',Aor.adidrapat[uncovered]`runs');
ahd.zittarm(*didrmi)`tremble(*readytoflee)',aisl.titra`tremble,wink'(originallyperhaps`walk
ontiptoe;trip,wrigglerestlessly');
perhapshereslav.*dropy`bustard'(MachekZslPh.17,260),poln.ech.drop,olderdrop(i)aetc,out
ofitmhd.trap(pe),trapgans.

dreb-:
Lit.dreb,-ti`tremble,quiver';
poln.(etc)drabina`ladder';
ags.treppan(*trapjan)`tread',mnd.ndl.trappen`stomp',ndd.trippen,nhd.(nd.)trappeln,trippeln,
mhd.(nd.)treppe,trappef.,nhd.Treppe,ags.trppef.`trap',nhd.Trappel,ostfries.trappe,trap
`trap,splint,staircase,stairs';
throughemphaticnasalization,asinnhd.patschen-pantschen,ficken-fiencken(seeW.Wissmann
Nom.Postverb.160ff.,ZdA.76,1ff.)todefine:
got.ana-trimpan`approach,beset',mnd.trampen`stomp',mhd.(ndd.)trampeln`appearcrude',engl.
tramp,trample`tread',mhd.trumpfen`run,toddle'.

drem-:
OldIndiandrmati`running',Intens.dandramyat`runstoandfro';
gr.Aor.,Perf.`run',`run';
ags.trem,trym`Futapfe',an.tramr`fiend,demon'(seeabove),mhd.tremen`waver',dn.trimle
`roll,fall,tumble',schwed.mdartl.trumlads.,mhd.trame`rungofaleader,stairs';
hereprobablynhd.FlNDramme(Gttingen),Dremse(Magdeburg),from*Dromiand*Dromis

(probablynordillyr.),inadditionpoln.(illyr.)Drama(Silesia),bulg.Dramatica(thrak.);s.Vasmer
ZslPh.5,367,PokornyUrillyrier3,37,127;
Maybealb.dromc`piece,chip(ofablow)'
insecureisWoodsKZ.45,62appositionofserbdmati`shake',dmnuti`upset,allowtoshake',
sloven.dmati`shake,jiggle',drmiti`jigglefromthesleep',drmpati`ungentlejiggle';
maybealb.dremit`sleep',drrmonj`exhaust,tire,destroy'
Alb.provesthatfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:der- ,heavybasisder- ,dr- :
:`tocut,split,skin'derived
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:(der-3 ),dr- ,dreb- ,drem- ,dreu- :
:`torun'.
ech.drmlati`flit,stir;movethelips,asifonesucking',drmoliti`takeshortsteps'(theseinthegood
suitablemeaning;`shake'from`stumblewiththefoot'),drmotiti`chat,prate'(probablycrossingof
meaningwiththeonomatopoeicwordrootder-der-2 ,seethere).
Maybealb.onomatopoeic(*der-der-)drdr`stupidtalk';

dreu- (partlywithaszerograde,probablybecauseof*dreux-),FlN(participle)dr(o)u(u ) ent/i :


OldIndiandrvati`runs,alsomelts',FlNDravant,drut-`hurrying',av.drvaya-`run'(beingfrom
davischen),draoman-n.`attack,onrush',amdrt(a)-`callingfromAsma,sendstoattack'(very
doubtfulOldIndiandrvia-m,drvias-n.`blessing,fortune',av.draonah-n.`beider
BesitzverteilungzufallendesGut,Vermgensanteil'perhapsas`travelingfortune');
illyr.-pannon.FlNDravos(*drouos),outofitserbokr.Drva,compareapoln.Drawa(illyr.Lw.);idg.
*drouent-`hurrying'>illyr.*drauent-(:aboveOldIndianDravanti),outofitdial.*trauent-inFlN
-(Bruttium)>ital.Trionto;idg.*druuent-,illyr.*druent-inpoln.FlNDrwca,nhd.Drewenz;ital.
*truent-inFlNTruentus(Picenum);
maybealb.(*druent-)Drinosrivername`hurryingwater'commonalb.nt>nphoneticmutation.
gall.FlN(fromdemNordillyr.)Druentia(frz.laDrance,Drouance,Durance,schweiz.laDranse);
*Drutos,frz.leDrot;Drut,frz.laDroude;
lit.seaname*Drv-intas(wruss.Drywiaty);apreu.stream,brookDrawe.
Aufdreu-, participle*dru-to- basedonperhaps(seeOsthoffPar.I372f.Anm.)got.trudan`tread',
anord.troa,trads.;ags.tredan,ahd.tretan`tread'(byOsthoffsoutlookofablautneologism),ahd.
trata`tread,spoor,way,alley,drift,trailing',as.trada`tread,spoor',ags.trodn.,troduf.`spoor,way,
alley'(engl.trade`trade'isnord.Lw.),ahd.trota,mhd.trottef.`wine-press',Intens.ahd.trottn
`tread';nhd.dial.trotteln`goslowly'.
Herealsogerm.root*trus-inostfries.trseln`lurch,stumble,gouncertainlyorstaggering',trsel
`dizziness,giddiness',ndl.treuzelen`tobeslow,dawdle,loiter',westfl.trseln,truseln`rollslowly',
mhd.trollen(*truzln)`moveinshortstepsconstantly',nhd.trollen,schwed.mdartl.trsale`fairy
demon,ghost',norw.mdartl.trusal`idiot,fool',trusk`despondentandstupidperson';
Maybethroughmetathesisalb.(*trusal)trullos,trallis`maketheheaddizzy',tru`brain'
aswellas(as*truzl-)anord.trolln.`fiend,demon',mhd.trol,trollem.`fairydemon,ghost,fool,

uncouthperson'(compareunserTrampelinsamemeaning;theWandalscalledtheGoths,
LoeweAfdA.27,107);itstandsinsamethewaybesidesgerm.tre-m-(seeunder)anord.tramr
`fiend,demon'.
InGerm.furthermorewithi-vocalismmnd.trseln,westfl.triseln`roll,lurch',holl.trillen`tremble'
(fromwhichital.trillare`quiver,trillhit')etcagainstassociationofOldIndiandrvatiwithav.dvaraiti
`goes'seeunder*dheu-, *dheu e r-`flee'.
References:
References:WP.I795ff.,KraheIF.58,151f.,Feist45.
Page(s):
Page(s):204-206
Root/lemma: deru- ,d r u- ,dr(e)u- ,drou- ;dreu - :drEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tree
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Baum',probablyoriginallyandactually`Eiche'
Note:
Note:seetotheprecisedefinitionOsthoffPar.I169f.,HoopsWaldb.117f.;inadditionwordsfor
variouswoodtoolsaswellasfor`goodasheartwoodhard,fast,loyal';Specht(KZ.65,198f.,66,58
f.)goesthoughfromanominalizedneuterofanadjective*dru`dasHarte',fromwhichpreviously
`tree'and`oak':dru n.,Gen.dreu-s, dru-n-s
Material:
Material:OldIndiandrun.`wood'(Gen.dr,dra,Instr.dr,Lok.drui;dravya-`fromtree'),
dru-n.m.`wood,woodtool',m.`tree,bough',av.duru`treetruck,bitofwood,weaponfromwood,
perhapsclub,mace,joint'(Gen.drao),OldIndiandru-`hard,rough,stern'(actually`hardas
wood,lumpy'),dru-incompoundsasdru-pda-`klotzfig',dru-ghn`woodax'(-woodenrod),su-dr`goodwood';dhruv-`tight,firm,remaining'(dh-throughfolketymologyconnectionindhar-`hold,
stop,prop,sustain'=av.dr(u)v,Oldpers.duruva`fit,healthy,intact',compareOldChurchSlavicsdrav);av.drvana-`wooden',OldIndiandruvya-`woodenvessel,boxmadeofwood,thedrum',
dra-m`bow,sword'(uncovered;withnpers.durna,baludrn`rainbow'),dru`bucket;pail',
dra-m`woodentrough,tub';drum-`tree'(compareunder);
OldIndiandrvi,darv`(wooden)spoon';
arm.tram`tight,firm'(*drrmo,PedersenKZ.40,208);probablyalso(LidnArm.stem66)targal
`spoon'from*dru-or*deru-.
Gr.`treetruck,wood,spear,javelin'(Gen.hom.,trag.from*F,,
att.from*Fn,whoseniscomparablewithOldIndiandra);
kret.(*F)`balk,beam'(=lit.lett.darva);
sizil.`boar'(afterKretschmerKZ.36,267f.*--For-F`standingfirmto
thespear'),ark.dor.-,dor.bot.-underlikewise,`Dorian'(of
`timberland');
Note:
WhowereDoriantribesDorianswereCeltictribeswhoworshippedtrees.InCeltictheywerecalled
Druids,priestsofancientGaulandBritain(alsoGreeceandIllyria).ThecasteofDruidsmusthave

worshipedthedominantthundergodwhosethunderboltusedtostrikesacredtrees.Druidsmust
haveplantedthereligionaroundthesacredoakatDodona.
,`oak,tree'(fromn.*druor*deru,*dorug.*druusbecomeafterothertreenametoFem.;
asaresultofthetendencyofnominativegradation),-`fruittree',-`woodchopper',
`fromtheoak,fromoaktree',`dryad,treenymph',`oldtreetruck',
.Hes.(*sm-,Lit.byBoisacqs.v.),Hes.
Hom.n.Pl.`wood,forest',nachhom.ds.(thelatterwithpreviouschangedlengthafter
);`tree'(Hom.;outofitatt.),fromredupl.*e(=)-F,Demin.
;compareSchwyzerGr.Gr.I583;
F-inarg..Hes.,Hes.,
(*F-),`woodentub,trough,coffin'(probablyfrom*F,comparelastlySchwyzer
KZ.62,199ff.,differentSpechtDekl.139);Hes.(diss.from*F),
nexttowhich*druio-in.Hes.
PN:lit.Drktenis,OldPrussianDrutenne(E.Fraenkel,Pauly-Wissowa16,1633);
invocalismstillnotexplainedcertainly`shrubbery,bush,thicket';maked.f.`oak'Hes.
(*deru-,compareair.daur);butHes.,liesF(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I4955);

alb.druf.`wood,tree,shaft,pole'(*druu,compareOldChurchSlavicdrvan.pl.`wood');drush-k
(es-stem)`oak';ablaut.*dr-indriz`tree',drni`woodbar';
Note:
Alb.definiteformNom.dru-ni=alb.Gen.dru-ni`ofwood':OldIndiandrun.`wood'(Gen.dr,
dra`ofwood';butapureSlavicloanwordisalb.druvar`woodcutter,woodchopper'
[conservativedefinitiveformsversusindefiniteforms(alb.phonetictrait)]
thrak.-`sycamore',PN,(*darant-)`EichstttadistrictinBavaria',
,`Zeus'sgrove',VN---,,Dru-geri(dru-`wood,forest');
MaybeVN---:Etruria(Italy)
fromLat.perhapsdrus`hard,harsh;tough,strong,enduring;indemeanourortastes,rough,rude,
uncouth;incharacter,hard,austere,sometimesbrazen,shameless;ofthings,hard,awkward,difficult,
adverse'(butaboutdrre`tomakehardorhardy,toinure;intransit.,tobecomehardordry;tobe
hardorcallous;toendure,holdout;tolast,remain,continue'seeunderS.220),ifafterOsthoff111f.
as`strong,tight,firmas(oak)tree'dissimilatedfrom*dr-ro-s(*dreu-ro-s);
Maybealb.duroj`endure,last',durim`patience'.
butlat.larix`larchtree',Lw.isfromanidg.Alpinelanguage,idg.*derik-s,isconceivablebecauseof
heavyl;
Note:
Commonlat.d->l-phoneticmutationhencelat.larix(*derik-s)`larchtree'.

MaybePelasgianLarissa(*dariksa)
air.derucc(gg),Gen.dercon`glans',cymr.derwen`oak'(Pl.derw),bret.deruennds.,gall.place
nameDervus(`oakforest'),abrit.Derventi,placename,VNDervciunderlikewise;air.drb`safe';
reducedgradeair.daur,Gen.daro`oak'(deru-),alsodair,Gen.darachds.(*deri-),air.daurdeand

dairde`oaken';derivedgall.*d(a)rullia`oak'(WartburgIII50);maked.f.`oak';zerograde
*dru-inintensificationparticle(differentThurneysenZcPh.16,277:`oak-':dru-ingalat.`holyoakgrove'),e.g.gall.Dru-talos(`*withbigforehead'),Druides,DruidaePl.,air.dri
`Druid'(`thehigh;noble',*druuid-),air.dron`tight,firm'(*drunos,compareOldIndiandru-a-m,
dru--,dr-a-m),withgutturalextension(compareundernhd.Trog)mir.drochta`(*wooden)
barrel,vat,cask;barrel,tub',drochat`bridge';herealsogallorom.drtos`strong,exuberant(:lit.

drtas)',gr.PN,air.drth`foolish,loony'(:aisl.trr`juggler,buffoon'),cymr.drud`foolish,
loony,valiant'(cymr.uderivesfromroman.equivalent);
deru-ingerm.Tervingl,Matrib(us)Alatervs,anord.tjara(*derun-),finn.Lw.terva,ags.teorun.,
tierwef.,-am.`tar,resin'(*deruio-),mnd.tere`tar'(nhd.Teer);anord.tyrvi,tyri`pinewood',tyrr`pine'
(doubtfulmhd.zirwe,zirbel`pinecone',thereperhapsrathertomhd.zirbel`whirl',becauseofthe
roundspigot);
dreu-ingot.triun.`wood,tree',anord.tr,ags.trow(engl.tree),as.trio`tree,balk,beam';inbtr.
meaning`tight,firm-tight,firmrelying'(asgr.`tight,firm':`showfirmly,relyon
whereupon,trustin'),got.triggws(*treuuaz)`loyal,faithful',ahd.gi-triuwi`loyal,faithful',an:tryggr
`loyal,faithful,reliable,unworried',got.triggwa`alliance,covenant',ags.trow`faith,belief,loyalty,
verity',ahd.triuwa,nhd.Treue,comparewithders.meaning,butotherablautanord.trf.`religious
faith,belief,assurance,pledge',ags.trwam.,mnd.trwef.ds.,ahd.trwa,aisl.trf.,besidestrr
`loyal,faithful';derivedanord.tra`trust,holdfortrue'=got.trauan,andags.trwian,as.trn,ahd.
tr(w)n`trust'(comparen.OldPrussiandruwis);similarlyanord.traustr`strong,tight,firm',traustn.
`confidence,reliance,whatonecancounton',ahd.trst`reliance,consolation'(*droust-),got.trausti
`pact,covenant',changingthroughablautengl.trust`reliance'(mengl.trst),mlat.trustis`loyalty'in
afrnk.`law',mhd.getrste`troop,multitude,crowd';
maybealb.trs,trys`press,crowd'
(st-formationisoldbecauseofnpers.durut`hard,strong',durust`fit,healthy,whole';norw.trysja
`cleantheground',ags.trs`deadwood',engl.trouse,aisl.tros`dross',got.ufar-trusnjan`disperse,
scatter'.

*drou-inags.trg,engl.tray`flattrough,platter',aschwed.tr`acertainmeasurevessel'(*trauja-,
compareabove),anord.treyju-sull(alsotryju-soll)`akindoftroughshapedsaddle';
*dr-inaisl.trr`jester',ags.tr`merrymaker,trumpeter'(:gallorom.*drto-s,etc)
*dru-inags.trum`tight,firm,strong,fit,healthy'(*dru-mo-s),withk-extension,respectivelyforms-ko(compareabovemir.drochta,drochat),ahd.nhd.trog,ags.trog,troh(m.),anord.trog(n.)`trough'
andahd.truha`footlocker',norw.mdartl.trygjen.`akindofpacksaddleorpacksaddle',trygja`akind
ofcreel',ahd.trucka`hutch',nd.trgge`trough'andwiththeoriginalmeaning`tree,wood'ahd.harttrugil`dogwood';
maybenasalizedalb.trung(*trgge)`wood,tree'
bsl.*derua-n.`tree'inOldChurchSlavicdrvo(Gen.drva,alsodrvese),skr.dial.drvo(drjevo),

sloven.drv,aech.dvo,russ.drevo,klr.drevo`tree';inadditionasoriginallycollectivelit.
derv,(Akk.derv)f.`chipofpinewood;tar,resinouswood';ablaut,lett.darva`tar',OldPrussianin
PNDerwayn;lengthenedgrade*dru-i-inlett.doref.`woodvessel,beehiveintree';*su-dorua-`fit,
healthy'inOldChurchSlavicsdrav,ech.zdrv(zdrav),russ.zdorv(f.zdorva)`fit,healthy',
compareav.dr(u)v,Oldpers.duruvads.
balt.*dreui-f.`woodbeehive',substantiv.adj.(OldIndiandravya-`belongingtothetree'):lit.drv
anddrev`cavityintree',lett.dreveds.:inablautlit.dravsf.,lett.dravaf.`woodbeehive',inaddition
OldPrussiandrawinef.`prey,bee'sload'andlit.drav`holeintree';furthermoreinablautostlit.
drvanddrovf.ds.,lett.drava`cavityinbeehive';
protoslav..*druua-Nom.Pl.`wood'inOldChurchSlavicdrva,russ.drov,poln.drwa(Gen.drew);
*druuina-n.`wood'inklr.drovno,slovz.drvn;
slav.*drminruss.drom`virginforest,thicket',etc(=OldIndiandrum,gr.,adjekt.ags.
trum);
lit.su-drus`abundant,fat(fromthegrowthoftheplants)'(=OldIndiansu-dr-`goodwood');
balt.drta-`strong'(==gallorom.*drto-s,gr.PN)inlit.drtas,dritas`strong,thick',Old
PrussianinPNDrutenne,PNDruthayn,Druthelauken;belongstoOldPrussiandruwism.`faith,
belief',druwif.,druwt`believe'(*druwti:ahd.tren),na-po-druwsnan`reliance,hope'.Besidelit.
drtasalsodrktas;seeunderdher-2 .
InablauthereOldChurchSlavicdrevlje`fore,former,ofplaceortime;higherinimportance,atfirstor
forthefirsttime',aech.dve,russ.drvle`agesbefore';adverbofcomparativeoraffirmative.
hitt.ta-ru`tree,wood',Dat.ta-ru--i;
herealsoprobablytoch.ABor`wood'(falseabstractionfrom*toddor,K.SchneiderIF.57,203).
Note:
Theshiftd->zeroisabalt.-illyr.phoneticmutationinheritedbytoch.
References:
References:WP.I804ff.,WH.I374,384ff.,765f.,Trautmann52f.,56,60f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I
463,518,SpechtDekl.29,54,139.
Page(s):
Page(s):214-217
Root/lemma: der- ,heavybasisder- ,drEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tocut,split,skin(*thetree)
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schinden,dieHautabziehen,abspalten,spalten'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:der- ,heavybasisder- ,dr- :
:`tocut,split,skin(*thetree)'derivedfromRoot/
Root/
lemma: deru- ,d r u- ,dr(e)u- ,drou- ;dreu - :dr- :
:`tree'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandar-`break,makecrack,split,burst',presentthelightbasisdri,adar,drt,n-

presenttheheavybasisdrti`bursts,cracks',Opt.dryt,Perf.dadra,participledra-,oftheheavy
basisdr-,Kaus.drayati,Intens.dardirat,drdarti(compareav.dardar-`split';ech.drdm,
drdati`pluck,pickoff,remove'),dardarti`splitup',dara-m.,darf.`holeintheearth,cave'(:gr.
`hose',lett.nudaras`drossofbast',ChurchSlavicrazdor),di-m.`bag,hose'(=gr.
,got.gatars,russ.dert),darmn-m.`smasher'(:gr.n.),nexttowhichfromthe
heavybasisdrman-`destruction';-dri-`splitting'(=gr.),dra-m.`crack,col,gap,hole',
draka-`ripping,splitting',dar-indardar-ti,dar-man-withfori=(compareWackernagelOld
IndianGr.120),barelyafterPerssonBeitr.779ofthei-basis;npers.Inf.diran,daran,jd.-pers.
darnin;
Maybealb.(*dras)drras`board,plank(cutwood)',drrmonj`destroy,break,exhaust,tire'.

Dardaniillyr.TN
Note:
ThenameDardaniillyr.TNand[Latintranscription:
Latintranscription:Dries]Greek:
Greek:,att.-derive
fromthesameroot.

Dardanus
byMichaF.Lindemans
ThesonofZeusandElectra.HesailedfromSamothracetoTroasinaraftmadeofhides.He
eventuallymarriedBatea,thedaughterofKingTeucer,whogavehimlandnearAbydos.Therehe
foundedthecityofDardania(thelater,ill-fatedcityofTroy).
HencethenameDardanellesforwhatwasoncecalledtheHellespont.

DARA
DARA(Dara,Ptol.vi.8.4).1.AsmallriverofCarmania,atnogreatdistancefromthefrontierof
Persis.TherecanbelittledoubtthatitisthesameastheDoraofMarcian(Peripl.p.21)andthe
DarasofPliny(vi.25.s.28).Dr.Vincentconjectures(VoyageofNearchus,vol.i.p.372)thatitisthe
sameastheDara-binorDerra-binofmoderncharts.

2.AcityinParthia.[APAVARCTICENE]

3.AcityinMesopotamia.[DARAS][V.]

DARADAE

DARADAEthenameofEthiopiantribesintwodifferentpartsofAfrica;oneaboutthecentralpart,in
Darfour(Daradnethnos,Ptol.iv.7.35),theotherintheW.,ontheriverDARADUSalsocalled
AethiopesDaratitae.(Polyb.apPlin.v.1;Agathem.ii.5.)[P.S.]

DARADAX
DARADAX(Daradax),aSyrianriver,mentionedonlybyXenophon(Anab.i.4.10).Ithasbeen
identifiedwiththeFar,asmalltributaryoftheEuphrates.Atthesourceoftheriverwasapalaceof
Belesis,thensatrapofSyria,withalargeandbeautifulpark,whichweredestroyedbyCyrusthe
Younger.(Anab.l.c.)[G.W.]

DARADUS
DARADUS,DARAS,orDARAT(DaradosDaras,Ptol.iv.6.6),ariverofAfrica,fallingintothe
AtlanticontheW.coast,nearthePortusMagnus,andcontainingcrocodiles(Plin.v.1);probablythe
GambiaorDiod'Ouro.[P.S.]

DARAE
DARAEaGaetuliantribeintheW.ofAfrica,onamountainstreamcalledDara,ontheS.steppesof
M.Atlas,adjacenttothePharusii.(Plin.v.1;Oros.i.2;LeoAfr.p.602.)[P.S.]

DARADRAE
DARADRAE(Daradrai,Ptol.vii.1.42),amountaintribewholivedintheupperIndus.Forbiger
conjecturesthattheyarethesamepeoplewhomStrabo(xv.p.706)callsDerdae,andPlinyDardae
(vi.19),andperhapsastheDadicaeofHerodotus(iii.91,vii.66).Itispossible,however,thatthese
latterpeoplelivedstillfurthertotheN.,perhapsinSogdiana,thoughtheirassociationwiththe
Gandarii(SanscritGandhras)pointstoamoresouthernlocality.[V.]

DARANTASIA
DARANTASIAaplaceinGalliaNarbonensis.

DARAPSA
DARAPSA[BACTRIANAp.365,a.]

DARDAE
DARADRAE
DARADRAE(Daradrai,Ptol.vii.1.42),amountaintribewholivedintheupperIndus.Forbiger
conjecturesthattheyarethesamepeoplewhomStrabo(xv.p.706)callsDerdae,andPlinyDardae
(vi.19),andperhapsastheDadicaeofHerodotus(iii.91,vii.66).Itispossible,however,thatthese
latterpeoplelivedstillfurthertotheN.,perhapsinSogdiana,thoughtheirassociationwiththe
Gandarii(SanscritGandhras)pointstoamoresouthernlocality.[V.]

DARDANI
DARDANI(Dardanoi),atribeinthesouth-westofMoesia,andextendingalsooverapartofIllyricum.
(Strab.vii.p.316;Ptol.iii.9.2;Caes.Bell.Civ.iii.4;Liv.xl.57;Plin.iii.29;Cic.p.Sest.43)
AccordingtoStrabo,theywereaverywildandfilthyrace,livingincavesunderdunghills,butvery
fondofmusic.[L.S.]
av.dardar-(seeabove)`split',Inf.drnm(:OldIndiandrti),Iter.draya-,participledrt(=
OldIndiandrt-);
arm.teem`skin,flay,makecallous'(becauseofprobablyforrootform*der-s-,PerssonBeitr.779
Anm.1);doubtfularm.tar`foreignland',tara-`besides,without,afar',tarayAor.`taketoone'sheels,
madeoneselfscarce'(PerssonBeitr.778a2);
gr.`skin,flay',io-presentds.(aslit.derbesidesdiri),Aor.Pass.,participle
,(=OldIndiandrt-);`hose'(=OldIndiandara-,lett.nu-daras);`the
skinning'(=OldIndiandti-),nexttowhichwith(haschanged)lengthenedgradeatt.,-
`skin,leatherydress,cover';*,diss.`themembranewhichcontainsthebowels';
,-n.`skin,fur'(heavybasis),n.,n.,`fell,fur';lengthenedgrade,(poet.)`fight,struggle'(=OldIndian-dri-);hereprobablyalso-`bedraggle'insteadof
*-(:OldIndiandr-dar-ti)
cymr.corn.bret.darn`piece,part'(=OldIndiandr-);
got.dis-taran(=gr.)`break,pullapart',ga-taran`tear,destroy',ags.teran`tear',ahd.zeran,
fir-zeran`tear,destroy';mhd.(ver)zern,nhd.(ver)zehren`consume',mengl.,mnd.terren`quarrel,
squabble',ndd.terren,tarren`stir,tease,irritate,banter',ahd.zerren`pull';got.intrans.dis-,gatarnan`tear'(:OldIndiandrti),holl.tornen`unstitch,unpick,takeapart',comparenominalags.as.
torn,ahd.zorn`anger,fight,violentdispleasure'andinoriginalmeaningholl.torn`cleavage,
separation'(=OldIndiandr-,cymr.darn;alsoOldIndiandr-isnamedbesides`split'also
`confused,putindesperation');nexttowhichzerogradeanord.tjrnf.(*dern),tjarnn.(*dernom)
`smallsea',originallyprobably`waterhole'(compareOldIndiandara-,dar`holeintheearth');
causativeistrodtoga-tarnan(iterative)gatarnjan`mug,rob'(butahd.uozurnen`despise'Denom.of
*uo-zorn);got.gataram.`crack',gatarsf.`destruction'(=OldIndiandrti-,gr.);anord.torincompounds,ags.tordn.`ordure'(*dr-tm`separation',comparelett.drstu,drst`defecate',dirsa
`buttocks',Mhlenbach-EndzelinI470,andofagutturalextensionmhd.zurch,zrchm.`animal
excrements');
Maybetruncatedalb.dhjes`defecate':lett.drstu,drst`defecate'.

besidesoftheheavybasisanord.trn.`batten,lath,supportfrompoles'(*dr-to-m),mhd.truoderf.
`slat,pole,fromitmanufacturedrack';ahd.trda`fringe'(nhd.Troddel),mhd.trdel(for*trdel)
`tassel,woodfiber';
actuallytoder-(e)u-(seeunder)withnasalinfixbelong*drnuinmhd.trnnef.`runningshoal,
migration,swarm;surge',ahd.abetrunnig,abtrunne`apostate',ant-trunno`fugitive',and*dren-u
intrinnan`secludeoneself',mhd.trinnen,trann`beseparatedfrom,departfrom,runaway',nhd.
entrinnen(*ent-trinnen),Kaus.germ.*trannianinmhd.trennen`cut,clip',nhd.trennen,holl.(with
transposition)tarnen,tornen`separate'(thelatter,inanycase,moredirectlytoderivefrom*der`split';nnofgerm.*trennanfrom-nu-);certainlyhereschwed.mdartl.trinna,trenta`splitfencerack',
furtherwiththemeaning`splittrunkpieceasadisc,wheel'ahd.trennila`ball',trenniln`roll',mnd.
trint,trent`circular',trentm.`curvature,roundness,circularline',ags.trindef.(ortrindam.)`round
clump',mhd.trindel,trendel`ball,circle,wheel'underlikewise
Withfracturedreduplicationorformant-d-(comparegr.andech.drdati)andfrom`tear,
tugunkindly'explainablemeaningprobablyheregerm.*trat-,*trut-inags.teart`stern,sharp,bitter',
mndl.torten,holl.tarten`stir,tease,irritate,challenge,defy',mnd.trot`contrariness',mhd.traz,truz,tzes`obstructiveness,animosity,contrariness',nhd.Trotz,Trutz,trotzen,bair.tratzen`banter';with
themeaning-development`fray'-`thin,fine,tender'perhaps()mnd.tertel,tertlk`fine,dainty,
mollycoddled',dn.trtet`squeamish'(perhapsalsonorw.mdartl.tert,tart`smallsalmon',terta
`smallplayball');ahd.nhd.zart(thelastfrom*dort-,comparempers.dart`afflicted',npers.derd
`pain'WoodKZ.45,70);
lit.diri(:),em.der(:),drti`flay,cutoffthegrassorpeat'(heavybasiscomparedwith
OldIndiandti-,gr.,got.gatars),nudrtas`flayed',lett.nudara`polewithcutbranches,
breadslice',Pl.-as`dross,esp.ofbast'(:Mhlenbach-EndzelinII772,OldIndiandara-,gr.),
lit.dern`board,plank,balk';withu-coloredzerogradelit.duri,drti`prick'(preteritdriau)=serb.
-drim(-driti)`hit'(russ.udyrt`hit'withiterativegradeto*dr-,comparelit.driau,Berneker179
f.).Againstitarelit.durnas`frenzied,stupid',lett.durnsborrowedfromSlav.;compareMhlenbachEndzelinI519.
Slav.*derand*diriinOldChurchSlavicder,drati`rend,flay'and*dr(serb.zdrm,ech.
dru);u-darj,udariti`hit'(*dr-,compare*dr-ingr.),withiterativegraderaz-dirati`tear',serb.
z-dirati`exertoneself,(maltreatoneself);clearoff,passaway,disappear'(inadditionOldChurch
Slavicdira`crack';s.Berneker201,whereasalsoaboutthemeaning-developmentofprobably
relatedfamilyserb.dra`hole,crack',bulg.dr`a`trackofapersonoranimal,orfromwheels',dr`
`search,seek,feel,pursue');about*dr-inserb.-drimseeabove;
nouns:with-gradesloven.u-dr`blow,knock',witho-gradeOldChurchSlavicrazdor`crack,
cleavage'(=OldIndiandara-,gr.,lett.nuo-daras),serb.-dorac`attack,withzerograde(idg.
*drto-):serbChurchSlavicraz-drt`lacerate',klr.drtyj`torn,flayed'(=OldIndiandrta-);idg.*drti-:
russ.dert`residueofcrushedgrain,bran;clearedland'(=OldIndiandti-etc);russ.(etc)drn
`lawn,meadow'(:OldIndiandrn-etc,meaningasinlit.dirti`cutthelawngrass');
Maybealb.(*derm)drrmoj`exhaust'.
russ.derm`ragsstuff,theunusable,rubbish,dirt'(*drossbysplitting,peeling),drkij`rash,hasty,
fast',dranf.`shingle,lath',drjan=`derm`,drka`brawl',dra`nailpuller,toolusedtoremove
nails',o-drnyPl.`chaff'etc.

Withl-extendedlit.nudrlioti`peeltheskin',serb.drljm,dljati`harrow',drljm,dljiti`divest'
(Berneker255);
toch.ABtsr-`separate,split',tsrorye`cleft,fissure,crack'(PedersenToch.Sprachg.19).

d(e)r- (:*deri- )onlybarelycovered(seeesp.PerssonBeitr.779f.):


Gr.-`(incisive,splitting)piercing,sharp,herb,bitter'(probablyafterreshapedfrom*or-),lett.drsme`crack,scratch',perhaps(ifnotderailmentofablauttolit.dreskibecause
ofwhosezerogradedrisk-)fromlett.drksna(*drskna)`scratch',draska`tearer',compare
Mhlenbach-EndzelinI488f.,500;
remainsfaroff`bloodsucker,leech,penis',eigentl.`theswollen',toHes.
(M.Schellerbriefl.).
Withu- formsofthelight(der-eu- )andheavybasis(der-u- , dr - u- )`tear,(theland)break,burst,
erupt':dor-u : dr-u`speciesofgrain',deru-,de-dru- etc`lacerateskin'.
Mpers.drn,drdan`reap';
aboutgerm.formswithnasalinfixseeaboveS.207;
hereanord.trjnaf.(*dreunn-)`proboscisofthepig'(`bursting,burrowing'),trynin.ds.,mhd.triel
(*dreu-lo-)m.`snout,muzzle,mouth,lip',
maybealb.geg.(*tryni)turini,tosk.turiri`mouthofanimals,snout'
norw.mdartl.mle-trjosk,-trusk(*dreu-sko-)`horsemuzzle'(Falk-Torpundertryne).Becauseofthe
meaninginsecureisFalk-Torpsappositionundertrgandtrygleofanord.traua`lack,comeshort',
traulaAdv.`barely',traur`querulous'and-withg-extension-ags.trcian`beabsent,lack,come
short'(nengl.dial.totruck`tofail',mnd.trggelen`beg,cheat,deceive');
lett.drugt`diminish,collapse'(ir.droch,cymr.drwg`penurious,evil,bad'fromk-extension,
Mhlenbach-EndzelinI505).
OldIndiandrv`milletgrass'(dr-u);
comparegr.delph.f.,thess.m.`bread'(*dr-),maked.ds.;
gall.(lat.)dravoca`ryegrass'(*dr-u-);bret.draok,dreok,cymr.drewgds.areborrowedfromRoman.
(KleinhansbeiWartburgIII158);
mndl.tanve,terwe,holl.tarwe`wheat',engl.tare`weed,ryegrass,vetch'(germ.*taru,idg.
*doru);
lit.drva`farmland'(*dr-u,withintonationchangethe-stem),eigentl.`freed,cleared',dirvnas
`virginsoil,land'(comparetomeaningruss.mdartl.dor`newtillage,cultivatedland',rzdert`land
madearable'),lett.druva`thetilledfarmland,sownfield'(Mhlenbach-EndzelinI470,505),russ.(see
Berneker186)dervnja`village(withoutchurch);landproperty',mdartl.`pieceoffield',pet
dervnju`tillsthefield';
withthemeaning`skinrash'(`splittingoffskinflakes,crackedskin'):

OldIndiandar-dru-m.`kindofskinrash',dar-d-m.(uncovered),dadru-m.,da-dru-ka-m.`leprosy';
lat.derbitaf.`lichen'isLw.fromgall.*dervta(comparealsomir.deir,air.*derfrom*der`lichen'),to
cymr.tarwyden,tarwden(Pl.tarwed)(besidesdarwydenthroughinfluenceoftheprefixgrouptar-,
PedersenKG.I495),mbret.dervoeden,nbret.deroueden`sickoflichen'(*deru-eit-);
germ.*te-tru-inags.teter`skinrash',ahd.zittaroh(*de-dru-ko-s=OldIndiandadruka-),nhd.Zitterich
`skinrash';
lit.dedervin`rashresemblinglichen'(Trautmann47,Mhlenbach-EndzelinI450;compareinsimilar
meaningoftherootform*der-ech.o-dra,Pl.o-dry`pricklyheat,miliaria,heatrash',poln.odra
`measles',oftheg-extensionbulg.drgn-se`rubmyself,itchmyself,becomescabby');

dereg - :
Mndl.trekenst.V.`pull,tear'and`shudder',ahd.trehhan`push,poke,intermittentlytear,scrape,
coverscraping',*trakjaninmnd.trecken`pull,tear(tr.intr.)',ags.trglian`topluck',wherewith
becauseofthesamevocalpositionmaybeistobeconnectedtolett.dragt`pull,rend,upset,shake',
draguls`shiveringfit',drga`astrongangryperson,rendersanddemandsalot';lett.drigelts,
drigants,lit.drigntas`stallion'areLw.frompoln.drygant;compareBgaKalbairs.128,
Mhlenbach-EndzelinI498.

deregh- (seePerssonrootextension26,Berneker254and212m.Lit.):
Ags.tiergan(germ.*targian)`banter,stir,tease,irritate',mnd.tergen,targen`pull,stir,tease,irritate',
holl.tergen,nhd.zergen`pull,tear,anger',schwed.mdartl.targa`tugwiththeteethorsharptools',
norw.mdartl.terga`banter';lit.drginu,drginti`flurry,irritate,stimulate,excite,pull(thetriggerofa
gun)';russ.drgat`pluck,pull,tear,rend'(etc),s-doroga`cramp'.

derek -:
nameofforelandinKos(aspluralasnameofforelands,BuggeBB.18,189),
,(actually`teartheskinopen'asanalogousmeaning
)Hes.;
gr.m.,n.`supper'(*dork-+uo-forms)=alb.dark`supper,evening'(unclearthe
ablautrelationindrek`lunch,middleoftheday';comparePerssonBeitr.8591);perhapsto
(nordillyr.)PN(leg.)inWurttemberg,as`placetorest';
Note:
Thisseemswrongetymologysincealb.drek`lunch,middleoftheday'seemstohavederivedfrom
Root/lemma: derk - :
:`tolook,light';gr.`look,keeptheeyesopen,bealive',,
,`vision',`sight',`look,gaze',-`heavytobehold'(=Old
Indiandarcata-),Adv.`onelookingupfrombelow',n.`eye',,-`dragon,
snake'(frombanishing,paralyzinglook),fem.;alb.drit`light'(*drkt);
Accordingtoalb.phoneticlawsalb.drit`light'derivedfrom(drika)not(*drkt)becauseof
commonalb.-k->-th- phoneticmutations;
maybealb.(*darcata-),dark`supper,eveningmeal,evening';(*drech),drek`dinnermeal,midday,
lightoftheday':air.an-dracht`loathsome,dark'(seeabove).

sloven.drkam,drem,drkati`glide,slither,ontheicetrail;run,trotrun'(probablyfrom`clearoff,run
away,leave'),ech.drkati`bump,poke,jolt',bulg.drcam,drcn`pull,riffleflax,hemp'(Berneker
255,PerssonBeitr.85,359).

deres- :
Arm.teem(seeaboveunderder-);
mir.dorr`anger',dorrach`rough,coarse'(seePerssonBeitr.779Anm.1);presumablyags.teors,
ahd.zers`penis',norw.ters`nail';alsoanord.tjasnaf.`kindofnail'from*tersnn-,norw.trase`rag,
clout',trasast`becomeragged',tras`deadwood',trask`offal,deadwood';
Maybealb.trast`bag,(raggedcloth)',tras`pull(aboatonthecoast):rum.trage`pull'
sloven.drsati`disband,separate',ech.drsati`scratch,scrape,stripe',drasta,drsta`splinter,
scrap,shred;garment',draslav`rough,jolting',zerogradedrsen`rough',drsnat`jolting'(compare
abovemir.dorr).

dre-sk :
lit.su-drysk,-driska,-drksti`tear',dreski,dreskia,-drksti`rend',draskau,drasktiiter.`tear',
lett.drasktds.,draska`rag',lit.drkstnlent`craftyslat,thinlysplitwood'(LeskienAbl.325,
Berneker220,224).,bulg.drskam,drt(*dra)`scratch,scrape;fittightly',perfectivedrsn
(*draskn);drska`scratcher,crack';ech.oldz-dies-katiand(withassimilationofauslautanda
soundinganlaut)z-diezhati`break,rupture',dieska,diezha`splinter,chip,splinter',nowadays
dzha`chip,splinter';poln.drzazga`splinter';
Withformant-p-:

drep-, drop- :
OldIndiandrpm.`mantle,dress',drapsm.`banner()'(=av.drafa-`banner,ensign,flag,
banner'),lit.drpanosf.Pl.`householdlinen,dress',lett.drna(probably*drpn)`stuff,kerchief,
cloth';gallo-rom.drappus`kerchief,cloth'(PNDrapp,Drappus,Drappes,Drapnus)isprobably
ven.-ill.Lw.;thea-vowelfromidg.oor,asdas-pp-,expressive;
gr.`breakoff,cutoff,pick',,`sickle',also(outofitalb.drapn
`sickle'ds.),thatisdefinedthroughassimilationofto*;o-grade
Hes.(=serb.drpljm),,-`Pechpflaster,umHaareauszuziehen',`pullthe
hairout';anord.trfn.Pl.`fringes',trefrf.Pl.ds.,trefja`rub,wearout',mhd.trabef.`fringe';

*drp-inruss.drjpa-ju,-t(withunclearja),dial.drpat,drapt`scratch,rend',serb.drpm,
drpljm,drpati`tear,wearout;scratch,scrape',poln.drapa`scratch,scrape,scrape,rub,flee';
drp-,slav.*drp-inbulg.drpam,perfectivedrpn`tear,pull,drag',serb.drpm,dpatianddpm,
dpiti`rend';bsl.dreb-,drob-`scrap,shred,dress'inlett.drbef.`stuff,dress,laundry',lit.drbf.
`canvas,fabric',drbanasm.`rag,scrap,shred',drabis,drobism.`dress';osorb.drabym.Pl.
`dressstuff',ech.-mhr.zdrabym.Pl.`rag,scrap,shred'haveprobablythroughinfluencetheroot
*drob-(seeunderdhrebh-)`carve,slit,dismember'-b-insteadof-p-;
drip- :
Gall.(ven.-ill.)PNDrippia,Drippnius(compareaboveDrappusetc);

Note:Alb.drapn`sickle':(ven.-ill.)PNDrippnius
bulg.drpa`rag,scrap,shred',sloven.drpam(drpljem),drpati`tear,havediarrhea',ech.dpa
`scrap,shred',dpati`rend,tear';

drup- :
Gr.`scratch',,-(withsecondaryinsteadof,s.PerssonBeitr.859)
`scrub,flayofftheskin',`scratching,peeling',`akindofthorn'.
Forvariationofa:i:uin`popularwords'compareWissmannNominapostverbalia162ff.
References:
References:WP.I797ff.,WH.I342f.,373,861,Trautmann51f.
Page(s):
Page(s):206-211
Root/lemma: des- ,dsEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tofind
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`finden,nachspren'
Material:
Material:Gr.w`becomefind'(futur.gebrauchtespresent),Hes.;
alb.ndesh`find,encounter',ndieh(*of-sk)`feel,find';perhapsalsoOldChurchSlavicde,desiti
`find',ablaut.russ.-ChurchSlavicdositi(udositi)`find,meet',whethernottodek-;whereasisOld
Indianabhi-dsati`ishostile,attacked'ratherDenomin.ofds-`slave,fiend'.
Aboutalb.ndeshs.alsoaboveS.190.
References:
References:WP.I783,814,Trautmann54,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I780.
Page(s):
Page(s):217
Root/lemma: deukEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todrag
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`ziehen'
Material:
Material:Gr.-Hes.(*--withintensivereduplicationas-).
InadditionperhapsalsoHes.,whereforehom.`inconsiderate';unclearis
`dervielsorgende'(butisdissimilatedfrom*,Bechtel),andwith
zerograde`keen,eager,painstaking'.Themeaning`care,worry,beconsiderateof'arose
from`pull,drag'perhapsabout`bringup';similarlystandsforanord.tja(*teuhn)`help'(seeFalkTorp1315f.).

Somewhatotherspiritualchangeofpositionshowslat.dcereas`todraw;todrawalongoraway;
hencetoshapeanythinglong,toconstruct.Transf.,tocharm,influence,mislead;toderive;todraw

in;tolead;inmarriage,tomarryawife;tocalculate,reckon;toesteem,consider'.
Alb.nduk`pluck,tearoutthehair',dial.also`suckout'.
Mcymr.dygaf`bring'(*dukami);aboutair.to-ucc-(cc=gg)`bring'seeundereuk- .
Lat.dc(altlat.douc),-ere,dx,dctum`todraw;todrawalongoraway;hencetoshapeanything
long,toconstruct.Transf.,tocharm,influence,mislead;toderive;todrawin;tolead;inmarriage,to
marryawife;tocalculate,reckon;toesteem,consider'=got.tiuhan,ahd.ziohan,as.tiohan,ags.
ton`pull,drag'(anord.onlyinparticipletoginn).
verbalcompounds:ab-dc=got.af-tiuhan,ad-dc=got.at-tiuhan,con-dc=got.ga-tiuhan,etc.
rootnouns:lat.dux,ducism.f.`aguide,conductor;aleader,ruler,commander'(therefromducre
`bringup,educate,rise';linguistic-historicalconnectionwithformallyequalanord.toga,ahd.zogn
`pull,drag'doesnotexist),trdux`(hereguided)vine-layer'.Isas.etcheritogo,ahd.herizogo`military
leader',nhd.HerzogreplicationofcompareFeist479.

ti-stem:lat.ductim`bydrawing;inastream',lateducti-`duct'(besidestu-stemductus,-s`direction,
leadership,duct,conduction')=nhd.Zucht(seeunder).
SpeciallyrichdevelopmentforminGerm.,so:iterative-Kaus.anord.teygia`pull,drag,pullout'=ags.
tegan`pull,drag'(*taugian);ahd.zuckan,zucchen,mhd.zucken,zcken`quick,pullfast,wrest,
drawback'(withintensiveconsonantstretch;therefrommhd.zuc,Gen.zuckesm.`twitch,jerk');
anord.togn.`thepulling,rope,cable',mhd.zoc,Gen.zogesm.`pull',whereofanord.toga,-aa`pull,
drag',ags.togian,engl.tow`pull,drag',ahd.zogn,mhd.zogen`pull,drag(tr.,intr.),rend,pull',
compareabovelat.()-ducre;ags.tygem.i-stem`pull',ahd.zug,nhd.Zug(*tugi-);ahd.zugil,zuhil,
mhd.zugil,nhd.Zgel,anord.tygillm.`band,strap,strip',ags.tygel`rope';anord.taugf.`rope',ags.
tagf.`band,strap,manacle,paddock'(therefromags.tegan`bind',engl.tie);withzerogradeanord.
togn.`rope,hawser';anord.taumrm.`rope,cable,rein',ags.tamm.`pairofharnessedoxen,yoke,
bridle,parturition,progeny'(therefromteman`proliferate,bepregnant',engl.teem),ndl.toom`brood',
afries.tm`progeny',as.tm`astraporthongofleather;plur.,reins,bridle;scourge,whip',ahd.
mhd.zoumm.`rope,cable,thong,rein',nhd.`bridle,rein'(germ.*tauma-from*taum-);ahd.
giziugn`bearwitness,prove'(actually`zurGerichtsverhandlunggezogenwarden'),mhd.geziugen
`provefromevidence',nhd.(be)zeugen,Zeuge,mnd.betgen`testify,prove',getchn.`attestation,
evidence';furtherwiththemeaning`bringout,bringup,generate'ahd.giziug(*teugiz)`stuff,device,
equipment',nhd.Zeug,mnd.tch(-g-)n.`stuff,device'and`penis',mhd.ziugen,nhd.zeugen;got.
ustahts`consummation',ahd.mhd.zuhtf.`raise,upbringing,breed,breeding,progeny',nhd.Zucht
(=lat.ductusseeabove);therefromnhd.zchtig,zchtigen,ags.tyhtm.`upbringing,breed,
breeding',afries.tucht,tocht`abilitytoprocreate'.
SpeciallybecauseofZucht`progeny',bair.also`breedingpig'underlikewiseonedrawsahd.zha,
mnd.tle(*thila),nhd.schwb.zauche`bitch',neuisl.ta`vixen'totheroot;yetcomparemhd.zpe
`bitch',norw.dial.tobbe`mare,smallfemalecreature'andgerm.*tkand*ti`bitch'.
Asimplerootform*den-`pull,drag'perhapsinanord.tjrn.(*deu-trom)`tether,bandagerope'=
mengl.teder-,teerds.,ahd.zeotar`shaft',nhd.bair.Zieter`frontshaft'(alsoags.tdor,tuddorn.
`progeny');butOldIndianrakam`rope,strap'isdravid.Lw.(KuiperProto-Munda131).
References:
References:WP.I780f.,WH.I377f.,861.

Page(s):
Page(s):220-221
Root/lemma: deu-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toplunge,topenetrateinto
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`einsinken,eindringen,hineinschlpfen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianup-du-`togointo,(ofclothes),toputon,towear,assumethepersonof,enter,
pressinto,coveroneself,wear';
Thecauseof-(e)s-stemseemstobelongto:OldIndiando,newda-`evening,darkness',av.
daoatara-,daoastara-`situatedtowardsevening,tothewest',npers.d`theformeryesterday
night';
gr.(moreproperly)`evening'(metr.lengtheningfor*fromoriginally
Adj.`vespertine',asstillinhom.);gr.(att.:,ep.),trans.`sink,dive,swathe'(only
incompounds:`sink'),intrans.(insimplexonlyinparticiple;Aor.)`divein,
penetrate(e.g.,),slipin,pullin(clothing,weapons;soalso,,
),sets(fromthesunandstars,dive,actually,inthesea)',alsomed.and(hom.
isoldaugmenttensetothefuture,SchwyzerGr.Gr.1788);,Kallimachos`sinkinthe
sea'(unclear,s.Boisacqs.v.;preposition*[a]p[o]);`dip,dive,sink'(after);
`theplacewhereonemaynotenter',`disappearing,dive,nook,hideaway,settingofthesun
andstars',`towardsevening',Pl.`settingofthesunandstars';unclear
,`coupled's.SchwyzerGr.Gr.I589;afterFriskIndog.16f.herealso
`shrine'.
References:
References:WP.I777f.,WH.I3,682.
Page(s):
Page(s):217-218
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:(deu-2 ordou- ):duEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toworship;mighty
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:etwa`(religis)verehren,gewhren,verehrungswrdig,mchtig'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandvas-n.`offering,worshipinstruction',duvasyti`honors,reveres,recognizes,
recompenses',duvasy-,duvy-`venerating,respectful';altlat.duenos,dannduonos,klass.bonus
`good'(Adv.bene,Demin.bellus[*duenelos]`pretty,cute');
Note:commonlat.du->b-phoneticmutation.
probably=air.den`proficient,strong',Subst.`protection';lat.be,-re`tobless,enrich,make
happy',betus`blessed,lucky'(*dui,participle*duenos);inadditionas.twthn`grant',mnd.
twden`please,grant',ags.langtwdig`grantedlongago',mhd.zwden`grant',md.getwdic`tame,
domesticated,compliant'(*dueito-;WoodMod.Phil.4,499);
afterEM2114perhapsstillheregr.--`haspower'.
Perhapsalsoheregerm.*taujan`make'(from`*bemighty')ingot.taujan,tawida`make',urnord.

tawids`Imade',ahd.zouuitun`exercebant(cyclopesferrum)',mhd.zouwen,zuwen`finish,prepare',
mnd.touwen`prepare,concoct,tan,converthideintoleather',whereforeags.getawa`animplement,
utensils,tools,instruments'(therefromagain(ge)tawian`prepare',engl.taw`makeready,prepare,or
dress(rawmaterial)foruseorfurthertreatment;spec.make(hide)intoleatherwithouttannin')and
(withoriginalprefixstressinnouns)ags.geatwef.Pl.`armament,armor,jewellery,weapons'=
anord.gtvarf.Pl.ds.,afries.touw,tow`tool,rope,hawser',nfries.touw`theshortcoarsefibresof
flaxorhemp,tow',mnd.touwe`tool,loom',touwe,tou`rope,hawser'(outofitnhd.Tau),ahd.gizawa
`householdfurniture,apparatus'(butalso`succeed',seeabove),mhd.gezuwen.`appliance'(outof
itwithbair.-dial.vocalizationmhd.zwe),nhd.Gezhe(seeabouttheseformsPsilanderKZ.45,281
f.).
Inadditionwith(PsilanderaaO.expoundedalso*taujanthroughprotogerm.abridgementfrom
*twjan)perhapsgot.twa`order,row',gatwjan`dispose',ahd.zwa`coloring,paint,color,dyeing',
langobard.zwa`row,divisionofcertainnumber,uniting',ags.l-twe`altogether,wholly,entirely
well,sound,whole,healthy,well'(aboutpossibleoriginofgerm.*twfrom*t-wseeunder*dek`take';thenitwouldbenaturaltoseparatefromtaujan);withgot.taui,Gen.tjis`action',ubiltjis
`evildoer,wrongdoer',anord.tn.`uncleanedwoolorflax,linenthreadmaterial'=ags.tw`the
spinning,theweaving'intw-hs`spinnery',tw-crft`skillfulnessinspinningandweaving',engl.
tow`theshortcoarsefibresofflaxorhemp,tow';withl-suffixanord.tln.`tool',ags.tln.ds.
(*twula-),verbalonlyanord.tja,tyja`utilize,makeusable',actually`align',denominativeto*twjaafterPsilanderaaO.,whileFalk-Torpseeksundertiethereinbelongingtogot.tiuhan*tauhjan,
*tiuhjan.
Thurneysenplaces(KZ.61,253;62,273)got.taujantoair.dod`exert,troubled';thefactthatthis,
howeverwithdod`catchesfire'isidenticalandthemeaning`make'hasdevelopedfrom`kindlethe
fire,inflame',seemsunlikely.
Aboutotherinterpretationsoftaujans.Feist474f.
References:
References:WP.I778,WH.I111,324f.,852.
Page(s):
Page(s):218-219
Root/lemma: deu-3 ,deu - ,du - ,dEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tomoveforward,pass
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:1.`sichrumlichvorwrtsbewegen,vordringen,sichentfernen',outofitspter
2.`zeitlicheErstreckung'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandr`remote,distant,wide'(mostlylocally,however,alsochronologically),
av.dra,Oldpers.duraiy`afar,farthere',av.drt`atadistance,far,farthere,faraway',
compoundsSup.OldIndiandvyas-,dviha-`moredistant,mostdistant';ved.duvs-`moving
forward,strivingout',transitiveav.duye`chaseaway',avifr-avaite`carryawayitself(fromwater)';
OldIndiandt-,av.dta-`summoner,delegator';perhapshereOldIndiandoam.`lack,fault,
error'(*deuso-);
gr.dor.att.,ol.hom.(not*-,but*F-)`lack,err,miss',Aor.,;
unpers.,,participle,att.`theneedful';Medium,hom.`lack'
etc,hom.`staybehindsth,fallshort,failtoattain,beinsufficient',att.`please,longfor';,hom.

`destitute,lacking',`request';inaddition`followinthedistance,thesecond
one',inadditionSuperl.hom..
Perhapsinadditionwith--s - extension(seefurtheraboveOldIndiandoa)germ.*tiuzninags.
torian`cease,languish'(*staybehind),engl.tire`exhaust'.
comparefurthermd.zwen(strong.V.)`moveinthefront,move,proceedthere',ahd.zawen
`proceed,goahead,succeed',mhd.zouwen`hurry,somewhathasten,proceed,goahead,succeed',
zouwef.`haste,hurry'.
2.Apers.duvaitamAdv.`foralongtime',av.dbitmAdj.`long,extended'(temporal);aboutOld
Indiandvit,av.daibit,Oldpers.duvit-paranamseeunderdu u `two';
arm.tevem`last,endure,hold,holdoff',tev`endurance,duration',itev`longtimethrough',tok
`duration,endurance'(*teuoko-,*touoko-),ablaut.erkar`long'(temporal)from*duro-(=gr.
),erkain`long'(spacial);
gr.(el.dor.Hes.)`long,longago'(*F),(*F)`long'(accusativeof*F,*F
`duration'),,dor.`longlasting'(*F-),`long',therefrom`hesitate,stay
long',Hes.(*F-);aboutcompareSchwyzerGr.Gr.I482,7;
lat.d-dum`sometimeago;alittlewhileago,notlongsince;alongwhileagoorforalongtime'(to
formseeWH.I378).Herealso(inspiteofWH.I386)drre`endure'becauseofair.cundrad`pact,
covenant'(*con-drad);butcymr.cynnired`movement'remainsfaroffinspiteofVendryes(BSL.38,
115f.);herealsolat.dum,originally`shorttime,ashortwhile',seeaboveS.181;
lengthenedgradeair.do(*duio-)`slow';
OldChurchSlavicdav`erstwhile,former',davn`ancient',russ.davn`sincelongago',etc;
hitt.tu-u-wa(duwa)`far,away',tu-u-wa-la(Nom.Pl.)`remote,distant'from*du-lo-,BenvenisteBSL.
33,143.
References:
References:WP.I778ff.,WH.I378f.,861,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I348,595,685.
Page(s):
Page(s):219-220
Root/lemma: deup- (:kteup- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindofthuddingsound,onomatopoeicwords
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`dumpferSchall,etwaasvoneinemSchlag';Schallwurzel
Material:
Material:Gr.hom.`dullnoise,din;soundofthekicks';`tosoundheavyordead';
theinhom.,`loud-thundering'(...Hes.)revealed
treadingoriginalanlaut-ismaybeparallelwith`blow,knock'besidesoriscopiedto
it,sothatnocertaintyistobeattainedaboutitsage;afterSchwyzerwouldbe()intensiveto
zerograde-;serb.dpm,dpiti`hitwithnoise',sloven.dpam(dupljem)dpati`punchon
somethinghollow,rustlethuddingly',dupotti,bulg.dp``givethespurstoahorse',lett.duptis
`dullsound'(bsl.d-fromgd-orolderasgr.-);
Maybeonomatopoeicalb.dum(*dump)`thuddingsound'[commonalb.p>mp>mphonetic

mutation]
afterVanWindekensLexique138heretoch.Atp-`allowtosound,announce'(*tup-)inInfin.tpssi,
participlePass,cacpunder
References:
References:WP.I781f.,EndzelinKZ.44,58,Mhlenbach-EndzelinI518,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I7183.
Page(s):
Page(s):221-222
Root/lemma: de- ,doEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:ademonstrativestem
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:Demonstrativstamm,partlyich-deiktisch;GrundlageverschiedenerPartikeln
Material:
Material:Av.vasmn-da`uptheretothehouse';
gr.-in-,-,-`thathere,this'(I-deixis),-,-,-,hinterAkk.the
direction,e.g.-,,,(*-),asav.vasmn-da(arkad.
Hes.,reshufflingof-afterdoubleformsas:),alsoin-(emulated
Pl.)`here',lat.quande,quamde`aslike'=osk.pan,umbr.pane`as',alsoosk.pn,umbr.pon(n)e
`aswellas'(*quomde),lat.inde`thence,fromthere'(*imde),un-de`whence,fromwhere';gr.
`but';gr.`just,now,just,certainly',-`already',-`since,whereas,because';after
interrogativewords`(what)then';
idg.*deputalsoinair.articleind(*sindos,idg.*sm-de);
ital.-*dminlat.qu-dam,quon-dam,umbr.nersa`aslongas'(probablysolidifiedAkk.f.*ne-dm
`notatthesametime';besidesm.orn.in:);
lat.dum(*dom)`still',asKonj.`while,duringthetimethat;solongas,providedthat;until',originally
demonstratives`then',compareetiamdum,interdum,nndum,agedum(:gr.),manedum,
quidum`asso'underlikewise,theninrelative-conjunctionalmeaning,asalsoindummodo,dumn,
dumtaxat;osk.sdum`thesameas'however,istobedisassembledins-d-um,asalsoin.lat.dem,
quidem,tandem,tantusdem,totidemisnottoberecognizedwithdumfrom*domthechangingby
ablaut-dem;d-emfrom*idem=OldIndianidm`justthis',compareosk.s-d-um,asquid-em
from*quid-om=osk.pd-um,andasaresultofthesyllableseparationidemwouldbesensedasdemanidentityparticleandwouldgrowfurther);
buttheprimarymeaningofdumis`ashortwhile',whereforeuperhapsisold(compareddum)and
dumbelongstorootdeu-(EM2288f.).
idg.*d originally`here,overhere'inlat.d-ni-cum(archaically),dnec(*d-ne-que),forLukrezalso
donique`solongas,tillthat,to,finally',butalso`then'(d-equalmeaningwithad-,ar-inumbr.ar-nipo`asfaras'from*ad-ne-qom)andinquand`when'=umbr.panupei`whenever,asoftenas;indef.
atsometimeorother';air.do,du,acymr.di(=i),corn.e`to'from*d(ingall.du-ci`and'),
ThurneysenGrammar506;ags.t,as.to(te,ti),ahd.zuo(za,ze,zi;theabbreviatedformsarein
spiteofSolmsenKZ.35,471nottounderstandaspreviouslyprotoidg.ablautvariants),nhd.to(got.
du`to'withDat.andpreverb,e.g.indu-ginnan`begin',seemsprocliticdevelopmentfrom*t(),is
markedfromBrugmannII2,812asunresolved);alit.doprepositionandprefix`to';OldChurchSlavic

da`so,and,but;that'(meaning-development`*inaddition'-`still,and',fromwhichthenthe
subordinatinglink);differentPedersenToch.5.
Besidesidg.*d inOldChurchSlavicdo`until,to'.
Lit.da-,perfektivierendesverbalprefix,andlett.da`until-to',alsoverbalprefixe.g.indaiet
`hinzugehen',derivefromdemSlavischen.

en-do :alat.endo,indu`in',lat.onlymoreascompositionpart,e.g.indi-gena,ind-les,other
formationsinhom.--(right)`intestines,entrails',mir.inne`ds.`(*en-d-io-);againstit
wirdair.ind-prepositionandprefix`in'vonThurneysenGrammar521asafterin-umgefrbte
Entsprechungvongall.andecontemplatesandfurthervonPedersenKG.I450withgot.and`until',
OldIndiandhiconnected;andgr.-`indoors,in,within',-`frominside'arereshapedas
lesb.dor.after-,-,-from-,s.*dem- `tobuild';hitt.an-da`in'to*en-do(or
*ndo),PedersenHitt.166.Whereasitistheadverbial-andpredicatecharacterofnounsair.in(d),
abret.in,mcymr.ynprobablyinstrumentalofarticle;s.furtherThurneysenGrammar239.
d (asdprobablyanInstr.extension)inlat.d`prep.withabl.inspace,downfrom,awayfrom.
Transf.,comingfromanorigin;takenfromaclassorstock,madefromamaterial,changedfroma
previousstate;ofinformation,fromasource.intime,followingfrom,after;inthecourseof,during.
aboutasubject;onaccountofacause;accordingtoastandard',falisk.de(besidesosk.dat`d'(for
*dd,withtafterpost,pertetc;osk.-umbr.*ddisprobablyreplacementfor*dafterehtrdetc,
respectivelyaftertheablativetransformedinInstr.-(d),(d):d);aspreverbinda[da]d`giveaway,
giveup,surrender,deliver,consign,yield,abandon,render',dadkatted`dedicate,consecrate,set
apart',umbr.daetom`afault,crime';inadditioncompoundslat.dterior`lower,inferior,poorer,
worse',Sup.dterrimus,dmum(altlat.alsodmus)`oftime,atlength,atlast;inenumerations,
finally,inshort;'iddemum',thatandthatalone'(`*tolowest'-`lastly,finally'),dnique`atlast,finally;in
enumerations,again,furtherorfinally;inshort,infine';
air.d(besidesdefromidg.d,wherewithperhapsgall.-`fromajudicialsentence'istobe
equated),acymr.di,ncymr.y,i,corn.the,bret.di`from-down,from-away',alsoasprivativeparticle
(e.g.acymr.di-auc`slow,tardy,slack,dilatory,lingering,sluggish,inactive,lazy',aslat.dbilis;
intensifyingair.d-mr`verylarge'aslat.dmagis`furthermore,verymuch')
Themeaning`from-down,from-away'thesewithgr.,formallythesameparticleprobablyis
onlyacommoninnovationofCelticandItalic;alsoGerman(HolthausenKZ.47,308:ahd.zdal
`poverty,need'from*d-tlom,of*d`from-away',aswdal`poor,needy':lat.v`enclitic,or,or
perhaps').
Theendingofthefollowingadverbialgroupsalsobelongstothisroot:OldIndiantad`then',av.taa
`then',lit.tad`then';OldIndiankad`when',av.kad,jav.kaa`when',lit.kad`when';Old
Indianyad`when,as',av.yad,jav.yaa`when',OldChurchSlavicjeda`when'(vglalsoOldIndian
yadi`if',Oldpers.yadiy,av.yei,yeii`assoonas'andav.yat`whence');OldIndianid`now,
yet';alsotheslav.formationsasruss.kud`whereto,where';
Maybealb.ku-do(*kud)`everywhere,anywhere',nasalnga-do(kd)`everywhere'
OldChurchSlavickdu,kd`whence',nikda-e`never',poln.dokd`whereto,where',OldChurch
Slavictd`fromthere',sdu`fromhere'underlikewise,butitcouldcontainalsoidg.dh.
Acognatestem*diperhapsinenklit.iran.Akk.av.Oldpers.dim`her,she',av.dit`es',diPl.m.f.,d

Pl.n.,andOldPrussianAkk.Sg.din,dien`ihn,sie'(etc);comparebutMeilletMSL19,53f.
References:
References:WP.I769ff.,WH.I325f.,339f.,370f.,694,859,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I624f.
Page(s):
Page(s):181-183
Root/lemma: dgEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tograb
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`packen'
Material:
Material:Got.tkan`touch';
Maybealb.takonj`touch'
Additionalcognates:[PNtaka=WFris.take,EFris.tken,MDu.tkengrasp,seize,catch,rel.by
ablauttoGoth.tkan]
withablautanord.taka,(engl.take)`take';toch.Btek-,tak-`touch',Bteteka`assoonas'.
Maybealb.takonj`touch':got.tkan`touch';
References:
References:WP.I786,WH.I351,VanWindekensLexique138,139(comparesalsolat.tang`to
touch'),PedersenToch.2071.
Page(s):
Page(s):183
Root/lemma: d- :d- anddi- ,dEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobind
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`binden'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:d- :d- anddi- ,d- :
:`tobind'derivedfromdu a i ,du e i- ,stemsofRoot/
Root/
lemma: du (u) :
:`two'meaning`bindintwo'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandyti(with-,ni-,sam-)`binds'(dy-zerogradeof*di-,from3.Pl.dynti,
compareav.n-dy-tm3.Sg.Med.inpass.meaning`ithasmadesoilholdback',--extensionfrom
thezerogradedi-,BartholomaeAiran.Wb.761),OldIndianparticipledit-`bound'(=gr.),
dman-n.`band,strap'(=gr.-),ni-dtr-`binder';
gr.(hom.att.)(*j)`bind',`bound',`shavingstiedtogetherasatorch,faggot,torch,
fetter,sheaf'(-foridg.*d-as:),`sheafbinder',`thefastening,
binding',`band,strap',-`headfascia',Pl.`bedstead';hom.present
`bind'istoafter:`neologism';-(compareOldIndiandman-)`sandal',
`abandorfillet,turban,diadem';
alb.duai`fascicle,sheaf'(about*dn-fromidg.*dn-),del`(*band,strap),sinew,tendon,vein'

(idg.*d-lo-).
References:
References:WP.I771f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I340f.,676,688.
Page(s):
Page(s):183
Root/lemma: dh-m-s
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:slant
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schief'
Material:
Material:OldIndianjihm`slantwise,slant,skew'(urar.*ihm-assimil.from*dihm-),gr.
,`slant,skew'(assimil.from*).
References:
References:PedersenKZ.36,78,WP.I769.
Seealso:
Seealso:Otherpossibilitiesseeundergei- `turn,bend'.
Page(s):
Page(s):222
Root/lemma: dhabh-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:proper,*fitting,dainty
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`passendfgen,passend'
Material:
Material:Arm.darbin`smith'(*dhabhr-ino-);
lat.faber,fabr`craftsman,artist',Adj.`ingenious,skilful',Adv.fabr`skilful',affabr`skillfully',
contrastinfabr,fabrica`dexterity,workshop'(plign.faberislat.Lw.);perhapsherelat.(Plaut.)
efffiltus`exposed',Denom.from*ffilla,`*acquiescence'(fdial.);
Note:
commonlat.d->f-phoneticmutation;
alb.tosk.thembr`heel,hoof(whereasmithwouldattachahorseshoe)'[commonalb.f->thphoneticmutation.
got.ga-daban`occur,arrive,reach,happen,besuitable',Perf.gadb`tobeclearlyseen,tobe
conspicuous',Adj.gadfis`itissuitable,proper,fitting'=ags.gedfe`fitting,mild'(*ga-dbja),
gedafen`proper',gedafnian`befitting,suitable'=anord.dafna`proficient,proper,becomestrong,
prosper,thrive',ags.gedfte`fitting,mild',gedftan`sort,order,arrange';
OldChurchSlavicdobr`good,beautiful,beauteous,fair'(=arm.darbin,lat.faber),dobj,doblj`the
best,assayed,examined,tested,strong',doba(olderr/n-stem)`fitting,applying,opportunity',podoba
`ornament,adornment,decorousness,decency',udobn`light',u-dobAdv.`light';lit.dab
`quality,nature,habit,character',dabnti`adorn',dabns`dainty'etc.
Maybealb.idobt(*udobn)`emaciated,dainty,elegant,(beautiful)',dobi`profit,advantage'.

Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhabh-2 :
:`proper,*fitting,dainty'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dh b h-1 ,nasalized
dhamb(h) -::`toastonish,bespeechless,*hit'[seebelow]
References:
References:WP.I824f.,Trautmann42f.,WH.I436f.,863.
Page(s):
Page(s):233-234
Root/lemma: dhanu- ordhonuEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindoftree
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`eineBaumbezeichnung'()
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhnvan-n.,dhnu-m.,dhnu-n.`bow',dhanvana-m.`acertainfruittree':
ahd.tanna`fir,oak'(*danw),mhd.tanne,and.dennia`fir'.
References:
References:WP.I825.
Page(s):
Page(s):234
Root/lemma: dhauEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:topress
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wrgen,drcken,pressen'
Material:
Material:Av.dvaid1.Du.Prs.Med.`wepress',davs-in(couldstandforduvs-)`although
pressingoneselffurther';phryg....Hes.(therefromthepeople'sname
,D-ci),lyd.-(`-`IndianHemp,dogbane(plantpoisonoustodogs)'),
compare-,nameofthrak.godofwar,illyr.PNCan-davia;dhauno-s`wolf'as`shrike'inlat.
GNFaunus(togr.Hes.)=illyr.Daunus(therefromVN,inhabitantofapul.
regionofDaunia;comparethrak.);gr.Zi.e.`shrike'(thessal.;s.alsoFick
KZ.44,339),withablautgr.,(F)`jackal'(i.e.`shrike');
Maybealb.dac`cat':phryg.
got.af-dauis`rended,mangled,afflicted';
OldChurchSlavicdavlj,daviti`embroider,choke,strangle',russ.davt`pressure,press,choke,
crush',dvka`crush'.
References:
References:WP.I823,WH.I468.
Seealso:
Seealso:berdhu-`beastonished,marvel'seebelowdhei - .
Page(s):
Page(s):235
Root/lemma: dh b h-1 ,nasalizeddhamb(h) -

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toastonish,bespeechless,*hit
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`staunen,betreten,sprachlossein'
Note:
Note:presumablyas`beaten,beconcerned'fromabasicmeaning`hit'
ProbablycommonoriginofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dh b h-1 ,nasalizeddhamb(h) -::toastonish,be
speechless,*hit;Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhebh- ,dhebh-eu- :
:`toharm',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:(dhembh- ),
dhm b h- :
:`todig',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhem- ,dhem- :
:`tosmoke;toblow'.
Material:
Material:Gr.n.`astonishment,surprise',Perf.ep.ion.,participleAor.
`astonish',,(`gazeinwonder=)flatter'(seeBoisacqs.v.),nasalizedn.
`astonishment,amazement,fright',`marvel,astonish,frighten';tocompareSchwyzerGr.
Gr.I333,833;
got.afdbn`becomesilent!'.
Underprerequisiteabasicmeaning`hit'canthefollowinggerm.familybeadded:anord.dafla`splash
inthewater',norw.dial.dabba`stamp,treaddown,trample,makeablunder';
Maybealb.geg.zhdp`beat,strike'
anord.an(d)dfa`holdonaboatagainstwindandstream',mengl.dabben,nengl.dab`hitlightly',
ostfries.dafen`hit,knock,bump,poke',mhd.beteben`stun,wanderabout,press',ndd.bedebbert
`reprimand,flog,embarrassed',nhd.tappen,Tapp`flick',mhd.tpe`paw'(germ.,butnottousefor
statementofidg.vocalism),mndl.dabben`tap,splash'underlikewise.However,seealsoPerssonIF.
35,202f.,severalofthesewordswithmhd.tappe`clumsy,awkward;clumsyperson'etccorrelatesin
agerm.rootdabb-,db(b)-,da-,dap-`thick,lumpy',fromwhich`clumsy,stupid,doltish',under
comparisonwithlett.depisswearword,perhaps`fool',depe`toad'(`*theawkward'),depsis`small,fat
boy'[maybealb.djep`cradle(forababy)']
andgerm.words,asschwed.mdartl.dabb`toughlumpofmucus',dave`puddle,pool,slop'(:an.
dafla`splash')etc(lett.dep-isperhapsaachangeformto*dheb-inOldChurchSlavicdebel`thick'
etc,compareMhlenbach-EndzelinI455);itistobecountedonmergerofdifferentwordcognatesin
Germ.(seealsounderdi-,dp-`divide');
afterEndzelin(KZ.51,290)placesengl.dab`tap'tolit.dbiu,dbti`beattodeath',lett.dbiu,dbt
`hit'.
maybealb.dboj(*dobt)`chaseaway',idobt(*udobn)`emaciated,dainty,elegant,
(beautiful)',dobi`profit,advantage'.
Note:
Alb.provesthatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhabh-2 :
:`proper,*fitting,dainty'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
dh b h-1 ,nasalizeddhamb(h) -::`toastonish,bespeechless,*hit'[seeabove]
References:
References:WP.I824.
Page(s):
Page(s):233
Root/lemma: dh l -

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toblossom,begreen
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`blhen,grnen'
Material:
Material:Arm.dalar`green,fresh';
gr.`blossom,begreen,flourish',Perf.,dor.,whereofpresent,dor.
ds.,n.`youngscion,shoot',`sproutinglusciously',,dor.`sprouting
orblossominglusciously',`youngscion,shoot,youngtwig,branch',`bloom,blossom,
blossomingprosperity,esp.Pl.festivejoy,feast'.
Alb.dal(*daln),Aor.doa(*dl-)`arise,sprout,rise,extend',participledal(*dalno-)etc(aboutdjal
`kid,child,youngling'seeunderdel-3 ).
ThereAlb.onlyarrangesoriginal-vocalismandhencealsoingr.diegradeisnotperceivedas
neologismofablautin,whichcouldbedevelopedinitselffromlaretobecoveredatbestbya
parallelroot*dhel-:
perhapsarm.de`physic,medicine'(whetherfrom`*herb');
cymr.dail`leaves'(analogicalSg.dalen),acorn.delen`leaf'etc(i-umlautofo),mir.duille(*dolni)
collective,f.`leaves',gall.`fiveleaves'(Dioskor.):leg.*pimpe-dola.
maybealb.(*dalni)dlinj`juniper'
Essentiallyisunsatisfactoryappositionfromgerm.*diljainags.dile,as.dilli,ahd.tilli,dilli`dill,
stronglysmellingplantumbel',changingthroughablautags.dyle,olderdn.dylle,nhd.mdartl.tlle
ds.,withothermeaninganord.dylla`SonchusarvensisL.,sowthistle';atleastverydoubtfulofahd.
tola`acluster,esp.ofgrapes',toldom.`treetoporcrownofaplant,umbel',nhd.Dolde`umbel'.
Maybealb.dyll`wax'
Acognatebeingfaroffthemeaningofthefamilyistheformags.deall`illustrious',seedhel- `gleam,
shine'.
References:
References:WP.I825f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I302,703,714,720,WH.I524.
Page(s):
Page(s):234
Root/lemma: dhebh- ,dhebh-euEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toharm
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`beschdigen,verkrzen,betrgen'
Note:
Note:thenasalizedforms(*dhembh-)areasproportionalneologismstointerprettherootafter
containingn-.
Material:
Material:OldIndiandabhnti`damages,disables,cheats,Pass.getsdamaged'(*dhebh-n-u-ti),
Perf.dadbhaand(changed)dadmbha,participlePerf.Pass.dabdh-and(fromtherootformonu:)-dbhu-ta-Adj.`wonderful',actually`*theinaccessibledeception,untouchable';dambhyati
`makesconfused,frustrated'(dambh-`deceit'),Desid.dipsati(=av.diw-,seeunder),dabhr-`a

little,slightly,poorly';
av.dab-`cheat,defraudsbofsth':daviyG.Sg.f.`thecheating',davayeintiN.Sg-.f.`the
dishonest',dbnaot2.Pl.present(ar.*dbhanau-mi,idg.*dbh-en-eu-mi),Inf.diwaidyi(without
moredesiderativemeaning,but=OldIndiandipsa-ti),participlePerf.Pass.dapta-(innovation);dbvayat`heshallbeguile,infatuate'(rootform*dbheu-),-dbaoman-n.`infatuation';osset.dawin
`steal';hitt.te-ip-nu-`esteemslightly',PedersenHitt.144.
Inadditionveryprobablygr.`damage,rob,cut(),bewilder,deceive',Pass.`Iam
robbed',with-probablyfrom*-,*sm-andwithtothesameconsonantrelationshipasbetween
:OldIndianbudh-n-.
References:
References:WP.I850f.,KuiperNasalprs.147,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I333.
Page(s):
Page(s):240
Root/lemma: dhebEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:fat,heavy
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`dick,fest,gedrungen'
Material:
Material:Ahd.tapfar`burdensome,filled;heavy,weighty',mhd.tapfer`tight,firm,thickset,full,
weighty,signifying',late`valiant(tight,firminthebattle)',ahd.tapfare`mole',tapfarf.`moles',mnd.
dapper`heavy,weighty,vast,grand',ndl.dapper`valiant;much,alotof',norw.daper`pregnant',
anord.dapr`heavy,elegiac,dismal,sad'.
Perhapsan.dammr,nhd.Damm,mhd.tamds.,got.fardammjan`damup,hinder',asdhobmhere
OldChurchSlavicdebel`thick',russ.mdartl.deblyj`corpulent,strong,tight,firm',abl.doblyj
`strong'(etc,s.Berneker182);OldPrussiandebkan`big,large';perhapsalsolett.dabl'underdbls
`luscious',dabl`iaudzis`lusciouslysprouted',dabl'gs`luscious'(BernekeraaO.;afterMhlenbachEndzelinI428nevertheless,arelett.wordsprobablytobeconnectedwithOldChurchSlavicdobr);
toch.Atsopats`big,large',tppo`courage',tpr`high',Btappre,tpr-ds.,PedersenToch.243,
Toch.Sprachg.23,27,29,VanWindekensLex.135,148.doubtfully.
References:
References:WP.I850,WH.I437.
Page(s):
Page(s):239
Root/lemma: dheghEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toburn,*day
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`brennen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhati,av.daaiti`burns'(=lit.deg,OldChurchSlaviceg,alb.djek),
participleOldIndiandagdh-(=lit.dgtas),Kaus.dhyati;dha-`blaze,heat',nidgh-`heat,
summer',npers.d`burnbrand'(inadditionsptgr.,-`red-brownhorse');av.daxa-m.

`blaze';
gr.Hes.(`kindled';==lit.dgtinas`whoorwhatistobeburned'),`ash'
(*dheghr);
alb.djek`incinerate,burn',Kaus.dhez,n-dez`ignite'(basicform*dhoghi=lat.fove);
Note:
Commonlat.d->f-phoneticmutation:
lat.fove,-re`tobeboilinghot,toboil,seethe,glow.Transf.,tobeinquickmovement,toseethe;to
beexcitedbypassion,rage',fculum`asacrificialhearth,fire-pan,brazier'(*foue-clom),fmentum`a
poultice,fomentation.Transf.,alleviation'(*fouementom),fmes,-itis`touchwood,tinder'(*fouemet-,
Bedeut.aslett.daglis),favilla`glowingashes,esp.ofthedead;aspark'(probablyfrom*dhogh-lol);favnius`zephyrus,thewarmwestwind'(from*fovnios):febris`fever'(*dheghro-;after
LeumannGnom.9,226ff.diei-inflectionaftersitis).
Mir.daig(Gen.dega)`fire,pain'(from*degi-);aboutmbret.deuiff,nbret.devi,cymr.deifio`burn'see
under*du- `burn';cymr.de`burning';go-ddaith`blaze'(from*-dekto-);butair.ded-l`breakof
dawn'afterMarstranderDict.Ir.Lang.I213actually`partingdrink,thelastdrink';nir.dogha`burdock'
(:lit.dagysseeunder);
aboutgot.dags`day'etcseeunder* her- S.7;
Note:
Note:fromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhegh- : `toburn,*day'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma: her -, hen -,
hes - (orher etc)::`day'thesameasRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak r u :
:`tear'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
dak r u- :
:`tears'.Thephoneticshiftda->a-,zeroisacommonBalticphoneticmutation.Compare
Root/lemma: del-5 :
:`long':balt.withunexplainedd-loss(seeunder):lit.lgas,f.ilg,lett.ilgs,Old
PrussianilgaandilgiAdv.`long':hitt.Nom.Pl.da-lu-ga-e-e(dalugaes)`long',da-lu-ga-a-ti
(dalugasti)n.`length'.ThisisasoundproofofAryanmigrationfromtheBalticregiontoNorthIndia.
lit.deg,dgti`burn'(trans.andintrans.),dgtas`burnt',dgtinas`whatistobeburned',degtnf.
`brandy,alcohol',ablauteuddags,dgis`thistle'(lett.dadzis);dgas`theburning;summerheat;
harvest',dag`harvest',OldPrussiandagis`summer';lit.dglas`tobrand',dglas`torch,cresset,
brand;black-dappled';lett.daglasf.Pl.`scorch',daglis`tinder';lit.nuodgulis`firebrand',dgis
`burner;burning';ablaut.ato-dogiai()m.Pl.`summerwheat,summercrops';
sloven.dgniti`burn,warm',ech.olddehna`devil',ablaut.dahnti`burn';russ.dgot`tar'(from
`*woodrichinresin'),aslit.degtas`birchtar';withAssimil.()von*degto*geg:OldChurch
Slaviceg,eti`burn',ablaut.russ.iz-gga`pyrosis,heartburn'(seeMeilletMSL.14,334f.,
differentBrugmannII23,120).
Maybealb.zheg`summerheat'
Toch.teki`disease,malady'(=ir.daig);Atsk-,tsak-`burn',tsafterablaut.tsk-(*dhgh-)
`gleam,glow';ABcok`light'(from`pinewoodtorch'):bsl.*degut-`tar'(seeabove).
References:
References:WP.I849f.,WH.I466f.,469,471f.,864,Trautmann49,PedersenToch.Sprachg.
23.
Page(s):
Page(s):240-241

Root/lemma: dheihEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tokneadclay;tobuild
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Lehmknetenanddamitmauernorbestreichen(Mauer,Wall;Tpferei;dann
alsovonanderweitigemBilden);alsovomTeigkneten(Bckerei)'
Note:
Note:s.toSachlichenMeringerIF.17,147.
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhmi`coat,cement'(3.Sg.dgdhiinsteadof*dhi),alsoparticipledigdh-,
dha-m.n.`body,structure',dhf.`embankment,dam,curve,bay',av.pairi-dazayeiti`walledall
around'(=OldIndianKaus.dhayati)uzdita3.Sg.Med.`haserected(adam)',participleuz-dita-,
uz-daza-m.`pile,embankment',pairi-daza-m.`enclosure,park'(outofitgr.`aroyal
parkorpleasureground,aPersianwordbroughtinbyXen.;usedforthegardenofEden,Paradise'),
Oldpers.did`fortress'(from*diz-,rootnom.in-),npers.diz,dzds.;
arm.dizanem(Aor.3.Sg.edz)`pileup',dizanim`bepiledup',dz`heap';
Maybenasalizedalb.(*dheih-)deng`heap'[commonlat.-h->-g-phoneticmutation].
thrak.-,-`castle'(:Oldpers.didor*dhih-i);also,PN,Burto-dexion,Burtudizos;(:lat.fing);pannon.VNAn-dizetes`castleinhabitant';
Note:
Illyr.pannon.VNAn-dizetes`castleinhabitant'displayssatemcharacteristics[commonalb.-h->-d-,
-z-].
gr.n.,m.(formal=OldIndiandha-)`wall';,Aor.`touched'(meaningas
lat.fingerealso`shaped,fashioned,formed,molded;arranged',voiced-nonaspiratedgpreviously
originalfromthenasalizedpresentform);
Note:
Commonlat.d->f-phoneticmutation:
lat.fing,-ere,finxi,fictum`toshape,fashion,form,mold;alsotoarrange,putinorder;torepresent,
imagine,conceive;tofeign,fabricate,devise,makeup;touchstrokingly',figulus`aworkerinclay,
potter'(:germ.*iulaz),flum(*figslom)`shape',effigis`(molded)image,animage,likeness,effigy;
ashade,ghost;anideal',figra`form,shape,figure,size;anatom;shadeofadeadperson;inthe
abstr.,kind,nature,species',ficti`forming,feigning;assumption',fictilis`shaped;henceearthen,
madeofclay;n.assubst.,esp.pl.earthenware,earthenvessels'(tolat.ginsteadofhs.Leumann
Lat.Gr.133;afterlatterderivesfromformsasfictusalsokfromaltfalisk.fifiked`touched,handled',
osk.fifikusperhaps`youwillhavedevised');probablyumbr.fikla,ficlam`agruelusedatsacrifices,a
cake,offeredtothegods',lat.ftilla`agruelusedatsacrifices'(withdial.tfromct);osk.fehss`walls'
(*dheiho-);
aboutlat.flum(identicalwithflum`filament')compareWH.I497,ontheotherhandEM2360;
air.digen`tight,firm'(`*kneadedtightly,compact');air.*kom-uks-ding-`tobuild,erect'in1.Sg.
cunutgim,3.Sg.conutuincetcandperhapsalsodingid,for-ding`putdown,oppressed',seeunder1.

dhengh-`press,cover'etc;
got.ammadigandin`thekneading',kasadigana`clayvessel',gadigis(meaningforgadikis,
`anythingmoulded,animage,figure,shape,construction',es-stem,similarly`awall');daigsm.
`dough'(*dhoihos),anord.deig(n.),ags.dg,ahd.teigds.;anord.digr`thick,corpulent'(meaning
asir.digen),got.digrei`density,thickness,bulk,mass',mhd.tiger,tigereAdv.`fully,entirely',norw.
mdartl.digna`becomethick',diga`thick,softmass'besidesmnd.norw.dger;ahd.tegal,anord.
digull`glazepot,crucible,skillet'seemstobeagenuinegerm.word(*i..laz),however,thishas
spongedinthemeaningoflat.tgula(from`afrying-pan,saucepan');
Maybealb.tjegula`roof-tile':lat.tgula`tile,roof-tile'[conservativedefinitiveformsversusindefinite
forms(alb.phonetictrait)].
lit.deti,dti`flay,flog'(`*knead,smearonedown'),lett.diezt`convince,offer'(`*tohumbugsb');
aruss.da,klr.diaetc`kneadingtrough,form,mould'(*dhoih-i-;Berneker198,MhlenbachEndzelinI487).
Maybealb.(*dhoih)dhoga`plank'
Anadaptedform(*heidh-)isprobablylit.iediu,isti`form,mould',alit.puod-idys`aworkerin
clay,potter',OldChurchSlaviczido,zdati`tobuild',zd,zid`wall'(BgaKalbairs.184f);
toch.Atsekeipekei`figure,shapeorpainting'(W.SchulzeKl.Schr.257f.,idg.*dhoihos).
Aparallelroot*dheig-seeksWoodMod.Phil.4,490f.inmhd.tchen`make,createetc';ags.
diht(i)an`tosayoften;tosayover,dictateathingtobewritten;hencetogetwrittendown',ahd.tihton
`inventandcreate;versify'derivefromlatelat.dictre`tosayoften;tosayover,dictateathingtobe
written;hencetogetwrittendown'.
References:
References:WP.I833f.,WH.I501f.507.
Page(s):
Page(s):244-245
Root/lemma: dhei - :dhi - :dhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosee,show
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`sehen,schauen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianddht`helooked',Pl.ddhima,Med.ddhy,ddhta,Konj.ddhayat
(perhapsconvertedtopresentPerf.,comparePerf.ddhaya);dhy-ti,dhy-ya-ti(io-present)`looksin
spirit,d.i.thinks,reflects',participledhy-ta-anddh-t-,dhy`thethinking,meditating',dhy-tar`thinker',dhy-na-n.`meditation,contemplation',dhyman-n.(Gr.)`thought,notion';dh-,Akk.dhyam`thought,notion,imagining,discernment,understanding,religiousmeditation,devotion',dh-t`awareness,thought,notion,devotion',dhra-`seeing,smart,wise,skilful',avadhrayati`disdains
(despicit),rejects,despises',prakr.herai`sieves';s-formationOldIndiandhiyasn-`attentive,
observant,heedful';presumablyalsodhia-if`sensible,wise,smart',dhiayant-if`observant,
pious',dhiInstr.Adv.if`withdevotion,zeal,orlust',yetcompareontheotherhandthatbelongto
lat.fstus,fnum,idg.dhs-`religious',dhya-`devout,religious';
av.d(y)-`see',e.g.-di'ti`contemplates',daiyantNom.Pl.participle`theseeing'(etc,s.

BartholomaeAiran.Wb.724);participlepaitidta-`beholds',-dti-f.`thebeholding',da-`sensible,
smart'(lengthenedgradeas-di'ti),-d(y)-,-d-f.as2.compositionpart`vision,look;discernment,
intention';-dman-`intention';daman-n.`eye,eyeball;look',dira-n.`eye',dan`religion'and
`internalbeing,spiritualI';npers.ddan`see',dm`face,cheek';
gr.,dor.`mark,token,sign,Kennzeichen,Merkmaletc'(*dhimn=OldIndiandhyman-;
Lit.byBoisacqs.v.,compareSchwyzerGr.Gr.I322;afterE.Leumann[Abh.Kunded.Morgenl.20,
1,S.96]rathertoSakischma`mark,token,sign'),`machedurcheinZeichenkenntlich
etc';
alb.dtur,dtme`wisdom,learning',dinak`cunning'.
Alsoalb.di`Iknow,discern'
Itgoesbacktoasynonymous*dhu- :
Gr.`whatexcitesadmiration,astonishment;veneration,astonishment'(*dhu-mn)
`besurprised,astonish,venerate,admire',nexttowhichwithgradation();comparebot.
,dor.(Lit.byBoisacqunder;aboutHes.probablyF,s.
Boisacqunderm.Lit.);att.`looking,sight;show'from*F,comparesyrak.,
ion.,dor.`consider'(att.reshapedafter),etc,s.Boisacqunderand
(tolatterstillEhrlichKZ.40,354Anm.1).Exceptgr.equivalentsareabsent.
References:
References:WP.I831f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I349,523.
Page(s):
Page(s):243
Root/lemma: dhelbhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tobury
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`graben,aushhlen;herausschlagen;stick,Stange(originallyasWerkzeugto
ditch,trench,channel);Rhrenknochen(gehhltorasGrabwerkzeugbenannt)'
Note:
Note:Onlygerman.andbaltoslav.
Material:
Material:Ahd.bi-telban,-telpan(participlebitolban)`bury',as.bi-delands.,mndd.ndl.delven,ags.
delfan`dig,bury',flm.delv`gorge,ravine,gulch,ditch,trench,channel';inadditionschweiz.tlpen
`hit,thrash',tirol.dalfer`slapintheface,boxontheear,blow,knock',ndd.dlben`hit';
bsl.*dilb`dig,hollowout':inlit.dlbaanddlbaf.`crowbar',lett.dilbaf.,dilbism.`hollowbone,
epiphysis,shinbone',delbs`upperarm,elbow',dalbsm.,dalbaf.`fishingrod,hayfork';perhapslit.
nu-dilbinti`lowertheeyesdown';
slav.*dlb,*deltiinskr.dbm,dpsti`hollowout',dbok`deep,etc(ablaut.*deltiinskr.dial.dlisti
`chisel,cut',comparedlijto`chisel');ech.dlubu,dlubati`hollowout,poke',ablaut.*dolb-inech.
dlabati`chisel,cut',dlab`seam'(=lett.dalbs),aruss.nadolobm.,nadolbaf.`townenclosure';*dolbto-`chisel,sharpiron'inOldPrussiandalptan`presscopy,impactbreak',slav.*dolto`chisel'inbulg.
dlat,russ.-ChurchSlavicdlato,russ.dootds.
maybetruncatedalb.(*dolto)dalt`chisel'

References:
References:WP.I866f.,Trautmann54,Mhlenbach-EndzelinI434.
Page(s):
Page(s):246
Root/lemma: dhelgh- ,dhelg- ()
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohit
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schlagen'
Material:
Material:Ags.dolgn.,ahd.tolc,tolg,dolgn.`wound'(`*blow,knock'),anord.dolgn.`enmity',dolgr
`fiend',dylgja`enmity',whereforeprobablyndd.dalgen,daljen`hit'(borrowsnorw.mdartl.dalgads.),
nhd.(hess.-nassauisch,ostpreu.)dalgen,talken`thrash,hit',mhd.talgen`knead'.AfterHaversKZ.
43,231,IF.28,190ff.wasalsoforgr.`enchant,beguileetc',,,
`charming,tempting',`enthrallment'(idg.*dhelg-besides*dhelgh-)thebasicmeaning
`enchantmentthroughablow'probably,aswellasalso,demonsweredamaging
throughblowsthehealthofthepeopleandatthesametimethesmiths.
Everythingquiteuncertainly.Rathertoch.Atalken.,telki`sacrifice,oblation'couldstillbelongtoit.
References:
References:WP.I866.
Page(s):
Page(s):247
Root/lemma: dhelgEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tostick;needle
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`stechen,Nadel'
Material:
Material:Air.delgn.(es-stem)`thorn,clothneedle',corn.delc(i.e.delch)`anecklace,collar[for
horsesandotheranimals]',mcymr.dala,dal`bite,prick,sting';
anord.dalkr`needletofastenthemantleabouttherightshoulder;spinalcolumnoffish;dagger,
knife',ags.dalcm.`clasp,hairpin'(nhd.Dolch,olderTolch,ndd.dolk,afterMikkolaBB.25,74the
originofech.poln.tulich,sloven.tolih,isnamelyborrowedatfirstfromlat.dol`apike,sword-stick;
asmallforesailsword-cane',butperhapsreshapedaftergerm.wordsasags.dalc);
lit.dilgs`pricking,burning',dlg,dilglf.`nettle',dlgstu,dlgti`getburnedbynettle';dalgis`scythe'
here,nottoS.196!
Note
Note:
BothRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - , ok -:
:`sharp;stone'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma: i k - : k - :
:`spear,pike'are
reducedrootsofanolderroot*he-elcreatedthroughmetathesisfromRoot/lemmna**hela.This
olderrootwassolidifiedbyChurchSlavic:
ChurchSlavic:(*he-el)igla`needle'[f]
Slaviclanguagesinheritedthecommonda->zerophoneticmutationfromtheolderBaltic-Germanic
languages.Thephoneticshiftda->zeroisacommonBalticphoneticmutation.CompareRoot/
Root/
lemma: del-5 :
:`long':balt.withunexplainedd-loss(seeunder):lit.lgas,f.ilg,lett.ilgs,Old
PrussianilgaandilgiAdv.`long':hitt.Nom.Pl.da-lu-ga-e-e(dalugaes)`long',da-lu-ga-a-ti

(dalugasti)n.`length'.
HencefromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhelg- :
:`tostick;needle'derivedanalledgedBalticRoot/lemmna
*hela
fromwhichChurchSlavic:
ChurchSlavic:(*he-el)igla`needle'[f],thenBothRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - , ok -:
`sharp;stone'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma: i k - : k - :
:`spear,pike'.
Theillyr.-balt.d->zerophoneticmutationcausedthebirthofoldlaryngealinIElanguages.
Finallyalb.geg.gjilpann.f.`needle'isacompoundof*gjil-`needle'+peni`thread';alb.common
zerograde*ilga>*gil-`needle'phoneticmutationcorrespondstozerogradeinLowerSorbian:
LowerSorbian:ga
`needle'[f].
Note:
commonlat.d->f-phoneticmutation:
Hereperhapslat.falx`asickle,bill-hook,pruning-hook;asickle-shapedimplementofwar',after
NiedermannEssais17ff.regressivederivativefromfalcula,thatderivesfromligur.()*alkla
(*dhaltla),alsoassizil.,`Messina'(:).
maybeillyr.TNDocleatae
However,onederivejustaswellfrom*dhalgtl;ifinthatital.dialektwouldhavebecomeidg.ltoal,
thea-vowelcanbealsoexplained.
Sptlat.daculum`sickle'couldbeinadditiontheligur.equivalent.AgainstitTerraciniArch.Glott.Ital.
20,5f.,30f.
References:
References:WP.I865f.
Page(s):
Page(s):247
Root/lemma: dhel-1 ,dholoEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:curve;hollow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Wlbung'and`Hhlung'(from`Biegung')
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hel-1 (andghel- ),alsoasi- ,u- orn- stem;hel- :hl- ,hl- :hl- :
`toshine;green,gold,blue,*sun'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhel-1 ,dholo- :
:`curve;hollow',Root/
Root/
lemma: dhel-2 :
:`light,shining',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhel-3 :
:`totremble'[commonalb.-illyr.h->dphoneticmutation].
Material:
Material:Gr.f.`dome,cupola,domedroof,roundbuilding(sudatorium)';sizil.,lak.
(Hes.)`roundsummerhat',m.`situatedintheinteriorofhouseroom,bedroom,
pantry',`cave,den(ofanimals)',-`eye'(*-`*eyesocket');
cymr.dolf.`valley',bret.DolinPN;

anord.dalr`bow';got.dalsm.ordaln.`valley,pit,pothole',as.dal,ags.dl,ahd.taln.`valley',
anord.dalrm.`valley';got.dala`downwards',dalaa`under',dalar`frombelow'(hereas
*Daliernz`valleyinhabitant'theDaliterniofAvienus,GermanAlpsinValais,afterR.Much,
Germanist.Forschungen,Wien1925),afries.tdele`down',as.tdale,mnd.dale,nnd.dal`down,
low',mhd.zetalds.;ags.dell,mhd.tellef.`gorge,ravine,gulch'(*dalj);changingthroughablaut
anord.dllm.`valleyinhabitant'(*dlja-),norw.dial.dl`smallvalley,longgullyresemblingdent'
(*dlj)=ahd.tuolla,mhd.tele`smallvalley,dent',mnl.doel`ditch,trench,channel';anord.dla
`gully'(*dlj),dld`smallvalley'(*dli);ndd.dole`smallpit,pothole',mhd.tol(e)f.`drainage
ditch'(ahd.dola`gully,ditch,trench,channel,duct,tube,pipe'probablyactuallyndd.),ahd.tulli,mhd.
tlle,ndd.dlle`shortduct,tube,pipe'(alsondd.dalstandsfor`duct,tube,pipe');
OldChurchSlavic(etc)dol`hole,pit,pothole,valley',dolu`downwards',dole`under'.
References:
References:WP.I864f.,LothRC.42,86.
Page(s):
Page(s):245-246
Root/lemma: dhel-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:light,shining
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`leuchten,hell'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hel-1 (andghel- ),alsoasi- ,u- orn- stem;hel- :hl- ,hl- :hl- :
`toshine;green,gold,blue,*sun'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhel-1 ,dholo- :
:`curve;hollow',Root/
Root/
lemma: dhel-2 :
:`light,shining',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhel-3 :
:`totremble'[commonalb.-illyr.h->dphoneticmutation].
Material:
Material:Perhapsarm.dein,Gen.denoy`yellow,sallow,paled,pallid'(*dheleno-);
mir.dellrad`radiance';ags.deall`stout,proud,bold,illustrious',anord.GNHeimdallr;Mardll
`epithetofthelightgoddessFreyja',Dellingr`fatheroftheday',mhd.ge-telle`pretty,good'().
Maybealb.(*dell)diellsun'[commonalb.e>iephoneticmutation].
References:
References:WP.I865.
Page(s):
Page(s):246
Root/lemma: dhel-3
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:totremble
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zittern,trippeln'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hel-1 (andghel- ),alsoasi- ,u- orn- stem;hel- :hl- ,hl- :hl- :
`toshine;green,gold,blue,*sun'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhel-1 ,dholo- :
:`curve;hollow',Root/
Root/

lemma: dhel-2 :
:`light,shining',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhel-3 :
:`totremble'[commonalb.-illyr.h->dphoneticmutation].
Material:
Material:Arm.doam`tremble';norw.andschwed.dial.dilla`swing,swerve',norw.dial.dalla,dulla
`walkontiptoe;trip',nd.dallen`amble',norw.dilte`trot,walkontiptoe;trip',dalteds.
Doubtful;s.Falk-punderdilteaddendum.
References:
References:WP.I865.
Page(s):
Page(s):246
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:(dhembh- ),dhm b hEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todig
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`graben'
Note:
Note:onlygr.andarmen.
Material:
Material:Arm.damban`grave,Gruft;Grabmal',dambarands.;
gr.(*dhmbh-i),Aor.Pass.`bury,entomb',`unburied',m.`funeral,
obsequies;grave,burialmound',`funeral,grave',(*dhmbh-ro-s)f.`ditch,trench,
channel';butOldPrussiandambof.`ground'isamendedindaubo(see268).
Maybealb.dhemb`pain,saddness'
Note:
ClearlyRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:(dhembh- ),dhm b h- :
:`todig'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhem- ,
dhem- :
:`tosmoke;toblow'whichmeansthatAryansinitiallyburntthedeadwhiletheritualofburial
wasbornmuchlater.

References:
References:WP.I852.
Page(s):
Page(s):248-249
Root/lemma: dhem- ,dhemEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosmoke;toblow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`stieben,rauchen(Rauch,Dunst,Nebel;nebelgrau,rauchfarben=dster,
dunkel),wehen,blasen(hauchen=riechen)'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhmati`blows'(dhami-yati,-t-anddhmt-,Pass.dhamyatand
dhmyt),av.dmainya-`puffingup,swelling,offrogs',npers.damdan`blow',dam`breath,
breath',osset.dumun,dmn`smoke;blow';
Maybealb.tosk.tymn.`smoke':alsoalb.geg.dhem,alb.dhemb`hurt,ache',dhimbje`pain'

[commonalb.shiftm>mb].
Note:
ClearlyfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhem- ,dhem- :
:`tosmoke;toblow'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-4 ,
dheu - (presumably:dhu - ,comparetheextensiondhu-k-,dhu-s-)::`toreel,dissipate,blow,etc.
`.

gr.,,`somber,dark-looking'(:ahd.timber`dim');
mir.dem`black,dark';
norw.daam(*dhmo-)`dark',daamem.`cloudhaze',daamm.`taste,smell,odor'=anord.dmr
`taste';
withGutt.-extension:dhengu o -, dhengu i -`misty'inanord.dkkf.`dentinthelandscape'=lett.
danga(*dhongu)`faecalpuddle,slop,swampyland,seamud',furtheranord.dkkr,afries.diunk
`dark'(germ.*denkva-);zerogradeas.dunkar,ahd.tunkal,nhd.dunkel(originallyandwiththe
meaning`misty-humid,wet'norw.andschwed.mdartl.dunken`humid,wet,dank,muggy',engl.
dank,mdartl.dunk`humid,wet');inadditioncymr.dewm.(*dhenguos)`fog,smoke,sultriness'etc,
deweint`darkness'(mistakenlyLothRC42,85;43,398f),hitt.da-an-ku-i-i(dankui)`dark,black'
(BenvenisteBSL.33,142);
anord.dy`slime,mud,ordure,morass'from*dhmkio-,comparewithgramm.variationdn.dyng
`damp,humid,wet',schwed.mdartl.dungen`humid,wet';
withgerm.-p-:mhd.dimpfen,dampf`steam,smoke',ahd.mhd.dampfm.`vapor,smoke',mnd.engl.
damp`vapor,dampfog',ndd.dumpig`dull,humid,wet,musty',nhd.dumpfig,dumpf(also=
confused,scattered,sprayed);kaus.ahd.dempfen,tempfen,mhd.dempfen`stewthroughsteam,
stew';
withgerm.-b-:schwed.dial.dimbast.V.`steam,smoke,spray',dimba`vapor',norw.dambn.`dust',
anord.dumba`dust,cloudofdust'(besideswith-mm-anord.dimmr`dark',afries.ags.dimmds.,
norw.mdartl.dimma,dumma`lackofclarityintheair,fogcover',schwed.dimma`thinfog'),ahd.
timber,mhd.timber,timmer`dark,dim,black';
towhatextentofbackgroundthes-formsschwed.mdartl.stimma,stimba`steam',norwmdartl.
stamma,stamba`stink'idg.havebeennewlycreatedoronlyafterconcurrenceofahd.toum:ags.
stam,dt.toben:stieben(seeunderdheu-,dheu-bh-`scatter,sprinkle'),isdoubtful;
lit.dumi,dmti`blow',apdmti`blowwithsandorsnow(ofwind)',dmpls`bellows',dmpiu,
dmpti`blow'(probablywithp-extension),OldPrussiandumsle`bladder';
OldChurchSlavicdm,dti`blow'(tobsl.vocalisms.Berneker244f.m.Lit.,MeilletSlavecomm.2
63f.,164,Trautmann63).
References:
References:WP.I851f.
Page(s):
Page(s):247-248

Root/lemma: dhengh-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:topress;tocover
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`drcken,krmmeln,bedecken,woraufliegen'
Material:
Material:Air.dingid,for-ding`oppressed'(seealsodheih-);comparePedersenKG.II506;
lit.dengi,degti`cover',dang`cover',dangs`sky,heaven',inadditiondigti`disappear'(from
`*becovered'),slav.*dga`bow'(:lit.dang)inruss.dug`bow',old`rainbow',bulg.dg,serb.
dga,poln.dial.dgads.,probablyto:
aisl.dyngia`dunghill,houseintheearthwherethewomendidthehandwork',ags.dynge,ahd.tunga
`fertilization',as.dung,ahd.tung,mhd.tunc`thesubterraneanchamberwherethewomenweaved'
(originallywinterhousescoveredwithfertilizerfortheprotectionagainstthecold),ags.dung`jail',
ahd.tungen`depress,fertilize',ags.engl.dung`manure',nhd.Dung,Dnger.
Maybealb.dengu`heap'
References:
References:WP.I791f.,854,Trautmann44f.
Page(s):
Page(s):250
Root/lemma: dhengh-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toget,gripe
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`erreichen,festzugreifen,fest,krftig,schnell'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandaghnti(Aor.dhak,daghyetc)`reachesupto,achieves',-daghn-`reaching
uptosomething'(*dhngh-);
gr.`quick,fast',Kompar.(*dhngh-);
air.daingen`tight,firm,strong'=cymr.dengynds.(*dangino-or*dengino-);
slav.dg:dg`strength,power,luck'inruss.-ChurchSlavicdjag`strap,leatherbelt',russ.djga
`leatherbelt',djglyj`strong,fit,healthy',djgnut`grow,becomestrong';ablaut.abulg.ne-dg
`disease,malady'(butruss.dij`strong'belongsrathertodheugh-,underS.271);themeaninghas
takenplaceafterprobablyaninterminglingwithslav.tg-`pull,drag,draw'(BrcknerKZ.42,342f).
References:
References:WP.I791f.,Berneker190,217f.
Page(s):
Page(s):250
Root/lemma: dhen-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:torun,*flow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`laufen,rennen;flieen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhanyati`runs,setinmovement',npers.dandan`hurry,run',OldIndian

dhnvati`runs,flows',Oldpers.danuvatiy`flows',OldIndiandhnutar-`running,flowing';
messap.rivernameardannoa(*ar-dhonu-)`situatedinthewater'(),apul.PNArdaneae=Herdonia
(KraheGl.17,102);
lat.probablyfns,-tis`aspring,fountain;freshorspringwater.Transf.spring,origin,source';
perhapshybridizationofto-stem*fontosandti-stem*fentis(*dhn-t-);
Note:commonlat.initiald->f-shift.
toch.tsn`flow',tsee`current,gush',tsnam`flow'.
References:
References:WP.I852,CouvreurBSL.41,165.
Page(s):
Page(s):249
Root/lemma: dhen-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:surfaceofhand/land,etc.(*dryland)
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`FlchederHand,ofErdbodenes,flachesBrett'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhen-1 :
:`torun,*flow'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhen-2 :
:`surfaceof
hand/land,etc.(*dryland)'meaning`aridflatarea'.
Material:
OldIndiandhnu-n.,dhnvan-m.n.`dryland,mainland,beach,dryland,desert',dhnu-,dhan-f.
`sandbank,seashore,island';
maybealb.(*dhent)det`(*seashore,flatsurfaceofthesea)sea'[commonalb.n>nt>tphonetic
mutation]
gr.n.`palm,sole,alsofromthesurfaceoftheseaorfromdeepeninginthealtartothe
admissionoftheoffering',`opisthenar,backofthehand'(*),ahd.tenarm.,

tenraf.(*denar-),mhd.tenerm.`flathand',Curtius5255(samtOldIndiandhnu-,seebelow).

Inadditionvlat.danea`area'(ReichenauerGl.),ahd.tennin.,mhd.tennem.f.n.,nhd.Tenne`barn
floor,threshingfloor,flattenedloamgroundorwoodenfloorasathreshingplace,hallway,ground,
place,surfacegenerally',ndl.denne`area,apavementoftiles,brick,stone;floored,boarded;n.as
subst.afloor,story;aroworlayerofvines';as`smoothlytroddenplacegoodasthreshingfloor'can
bealsounderstoodmeeklenb.denn`troddendownplaceinthegrainlayer',mnd.denne`lowland,
depression'(and`valleyforest'seebelow),mndl.denne`denofwildanimals'(and`valleyforest',see
below),dan`waste,fromshrubberysurroundedplace,placegenerally,land,scenery'(and`valley
forest',s.under),ags.denn`cave,wildden',nengl.den`cave,pit,pothole',ofries.dann(e)`bed,
gardenbed,gardenplot'.
Aboutlit.dnism.`deckboardofasmallboat',lett.denisds.(germ.Lw.)s.Trautmann51,
Mhlenbach-EndzelinI455.

References:
References:WP.I853.
Page(s):
Page(s):249
Root/lemma: dhen-3
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohit,push
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schlagen,stoen'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhen-1 :
:`torun,*flow'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhen-2 :
:`surfaceof
hand/land,etc.(*dryland)'meaning`aridflatarea',thenfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhen-2 :
:`surfaceof
hand'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhen-3 :
:`tohit,push'.
Material:
Material:Onlyinextensions(almostexclusivelygerm.):

d-extension:anord.dettast.V.`falldownheavilyandhard,hit'(*dintan,comparenorw.dial.datta
[*dantn]`knock':denta`givesmallpunches'),nfries.dintje`shakelightly',norw.deise`falltumbling,
glide'(from:)ndd.dei(n)sen(*dantisn)`reelback,flee';ostfries.duns`fall'(sfrom-dt-or-ds-),anord.
dyntr,ags.dyntm.(=anord.dyttr),engl.dint`blow,knock,shove';
alb.g-dhent`hewwood,plane,beat',geg.dhend,dhnn`cutout,cut'.
maybe(*g-dhent)gdh`pieceofwood',alb.tosk.dnd`hit,beat'.
Gutt-extension:anord.danga(*dangn)`thrash':aschwed.diungast.V.`hit',mengl.dingen`hit,
bump,poke',nengl.ding(skand.Lw.),mhd.tingelen`knock,hammer',norw.dingle(anddangle)
`dangle';Kaus.anord.dengja,ags.dengan,mhd.tengen(tengelen)`hit,knock,hammer(nhd.
dengeln)';ahd.tangalm.`hammer'.
Labial-extension:schwed.dimpa(damp)`fallfastandheavily',ndd.dumpen`hit,bump,poke',engl.
dial.dump`hitheavily'.
References:
References:WP.I853f.
Page(s):
Page(s):249-250
Root/lemma: dherghEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:topull;todrag
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`ziehen,amBodenschleifen'
Note:
Note:equalmeaningwithtr g h- (seed.).
Material:
Material:Anord.draga,got.underags.dragan,engl.draw`pull,drag',anord.dragn.`baseofa
pulledobject',norw.drag`draught,washofthewaves,watercourse,towingrope',dial.drogf.
(*drag)`shortsledge,roadtrackofananimal,valley',anord.dregill`band,strap',drgf.`stripe',
aschwed.drgh`sled',ags.drgef.`seine',mnd.dragge,nnd.alsodregge`boatanchor',engl.

dredgeds.;changingthroughablautnorw.dorgf.(*durg,idg.*dhrgh)`fishingline,whichonepulls
upbehindtheboat';withthemeaning`bear,carry'(from`drag',s.Berneker212),ahd.tragan`bear,
carry',sih(gi)tragon`bearoneself,conductoneself,behave'.
Maybealb.geg.(dhergh-)trhek`pull,drag'[commonalb.-g->-h-shift]
Probablyheresl.*drgin:serb.-ChurchSlavicdraga`valley',russ.dorga`way,alley,journey',dial.
`fishingrod';
maybealb.(*do-rga)rruga`way,alley,journey'[commonalb.de->zerograde]similarformationto
hitt.Nom.Pl.da-lu-ga-e-e(dalugaes)`long':alb.(*da-lu-ga-e-e)glat`long';alsoalb.(*dorga)
drgonj`sendinatrip'.
Thephoneticshiftda->a-,zeroisacommonBalticIllyrianphoneticmutation.CompareRoot/
Root/
lemma: del-5 :
:`long':balt.withunexplainedd-loss(seeunder):lit.lgas,f.ilg,lett.ilgs,Old
PrussianilgaandilgiAdv.`long':hitt.Nom.Pl.da-lu-ga-e-e(dalugaes)`long',da-lu-ga-a-ti
(dalugasti)n.`length'.
serb.drga`valley',poln.droga`way,alley,road,journey',russ.dorit`hollowout',ech.driti
`makearabbetorafurrow,hollowout';perhapsalsoech.z-drhatise`refuse,decline',poln.wzdragasi`toflinchfromdoingsth,flinch,shudder'(as`protract,draw')andOldChurchSlavic
podrag`hemline,edgeofadress'underlikewise(differentunderdergh- `catch').
Lat.trah`totrail,pullalong;todrag,pullviolently;todrawin,takeup;ofair,tobreathe;todrawout,
hencetoleng-then;todrawtogether,contract.Transf.todraw,attract;totakeinoron,assume,
derive;toprolong,spinout;toascribe,refer,interpret',traha`sledge,drag',trgum`seine',trgula
`ds.,smalldrag,aspeciesofjavelin'couldgobackthroughSpirantedissimilation(*ragto*drag)
indhrgh-,butalsoidg.t-have(:air.traig`foot'etc,s.tr g h- ).
References:
References:WP.I862,Trautmann45.
Page(s):
Page(s):257
Root/lemma: dherbh- (dherbh- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:towork
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`arbeiten'
Material:
Material:Arm.derbuk`rough,stiff,rude';
ags.deorfanst.V.`work;perish,die',gedeorfn.`work,hardship',afries.for-derva,mnd.vor-derven,
mhd.verderben`die,perish',alsoKaus.`spoil';
lit.drbu,drbti`work',drbas`work',darbs`laborious'.
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dherbh- (dherbh- )::`towork'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dherebh- :
:`to
harden'.

References:
References:WP.I863,II631,Kluge11101,649.
Page(s):
Page(s):257
Root/lemma: dherebhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toharden
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`gerinnen,gerinnenmachen,ballen,dickflssig'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandraps-m.`drip';
gr.,`curdle,coagulate,harden,befirm',,dor.`makecurdle,
coagulate,harden(;),nourish(*makethick,fat,obese),bringup'(,)
`nourishing',f.`wetnurse',`thenourished,fosterchild,child,breedinglivestock',`fat,
obese,strong,big,large',,-`freshcheese,coagulatedmilk',`dense',Pl.
n.`thicket',()`firmland';
maybetruncatedalb.(*)trash`fat,obese,strong,big,large,coagulated'.
nasalizedandwithidg.b(idg.Articulationvariationinnasalsurroundings)`coagulatedmass
(frommilk,bloodetc)',`coagulate',`clots';
as.deri(*aria)`strong,mad,wicked,evil',afries.mnd.derve`strong,just,rightful'(differentfrom
ahd.derb`unleavened'=anord.jarfr),ablaut.anord.djarfr`gamy,bold'(theoldermeaningstillin
norw.dial.dirnafrom*dirfna`putonweight,recover,regainone'sstrength');anord.dirfa`encourage';
nasalizedprobablyanord.dramb`lavishness'(*bethick),nisl.drambr`knotsinthewood';anord.
drumbr`clot,chunk',mnd.drummel`sturdyperson'.
Note:
Probablyfrom(as.thervi,ahd.derbi`unleavened',nhd.bair.derb`arid,dry,thin')Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:
(s)ter-1 ,(s)ter- :(s)tr- :
:`stiff,immovable;solid,etc.`derivedtheextendedrootRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
dherebh- :
:`toharden'[commonst->t-PIEphoneticmutation]
References:
References:WP.I876.
Page(s):
Page(s):257-258
Root/lemma: dhereghEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:thorn
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:inNamenbeerentragenderstrauchigerPflanzen,especiallyalsovonsolchen
Dornstruchern,fromwhichpartly`Dorn'
Note:
Note:withformants-(e)s- and-no- .Dubiousequation.
Material:
Material:OldIndiandrk`grape';commonOldIndianh->k-phoneticmutation
gallorom.*dragenos`thorn',air.draigenm.`blackthorn',cymr.draenm.,nbret.dran`briar'(kelt.

*drageno-from*dhregh-);
perhapsalsoahd.tirn-pauma`ofthecornel-tree',tyrn,dirnbaum`acornelcherry-tree',nhd.dial.
di(e)rle,dirnlein`Corneliancherry(dogwood)',schweiz.tierli,whetheritisnotborrowedfromSlav.in
veryoldtime;
lit.drgnsPl.,lett.drienes`blackhenbane'(compareMhlenbach-EndzelinI498),whetheritisnot
borrowedfromSlav.;
russ.dren,dern`Corneliancherry(dogwood)',skr.drjen,ech.dnds.,poln.(old)drzon
`barberry',kaschub.dn`prickle',polab.dren`thorn'.
Germ.-sl.basicformcouldbe*dherghno-andwouldstandadmittedlyinitsmeaning`sprout,twig,
branch',Pl.`youngshrubbery,bush'considerablydifferentlycoloredgr.(Hes.,anthol.),
(Maximus),kypr.jveryclose.
References:
References:WP.I862f.,PedersenKG.I97,M.-L.2762.
Page(s):
Page(s):258
Root/lemma: dhereh- (dhr h-n- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:towind,turn,*release,discharge,disband
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`drehen,winden,wenden'(also`spinnen,nhen')
Material:
Material:Npers.darz,darza`suture',darzmn,darznn`filament',darzan`needle',pehl.darzk
`tailor';
arm.danam(*darjnam),Aor.darjay`turnover,revolve,turn;return',dan`bitter,sharp'(compare
underlikewise),darj`turn,reversal,return',Kaus.darjucanem`turnround,turnaway,
whirlround,return';
alb.dreth(stem*dredh-),Aor.drodha`turnround,turntogether,twine,spin',alb.-skutar.nnriz
`diaper'(n-dred-z);afterPedersenHitt.123,125,Toch.Sprachg.20herehitt.tar-na-a-i`Ipocket,
letin',toch.Atrn-,trk-,preteritAcrk,carka`let,allow,disband,release'().
Maybesecondarymeaningalb.dreth`perturb,terrify'
alsonazalisedalb.ndriz`band,bandage',ndrydh`twist'.
maybeanolderformalb.(*dhereh-)derdh`pour,release,discharge,disband,pocket,deposit
(liquid,turnover),ejaculatesemen'[commonalb.-h->-d-phoneticmutation]:toch.Atrn-,trk-,
preteritAcrk,carka`let,allow,disband,release'().
Note:
TheoldestIEformisactuallyhitt.tar-na-a-i`Ipocket,plugin,letin':alb.(*dhereh-)derdh`pour,
release,discharge,disband,ejaculatesemen'.ItseemsthattheoldmeaningofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
dhereh- (dhr h-n- )::`towind,turn,*release,discharge,disband'derivedfromtheactof
intercoursewhichbecameataboowordinpatriarchalsociety.

Alb.showsthatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhereh- (dhr h-n- )::`towind,turn,*release,discharge,disband'
derivedfromtheextendedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dher-1 ,dher- :
:`akindofdepositordreg,*ordure,
defecate',Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:(dher-4: )dhor- :dh e r- :
:`tojump,jumpat,*stream,ray,drip,sperm'
becominganeuphemisticroot.Theintermediarybridgerootbetweenthetwowas::*dhere-gh- : Gr.
,att.(Perf.hom.intr.)`bewilder,perturb',`perplexity'foundin
secondarymeaningalb.dreth`perturb,terrify,twist'.
References:
References:WP.I863,LidnArm.stem101ff.,MeilletEsquisse2111,KuiperNasalprs.151.
Page(s):
Page(s):258
Root/lemma: dher-1 ,dherEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:akindofdepositordreg
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:inkons.extensions`trberBodensatzeinerFlssigkeit,alsoallgemeinervon
Schmutz,Widerlichkeit,vonquatschigemweather,vontrbenFarbentnenetc;verbal:Bodensatz
andSchlammaufrhren,trben'
Note:
Note:Originallywithdher-5 `ordure,defecate'
Material:
Material:a.dhere-gh-:
Gr.,att.(Perf.hom.intr.)`bewilder,perturb',`perplexity',,
att.-`bewilder'(*dhergh-i:lit.drgtiseeunder);,ion.`rough,uneven'(probably

originallyfromdirtcrusts;--herefromsog.r,i.e.*dhergh-s);Hes.(vowelgradation
as:lit.sprgti);

Note:commonlatd->f-shift:
lat.fracsf.`(brokenbits,fragments;hence)groundsordregsofoil',fracre`berancid'from
*dhrgh-;ciscoveredprobablyfromfacs,floccs,there*dherk-otherwiseistestifiedonlyinBaltic;
inthemeaning`lees,dregs,yeast':alb.drf.,geg.dr-ni`residuumofoil,fromabundantbutter;
tartar'(basicform*drafrom*drag,*dhrgh);
anord.dreggf.,Pl.dreggiar`yeast'(outofitengl.dregs);
alit.drags(*dhrghis)Pl.,OldPrussiandragiosPl.`yeast',lett.(EndzelinKZ.44,65)dradi
`residuumfromboiledfat';slav.*droskafrom*dhrgh-skinmbulg.drotijaPl.n.`yeast',klr.dri
ds.,otherwiseassimilatedto*troska(sloven.trska`residuum,yeast')andmostly*drozga(Old
ChurchSlavicdrodjPl.f.`,yeast'etc;s.Berneker228);
herealsogallorom.*drasica`drymalt'(M.-L.2767),thisanyhowfromolder*drasc(=slav.*drosk)
or*drazg(==slav.*drozg)transfiguredseinwird;
withst-formants:ahd.(*trast,Pl.:)trestir`whatisleftofsqueezedfruit,dregs,pomace',ags.drst(e),
drstf.`dregs,yeast'(germ.*rasta-,SverdrupIF.35,154),drsds.;
withsn-formants:ags.drsnef.,drsnam.`yeast,smut',ahd.druosana,truosana`yeast,residuum';

hereprobablylit.drgia(drgti)`itisbadweather',drgana,drga`weather,badweather'(glottal
stop,comparediegr.rootformsandlit.drgnas,drgns`humid,wet');inadditionaruss.padoroga
probably`thunder-storm',sloven.s-draga,-drag,-drga`hailwithsmallgrainsize;frozensnow
lumps,graupel';lit.dargs`nasty,dirty,filthy';alit.drgesis`filthyperson',alit.dergti`hate',lett.
derdztis`quarrel,squabble'(Mhlenbach-EndzelinI456m.Lit.),OldPrussianderg`tohate';lit.
drgti`becomedirty,getdirty',dargti`revile',drgaf.`rainyweather,defilement,contamination,
vituperation';

b.dherg - in:mir.derg`red';mhd.terken`befoul',ahd.tarchannen,terchinen`(darken)conceal,hide',
mnd.dork`keelofwaterdepth',ags.deorc`swart',engl.dark;ags.eorcung`dawn,twilight'probably
withafterostor`dark',geuxod`dark'.
Maybealb.dark`evening,eveningmeal,supper',drek(*derk-)`dinner,midday'.

c.dherk- in:lit.derkti`nastymake,befoul',darkti`vilify,inveigh,deform',darks`nasty',Old
Prussianerdrkts`poisoned',lett.drks,drci(*darkis)`pinto'Mhlenbach-EndzelinI448(seethe
kinshipbyLeskienAbl.361);ortomhd.zurch`ordure',zrchen`defecate'ZupitzaGutt.170under
accentuationofintonationdifferenceofderkticomparedwithdrgesisetc;
hereprobablytoch.ABtrkr`cloud'(FriskIndog.24);
WP.I854ff.

d.dherbhdherbh-:dhrbhdhrbh-:dhrbh-.
Doubtfulav.riwi-(*dhrbhi-)`stain,birthmark';
mir.drab`grapemarc,yeast'(*dhrbho-),drabar-lug`base,vulgarpeople';
aisl.draf,engl.draff`berm,yeast',mnd.draf,ahd.trebirPl.`grapemarc',anord.draflim.`fresh
cheese',drafna`todisband',norw.drevja`softmass';geminatednl.drabbe`berm,residuum',ndd.
drabbe`slime,mud';schwed.drvn.`residuum'(*dhrbho-),ags.drf,ahd.truobi`cloudy',got.
drbjan,ahd.truoben`tarnish,bewilder',ags.drfan`agitate,tarnish'(identicalmeaning-Verh.as
betweengr.andanord.dreggiar).
Anasalizedformwithbalt.uaszerogradevowelofadissyllabicbasis(causedbyalimitednasalm)
seemslit.*drumb-inlit.drumstas(couldstandfor*drumpstas)`residuum',drumsts`cloudy',
drumsi,drumsti`tarnish'(Schleiftoncausedbyaheavygroupmpst).
References:
References:WP.I854f.,WH.I538f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I715.
Page(s):
Page(s):251-252
Root/lemma: dher-2 ,dherEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohold,support
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`halten,festhalten,sttzen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhar-`hold,stop,bear,carry,prop,support,receive,holdupright'(present
mostlydhryati;Perf.dadhra,dadhr;dhrt-;dhrtum)Pass.`areheldback,besteady,behave
sedately',av.dar-`hold,seize,restrain;whereofadhere,observe(alaw);holdfastinthememory;

perceivewiththesenses,grasp;sojourn,while,stay'(drayeitietc,participledarta-),p.draymiy
`hold',npers.Inf.dtan,osset.Inf.darun,daryn;
OldIndiandhraa-`bearing,carrying,preserving',dhara-`holding,supporting;n.foundation,
prop',dhraa-`holding;n.theclamps,therestraining'=av.drana-n.`meansforwithholding',Old
Indiandhartr-anddhritar-m.`holder',dharitr`girder,bearer',dhartr-n.`support,prop'=av.
darra-n.`thegrasp,understanding',OldIndiandhrma-(=lat.firmus)m.`firm,strong,stout;
lasting,valid;morallystrong',dharmn-m.`holder',dhrman-n.`support,prop,law,custom',
dhrmaniLok.`afterthestatute,accordingtocustom',dhraka-`holding;m.container',dhrti-f.`the
holdingon,determination',dr-dhr--`tenacious',s-dhr(orsadhrm)Adv.`holdingoutonapurpose,
holdingontoapurpose',sadhry-c-`bedirectedbyapurpose,beunited,together';didhr`the
intentiontosupporttosupport',av.didarat`hecomposeshimselffor,hegetsreadyfor';
aboutOldIndiandhra-`tight,firm's.WackernagelOldIndianGr.I25;
arm.perhapsdadar(redupl.)`abode,residence,rest'(`*adherence,abideby,stay',compareav.
meaning`while,stay,behavequietly'),dadarem`abate(fromthewind)',compareunderags.darian
`theside,flank;ofpersons',ndl.bedaren`becomequiet(fromthewind,weather)';
gr.withthemeaning`propthemselvesup,forceopen'(fromtheheavyrootform)m.`bench,
footstool',hom.(ion.),-`footstool,thwart',ion.,bot.,-`stool'(place
anearlyprotogr.*-,whichwouldcontain--from-r-,i.e.-er-),ion.Inf.Aor.`sit
down'(protogr.-);duetothethematicrootform*dher-:-m.`seat';kypr.lak.-
Hes.;withthemeaning`graspthroughthesenses,observe'and`holdoncustom,a
religiouscustom',-,Hes.(compareunderlit.derti`beusable'),
Hes.(fromthethematicrootform*dhere-;againstitfrom*dher-:)Hes.

(ion.),()Hes.,ion.,Koine`worship',`religious,
godly,pious',`observetheofficiallawofgod'.
Is`observekeenly'uptozerogradenthepreposition*en(or-=*sm-)tocompare
afterwardswith(Lit.byBoisacqs.v.)Probablyhere,`concentrated,crowded
together,gathered'(comparetomeaningOldIndiansadhryac-;Lit.byBoisacqs.v.,inaddition
BrugmannIF.38,135f.).
Mit.OldIndiandhraka-`container'iscomparedwith,-`breastplate;trunk;vagina'.
Lat.fr-tus`relyingon,confidingin',umbr.frite`leaning,supported,relying,depending,trusting,
daring,confident;trust,confidence,reliance,assurance',lat.frnum`bit,bridle,rein'and`rein',if
originally`holder'(standtogr.aspl-nustoOldIndianprn-);withameaning`tenacious,
tight,firm:fast'perhapsfer`closely,almost,nearly',ferm(*fermd,Sup.)`quiteapproximately,
nearly',aswellasfirmus`firm,strong,stout;lasting,valid;morallystrong'(withdial.i).
Acymr.emdrit`orderly',cymr.dryd`economical'(*dhrto-).
Ags.darian`hidden,concealed,secret,unknown'(`*restrain,holdthemselvestogether,'or`keepshut
soonedoesnotseesomehow'),ndl.bedaren`becomequiet(fromthewind,weather)',inadditionas.
derni`hide,conceal',ags.dierne`hide,conceal,clandestine',ahd.tarni`lyinghid,hidden,concealed,
secret,unknown',tarnen,mhd.tarnen`coverup,conceal',nhd.Tarnkappe.
Lit.deri,derti`employ,engage(*belay),buy',der,derti`beusable',Kaus.daru,darti`make,
do',dorf.`theuseful',lett.deru,dert`employ,engage,hireout,arrange',Kaus.dart`make,create,

originate';
perhapswithformants-go-:lett.drgs`dear,expensive,precious',OldChurchSlavicdragds.,russ.
drog,skr.drgds.;
hitt.tarah-zi(tarzi)`can,beable,defeated'(*dhr-)belongsrathertoter-4 .
gutturalextensions:

dheregh- `hold,stop,holddown;tight,firm':
Av.draaite,Inf.drjahe`hold,stop,containoneself,guide,lead',upadaruvainti`theyholdout,
persist=accomplish,finish',whereforeOldIndian-dhrk(onlyNom.)incompounds`bearing,
carrying';thisform(*dhrghs)testifiesforanlautdh-thear.andhenceprobablyalsoslav.family;
OldChurchSlavicdr,drati`hold,stop,contain'(etc,s.Berneker258);russ.drog`woodenbar
ormetalstripunitingthefrontandtherearaxisofacart,centrepole',Dem.drkiPl.`light,short
carriage',hencenhd.Droschke.
Asnasalizedformsinadditionav.drnjaiti`solidifies,strengthens,hardens',-drnjayeiti
`determines',Desiderativddraaite`looksforprotectinghimself';participledraxta-;alsoav.
drnjayeiti,ddrjoi,participledraxta-`learntbyheart,murmuredmemorizedprayers'(compare
ChurchSlavictvrditi`moor':russ.tverdit`learnbyheart');mir.dringid`heclimbs',drimm`climb'
(`*holdingonclimbing');kymr.dringo`rise,climb';anord.drangr`highcliff',drengr(*drangja-)`thick
stick,column'(andbertr.`youngman,husband'),OldChurchSlavicdrg`shaft,pole,turnpike';
differentSpechtDekl.139.

dhereh - `holddown,tight,firm':
OldIndiandhyati,drhati(drhti)`makestight,firm',participledrh-`tight,firm',drahyt`proficient',av.darzayeiti`bindstight,fetters',Desid.ddraiti,darza-m.`thefastening,binding,
snatch,griffin',drz-f.`band,manacle',drzra-`tight,firm',probablyalsonpers.darz`suture'and
similartoiran.wordsfor`sewfilament';
thrak.GNDarzales;
probablylit.diras`strap',dirmas`strong',OldPrussiandrstlan`strong,stately',dirtu,dirti
`becometenacious,hard';
lit.daras`garden',lett.drz`garden,courtyard,enclosure,fencedarea'couldbereconvertedfrom
*ardas(comparelit.ardis`Rogarten',rdas`hurdle')(differentMhlenbach-EndzelinI448f.),but
todiras(above)andahd.zarge,mhd.zargef.`border,side,vergeofaspace,edge';
slav.*drz`bold,foolhardy'inOldChurchSlavicdrz,sloven.drz,ech.drz,russ.drzkijds.and
OldChurchSlavicdrzn,drznti`havetheaudacity,venture',russ.derzntetc.

dhereugh-:
awnord.drigr`withstanding,strong,full',drigum`very',aschw.drygher`respectable,strong,big,
large',nordfries.dreegh`tight,firm,persistent'(buttodhreugh-1 belongags.dryge`dry',drahnian
`dryup,strain,filter',-withhinsteadofg-,anord.draugr`witheredtreetrunk',ahd.truchan`dry');

maybenasalizedalb.trung`treetrunk'
hereas`withstand'and`holdtogether-assemble'got.driugan`domilitaryservice'(ags.drogan
`withstand,commit'),ags.gedrag`troop,multitude,crowd',ahd.truht-f.`cohort,troop,multitude,
crowd',as.druht-,ags.dryht,anord.drttf.`cortege',got.drahti-wit`(*lawsofwar=)military
service',gadrahts`warrior',anord.drttinn`prince,lord,master,mister',ags.dryhten,ahd.truhtn
`master,mister'(suffixasinlat.dominus),ahd.trust(*druhsti-)`warrior'stroop';
lit.dragas`travellingcompanion',OldChurchSlavicdrug`fellow,otheretc',druina`';
OldPrussiandrktaiAdv.`tight,firm',podrktinai`Iconfirm',lit.em.drktas,driktas`thick,bulky,
strong';
air.drong`troop,multitude,crowd',abret.drogn`meetingtogether,union,assembly',drog`aparty,
group;esp.apoliticalparty,faction,side'are,aslatelat.drungus`troop'borrowedfromGerm.(see
undertrenq-1 ).
References:
References:WP.I856ff.,WH.505f.,536,Trautmann45,59f.
Page(s):
Page(s):252-255
Root/lemma: dher-3 ,dhereu- ,dhr n Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:expr.(topurr,murmur,etc.),onomatopoeicwords
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:Schallwurzel`murmur,brummen,drhnen'
Material:
Material:Gr.`woozynoise',`makeanoise,bewilder',`grumble,
murmle',Hes.;m.`murmur,din,fuss,noise',`murmle,babble';
(*-F-)`cryloudly',`emptygossip,subtleness',`makeemptygossip'
(seeBoisacqs.v.),,`loudcry',`shout,letbecomeloud';
as.drm,ags.dramm.`makingagladnoise,jubilation'(differentKlugeKZ.26,70:as`*troop,
multitude,crowd',*rauma-,togot.drahts);ags.doram.`bumblebee'(*uran-),engl.dorr`cockchafer';
redupl.lett.duduris`big,giantgadfly,brake,wasp',dederis()`weepingknave,boy'(MhlenbachEndzelinI455).
Alsoforkelt.andbalt.-slav.words,arementionedunderder-`murmur',idg.anlautdh-comesin
question.

dhren -:
OldIndiandhrati`sounds'(Dhtup.);
gr.m.`funeralsong,lament,dirge',`lamentation',(drone)Hes.,`hornet',-(*-)`forestbee';as.dreno,ahd.treno`drone',lengthenedgrade
as.drnds.,alsoags.drndrnf.`drone';zerogradegot.drunjus`clangor',norw.drynn.`low
shout',drynja`lowroar,bellow',nd.drnen`makenoise,talkslowlyandmonotonously'(outofitnhd.
drhnen).

Ananlautdoubletmaybeliesinlit.trnas,OldChurchSlavic*trt,*trd`drone'before;compare
Trautmann326.

s-extensioninmir.drsacht`creakyorsqueakingnoise',gall.-lat.drns,-re`cry(ofswan)',ndd.
drunsen`lowroar,bellow',ndl.drenzeln`whimper',hess.drensen`groan',nhd.dial.trensen
`elongatedroar,bellow'(fromcows).
AGutt.-extensionprobablyinarm.dnim`blowthehorn,toot'(*dhrnk-)andair.drcht`song,tale'
(*dhrenkt),protoslav..*drk(*dhrnk-)insloven.drok`pestle'etc;
perhapstoch.Atrk-,trek-`speak'.
References:
References:WP.I860f.,WH.I374,MladenovMl.Pedersen95ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):255-256
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:(dher-4: )dhor- :dh e rEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tojump,jumpat,*stream,ray,drip,sperm
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`springen,bespringen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhr`stream,ray,drip,sperm';
gr.(ion.),`manlysperm',`absorbsperm',poetically,att.,
Fut.,Aor.`spring',`protrusion,hill'(-from*dher-,becauseofofthe
secondaryformsisdevelopedto*dhore-,dhor-,-);

fromabasedhereu-:,`spring,jump'(oprobablyAeolianinsteadoffrom)
compare..Hes.,Hes.;`stormy,boisterous'
probablyfrom*F(BechtelLexil.167);
mir.dar-`spring,jump',Impf.no-daired,preteritro-dart,Verbalnom.dir,Gen.dra,myth.PNDire
(*dhrio-s),der`girl',cymr.-derig`rutting,inheat'.
References:
References:WP.I861,WH.I528,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I696,708.
Page(s):
Page(s):256
Root/lemma: dher-5 ,dhrei-dEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todefecate
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Unrat,cacre'
Note:
Note:(whetherrelatedtodher-1 `muddyresiduum'anddher-4 )
Material:
Material:Lat.foriaPl.`diarrhea'(byVarroofpigs),fori,-re`defecate';
gr.(*dhrd-)Hes.,afterFickKZ.44,339Macedonian,eitherfrom--with
fracturedreduplicationorfrom--withthesameformant-d-asthei-extensiondhr-ei-d-;very

dubious;
lit.der-k-iderkti`soilwithfeculence,defecate'.
maybetruncatedalb.(*derkti)dhjet,dhjes`defecate':alb.derth(*der-k-)`releasesemen,pour'
[commonalb.-k->-th-,-g->-dh-phoneticmutation]

dhr-ei-d-:
anord.drta(dreit),ags.drtan,mndl.ndd.drten,ahd.trzan`defecate',o-gradeanord.dreita`make
defecate',zerogrademengl.nengl.dirt(from*drit),aisl.drit,flm.drits,trets`filth,faeces',westfl.
drit`scaredshitless,thedefecated';
russ.dial.dristt`havediarrhea',bulg.drskam,drt`havediarrhea',serb.drskati,drkati,ech.
dstatids.(slav.*drisk-,*drist-from*dhreid-sk-,-(s)t-,Berneker224).
References:
References:WP.I861f.,WH.I527f.
Page(s):
Page(s):256
Root/lemma: dhersEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todare
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`wagen,khnsein',lter`angreifen,losgehen'
Note:
Note:(alsowith-i-,-u-extended)
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhr--ti,dhr-ati`isaudacious,courageous,ventures',dhr-(Gramm.),
dhrat`hearty'(=av.darat),dhr-`bold,valiant,gamy,audacious,cheeky',dhr-`insolent,
cheeky',dhrita-`bold,gamy',ddhri-`intrepid,bold',withobjectdharayati`venturesin,makesa
mistake,overcomes',dharaa-n.`attack,maltreatment',dharaka-`attacking,assaulting';av.
daramAdv.`violent,very',dari-,daryu-,darita-`bold',Oldpers.adarnau`heventured',
ddarsi-EN;
gr.lesb.n.`courage,boldness'(hom.`bold,cheeky'),withfromAdj.displacedzero
gradeion.altatt.(att.)ds.,att.n.`courage,boldness;audacity,brashness',
,`begamy',(rhod.,ther.hqh),`bold,gamy;
foolhardy,cheeky'(=OldIndiandhr-),lesb.Adv.,`courageous,confident,
trusting'(*-);
lat.infestus`aggressive,hostile,dangerous',infestre`toattack,disquiet'andmanifestus`palpable,
clear,visible,evident;caughtout,detected'(*dhers-to-);
got.ga-dars(:OldIndianPerf.dadhra`hashadtheaudacity'),Inf.gadarsan,`Iventure',as.
gidurran,ags.dear,durran,ahd.(gi)tar,(gi)turran`venture,risk',ahd.giturst,ags.gedyrstf.
`boldness,audacity'(=OldIndiandr-`boldness');
Maybealb.(*(gi)tar)guxoj`dare':ahd.(gi)tar,(gi)turran`venture,risk'.
lit.nasalizedlit.drs`dare,venture'(*dhrens),drst,drsti(dhrns-)`venture,risk',drs(*dhrons-)
`forwardness',drss=lett.dros`gamy,brave'(*dhrons-;alit.stilldrssanddransniaus);without

nasalizationOldPrussiandrstlan`stately'anddyrsos`proficient'(*dirsu-);
hereperhapstoch.Atsr`rough',tsrai`strong',tsiraue`strength'.
References:
References:WP.I864,WH.I698f.,Trautmann60,VanWindekensLexique147.
Page(s):
Page(s):259
Root/lemma: dheubh- ,dhubhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:spike,wedge
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Pflock,Keil;schlagen'
Note:
Note:uncertain,becausealmostonlygerm.
Material:
Material:Gr.Hes.
diminutivemhd.tbel,mnd.dvel`clot,chunk,peg,plug,spigot,nail'(nhd.Dbel,Dbelwithmd.
anlaut),ahd.tubila,-i`spigot',engl.dowel-pin`peg,plug,pin';mnd.dvicke,ndl.deuvik`spigot';
schwed.norw.dubb`peg,plug',tirol.tuppe`bigpieceofwood',mnd.dob(b)el,mhd.top(p)el`dice,
cube'.Besidesgerm.wordsthemeaning`hit':ostfries.dufen,duven`bump,poke',ndl.dof`shove,
stroke',aisl.dubba,ags.dubbian`knight,makeamanaknight',ostfries.dubben`bump,poke';there
italsogivesgerm.*a-`hit'(seebelowdh b h- `marvel'),couldbeanewvariantof*u-(perhaps
comeaboutunderthehelpofwordsfor`peg,plug,spigot').
References:
References:WP.I848.
Page(s):
Page(s):268
Root/lemma: dheu-b- ,dheu-pEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:deep,*black,bottom,darkwaters
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`tief,hohl'
Note
Note:
Theshiftg->-b-, k->-p-isacommongr.phoneticmutationhenceallotherIEtonguesborrowed
Root/lemma: dheu-b- ,dheu-p- :
:`deep,dark'fromrespectivelyprotoillyr.gr.dheu-g- , dheuk- . Butprotoillyr.gr.dheu-g- , dheu-k- isanextenstionofanolderroot.AfterJokl(EbertsRL.
13,286f.)herethrak.PN(*dhubr-),(*dheubr)itseemsthatBalticlanguages
derivedtheconceptof`deep'fromillyr.`black,dark',hencefromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-4 ,dheu (presumably:dhu - ,comparetheextensiondhu-k-,dhu-s-)::`toreel,dissipate,blow,*smoke,
dark,gray,deepetc.`derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-b- ,dheu-p- :
:`deep,*dark'.

Material:
Material:formsin-b:
gr.,ion.m.`depth(ofthesea)',probablyreconvertedfrom*dhub-;

maybealb.(*byssa-h),bytha`buttocks,backsidehole':gr.,ion.m.`depth(ofthesea)'
[commonalb.-s->-th-phoneticmutation]thesameformationaspoln.dupa`buttocks,backside
hole',skr.dpe,Gen.-eta`buttocks'.
afterJokl(EbertsRL.13,286f.)herethrak.PN(*dhubr-),(*dheubr);
Alsoalb.PNDibra
illyr.(KretschmerGl.22,216),alsoinalb.tosk.FlNTubra,Droveetc(Pokorny
Urillyrier99);
air.domain,fu-dumain,cymr.dwfn,corn.down,bret.doun(i.e.dun)`deep(*dhubni-),gall.dubno-,
dumno-`world'(Dubnorxeig.`worldking'),air.domunds.,acymr.annwf(y)n,ncymr.annwn`God's
kingdomandtheunderworld'(*an-duno-eig.`underworld,outsideworld'asaisl.t-garr);s.also
underS.268slav.*dbno;
maybealb.(*diep)djep`(*deep)cradle,hollowedwood':poln.dziupon.,dziuplaf.`treehole'.
got.diups,aisl.dipr,ags.dop,as.diop,ahd.tiof`deep';got.daupjan,ags.depan,as.dpian,ahd.
toufen`baptize'(eig.`dive'),aisl.deypa`dive';with-pp-:norw.duppa`dive'andj-formation,ags.
dyppan`dive;baptize',ndd.dppen,ahd.tupfen`bathe,wash';withgemin.spirantfaer.duffa`swing'
(frombarge);withgemin.voiced-nonaspiratednorw.dubba`benddown',dobbe`marshyland'
(compareWissmannNom.postverb.170,186);nasalizednorw.dumpm.`dentintheearth',dn.
dial.dump`cavity,lowland,depression',engl.dump`deepholefullwithwater',ahd.tum(p)filo
`whirlpool',mhd.tmpfel,nhd.(fromNdd.)Tmpel`deepplaceintheflowingorstandingwater;
puddle',engl.dimple`cheekdimple',ndl.domp(el)en`dive,sink';
lit.dubs`deep,hollow',inadditionFlNDb,DubingandDubsa(=cymr.FlNDyfifrom*Dubs,
PokornyUrillyrier46f.),dgnas`bottom'(probablybecauseoflett.dibensfrom*dbnas=slav.
*dbno,gall.dubno-;s.dieLit.byBerneker245f.);alsotheFlNwruss.Dubna(=lett.Dybnja)`the
deepriver'anddiepr.PNDum(p)nis,Dubnashowstillbn;dumbu,dbti`becomehollow,sinkin',
daub,dauburs`gorge,ravine,gulch',dobti`hollowout',duob`cave'(lett.dubs,dubj`deep,
hollow',dobe`pit,pothole,grave'withuofromu),dubu,-es`basin',duburs,dburs,duburkis
`pitfullofwater,hole,pool',nas.dumburs`deepholefullwithwater',dumblas`slime,mud,morass'
(yetseeaboveS.261);lett.dubns(besidesdibns)`ground,bottom'(compareMhlenbachEndzelinI465under509),dubt`becomehollow,sinkin',dubl`iPl.m.`ordure,morass';OldPrussian
padaubis`valley'anddaubof.`ground'(compareaboveS.249);
abg.dbr(andoutofitdbr)`,gorge,ravine,gulch'(:lett.dubra`puddle,slop');Church
Slavicdno(*dbno)`ground,bottom';aboutdenFlNpomerell.Dbras.S.264.
formsin-p:
ahd.tobal,mhd.tobel`narrowvalley',nhd.Tobel;aschwed.dvaprobablyst.V.`dive',aisl.dfa
`pressdownwards',dyfa,deyfa`dive',ags.defan,dfands.,engl.dive,mnd.bedven`flooded,be
coated',bedoven`sunkdown';
slav.*dupaf.insloven.dpa`burrow',ech.doupa`hole',abg.dupina`cave',mbg.russ.-Church
Slavicdupl'`hollow,light',russ.dupn.`cavityintreetruck',skr.dpe,Gen.-eta`buttocks',dplja
`treehollow',olddupan`cave'etc;ablaut.poln.dziupon.,dziuplaf.`treehole'etc

Note:
Fromslav.languagesRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-b- ,dheu-p- :
:`deep,*dark,bottom'passedtoAltaic
languages:
Protoform:
Protoform:*tp`e(*tip`i,*-)
Meaning:
Meaning:bottom
Turkicprotoform:
Turkicprotoform:*dp
Mongolianprotoform:
Mongolianprotoform:*dowNote:
Note:ATurk.-Mong.isogloss.TherelationshiptoTM*d-'tositdown(ofbirds)',suggestedin1,
211,isunclear;ifitexists,wemaybedealingherewithanarchaiccaseof*-p`-suffixation.
fromhereas*dheug-:germ.*d-k-,*du-kk-`tauchen=dive,sichducken=crouch'
References:
References:WP.I847f.,WH.I565,867,Trautmann45f.
Page(s):
Page(s):267-268
Root/lemma: dheughEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:totouch,press,milk
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`berhren(sichguttreffen),drcken,ausdrcken,melken,reichlichspenden'
Material:
Material:Indo-iran.*dhaugh-`milk'inOldIndianduhti,athematicdgdhi`milked',thedesirablecow
Kma-duh()`theplentifullybestowing'(=gr.),pers.d,dxtnetc,Oldpers.han-dug
`proclamation'(comparelat.pro-mulgre);
gr.(,,,)`meet,find,meetbychance;achieveapurposeor
anaim;intr.tofindoneself,andbeclose',`success,luck,destiny,lot',goddessT(probably
originallyathedesirablecow);(,Aor.,hom.,Med.,
-withsek.k-,Perf.,,)`makesuitable,make,produce,arrange,produce',
`tomake,makeready,prepare',n.`allmade,ware,pottery,stuff,esp.armament,
militaryequipment,weapons;shipinstrument;pot,vessel';
ir.dan`apoem,ode,song'(*dhughn),dal`fitting'(*dhughlo-);
aisl.Inf.duga,presentdugi,preteritduga`beuseful,besuitablefor,succeed',preteritpresentgot.
daug,ags.dag,as.dg,ahd.toug`itisgoodfor,isuseful',Kaus.mnd.dgen`withstand',as.dgian`ds.,sort,order,arrange',ags.gedegan`bear,endure,comethrough';ahd.tuht`skillfulness,
power',mhd.thtec,nhd.tchtig=ags.dyhtig`stalwart'(aboutgot.dauhts`feast's.Feist116);
lit.dag`much,alotof',duginti`increase,intensify';russ.dijetc`strong'.
References:
References:WP.I847,BenvenisteBSL.30,73f.,PisaniREtIE.1,238ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):271

Root/lemma: dheu-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:torun,*stream,flow
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`laufen,rinnen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhvat`runs,streams',lengthenedgradedhvatids.,dhutf.`wellspring,
stream,brook';mpers.dawdan`run,hurry',pm.dav-`run,rush';
Maybealb.(*dhoueti)dti`sea':nasalizedgr.-illyr.(*dh(o)uenti)Hes.:mir.de`sea'
commonalb.attributenounssuffixedin-tformant.[seealb.numbers].
gr,ep.also,Fut`run';lak.Hes.;`quick,fast',-`aufeinen
AnrufschnellzurHand,helfend',inaddition(insteadof*)`help',`movein
quickdashingmovement;scoot,movefast';
gr.-illyr.Hes.;
anord.dgg,Gen.dggwar(*daww),ags.daw,as.dau,ahd.tou,nhd.au(*dawwa-);
doubtfulmir.de`sea'(*dheui)as`theviolentlymoving';
Maybeillyr.TNTau-lanti(wetland,swamp):nhd.au(*dawwa-)
hereprobably*dhu-ro-inthrak.FlN-(*ndhur-)andinnumerousven.-illyr.FlN,soillyr.
Duria(Hungarian),nhd.Tyra,Thur,olderDura(Alsace,Switzerland),oberital.Dora,Doria,frz.Dore,
Doire,Doron,iber.Durius,Turiaetc(PokornyUrill.2,10,79,105,113,127,145,160,165,169f.);
Note:
FinallytheancientDoriantribethatoverrunMycenaeancivilizationwasofIllyrianorigin.Theirname
meant`riverpeople'sincetheyspreadveryrapidlytravelingonfastriverboats.Theirmigrationtook
Mycenaeancitiesbysurprise.TheDorianexpansionwassimilartotheVikingrapidexpansion
hundredsofyearslater.
maybeillyr.(*Durra-hion)Dyrrhachium-i,n.aportinIllyria.
afterRozwadowski(Rev.Slav.6,58ff.)heretheFlNDna,west-slav.Dvina(*dhuein),borrowedas
finn.vin`wideriver',estn.vin(a)`straits',syrj.`dyn`estuary'.
References:
References:WP.I834.
Page(s):
Page(s):259-260
Root/lemma: dheu-2 ,dhu - iEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tovanish,faint,die
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`hinschwinden,bewutloswerden,sterben'
Material:
Material:Got.diwans(*dhu-ono-)`perishable,mortal',ablaut.ahd.touwen,as.dian`die',anord.
deyja,d(*dw),dinn`die';got.daus`dead',alsoafdauis`afflicted',ahd.tt,ags.dad,anord.

daur`dead',got.dauus`death',ahd.td,ags.da,anord.daur,-aranddaue`death';
air.duine(*dhu-n-io-),Pl.dini(*dheuenio-),cymr.dyn,corn.bret.den`person'(`mortal,human
being',BrugmannZfceltPh.3,595ff.);s.alsounderhem- ;
perhapslat.fnus(fnus)n.`afuneral,burial.Transf.,thecorpse;death;destruction,ruin;acause
ofruin',whetherfrom*dheu(e)-nos`indeath';formally,nevertheless,exactly=air.n.s-stemdn
`fortress',probablyoriginally`hillcastle'(seeunderdheu-4 S.263);
Note:commonlat.d->f-shift.
afterMarstranderPrs.nasaleinf.151hereair.-deda`dwindlesaway'from*dhedhut;
comparealsoaboveunderdh-3 ;
inGerm.alsothemeaning`insensible,becomeunconscious',awnord.d(*dawa)`unconsciousness,
faint,swoon',preteritdalso`becamenumbed'(oflimbs),aschwed.dna`faint,passout',norw.
daana`becomestiff,becomelame(fromlimbs),faint,passout'(Ableit.fromparticipledinn),isl.doi
`insensibility',dona`becomeunfeeling,becamenumbed',got.usdaus`notindolent,diligent,
active,quick,unwearied,indefatigable,energetic,eager',ahd.tawaln`todwindle,todie',ndl.
dauwel`sluggishwoman';furtheranord.dalso`delightofthesoul'(`*anesthetization'),d(*dawn)
`admire,venerate';anord.dnf.`death'.
extensiondhu - i-: dhu - - in:
arm.di,Gen.dioy`deadbody,corpse',air.dth(*dhutu-)`end,death';ags.dwnan(st.V.)`abate,
dwindle',besidesdemnn-Verbanord.dunaandduenads.;ags.dwscan`annul,annihilate'
(*dwaiskjan),lit.dvsti`die'(BgabyEndzelinKZ.52,123).
maybealb.tosk.(dvsti)vdes,geg.dek`die'[commomalb.-s->-k-shift].
ClearlyfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu e s- ,dhu s - ,dheus- ,dh s - :
:`todissipate,blow,etc.*breathe,
breatheoutthespirit,perish,die'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-2 ,dhu - i- :
:`tovanish,faint,die'.
Aslit.dvsti`die':lit.dvesi,dvesia,dvsti`breathe,breatheoutthespirit,perish,die'(seebelow);
References:
References:WP.I835,WH.I451,568.
Page(s):
Page(s):260-261
Root/lemma: dheu-3
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:shining,toshine
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`blank,glnzen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhaval-`gleamingwhite',dhvati`makesblank,purifies,cleans,swills',av.
fraavata`rubbedoff(cleaning)';
gr....,...Hes.,Ps.-Hsd.,
.Hes.(Kontr.from*F).
References:
References:WP.I835,SchulzeKZ.29,260f.=Kl.Schr.369.

Page(s):
Page(s):261
Root/lemma: dheu-4 ,dheu - (presumably:dhu - ,comparetheextensiondhu-k-,dhu-s-)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toreel,dissipate,blow,*smoke,dark,gray,deepetc.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`stieben,wirbeln,especiallyvonStaub,Rauch,Dampf;wehen,blow,Hauch,
Atem;hencedampfen,ausdnsten,riechen,stinken;strmen,inheftiger,wallenderBewegungsein,
alsoseelisch;inheftige,wirbelndeBewegungversetzen,schtteln'
Material:
Material:Withm -formant:
OldIndiandhmm.`smoke,vapor',dhmyati`smokes,steams'=lat.fmre`smoke,steam,
reek,fume',formalalso=ahd.tmn`turnincircles';
gr.`breath,life,soul,heart,spirit,courage,mind,temper,will,anger,wrath'(stillpurely
sensually`smoke,fumigate';-`charcoalpile',`ardent',`rageagainst'etc);
lat.fmus`smoke,steam,vapor'(fmreseeabove);
Note:commonlat.d->f-shift.
lit.dmaiPl.`smoke',lett.dmiPl.,OldPrussiandumisds.;
OldChurchSlavicdym`smoke';
maybealb.tosk.tym`fume'[commonalb.d->t-shift.]:alsoalb.geg.dhem,alb.dhemb`hurt,ache',
dhimbje`pain'[commonalb.shiftm>mb].
Note:
ClearlyfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhem- ,dhem- :
:`tosmoke;toblow'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-4 ,
dheu - (presumably:dhu - ,comparetheextensiondhu-k-,dhu-s-)::`toreel,dissipate,blow,etc.
`.
with:mir.dumachaPl.`fog'(nir.dumhachfrom*dhumuko-`misty,dark');gr.,-`thyme'
(strong-smellingplantasalso,`SaturejathymbraL.`s.Boisacqm.Lit.;after
NiedermannGl.19,14toruss.dubrvka,dubrvka`PotentillaTormentilla',thatafterBerneker215to
OldChurchSlavicdmb`oak'[seeunderS.264]belongs).
maybetruncatedalb.(*dhumusk-)dushk`oak':lett.dumksnis`swamp,marsh':OldChurchSlavic
dmb`oak'notfromalb.drushk`oak',dru-`tree,wood'becausealb.dr->d-shiftisnotcommon.
Lat.fimus`crap,muck,manure'(as*dhu-i-mosduetogrowingfromsuffio,-re);
Note:commonlat.d->f-shift.
withidg.ou:ahd.toum`vapor,haze,mist,Duft',as.dmian`steam'.
Inadditioncoloringadjectivethemeaning`smoke-color,fog-gray,dismal':OldIndiandhmr`smoke-color,gray,puce,cloudy,dull(alsofromthemind)',dhmala-`smoke-color,puce';

lit.dumblas`slime,mud,mooronthebottomofpond',lett.dubl'i`slime,mud,ordure'(presumably=
OldIndiandhmra-;comparebutunderS.268andMhlenbach-EndzelinI509),lett.dmal'`swart,
brown',dmans`smoke-color',dumj,fem.dumja`darkbrown,paled,cloudily(fromtheeyes),
stupid',dumksnis`swamp,marsh',dumbrazeme`blackmoorland',dumbris,dumbrs`spring,
fountain,moor,morass'(compareMhlenbach-EndzelinI514;indetailaboutsuchmoornamesafter
thecolorSchulzeKl.Schr.114);
comparewithdemcoloringnamesuffix-no-:lett.di,dasPl.`slime,mud';
with-ko-,respectivelyoftherootextensionwith-k-:lett.dksne,dkste`swamp,marsh,pool,
morass':dkans`ared-brownhue,swart';
with-g-:lett.duga`theglutinousmucuswhichswimsonthewater',dugainsdens`impurewater',
dugainsuguns`dark,cloudedflame',dungans`ared-brownhue'(iflatternotfrom*dumgans,
comparebalgans`whitish',salgans`sugary');
with-t-toch.tute`yellow'
Withl -formant:
OldIndiandhli-,dhlf.`dust,dustysurfaceoftheearth,pollen',dhlik`fog',alb.dlnj`juniper'
(as`woodsmokingchips',from*dhlnio-);
Maybealb.dyll`wax,beewax':lit.dlism.,lett.dljs,dljs`smoker,smokingincenseincenseto
driveawaythebees'(seebelow).
Note:
Thecommonalb.a>shiftsuggeststhatalb,cognatefor`juniper'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
dh l - :
:`toblossom,begreen':alb.(*dalni)dlinj`juniper'andnotfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-4 ,
dheu - : `toreel,dissipate,blow,etc.`.
lat.flgo`soot;powderfordarkeningtheeyebrows'
Note:commonlat.d->f-shift
mir.dil`wish,desire'(*mindboiling,as`thesoul'),lit.dlism.`smoker,smokingincense
incensetodriveawaythebees',dlk`mote,speck';lett.dljs,dljs`moresmokingthanburning
torchtotakethehoneyfromthebees';lit.dulsvas`smoke-color,mousegrey';changingthrough
ablautruss.dlo`barrel(ofagun,acannon'),dlce`mouthpieceofawindinstrument'(etc,s.
Berneker237;previouslyslav.derivativesvonduti`blow').
Verbsandandsingle-linguisticnominalformation:
Note:
OldIndianandalb.provethatRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:du- ,du- ,d - :
:`toburn'derivedfromRoot/
Root/
lemma: dheu-4 ,dheu - (presumably:dhu - ,comparetheextensiondhu-k-,dhu-s-)::`toreel,
dissipate,blow,*smokeetc.`.
maybealb.dhunoj`violate,rape',dhun`violence';
OldIndiandhnti(dhunti,dhuvti)`shakes,movestoandfro,ventilates',Fut.dhaviyati,Perf.

dudhva,Pass.dhyte,participledhut-,dht-`shaken,agitated',mpers.dt`smoke';OldIndian
dhunti`movestoandfro,shakes',participledhnna-,dhni-f.`theshaking',dhnayati`movesto
andfro,shakes',dhavtramn.`flabellum,whisk',dhavitavy-`fan,ventilate';av.dvaid`weboth
beset'(*du-vaid);KuiperNasalprs.53placeshereOldIndiandhvajati(Dhp.7,44),av.dvaaiti
`flutters'(inadditionOldIndiandhvaj-`banner,ensign,flag')from*dhueg-();
arm.de-dev-im`sway,swing'(comparethatlikewiseredupl.intensivedhvaj-OldIndiand-dhavti);
gr.(),lesb.`stormalong,roar,rave,smoke'(*dhu-i,:from,,asalso
inOldIndianPass.dhyteandanord.dyja`shake'neologismis;inthemeaning`rage'maybefrom
*dhusi,s.dheues-),,ds.,`storm'(seeS.269unterdheues-),ep.`roam,
thereforeblow,rage'(*F),ds.(*F),,,Hes.withthe
meaning`smoke(smokeoffering),smell':(),`sacrifice',`sacrifice,oblation',
`sacrificialanimal',n.`incense(hencelat.ts`incense,frankincense'),oblation,sacrifice,
oblation'(therefrom`mortar'[alb.thuk`mortar',thyenj`break,grind']s.Boisacqm.Lit.),,
`ladenwithincense,odorous,fragrant',`atreewhosewoodwasburnedbecauseofits
fragrance',,`anAfricantreewithscentedwood',`oblation'(:ion.:att.
,*F-:*:-,s.BechtelLex.168f.,Boisacqs.v.),`sacrificialaltar,altar'.
Onthebaseofthemeaning`(together)whirl',`heap,sandpile,esp.dune,sandbank,heaps
generally',from*F-,shapedas-,-,-,-,comparegr.`heap'(Hes.),to
meaningundernhd.Dne;barelywithSchwyzerGr.Gr.I5702toOldIndiandhya-`litterputon
earth';
alb.geg.dj,tosk.dnj`fuddle',Med.`dwindleaway,melt'(*deuni,comparegot.dauns`fume,
haze,mist'),djet`flows,melts';
Maybealb.dje`vein(wherethebloodflows)',duf`airblow,anger,impatience,rage':ags.dofian
`rage':lat.suffio-ire`tofumigate'(seebelow),alsoduplicatedalb.(*duh-duh)dud`gum'.
lat.suf-fi,-fre`tofumigate,perfume;towarm'(suffmentum`incense';aboutfmusseeabove)from
*-dhuii,asfio`ofpersonsandthings,tobemade,comeintoexistence;withpredicate,tobecome,
beappointed;withgenit.,tobevaluedat;ofactions,tobedone;ofevents,tohappen'from*bhu-ii,
foeteo,-re`evilsmell,stink'duetoaparticiple*dhu-oi-to-s(asptefrom*ptos);
Note:
commonlat.d->f-shift.Clearlylat.suffio-ire`tofumigate'derivedfromanillyr.alb.duf`blow'.
here(as*piledup)gall.,urir.,latin.dnum,air.n.s-stemdn(:lat.fnus,s.S.260)`castle'
(*hill),acymr.din(ncymr.dinas)ds.;air.d(a),arch.d`bulwark,rampart,wall'(*dhuio-);air.
dumaem.`hill',gall.GNDumiatis;alsoair.df.Gen.dad`smoke',mir.dethachds.(*dhuiiat-);
ags.dnm.f.`height,mountain',engl.down`sand-hill,dune',mnl.dne,mnd.dne,outofitnhd.
Dne;comparetomeaningklr.v-dma`dune'toslav.dm`blow';whereasisgerm.*t-na-`fence,
apreservedplace'(aisl.ags.tnds.,`town,city',nhd.Zaun)probablykelt.Lw.;
anord.dyja`shake'seeabove;
got.daunsf.`sweetscent,smoke'(*dhou-ni),anord.daunnm.`fetidness'(vglalb.dej;aboutahd.
nhd.dunstseeundertherootform*dheues-);anord.dnnm.`downfeather(*fan)'(outofitmnd.

dne,whereofagainnhd.Daune`softloosefluffyfeathers,asonyoungbirds';comparemndl.donst
`downfeather(*fan),dustpowder(*ash)'=dt.Dunst;s.Falk-punderdun);as.dununga`delusion'
(or);aisl.dni`fire';
lit.dujf.`mote,speck',duj`downfeather(*fan)';dvlas`black,black-headed',ablaut.dlas
`grayish';
slav.*dujo,*duti(e.g.russ.dju,dut)`blow',changingthroughablaut*dyjinsloven.djem,dti
`blow,smell,breathequietly';OldChurchSlavicdundunti(*dhoun-)`blow'(changingthrough
ablautwithOldIndiandh-nti,-nti,gr.);
toch.Atwe,tweye`dust'.
comparestillperhapsidenticalprotoroot*dheu-`run,flow'.
Rootextensions:
I.bh -extension:dheubh - `fly,smoke;misty,darkens,alsofromthemindandthereflection'.
Gr.(,)`smoke,vapor,fume,makesmoke;burnslowly,singe;Pass.smoke,give
offvapor,gleam',m.`smoke,steam,densesmoke;wooziness,folly,sillypride';
Maybepoln.duma`pride',dumny`proud'.
`bebrainless,conceited,haughty',,-or-`whirlwind,thunderstorm',
,-`disastrousfire',,`feeble-mindedage';`blind,dark,
stupid',`blind',`blind',`becomeblind'.
Air.dub(*dhubhu-)`black',acymr.dub(*dheubh-),ncymr.du,acorn.duw,mcorn.du,bret.d`black',
gall.Dubis`LeDoubs(easternFrance)',i.e.`black,darkwater';probablyalsomir.dobur`water',
cymr.dwfr,corn.dour(i.e.dowr),bret.dour(i.e.dur)ds.,gall.Uerno-dubrumrivername(`alder
water')arenamedafterthesameobservation;
however,maybetherearekelt.wordswithidg.bwhichmustbeassumedthatbelongtodheub`deep'(underS.268),because`deep'and`black'couldbeslightlyidentical.
Socanthepomerell.FlNDbra(*dbra)beidenticaljustaswellwithlett.dubra,ChurchSlavicdbr.
Note:
AfterJokl(EbertsRL.13,286f.)herethrak.PN(*dhubr-),(*dheubr)itseemsthat
Balticlanguagesderivedtheconceptof`deep'fromillyr.`black',hencefromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-4 ,
dheu - (presumably:dhu - ,comparetheextensiondhu-k-,dhu-s-)::`toreel,dissipate,blow,
*smoke,dark,gray,deepetc.`derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-b- ,dheu-p- :
:`deep,*dark'.
Got.daufs(-b-)`deaf,obdurate',anord.daufr`deaf,idle',ags.daf`deaf',ahd.toup(-b-)`deaf,
obtuse,foolish',anord.deyfa,mhd.touben`deafen,stun,makefeeble',changingthroughablautnd.
duff`muggy(air),dim(color),muted(sound)';
Maybealb.duf`airblow,anger,impatience,rage':ags.dofian`rage'.
ndl.dof,mhd.top`senseless,brainless,crazy',

Maybealb.topis`stun';

-Verb:ahd.tobon,as.dovn`bemad',ags.dofian`rage',-Verb:ahd.tobn,nhd.toben,aswellas
(asparticipleast.V.)anord.dofinn`dull,limp,half-dead',whereforedofna`limp,becomestale';
anord.duptn.`dust',norw.duft,dyftf.ds.,mhd.tuft,duft`haze,mist,fog,dew,hoarfrost',ahd.tuft
`frost',nhd.Duft`finesmell,odor'(orzurrootformdheup-,seeunder);got.(hraiwa-)db,anord.
dfa,ags.dfe,ahd.tba`dove,pigeon'(afterthedarkcolor).Nasalizedgot.dumbs,anord.dumbr,
ags.dumb`dumb',ahd.tumb`silent,stupid,incomprehensibe',as.dumb`oafish'.However,a
*dhumbhos`dark'seemstobesupportedalsobySlav.(seebelow).
Maybeexpressivealb.tosk.dudum`dumb'
Perhaps(Berneker215)OldChurchSlavicdb`oak,thentreegenerally'as`treewithdark
heartwood'aslat.rbur.Againstitcanbebylett.dumbrazeme`blackmoorland'etcbEinschublaut
betweenmandr,seeabove,alsobylit.dumblas`slime,mud'(mhd.tmpfel,nhd.Tmpel,Prellwitz
KZ.42,387,rathertonhd.tief,mnd.dumpelen`submerge',s.SchulzeSBpr.Ak.1910,791=Kl.Schr.
114).
Besidesdhp- in:OldIndiandhpa-m.`smoke,incense',ahd.tvar,tbar`phrenetical'(alsoin
Duftseeabove).
2.dh
dh-extension:dheudh - `whirl,shake,confusethroughanother'.
OldIndianddhat-`stupefying,vehement,raving',ddhi-,dudhra-`boisterous',probablyalsoddhita(epithetvontamas`darkness')perhaps`confused,thick';
gr.Hes.(*),`tassel',hom.`festoonedwithtasselsor
fringes'from*(*dhudhia=lett.dua`bundle'),,,`squid'(`misting,muddling
thewater');
germ.*dud-,geminated*dutt-and*dudd-:dn.dude,olderdudde`ryegrass,darnel'(butaboutisl.
dona`becomeinsensitive'seeaboveS.260),nd.dudendop,-hop`drowsyperson',afries.dud
`anesthetization',norw.dudra`tremble',ags.dydrian`deceive';with-dd-:engl.dial.dudder`bewilder',
dodder`tremble,wobble,sway',engl.dodder`anyplantofthegenusCuscuta;anyofvariouschoking
orclimbingweeds';with-tt-:mndl.dotten,dutten`becrazy',mnd.vordutten`bewilder',mhd.
vertutzen,bettzen`becomedeaf,butgetcollectedness',isl.dotta`fallasleepduetotiredness,nod
becauseofexhaustion';
maybealb.vrtit`bewilder,turn'
similarly,onthebasisof*dhuedh-:ostfries.dwatje`stupidgirl',dwatsk`oafish,eccentric',Jtischdvot
`sufferingfromCoenuruscerebralis';schwed.dodra,mhd.toterm.`yellowplant,dodder',mengl.
doder,nengl.dodder`anyplantofthegenusCuscuta,comprisingleaflessthreadliketwiningplants
withparasiticsuckers;itattachesitselftosomeotherplantastoflaxetc.anddecayingattheroot,is
nourishedbytheplantthatsupportsit',ndl.(vlas)-doddreds.AfterFalk-Torpunderdodderiftheword
wastransferredasanameforcertainplantswithyellowthredlikestems:as.dodro,ahd.totoro,ags.
dydring`egg-yellow'(-ingprovethederivativeofplantname);ratherhasbeenforit`clump'=`thick
mass'incontrasttomeltingeggwhitethemediativemeaning(Persson)orcomparenorw.dudra
`tremble'theelasticshiveringofthiscolloidrockingcore;compareaisl.dor-kvisa`abird'.
3.kk-extension:dhu k- , dh k - anddheuk-:

OldIndiandhukat,dhukayatiwithsam-`blownupthefire,kindled,animated',dhka-m.
(unleashed)`wind';commonOldIndianh->k-phoneticmutation
lit.dvkti,dvkoti,dvkterti`breathe,pant,gasp',dvkti`stink',dvkas`breath,breeze,breath',
dksas`sigh',dkst,dkti`becomeraving,rage',dkis`fury',lett.dcu,dkt`roar,rage',ducu,
ductit.`roar',dku(*dunku),duku,dukt`becomemat';colornamesaslett.dkans`swart'(see
above)hitpresumablythebridgeto:
ahd.tugot`variegated',tougan`dark,concealed,mysterious,miraculous',n.`mystery,miracle',as.
dgalnussi`mystery,hidingplace,nook',ags.dagol,degle`clandestine',ahd.tougal`dark,
concealed,secret';alsoags.dagf.`paint,color,redorpurpledye;redorpurplecolor;rouge;in
gen.,paint,dyeofanycolor;bee-glue',dagian`dye',engl.dye.
4.ll-extension:dh(e)u e l- (compareinadditionabovethel-nounsasOldIndiandhli-)`whirlup,cloud
(water,themind);murky,dark,spirituallyweak'.
Gr.`slime,mud,smut,esp.frommurkywater,thedarkjuiceofthecuttlefish'(=got.dwals),
Adj.`cloudy',`cloudy',`muddy,cloudy,eclipse;verwirrt,beguile';
,nameofDionysosbythePaeones(Hes.)`theraving',illyr.[]'`I
(Hes.);
maybealb.dal`goout,moveout,wanderaimlessly',nasalizedndal`stop,hinder,delay':anord.
dvelja`hinder,delay',as.bidwellian`hinder',anord.dvlf.`delay',ags.dwalam.`aberration'.
air.dall`blind',clas-dall`deaf'(`unabletohear,blind'),cymr.corn.bret.dall`blind'(about*duallos<
*dullosfrom*dhulno-s);
got.dwals`oafish',anord.dvalaf.`coma,doze,stupor';changingthroughablautas.ags.dol
`clownish,crazy',ahd.tol,tulisc`crazy,nonsensical',nhd.toll,engl.dull`stupid,tasteless,weak(also
fromcolors)',anord.dulf.`concealment,illusion,arrogance',dylja`negate,conceal'andontheother
handanord.dlskr(*dwliska-)`crazy';as.fardwelanst.V.`miss,fail',afries.dwilith`errs';ags.
participlegedwolen`wrong,mistaken',ahd.gitwean`bedazed,tarry',anord.dulinn`conceited,
arrogant';Kaus.anord.dvelja`hinder,delay',as.bidwellian`hinder',ags.dwelian`misguide',ahd.
*twaljan,twallen,mhd.twel(l)en`hinder,delay';anord.dvlf.`delay',ags.dwalam.`aberration',ahd.
gitwolo`infatuation,heresy';got.dwalmn`crazy,bephrenetical',ags.dwolma,as.dwalm
`anesthetization',ahd.twalm`anesthetization,narcoticsmoke,smoke',anord.dylminn`thoughtless,
frivolous',dn.dulme`drowse'.
5.n -extension:dhu e n()- `scatter,sprinkle,bemovedviolently;whirlingsmoke,fog,cloud;
befogged=dark,alsofromthedarkeningoftheconsciousness,thedeath'.
OldIndiandhvant`heburntout,wasextinguished,dwindled'(ofanger,actually`evaporated,
sprayed'),Kaus.dhvnayati`darkens',participledhvnt-`dark',n.`darkness';
av.dvan-withpreverb`fly'(apa-dvsaiti`machtsichaufzumDavonfliegen',upa-dvsaiti`goesflying
there',Kaus.us-dvnayat`heallowstoflyupwards');dvnman-n.`cloud',aipi-dvnara-`cloudy,
misty',dunman-`fog,cloud';
gr.`death',`perishable'(*dhuentosand*dhunts),dor.`die',reshapedafter
thepresentin-att.(-,-),lesb.ds.(SchwyzerGr.Gr.I362,

709,770);
lett.dvans,dvanums`haze,mist,vapor',dviga`haze,mist,coalsteam'(Mhlenbach-EndzelinI
546).
6.rr-extension:dheu e r- (dhu e r -, dheur - )`whirl,attack,hurry;vortex=dizziness,folly'.
OldIndian(unleashed)dhraa-n.`trot',dhrati`trots'(=sl.dur-,seeunder);perhapsdhurAdv.
`violent,forcible';dh`raid,nightraid',ifmind.developmentfrom*dhvrt`Heranstrmen';
perhapsgr.-(*-=n`in'+*)`play,Iamuse',`play,toys;jewellery,ornament
things'(if`play'from`spring');
lit.padrmaiAdv.`withimpetuosity,stormy',OldPrussiandraiNom.Pl.`shy';russ.dur`folly,
fatuity,stubborness',durt,`losethemind',durt`makepranks',durk`fool',dra`fool,clown',
durnj`evil,bad,ugly',dial.`unreasonable,furious',durnca`henbane,ryegrass,darnel',klr.dur,dura
`anesthetization,dizziness,tomfoolery',serb.drm,dritise`flareup,foam'etc;
toch.Ataur,tor`dust'
References:
References:WP.I835ff.;WH.I499f.,561f.,57If.,865;Trautmann62f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I686,
696,703.
Page(s):
Page(s):261-267
Root/lemma: dheu e s- ,dhu s - ,dheus- ,dh s Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todissipate,blow,etc.*scatter,dust,rain,breathe,perish,die
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`stieben,stuben,wirbeln(nebeln,regnen,Dunst,Staub;aufsseelischeGebiet
angewendet:gestoben,verwirrtsein,betubt,dsig,clownish),strmen(vomWindandaufgeregtem
Wesen),blow,wehen,hauchen,pant,gasp(Hauch,Atem,Geist,ghost,animal;smell,smell,odor)'
Note:
Note:extensionofdheu - 4 ;alsoexpressionsfor`darkcolors'seemtobesupposedtobeaddedas
`fog-gray,dust-color'.
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhvasati`sprays,sprinkles,disintegrates,goestopieces',participledhvast-,
aus.dhvasyati,dhvasyati`powdered,destroyed',dhvasmn-m.`obscuration',dhvasir`powdered,sprayed',dhvasr-`powdered,indistinguishable',dhvsti-f.`thespraying'(=ahd.tunist,
dun(i)st`wind,storm,breath,smoke',ags.afries.dst`dust'),dhsara-`dust-colored';toformation
(*dhu-s-mi,Konj.dhusbesides*dhunsmi,Konj.*dhu-n-s-)compareKuiperNasalprs.
41;
gr.()`blow,storm,surge,smoke,sacrifice'as*dh-i(:from,)toeinf.root
*dheu-(seeS.262),however,maybeinthemeaning`rage'from*dhs-i,asf.`female
bacchant',`amadorinspiredwoman,aBacchante'ds.(`begraspedbybacchanalian
dizziness')probablyfrom*dhsiabecauseofHes.andtheimplementsof
Bacchus,thethyrsiandtorches',epithetofBacchus;
Note:commonlat.d->f-phoneticmutation:
lat.fur-ere`torage,rave,bemad'couldbe*dhus,sothatFuriae=gr.;comparealsov.

BlumenthalIF.49,172to;Hes.;but`afuriousstorm,
hurricane'probablyfeminineof*`storming,raging',probablyfrom*F;`anger,
soul'is=`air,acurrentofair,breeze,breath,wind'andnotbecauseoflett.dusmas`anger'
leadbacktoavariousbasicform*;compareMhlenbach-EndzelinI521;
Ablautform*dhues-inhom.and(withmetr.lengtheningto),att.`sulphur
steam,sulphur'(*F-()).
Perhapshere`god'becauseoflit.dvasi`ghost',mhd.getws`ghost'andformsasgr.`spokenfromgod',,`divine'as*Ffrom*dhuesosafterHirtIndog.Gr.I
195,PisaniREtIE.1,220ff.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I450,458,WH.I102;Lit.byFeist122;
alb.dash`Aries,ram,sheep(*animal),afterJokl(L.-k.Unters.240)from*dhuosi-;
lat.perhapsfur,seeabove;fimbriaf.`fringe,border,edge'maybefrom*dhuensri;withtheablaut
formdhus-:febru,-re`clean,expiatereligiously'fromfebruum`religiouspurification'(sabin.after
Varro),asalsoFebrurius`thecleansingmonth',onthebasisof*dhues-ro-`fumigating';frlis
`relatingtothedead,funereal;deadly,fatal;mournful;n.pl.assubst.thefestivalofthedead,in
February'probablyalsohere;
Note:
Commonlat.d->f-phoneticmutation.
whetherbstia,bllua`ananimalwithoutreason,abrute,beast,largeanimal;asatermofreproach,
monster'belonghereas*dhuesti,*dhuslou,itisextremelydubiousbecauseofanlautsinspiteof
WH.I102;
Note:
Commonlat.dw->b-phoneticmutation.
gallorom.dsius`impure,fouldaemon,incubus',outofitlad.eng.dischl,nhd.westfl.ds,bask.
tusuri`devil';comparePedersent.celt.1,171;air.dsacht`fury',distirimmum`Ibecomeraving'
(*dhust-,ablaut.withags.dwsetc);air.d`idle',perhapsas*dhousio-tonhd.dsig;
ags.dws`stupid,crazy',mnd.dwsds.,mhd.tws,dwsm.`idiot,fool,villain',getwsn.`ghost;
foolishness'(comparetotheformermeaningmhd.tustern.`ghost';tolengthenedgradeair.dsaid);
ablaut.ags.dysig`clownish',engl.dizzy`giddy',mnd.dsich`benumbed,giddy',nd.dsig,dsig,
ahd.tusic`sluggish',mnd.dsen,dosen`passawaythoughtlessly',engl.doze`doze',nhd.(ndd.)
Dusel(inthemeaning`lightdrunkenness'comparenhd.mdartl.dusen`carouse'andmhd.tsen
`rant,makeanoise,whizz');
inaddition:norw.dsa`doze',anord.dsa`behavequietly',ds`calm',dra`sleep',mhd.trmen`be
dizzy,reel,lurch'etc;
withgerm.au:mhd.dsen`behavequietly,slumber,drowse',tre`insane,fool',nhd.Tor,tricht,
mnd.drem.`fool,crazyperson';
Maybealb.geg.torr`fool'
withthemeaning`spray,getdusty,scatter':mhd.tsen,dsen`scatter',verdsen`destroy'(from

*dausjan),norw.mdartl.dysa`lump,pileup',probablyoriginallyfrom`dustheapsandwasteheaps',
underwhichmediummeaningcanbeaddedalsoanord.dysf.`frompoutingstonesofburial
mounds',norw.mdartl.dussa`messyheap';
withthemeaning`scatter,sprinkle,dustrainunderlikewise':norw.duskregn`dustrain',duska,dysja
`rainfinely,trickle',engl.dusk`cloudy,dim',nhd.bair.dusel`dustrain';westgerm.*dunstu`transpiration'(seeaboveS.263)inahd.tun(i)st`wind,storm',mhd.tunst`fume,mist',ags.afries.
dstn.`dust'(anord.dustn.`dust'ismnd.Lw.),dn.dyst`flourpowder',mnd.nnd.dustm.`dust,
chaff,husk';
withthemeaning`breathe-animal':got.diusn.`wildanimal'(*dheus-),anord.dyrn.`Vierfler,wild
animal',ahd.tior`animal',ags.dor`wildanimal',Adj.`violent,wild,valiant';
lit.dvesi,dvesia,dvsti`breathe,breatheoutthespirit,perish,die';
maybealb.(*dves)vdes`breatheoutthespirit,perish,die';
ClearlyfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu e s- ,dhu s - ,dheus- ,dh s - :
:`todissipate,blow,etc.*breathe,
breatheoutthespirit,perish,die'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-2 ,dhu - i- :
:`tovanish,faint,die'.
Aslit.dvsti`die':lit.dvesi,dvesia,dvsti`breathe,breatheoutthespirit,perish,die'(seeabove);
Note:
Aryanscreatedthestormgod,skygodDeusPaterfromtheritualofburningthedead.Hencethevery
spiritofthedeadwasidentifiedwiththebreathinthecold,smokeinheaven.Animalfatwasburned
toappeasetheskygodhenceanimalswerenamedafterthefathergod.
lett.dvselef.`breath,soul,life',ablaut.(*dhuos-),lit.dvasasm.,dvasif.,Gen.dvsios`ghost',
`breath',lett.dvaa`air,breath,smell'(:russ.dvochat,idg.*dhuos-);zerograde(*dhs-),lit.dsas
`sigh'and`haze,mist'(=klr.doch),dstu,dsti`runoutofbreath',lett.dust`pant,gasp',dusmas
`anger',lit.dsi,dsti`takeadeepbreath,sigh,gaspheavily',dsautids.;lit.dasosf.Pl.(*dhous)`theupperair,paradise',dausnti`ventilate,air';
russ.dvchat,dvocht`pant,gasp'(seeabove);OldChurchSlavic(vs)dchnti`takeadeep
breath,heaveasigh',klr.doch`breath,breeze'(*dch),OldChurchSlavicdychaj,dy,dychati
`breathe,exhale,blow',duch(:lit.dasos)`respiration,breath,spirit',dua`breath,soul'(*dhousi),
du,duchati`breathe,blow,fromwind'etc
maybealb.(*dychati)dihas`breatheheavily'.
wordsforsombrecolors(`dust-colored,fog-gray'):
OldIndiandhsara-`dust-colored'(seeabove);lat.fuscus`dark-colored;ofthevoice,indistinct'
(*dhusqo-),furvus`dark-colored,black'(*dhusuo-);
Note:commonlat.d->f-shift.
ags.dox(*dosc)`dark',engl.dusk`cloudy,dim;twilight'(=lat.fuscus;comparealsonorw.dusmen
`misty'),withformants-no-ags.dunn(kelt.Lw.),as.dun`chestnut-colored',anord.dunna`the
commondomesticduck',as.dosan,ags.dosen`chestnut-colored',ahd.dosan,tusin`paleyellow'
(westgerm.Lwislat.dosinus`ash-colored');mir.donn`dark',cymr.dwnn`subfuscus,dark-colored,

blackish',gall.PNDonnosetc(*dhuosnos).
Note:
ProbablyfromafusionofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu e s- ,dhu s - ,dheus- ,dh s - `todissipate,blow,etc.
*scatter,dust,rain,breathe,perish,die'+Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dei-1 ,dei - ,d- ,di - :
:`toshine;day;
sun;skygod,god'derivedslav.(*dus-diu-):OldChurchSlavic:
OldChurchSlavic:dd`rain'[mjo](seebelow).
References:
References:WP.I843f.,WH.I102,386,472f.,570ff.,Trautmann64f.
Page(s):
Page(s):268-271
Root/lemma: dhig- :dhig- :dhgEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tostick,plant
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`stechen,stecken,festsetzen'
Material:
Material:Lat.fg,-ere`tofix,fasten,makefast,attach,affix;esp.withoculos,tofixthegaze;to
thrusthomeaweapon,etc.soastofixfast;totransfix'(urlat.,comparefgierS.C.Bacch.),alat.
fv,umbr.fiktu`youshallfix,fasten,drive,thrustin,attach,affix,post,erect,setup',afiktu`he/she
shallfasten,implant,drivein,affix';probablyinadditionas`pinned'alsofnis`boundary,limit,border;
summit,end;object,aim;inpl.enclosedarea,territory'(=lit.dgsnis`prick,sting'),comparefni,-re
also`tobound,limit,enclose,restrain;todefine,determine,appoint;toputanendto,conclude,
finish;esp.tofinishspeaking,ortodie;pass.,toend,cease';
Note:commonlat.d->f-shift.
ags.dc`drainageditch,canal',ndd.dk,aisl.dk(i)n,mhd.tch,fromwhichnhd.Deich,Teich
(actually)`thedigging'.
lit.dgstu,dgti,lett.dgt`germinate'(actually`jut.stickout,protrude',lit.dygs`spiky,prickly'),in
additiondygiu,dygti`feelpiercingpain',dygls`thorn',dg`gooseberry',OldPrussiandigno`the
hiltofasword'(asnhd.Heft`thehandleofacuttingorpiercinginstrument,asaknife,spear,etc.;the
hiltofasword,dagger',d.h.`whereinthebladeisfixed,tofix');zerogradelit.degiu,degti,lett.digt
`prick',lit.degas`germ,sprout',OldPrussiandeicktas`site,place',originally`point,dot,prick,sting';
withi:lit.digas`germ,sprout,seedling',diktas`point,dot;thing',daignti`makegerminate';
References:
References:WP.I832f.,WH.I495f.,865;Trautmann49f.
Page(s):
Page(s):243-244
Root/lemma: dh(i)- (besidesdh-ei- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosuck
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`saugen,sugen'
Note:
Note:(:dhi-,dh-anddh-,dh-)s.esp.SchulzeKZ.27,425=Kl.Schr.363.
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhya-`nourishing,nursing',dhyas-n.`thesucking',dhy-`thirsty',dhtav

`tosuck',Fut.dhsyati,Aor.dht`hesucked',su-dh`juice,sap,nectar',dhtr`wetnurse,mother',
dhn-f.`producingmilk'=av.danu-`femaleoffour-footedanimals',OldIndiandhn`milker',
ablaut.dht-`sucked',Perf.Plur.1.3.da-dhi-m(i=),da-dh-;redupl.nounda-dh-an-,Nom.ddh-i,Gen.dadhns`sourmilk'(:OldPrussiandadan,alb.djath);
fromstemdhi-: dhyati`sucks'(*dhieti:Kaus.*dhoi-ie-tiinslav.dojiti,got.daddjan)anddhinti
`nourishes';
arm.diem`suck'(i==idg.orrather,sothat=anord.da),stn-di`(suckingbreast=)suckling',dal
fromdail`beestings'(dhi-li-),dayeak`wetnurse'(from*dayi-=idg.dh-ti-);
gr.`hesucked',`milk',`milk',`wetnurse'(shortformunderlikewise,
whereatdifferentFalk-Torpundertaate),`suckingmilk',-`tame,domesticated,
well-bred';
alb.djath`cheese'originally`curdmadefromsourmilk'(:OldIndianddhi),gr.-alb.dith`cheese';
Note:
Spectacularlyalb.djath(*das),gr.-alb.dith`cheese'derivedfromasolidifiedillyr.root*dh-ei-s
`curdmadefromsourmilk'becauseofcommonalb.-s>-thphoneticmutation.
lat.fmina`wife,woman'(`*thenursingone');aboutflx,fecundusseeunder;
air.dnu`lamb',dth`he/shehassucked'(=idg.or),denaid`hesucks'(*di-na-ti),bret.denaff
`suck',cymr.dynu`suck';
got.daddjan=aschwed.dggja`suckle'(protogerm.*ajjan,compareOldIndiandhyati,Old
ChurchSlavicdoj;dasgerm.*ajj-hasoriginatednormallyfrom*dhoi-eie-),aschwed.da,dn.
norw.die`suck',mhd.den,ten`suckle;breastfeedababy'(compareo.arm.diem),zerogradeahd.
ten,presenttju(=lett.dju`suck'),westfl.dierrn`nourishacalfwithmilk';
lett.dju,dt`suck',at-diene,at-diente`acowthatcalvesinthesecondyear',lit.dienf.`pregnant'(=
OldIndiandhn-),diends.(=OldIndiandhn`cow'),OldPrussiandadan`milk'(=OldIndian
dadhan-);OldChurchSlavicdoj`suckle'(OldIndiandhyati),doilica`wetnurse',with(=idg.or
i)dtf.`children,kids.`,dva,dvica`girl,virgin'(replacedby`*woman'=`thenursingone,the
onewhosuckles',s.Berneker197).
Withl-formant:OldIndiandhr-`sucking'=gr.`nourishing(),lactating,female'(fem.
and),,`wetnurse',`suckle,suck',`brisket',alb.dele
`sheep'(*dhiln-),delmds.,dhall`sourmilk',illyr.dalm-`sheep'inPN,,VN
Dalmatae,Delmatae,messap.PNGen.m.dalmaihi,fem.PNdalmaoa;lat.fl,-re`suckle',flius
`son'(`*suckling',from*flios)=umbr.feliuf,filiu`givemilk,givesuck';
Note:
Commonlatd->f-phoneticshift
mir.del`teat'(*dh-lo-),delech`milker',dn.dl`mammaryglandsorudderofthesow',schwed.
mdartl.delm.`teat',ahd.tilaf.`femalebreast',ags.deluf.`nipple,teat',anord.dilkr`lamb,baby,
youngling';lett.dls`son',dle`bloodsucker,leech',lit.dlds.,pirmdl`thefirstborn',pirmdls
`whohasjustbeenborn';lett.dle`suckingcalf',dlt`suckle'.

Identicalalb.djal`son':lett.dls`son'.
fromgr.(*)`tofeast',`feast'(from*-)withgradationsuithere,is
doubtful;ifand(dor.)`'as*-pointstoalightroot*dhi-(alsothen;
alsocouldbe-)
Lat.flx`fertile,lucky'toflregoesbacktoafem.Subst.*fl-c-`thenursingone=fertile',after
Specht(KZ.62,237)from*fluks,Femin.toOldIndiandhru-,gr.;lat.fcundus`fertile',
ftus,-s`(1)pregnant;fruitful,fertile;teemingwith,fullof.(2)thathasbroughtforth,newlydelivered;
(3)m.thebringingforthorhatchingofyoung;ofthesoil,bearing,producing.Transf.,thatwhichis
broughtforth;offspring,brood;ofplants,fruit,produce,shoot',fta`filledwithyoung,pregnant,
breeding,withyoung',also`whatisborn',effta`pastbearing,exhausted,wornout,weakafteralot
ofparturition',fnus,-oris`yield,interestonmoney,usury',perhapsalsofnum`hay'(as`yield')
definethemselvesthroughaspecialapplicationfromdhi-`suckle'for`befertile';
inadditionbutnot*dhn-`corn,grain':OldIndiandhnf.Pl.`grain,seeds',dhny-n.`corn,
grain',np.dna`corn,grain',av.dn-kara-`anantkind',i.e.`towinggrain(=anant)',toch.tno
`corn,grain'andlit.dona,lett.dunaf.`bread'(originally`corn',alit.`provisionforretiredfarmers,
retirement,settlementonretirement');dor.-illyr.(kret.)...EM.,
(*dh-k-i-)Hes.;differentJoklbyWH.I475;
References:
References:WP.I829ff.,WH.I474ff.,864,Trautmann51.
Seealso:
Seealso:s.alsoabovedh-1,dh-dh-.
Page(s):
Page(s):242
Root/lemma: dh-1 ,redupl.dh-dh()Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:childwordfor`grandparents'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:LallwortderKinderspracheforltereFamilienglieder
Material:
Material:Gr.`uncle',`aunt'(*-,-),`grandmother'(from*-),ital.(venet.)
deda`aunt'(),gr.`aunt'(inadditionGN);illyr.deda`wetnurse'(KraheIF.55,121f.),
alsoprobablyoriginallyzurrootdh(i)-`suckle';lit.dde,ddis`uncle'(butdidas`graybeard,old
man,elder'fromwr.ddds.),OldChurchSlavicdd`grandfather';similarlynhd.deite,teite,
schweiz.dddi`father,elder',russ.djdja`uncle'.
Note:
Turk.dayi`uncle'derivedfromruss.djdja`uncle'whilealb.dajan.f.`uncle'couldhaveexisted
beforeturk.dayi`uncle',however,alb.cognateisphoneticallyidenticalwithothercognates:alsoturk.
hala`paternalaunt':alb.halla`paternalaunt',turk.teyze`maternalaunt':alb.teze`maternalaunt'.
References:
References:WP.I826,Trautmann47,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I193.
Page(s):
Page(s):235
Root/lemma: dh-2

Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toput,place
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`setzen,stellen,legen'
Material:
Material:OldIndianddhti,av.daiti`heplaces',Oldpers.Impf.Sg.adad`hehasinstalled',Old
IndianAor.-dh-m`Iplaced',Med.3.Sg.-dhita(=gr.);to-participleOldIndianhit
(-dhitinved.compounds)`set,settled'(=lat.con-ditus,ab-ditus,crditus,probablyalsogr.
`sedate,calm,settled,placed,set;havingposition;takenasone'schild,adopted'),withfullgradeav.
Oldpers.dta-(=lit.dtas`sedate,calm,settled',OldPrussiansen-ditansAkk.Pl.f.`folded',alsogr.
Hes.,eig.`setraisedplatform,placedstand');Inf.OldIndiandh-tum(=lit.dtSupin.,
OldChurchSlavicdt`toplace':lat.[late]conditus,-sm.`pickled,preserved;ofcorpses,
embalmed;ingen.,seasoned,savory',Supin.-um,-,comparealsoOldIndiandhtu-),m.
`component,set',av.vtu-n.`grounds,rationale,steadyacquiescence');io-presentOldIndian
dhyat`placesforoneself'(=lett.dju,dt`place,layeggs',djudt`soldertogether',OldChurch
Slavicdj`lay,place',aech.dju`make');Perf.OldIndiandadhu,dadhim,av.3.Sg.daa(:gr.
,lat.-did,osk.pr-ffed,ahd.tetaetc).
Arm.edAor.`heplaced'(=OldIndian-dht;1.Sg.edi,2.Sg.edir),presentdnem`Iplace'(*dinem,
idg.*dhno-,compareruss.dnu`sit,put,lay,place',skr.djnm`do,put,lay');
Maybenasalizedalb.geg.mendenj`tosit,while,stay',ndej`hanglose,place'
phryg.`hasplaced'(*e-dh-es-trather=hitt.da-a-i);
gr.`put'(Aor.-seeunder-,,,Fut.,participle);
messap.hi-pa-of`hasplaced'(*hi-po-dhs-t,J.B.HofmannKZ.63,267);
lat.abdere`putaway,remove,setaside,stowaway',con-dere`toputtogether,makebyjoining,
found,establish,build,settle'(inadditionCnsus[*kom-d-to-]anancientdeity,godofsecretplans),
perdere`tomakeawaywith,destroy,ruin,squander,dissipate,throwaway,waste,lose',crdere
`believe,trust'(seebelow*kered- `heart');abouttheinterferenceofdarewithrespectiveformss.
WH.I362;Perf.condidetc,osk.pr-ffed`hasplaced'(*-fefed).
Note:
Commonitalic.-lat.d->f-shift.
Witheinerk-extensionlat.faci,-ere,fec(:),factum`tomake,form,do,perform;offeelings
andcircumstances,tocause,bringabout',osk.fakiiad,umbr.facia`he/shemakes,constructs,
fashions,frames,builds,produces,composes',fakurentFut.II[subjunctive]`theywillhavemade,
constructed,fashioned,framed,erected,produced,composed',praen.(passionateinscription)
FheFhaked`he/shehasmade,constructed,fashioned,framed,erected,produced,composed',osk.
fefacitKonj.Perf.`lethe/shehavemade,constructed,fashioned,framed,erected,produced,
composed',fefacustFut.II`he/shewillhavemade,constructed,fashioned,framed,erected,
produced,composed';
with*fk-umbr.feitu,fetu[Imperative]`he/shewillhavemade,constructed,fashioned,framed,
erected,produced,composed':

facilis`(feasible)easytodo;easytomanage,convenient,favorable',umbr.facefeleds.;facis
`shape,form,figure,outwardappearance;esp.face,countenance.Transf.,character,nature;

seeming,pretence',facinus,ponti-fex,arti-fexbeneficusunderlikewise;tomeaningofinterfici`to
putoutoftheway,destroy,bringtonaught,slay,kill'(`*allowtodisappear')compareOldIndian
antarhita`vanished'.
Thesamek-extensionbesidesingr.alsoin`receptacle',OldIndiandh-k-`container'
andphryg.-`afflicts,causesdeath',Med.-;ven.vhaso`he/shemakes,
constructs,fashions,frames,builds,erects,produces,composes'(*faksto,thefprobablyfrom
Ital.);hitt.dak-ki-e-zi(dakkeszi)`makes,placesdown'(:lat.facess),dak-u-ul(daksul)`friendly'(:
alat.facul);perhapstoch.Atk`Iwas,became',Btakwds.(differentPedersenToch.194);
gall.dede`he/shehasplaced';comparelat.con-,ab-,cr-did,ahd.teta`Imade,did';air.-tarti
`gives,yields'(*to-ro-ad-dtfrom*dht),Perf.do-rat(*to-ro-ad-datfrom*dh-t),ThurneysenGr.35;
ahd.tm,tuom,as.tn,ags.dm`do',Inf.ahd.tuon,as.ags.dn(*dhm)`do',preteritahd.teta`I
made,did'(2.Sg.tti,Pl.ttum;reshapedafterthetypeofgot.stum),as.deda(2.Sg.deds,3.
Pl.ddun,dedun),ags.dyde<dudi(seeabovetoOldIndiandadhu);particlePerf.Pass.ahd.
gitn,ags.dn`done'from*dh-no-=OldChurchSlavico-dn`wrapped,dressed';
intheendingofreducedPrter.(got.salb-ddunetc)onetriestoseekmostlytherootdh-,
whereasingot.kuna`granted',mustcontaintheidg.-t-,toacceptanotherformation.compareHirt,
Idg.Gr.IV,99,SverdrupNTS.2,55ff.,Marstrander,NTS.4,424f.,SpechtKZ.62,69ff.,
KretschmerSbb.Wien,225.Bd.,2.Abh.,6f.
lit.dti`lay,place,put',present2.Pl.olddeste(*dhe-dh-te),Sg.dem,desie-s,dest(i)(compare
BgaKalbairs.158,213),neologismded;lett.dt(seeabove);
OldChurchSlavicdti`lay,place'(also`say'),presentded(*dedi)anddj(seeabove);dj,
djati`lay,place,do';-va-iterativeOldChurchSlavico-dvati`(toput),dress',russ.dvt`setdown,
do,place';
inadditionprobablylit.dvi,dvti`wearadress';aformantualsoingr.*Fand(assim.)
*F,compare`sit,put',ion.(hom.writtenfor[F])`seat',
Hes.,att.alsods.,hom.`sit',att.poet.ds.(seetogr.group
BechtelLexil.161f.,Boisacq335);comparealsothrak.-dava`settling,settlement'from*dhuor
*dhu;probablyreshufflingaftertheconcurrent*d-:*dou-`bestow,give';
Note:
Thesuffix-dava`settling,settlement'frequentlyscatteredoverthethrak.territoryandcitynamesis
absentinillyr.toponyms,henceillyr.-alb.andtrak.weretwodifferentpeople.
hitt.daai(di)`setzt,legt',1.Sg.te-e-i(tehhi),3.Pl.tianzi(PedersenHitt.91,112f.,166),
preterit3.Sg.da-a-i;perhapsalsodak-ki-e-zi(seeabove);
toch.At-,ts-,tas-,Btes-`lay,place'(*dhs-PedersenToch.186f.);
lyk.ta-`lay,place'(Pedersen.Lyk.andHitt.30f.).
Rootnouns(incompositions):e.g.OldIndianvay-dh-`impartingvitality',sa-dhf.`pact,
agreement,promise'(:lit.arkld`stable'),sa-dh--m`association'(:lit.sam-das),ratna-dh--
`impartingtreasure',nidhm.`container,treasure,tribute',sam-dh--m.`association,covenant,
fusion',av.gao-i-`milkcontainer';lit.samdas`rent,rental',idas`vessel',nuoda`poison',(old)

nodia`debt,blame,offense',pdis`thehenlaysanegg';
OldPrussianumnode`bakehouse',lit.peld,lett.pelude`chaffcontainer',OldChurchSlavicob-do
n.`',s-d`,';compareBerneker193ff.,Trautmann47f.;ifsoalsoaisl.oddr,
ags.ord,ahd.ort`cusp,peak'as*ud-dho-s`pointedup'
nominalformation:
OldIndiandhtar-m.`instigator,founder',dhtr-`creator,god'(comparealsoOldChurchSlavic
dtel`perpetrator'),gr.,lat.con-ditor`afounder;hence,ingen.,contriver,composer,author';
compare*dh-tlo-inair.dl,acymr.datl,ncymr.dadl,abret.dadl`congregation,meeting',nbret.dael
`contest,quarrel'(comparetomeaningphryg.);

*dh-ti-inOldIndian-dhiti-f.`stead',dv-hiti-`God'sstatute',gr.f.`statute,order',lat.conditi-f.`anagreement,stipulation,condition,compact,proposition,terms,demand';*dh-ti-sinav.
ni-iti-f.`layingdown,puttingaway,hiding',got.gadds`deed,position,place',aisl.d
`skillfulness,deed,act',ags.dd,ahd.tt`deed,act',lit.dtis`load,burden',Pl.dtys`layofthe
chicken,thegoose',OldChurchSlavicblago-dt`Grace,blessing,gratitude';*dh-t-inthrak.PN
,alb.dhat(*dh-t)`site';*dh-t-inav.dami-d-t`thecreatedcreature',lat.sacer-ds`a
priest,priestess'(*sacro-dht-s).
OldIndiandhna-m`container',el.()`pact,covenant',ahd.participlegitn,ags.dn
`done',OldChurchSlavico-dn`(completed),vested';OldIndiandhnam`sacrifice,offering,price
incompetitionetc',nidhnam`layover,stay,inhabitationetc',gdhana-m`cattlepossession',av.
gao-ana-n.`milkcontainer'.
OldIndiandhman-n.`statute,law,dwelling,troop,multitude,crowdetc',av.dman-,dman-n.
`site,creature',gr.-`anythingdevotedtoevil,anaccursedthing',-`somethingput
on,alid,cover;statueonagrave',m.`heap';`probablykeepingtidy,keepingin
order';thrak.plantname-(Dioskor.)from*ka-dhmn`watersettlement',PN
Uscu-dama;secondary(after)gr.n.`thatwhichisplacedorlaiddown:moneydeposited,
deposit;also,ofgrain;treasure,pile,ofloaves,coffer,position,situation,nativity,commonburialplace,commonland,privateburial-ground,somethingproposedasaprize,caseproposedfor
discussion,themeofanargument,proposition,premise,arbitrarydetermination,primary(nonderivative)elementorform,ofthepresenttense,modeofreductionofanirregularsyllogism',
comparealsoInf.;av.dmi-f.`creation',Adj.(alsofem.)`constituting,originating,creator,
god';gr.`thatwhichislaiddownorestablishedbycustom',Gen.originally`*allowedby
thelawsofGodandmen,righteous'asGoddess'sname,then`right,law,custom',Pl.`the
foundationofabuilding;theinnermost,core',`thefoundation-stones',hom.(
metr.lengthening)`thefoundations,lowestpart,bottom,ground';
Alb.themel`thefoundationofabuilding;theinnermost,core':hom.(metr.lengthening)
`foundation,ground'[probablyaloanword];themn`heel,bottomofthefoot'.
zerograde:`*massed;frequent,often',`frequent,often,massed',hom.,femin.
Pl.`thepiledup,tightlypacked,crowded,close-set,thick'(from*),`thicket,
shrubbery,bush,shrub';ina*dh-mo-`settlement,branch,dwelling'(compare,,
Hes.[*dhmio-],alsoOldIndiandhman-`dwelling')or`heap,troop,multitude,crowd(the
servant)'correlatesoneperhapsrightlyalsowithlat.famulus`aservant,amaleslave,attendant',
familia`ahousehold(ofslaves),establishment',osk.famel`aservant,amaleslave,attendant',

famelo`ahousehold(ofslaves),establishment',umbr.fameias`ahousehold(ofslaves),
establishment';
Note:
Commonlat.d->f-shift

-gradegr.`heap,barn,haystack';phryg.`anassembly,meeting,congress,aliving
together',lat.ab-dmen`lowerabdomen'as`intimate,hidden,secretpart',compareahd.intuoma
`thechiefinternalorgansofthebody,significantorgans'(wouldbelat.*indmen),mnd.ingedme,
bayr.ingetumds.,got.dmsm.`judgement,fame'(dmjan`adjudicate';fromdemGerm.russ.dma
`thought,notion,care;councilmeeting'etc,s.Berneker237),ags.dm`opinion,sense,mind,
judgement,court',ahd.tuom`judgement,feat,deed,act,custom,state,status',lit.dom,domess
`attention,directingofthethoughtandwillonsomething',alsolit.dm`spotuponwhichattentionis
directed'etc,dmtis=domtis`wonder,care,concern,follow,go,takeinterest'.
Aisl.dll`easytodo,easy,withoutdifficulty'(*dh-li-s);compareurnord.dalidun`theydid'(preteritof
germ.*dlian),lit.pa-dls`nest-egg(thehenlaysanegg)',priedl,predlis`inclosure',abg.dlo
n.`work',wherefore(seeBerneker195f.,Trautmann48)OldChurchSlavicdlja,dljmam.Gen.
`becauseof',lit.dl,del,dliai,lett.dl`withGen.`becauseof,forthesakeof'.
MaybefromSlavicne`not'+OldChurchSlavic:dlo`work,matter'=Bulgarian(nedel'a),
Serbiannedelja,Czechnedle,Polishniedziela`Sunday,holiday=nowork':Lithuanian:dlioti`put
down,away':Albaniandjel`Sunday,holiday'.
Anoccasionalformationcomparestillgr.(Pind.),(lak.etc),(att.)`statute'after
Thurneysen(KZ.51,57)toair.dedm,cymr.deddf(*dhedhm)ds.(differentSchwyzerGr.Gr.I
49212);,att.:`punishment'.Verydoubtfulas-extensionwouldbeattributedtoaisl.des
(*dasj)`haystick,hayrick'(Lw.fromdemAir.),air.dais(*dasti-)`heap,hayrick',wherewithE.
Lewy(KZ.52,310)comparesratherosset.dasun`pileup,lump'.

References:
References:WP.I826ff.,WH.I266,362f.,439ff.,863,Trautmann47ff.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I492,
686,722,725,741,PedersenHitt.141ff.,192.
Page(s):
Page(s):235-239
Root/lemma: dh-3 ,dhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todisappear
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`hinschwinden'
Material:
Material:Lat.famsf.`hunger',adfatim,affatim`adlassitudinem,zurGenge',fatg`hetzeab,
ermde',fatsc,-or`geheauseinander;ermatte';
Note:commonlat.d->f-shift
air.ded-(presentrudeda,Fut.Plur.dedait,preteritcon-ro-deda)`vanish,passaway,dieaway,
disappear,dwindle,wasteaway,melt,decay';ags.demm`damage'(*dh-mi-s);
with-sanord.dsi`idle'(germ.*ds-),mhd.dsic`still,uncommunicative,stupid',changingthrough

ablautnorw.dial.dase`flabbyperson',dn.dase`bedecayed';anord.dsa(sk)`swelter,decay',
dasask`gobad,getworse';mengl.dasen`stun'(engl.daze),dasewen`bedark'.
Inallpartssomedubiousconnections.Aboutair.ded(a).comparePedersenKG.II504f.(fromPerf.
*dhe-douefromtogot.diwans`perishable's.dheu-`disappear',wherealsoaboutair.dth,arm.di).
Thegerm.familyfinallyremindspartlyunder*dheues-`whisk'discussedfromndd.dsigandhave
beendirectedpartlyafterthisnotonlyinthes-extension,butalsointhemeaningitself;atleast,isto
bereckonedonanoldrelationshipfromanord.desasketc.andir.-deda.
References:
References:WP.I829,WH.I451.
Page(s):
Page(s):239
Root/lemma: dhs- ,dhsEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:arootusedinreligiousterms
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:inreligisenBegriffen
Material:
Material:Arm.di-k``gods'(PL*dhses);
Note:commonlat.d->f-shift
lat.friae(alat.fsiae)`daysofrest,holidays,festivals',fstus`ofholidays,festive,festal,solemn,
joyful,merry,originallyfromthereligiouscelebrationtodevoteddays',osk.fsnamAkk.`anopen
placeforobservation,placemarkedoffbytheaugur'sstaff',umbr.fesnaf-e`inashrine,sanctuary,
temple';zerogradelat.fnum(*fas-no-m)`ashrine,sanctuary,temple'andOldIndiandhiya`devout,godly,pious,holy'(insecuredhiayant-underlikewise,seeunderdhei-`see');aboutgr.
`god'seeunderdheues-,aboutlat.fs,fstusaboveS.105f.
References:
References:WP.I867,WH.I453,3f.;EM2333,347f.
Page(s):
Page(s):259
Root/lemma: dhlas- ordhelB-(:dhl s - )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosqueeze,press
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`quetschen,drcken'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhrd-`millstone';
gr.`squeeze,crush'(idg.*dhlas-or*dhls),,;
ech.dlasmati`press'(*dhlsmo-or*dholsmo-);
`'ishybridizationofwith,asontheotherhandthroughhybridization
withisalsotransfiguredto.
References:
References:WP.I877,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I676.

Page(s):
Page(s):271
Root/lemma: dhl g hEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:debt
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Schuld,Verpflichtung'
Material:
Material:Air.dligim`beentitledto,earn',mcymr.dlu,withepenthet.voweldylyu`withheld,kept
back',corn.dyllyds.,mbret.dellitds.,air.dligedn.`obligation,law,right'(*dhlghito-m),cymr.dled,
dyled,me.d(y)lyetf.`obligation',besidesdlit`earnings'(*dhlght);got.dulgs`debt'(inmoney);Old
ChurchSlavicdlg`debt',russ.dolg,skr.dg(Gen.dga),poln.dug,ech.dluhds.
Got.dulgsandtheslav.wordshaveprobablycommonorigin.
References:
References:WP.I868,Trautmann55.
Page(s):
Page(s):271-272
Root/lemma: dh[u]- :dhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:rope
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Strick'
Material:
Material:Gr.(),-f.`rope,cord,band,strap,stringofthebow'(placesahead*--or);
Note:commonlat.d->f-shift
lat.fnis`arope,sheet,line,cord';ablaut[u]-:-,iflat.notatmostdial.developmentfrom;after
J.Duchesne-Guillemin(BSL.41,178)ostensiblyheretoch.ABtsu-,tsaw`tounite'().
References:
References:WP.I868,WH.567f.comparealsoPeterssonHeterokl.169f.
Page(s):
Page(s):272
Root/lemma: dhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosharpen
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schrfen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhr`cuttingedge,sharpness,blade',av.drf.ds.,tiidra-`withsharp
edge',gr.`sharp,sharp',`Isharpened,sharpen'(*-Fuo-participle,ase.g.*-F
`sliced'in;for*dh-toocompare:-).
fromheredueto*dh-ro-`pointed'(:OldIndiandh-r)alsoags.darom.`spit,pike,spear,lance',
ahd.tartm.`spit,pike',anord.darra-rm.,darrn.`spit,pike'Andatmostinadditionas`woundwith
apike'furtherdiegerm.familyofas.ags.derian`injure,hurt',ahd.terrenbesidestarn,-n`harm,
injure',ags.daruf.`damage,pity,injury',ahd.taraf.`injury'

References:
References:WP.I867f.
Page(s):
Page(s):272
Root/lemma: dhrebhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tocrush,grind
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zerbrechen,zermalmen'
Material:
Material:Got.gadraban`cutout,';anord.drafn.,ags.drfn.`offal',anord.drafna
`separateinsmallparts',bl-drefjarm.`bloodstain';
OldChurchSlavicdroblj,drobiti`crush,break,rupture,grind',russ.drobf.`break,piece,fragment',
russ.-ChurchSlavicdrobn,bulg.drben`small,little',nexttowhichwithablaute:bulg.drbends.,
dreb`secessionofwool,byripplingtheflax;liver',russ.drbezg`shards,debris';FickBB.2,199,
Berneker225-226(m.furtherLit.).
Withgot.hlaiw,ateiwasgadrabanusstainacomparesHoffmannBB.18,288Hes.,
sothattheapplicationofourrootto`quarryingoutofstones'wouldbeold.
Asimilartorootdhreb- in:
Anord.drepa`prick,bump,poke,slay',ags.drepan`slay,meet',mnd.drepen`meet,fight',ahd.
treffan`meet,touch',anord.drepn.`blow,knock',ags.gedrepds.,mhd.trefm.n.`prank,blow,club,
meeting',ags.drepem.(*drapi-)`manslaughter',anord.drpn.ds.;presumablyaskvidrepit
stefjum:anord.drpaf.`onefromseveraldistinguishedpartsofexistingpoembysog.stef;usuallya
praisesong'.
References:
References:WP.I875f.
Page(s):
Page(s):272-273
Root/lemma: dhregh-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:torun
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`laufen'
Material:
Material:Arm.durgn,Gen.drgan`potter'swheel'(afterMeilletBSL.36,122from*dhrgh-);
gr.(dor.),Fut.,`run',(:air.droch)`wheel',`run',
`runner,summoner',`sandpiper';barely`nape,neck'PedersenIF.5,56,
Zup.KZ.36,57;
air.droch`wheel'(*drogon);
Itshowsinpalatalwhereaslett.dru,drzu,drzt`quick,fastrun',lit.padrtids.,buttosaythe
leastcouldbeconsideredjustaswellasavariantinpalatalbesidesdhergh-`pull,drag'.Yetare
likewiselit.(pa)drtiasalsolett.drzt`runquickly,fast'identicalwithlit.drti,lett.drzt`carve'
(seedhre-).Theprimarymeaningis`carve'.Allnumerousotherinterpretationsaretobeexplained

bycasualuse.
References:
References:WP.I874f.
Page(s):
Page(s):273
Root/lemma: dhregh-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:topain,tosuffer
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`qulen,reizen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandrghat(Dhatup.)`afflicts,plagues,strivesitself';
osset.w-drzin`stir,tease,irritate'(E.LewyKZ.52,306);
ags.dracuf.`plague,agony',dreccan`stir,tease,irritate,plague'(withexpressivek);
OldChurchSlavicraz-dra,-draiti`enrage,irritate',serb.drm,driti`stir,tease,irritate';
Maybealb.trazonj`stir,tease,irritate'.
einni-abstractnoun*dran`irritation'liesruss.draznt`stir,tease,irritate,banter'thebasic,z
insteadofafterthesynonymousforms-zn.
Alsoaroot*dhrgh-or*dhrgh-:*dhrgh-:*dhrgh-wremglich.
References:
References:WP.1875.
Page(s):
Page(s):273-274
Root/lemma: dhreEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:topull
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`ziehen;dahinziehen,gleiten,streifen'
Note:
Note:synonymouswithtr g h- (seethere)
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhrjati`glides,slidesthere',pr-dhrajati`hurries',dhrjas-n.,dhrajati-f.`the
pranks,pull',dhrj-perhaps`attraction',dhrji-,dhrj-f.`pull,urge,desire';
anord.drkf.`stripe'(:OldIndiandrj-);nasalizedinadditionperhapsgot.drigkan,aisl.drekka,ags.
drincan,ahd.trinkan`drink'(`makeagoodgulp,drawfromdrinking-vessel');
Maybealb.dreka,drek`dinner',dark(*drak)`supper'
lit.dreti`smoothdown',dras,druo`streaky',also()lit.dr-iu,-ti`rend',nudrti`pulldown,
destroy'(Jukevi346);inadditionprobablydrti`carve,hit,gehen'etc,lett.drztds.;seeunder
dregh-1 ;
Lett.dragt`pull'againstitpresumablytomndl.trecken`pull,drag',s.der-4 (dergh-,dreg-)`flay'and

Mhlenbach-EndzelinI488m.Lit.
References:
References:WP.I874.
Page(s):
Page(s):273
Root/lemma: dhreibhEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todrive,topush
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`treiben,stoen'etc
Material:
Material:Got.dreiban`drive,push,bump,poke',anord.drfa`comepulling,pull,drag,stream'etc,
ags.drfan`drive,push,hunt,chase,overthrow',as.dran`bemoved,dispelled',ahd.trban`beat,
strike,knock,push,drive,hurl,impel,propel,expel'(zerogradeschw.Verbtribn`setinviolent
motion,driveonward,move,impel,urge',uolatribn`thrustthrough,piercethrough,transfix');anord.
driftf.`drive,impel,drift,propel,push,thrust,snowdrift',drifn.`whatfloatsthroughtheair,snowfall',
ags.drifn.`drive,impel,drift,propel,push,thrust,thedriven',drff.`drive,impel,drift,propel,push,
thrust,drift,herd',mhd.triftds.,nhd.Trift`pasture,herd';
lit.drimb,drbti`laggard,clodhopper,lubber,looby,hobbledehoy,lummox,squab,dub,lug',snigas
drimba`thesnowfallsthickly'(=anord.drfrsnr);fromdrib-,towhichcouldbelonglikewisetheiasthee-series,thetransferhasoccurredinthee-series:drebi,drbti`pour,makestainswith
viscousliquid'.
References:
References:WP.I872,876,WissmannNom.postverb.68f.,SpechtKZ.68,41.
Page(s):
Page(s):274
Root/lemma: dhreugh-1
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:totremble,shake
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zittern,(sich)schtteln,einschrumpfen'
Material:
Material:Ags.dryge`dry'etc,seeaboveS.254f.underdhereugh-;
lit.drugs`fever;butterfly',lett.drudzis`coldfever;fever',drudzint`neighafterfodder'(`*toshake'),
perhapsOldPrussiandrogis`reed'(iffordrugis,s.TrautmannOldPrussian323m.Lit.,MhlenbachEndzelinI502);perhapslett.drugt`collapse,diminish',Berneker231between;s.alsounderS.279;
poln.dr,drec`tremble',oldalso`haveafever',drga,perf.drgn`tremble,quiver;flounder,
twitch',russ.dro,-t,perf.drgnut`tremble,quiver'(etc,s.Berneker231).Dissyllabicrootform
*dhereugh-or*dhereug-onesupposesingr.Hes.,
Hes.and,ds.Hes.
Maybealb.geg.(*dhereugh-)dredh`tremble,twist',dridhem`tremble,quiver,haveafever'[common
alb.-gh->-dh-phoneticmutation].
References:
References:WP.I873f.,Berneker231.

Page(s):
Page(s):275
Root/lemma: dhreugh-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:todeceive,harm
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`trgen,listigschdigen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandrhyati`seekstoharm,harms'(Fut.dhrkyti,participledrugdh-);common
OldIndianh->k-phoneticmutation
Oldpers.Imperf.adurujya(=OldIndianadruhyat)`lied',av.druaiti`lies,cheats',OldIndiandrgha-,
drha-m.`insult,damage,betrayal',av.draoga-`fallacious',m.`lie,falsity,deception',Oldpers.
drauga-`fallacious',OldIndiandrh-`injuring',f.`damage,fiend,ghost',m.`fiend,demon',av.druj-f.
`lie,falsity,deception;impersonatingthelie,falsity';
mir.aur-ddrach(afterthesoundsfrom*druag=OldIndiandrgha-)`ghost';
as.bidriogan,ahd.triogan`deceive',anord.draugrm.`ghost';zerogradeas.gidrogn.`delusion',
mndl.gedrochds.,ahd.gitrogn.`deceit,devilishphantasmagoria';anord.draumr,ahd.troum,as.
drm,engl.dream`dream'(germ.*rau()ma-`delusion').
Idg.dhreugh-isveryprobablyrelatedwithdhuer-`bringtotrapthroughdeception',whiletozero
grade*dhru-gh-from*dhur-gh-adjusteditselftoanewzerogradeidg.*dhreugh-,*dhrough-.Withthe
extendingghwouldbeidenticalwithnhd.Zwerg,ifthiswordnotgoebacktoamiscellaneousidg.
dhu e rgh- `dwarfish,crippled'(seethere).
References:
References:WP.I874.
Page(s):
Page(s):276
Root/lemma: dhreuEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tocrumble,grind
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:withkons.extensions`zerbrechen,zerbrckeln'
Note:
Note:withitareprobablylinkedfromintransitive`crumble'explicablewordsfor`tumble,falldown,
trickledown'
Material:
Material:1.dhreus-, dhru-sdhru-s-:
Gr.(,)`rupture,crunch',,(*-),
(Hes.)`frail,breakable',,`piece,fragment,wound',(Lyk.),
(Eur.)`shatter'(pointat*[]-,s.Boisacqs.v.m.Lit.);(Hom.),
(Lyk.)`break,rupture,shatter',Hes.(*from*--;gr.-and-:-aretobeinterpretedaszerogradeandlengthenedgradeofdhrus-,nexttowhichdhreus-;
s.BechtelKZ.46,164);
cymr.dryll`piece,fragment'(*dhrus-lio-),gallorom.Pl.drullia`dross'(KleinhansbeiWartburgIII163);

got.drauhsnsf.Pl.`gobbet,crumbs';probablyasrearrangementfrom*dhrs-knawithnearest
connectablebalt.druska;interferencetonhd.trocken,ags.drahnian-s.dher-2,dhreugh- `hold,
stop'-respectivewordswouldpermittolookatmostatbothtraditionalformsasreallyspoken;but
comparebesidesgot.drausnsds.;
got.driusan`fall,tumble,falldown',as.driosan,ags.drosan`fall',norwdial.drysia`trickledown';
Kaus.got.gadrausjan`prostrate',ahd.trren`drip,trickle,makedrip,moult';inadditionas`collapse,
bend'withlautsymbolischgedehnterzerograde:ags.drsian`besluggish(fromage)',engl.drowse
`besleepy';ahd.trrn`beknockeddown,mourn;lowertheeyes',mhd.trrec`sad';ags.changing
throughablautdrorig`grieving';anord.dreyrim.(*drauzan-)`theblooddrippingfromthewound',as.
drrm.`blood'(ags.changingthroughablautdrorm.ds.),mhd.trrm.`dew,rain,blood';
lett.druska`crumb',lit.drusk`salt'(*crumb),OldPrussiandruskins`earwax'(consignsdmskins);in
additionbsl.*druzga`smallpiece'inlit.drzgasds.,sloven.drzgati`crush',etc
Labialextensions:

dhreubh-: gr.()`grind,crumb,spall,crumble;enfeeble,soften,makefragile',
andn.`piece,fragment',`softness,luxuriance',`mushy,softish,
delicate,mollycoddle'(seealsoBoisacqs.v.);
lett.drubaa`Trumm',drubazas`splinterofwood'.

dhreup-: as.drn,drvn`begrieving';lett.drupu,drupt`zerfallen,inTrmmergehen',drapt
`crumb,spall,crumble';compareMhlenbach-EndzelinI505.
dhreub-: anord.dripa,as.driopan,ags.dropan,ahd.triofan`drip,drop',o-gradeschw.Verb,ags.
drapian`drip,trickledown',e-gradedropiands.,anord.drpa(*-n)`berhangen,droopdown,
benddown',anord.dropim.`drip',ags.dropa,as.dropods.;Intens.ags.dryppan,droppian,ahd.
tropfn`drip',tropfo`drip';aisl.dreypa,ags.drepan`drip,trickle';
air.drucht`drip'(*dhruptu-s).
References:
References:WP.I872f.,WH.I553f.,WissmannNom.postverb.21,104,136,140f.,182,
Trautmann61f.,Kluge11s.v.Trauer.
Page(s):
Page(s):274-275
Root/lemma: dhrigh- (ordhreikh- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:hair,bristle
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Haar,Borste'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhrigh- (ordhreikh- )::`hair,bristle'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhereh(dhr h-n- )::`towind,turn,*release,discharge,disband'.
Material:
Material:Gr.,f.`hair,bristle',therefrom,att.f.`afishwithfinefishbone',
,ds.;

mir.gairb-driuch(*drigu-or*driku-)`bristle'(garb`rough');
fromgr.derivesprobablyital.-lombard.trissa`burbot';outofitprobablylikewiseschweiz.
Trische(11.Jh.trisca);
whetherbsl.*draika-`stretchedlong'as*dhroiko-herebelongs,alsolit.drikti`distend,takeoff(a
thread)',drkti`hangdowninlongthreads',slovak.driekm.`stem',drieny`stocky',abg.drkol
`shaft,pole',etc,couldourrootbeplacedas*dhreikh-.
Maybealb.(*dhreikh)derth,derdh`hangdown,pour',(*dhreikh)dreth,dredh`twist,curl(hair)',
dredh`lock,curledhair'commonalb.-k>-thphoneticmutation.
References:
References:WP.I876,JudBullGlPat.SuisseRom.11,82,Trautmann58f.,Berneker223,232.
Page(s):
Page(s):276
Root/lemma: dhronoEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:multicoloured
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bunt'
Material:
Material:Forgr.Pl.`flowerdecorationsingarments(byalexandrin.poetsfor,
charm,spell,sorcery,necessitatedmedicinalherbs),coloredgarments,coloredanimals'infer
HoffmannBB.15,86,LidnStud.67f.abasicmeaning`varicolored'.
UnderthesebasicmeaningcomparesLidnaaO.alb.dr-ri,geg.dre-ni-m.`deer'(Animalslikethe
deerandroearenamedoftenas`dappled,varicolored'),thereforeanillyr.basicform*drani-(idg.
dhroni-)throughtheprobableillyr.Hesychexplanation(-recommendedfor-)is
advisable.
StokesMl.Kern[RC24,217]supposedfor`embroidery'becauseofmir.druineds.
References:
References:WP.I876f.,WH.I374.
Page(s):
Page(s):276-277
Root/lemma: dhug(h)terEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:daughter,*thingirl
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Tochter'
Note:
Note:gutturalaswitheg(h)om `I',seethere.
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhug(h)ter- :
:`daughter'derivedfromdh
dh-suffixedroot:dheudh - `shake,confuse'
ofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu-4 ,dheu - (:dhu - ),dhu-k-,dhu-s-)::`toreel,dissipate,blow,etc.
`earlierRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:deuk- :
:`todrag,pull,attract'.
Material:

Maybefrom*dhuedh-:ostfries.dwatje`stupidgirl',dwatsk`simple,unusual',jtischdvot`sufferingof
dizziness'
Note:
meaninglat.alb.geg.(*vargha)varza,toskvaj`girl,virgin':lat.virga`thinbranch,rod'(from*uizg),virg`girl,virgin';
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:u e r-3 :E.u e r-h- (*su e rh- )::`toturn,press,strangle'<rhotacisms/rofRoot/
Root/
lemma: u e is-2 :
:`toturn,bend'.

OldIndianduhitr-(duhit),av.dugdar-,duar-(from*dughter-),npers.duxtar,duxt,arm.(withs
fromkafteru)dustr,Gen.dster,(dowstr)
gr.(shiftofstressasin,butstillas),osk.futr,Dat.fu(u)tre(Vetter
Gl.29,242);
MaybeLyciancbatru,kbatra`daughter':toch.Ackcar,tkcer`daughter'.
got.dahtar,anord.dttir(run.Nom.Pl.dohtriR),ahd.tohter,lit.dukt,-ers,OldPrussianduckti,Old
ChurchSlavicdti,-ere,toch.Ackcar,tkcer`daughter'.
Note:
OldChurchSlavic:dti`daughter'[fr],dtere[Gens]
Russian:do'`daughter'[fr],deri[Gens]
OldCzech:dci`daughter'[fr],dcee[Gens]
Serbo-Croatian:k`daughter'[fr],kri[Gens];`daughter'[fr],ra[Gens]
Slovene:h`daughter'[fr],hre[Gens];h`daughter'[fr],hre[Gens]
Nte:
Alb.tosk.(*do)goc`daughter',geg.cuc`daughter'.
References:
References:WP.I868,WH.I557.
Page(s):
Page(s):277
Root/lemma: dhu e n- ,dhunEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tohum
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`drhnen,tnen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhvnati`sounds,soughs',dhvan-m.`sound,echo,thunder,word',dhvan-m.
`sound,acertainwind',dhvanita-n.`sound,tone,echo,thunder',dhni-`soughing,roaring,
thundering',dhunyati`soughs';

anord.dynrm.`resonance',ags.dynen.ds.,engl.din,ahd.tunids.;anord.dynia(preteritdunda)
`din,drone,rant,roister',ags.dynnan,as.dunnianmhd.tnen`din,drone';germ.extensions
therefromseemanord.dynkr`din,fuss,noise,blow,knock',mengl.dunchen,engl.dunch`strikewith
ashortrapidblow,jogwiththeelbow'andndd.dunsen`din,drone,stomp',schwed.dial.dunsa
`crack,creak,hit'.
Interferenceofnewsoundimitations(onomatopoeicwords)comesforgerm.wordsjustasforlit.
dundti`violentknock,hit,din,drone'inquestion.
References:
References:WP.I869.
Page(s):
Page(s):277
Root/lemma: dhu e r- ,dhu e rEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toruinbydeceiving
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`durchTuschung,HinterlisttoFallbringen,schdigen'
Note:
Note:(:dhur-:dhru-)
Material:
Material:OldIndiandhvrati`damages',participledhrut-,-dhrut(and-dhvrt),dhrti-f.`deception,
seduction',*dhvar-`deceiving'indhvars-f.(Nom.-)`akindoffemaledaemon';dhrvati`brings
downthroughdeception,damages'(zerogradeofaheavybasisdhuer-),dhrta-`deceitful',m.
`cheater',dhrt-f.`deceitfulinjury,damage';
lat.fraus,-disf.`deceit,cunningdeception,damage,punishment',frausussum(Plaut),umbr.
frosetom`cheated,beguiled,defrauded,robbed',lat.frstra(newerfrstr)`indeception,inerror,in
vain',therefromfrstror,-ri`deceive,cheat'belongprobablyasd-extensionourroothere(seeabove
underdhreugh-);unclearisonlya(popularsayingEM382;incredibleWH.I543);
Note:commonlat.d->f-shift
hereprobablyhitt.du-wa-ar-na-a-u-un(dwarnaun)`Ibroke'.
References:
References:WP.I869f.,874,WH.I543f.
Page(s):
Page(s):277
Root/lemma: dhu e rgh- :drughEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:low(instature),crippled
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zwerghaft,verkrppelt'
Material:
Material:BartholomaeIF.12,131Anm.connectsav.drva-(i.e.druva-),whichisreckonedunder
othernamesofphysicalailmentsandperhapsstandsfor`dwarfish,crippled',withanord.dvergr,ags.
dweorg,engl.dwarf,mnd.dwerch,nnd.dwarf,ahd.twerc,mhd.twerc,-ges,nhd.Zwerg,wherefore
zerograde*durginanord.dyrgja`dwarf,midget',ndd.dorf;afterKrogmann(KZ.62,143)inaddition
lett.drugt`sinkdown'(seeabovedhreugh-1 ).

Otherwiseforgerm.theinterpretationwouldderiveas`creatureofdeception'withregardtotoOld
Indiandhvars-`akindoffemaledaemon',rootdhuer-`bringdownthroughdeception';
itcouldhavederivedfromdhuer-thenwiththesame-gh,whichagreesalsowiththerootformdhreugh-(dhuer-gh-:dhurgh-:dhrugh-,dhreugh-);alsolatterderivingfromappellationforpuckishcreature
ofdeception.
References:
References:WP.I871f.
Page(s):
Page(s):279
Root/lemma: dhu r - ,dhu r - ,dhur- ,dhu r Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:door
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Tr'
Note:
Note:besidesthisconservativestem,theprotoformofpluralanddualofsuchameasure(see
below),woudprobablyfittoacertaindegreealreadyprotoforms-o-and--extensionspartlywithto
supposedcollectivemeaning,partly(asneuter)inthepositionas2.compositionparts.
Material:
Material:OldIndianNom.Pl.dvra,Akk.Pl.dur,dra,Nom.Du.dvr(u)`door'(lossof
Aspirationoriginallyindenbh-casethroughinfluenceofdvu`two'),dur-n.`dwelling,homeland'
(-no-derivativeofLok.Du.ar.*dhuru);o-stemdvramn.(new)`door'incompoundsatdura-n.
`secretiveplacewith100doors';av.Akk.Sg.dvarm,Lok.dvar`gate,courtyard',Oldpers.
duvaray`atthegate';
arm.Pl.dur-k`,Akk.zdurs(*-ns)`door',idurs`outofdoors,forth,out,outside',Sg.dun,Gen.dran
`door,gate,courtyard'(n-Dekl.derivefromAkk.Sg.in-m),drand`doorpost,doorsill'(*dhur+
*ant,seethere);
gr.presumablyfromconservativestemstillHes.;`outthroughthedoors,
outofdoors,forth,out'(i.e.-,eitherOldIndiandura,arm.dursorfrom-stem,sothat
from-about-),as1.compositionpartperhaps`habemeinenAufenthaltan(vor)
derTre,lagereimFreien'from-(butitcouldhavederivedalsofrom),veryarchaic
`therevolvabledoorpost'(also`Wagenachse,EckpfostendesWagenkastens'from*dhur-io-);

o-stemin`roombeforethedoor,vestibuleofthehouse'(:OldIndianat-dura-n.);
-stem`door'(hom.mostlyPl.),att.`outside',hom.-,-;comparestill
`Trchen'(:OldIndiandr(i)ya-`zurdoororzumHausgehrig'),,-`window'(eig.
`Trchen')`door',`Trstein;groerlongshield',`Vorhalle,vestibuleinHaus'
(:got.darnsf.Pl.`zweiflgligesgate',yetbarelyinhistoricconnectionwithit);
alb.(dhuer-)derf.`door',Pl.der(conservativestem*dhur-);
Note:conservativestemofpluralforms(alb.phonetictrait)
Phoneticmutations:Alb.alb.(dhuera)derf.`door':gr.(dhuera)`door':Proto-Slavicform:[dv
rSeealso:dvor-PageinTrubaev:V171-172]OldChurchSlavic:dvr`door'[fi]:Russian:
dver'`door'[fi]

Thereforeprotoillyr.gavealb.dhue->de-,gr.dhue->du-,slav.dhue->dve-.
lat.Plur.forsf.`folding-doors'(olderconservativestem*dhuor-reshapedtoi-stem);theSg.foris,-is
issecondary;-steminfors`outthroughthedoors,outofdoors,forth,out',fors`anopenspace,
publicplace,court,market-place'(thevowelafterfors);inadditionforumn.`anopenspace,public
place,court,market-place';umbr.furo,furu,`anopenspace,publicplace,court,market-place';about
lat.forusseeaboveS.134;
cymr.abret.corn.dorf.`door'(*dhuror*dhuor;lattervowelgradationcertainlyinair.dorusn.
`door',in-dorus`before'fromkelt.*duorestu-;withitphoneticallynotcompatiblecymr.drws`door',
fromThurneysenIA.33,25placestomir.drut,druit`shut',nir.druidim`Iclose'from*druzd-);o-stem
gall.doro`door',Duro-,-duruminPN,air.dorm.ds.;acorn.darat,mcorn.daras`door',bret.Pl.
dorojou,dial.doredou(LothRC20,355)from*dhuorato-;comparegall.*doraton`grille,latticedoor'
ingallorom.*doratia(or*duratia),KleinhansbeiWartburgIII139;unclearisgall.dvorico(HolderI
1390),GN;
ahd.turi,anfrnk.duri`door',anord.dyrr`doorway',fem.Pl.(Nom.Pl.*dhures);ags.duruds.
(extendedafterAkk.Pl.*dhurns,germ.*durunz,alsoahd.Dat.Pl.turun,-on);o-stemgot.darn.,
ahd.tor,as.dor,dur,ags.dorn.`gate'(*dhurom);got.daurnsseeabove(:);aisl.for-dyrin.
`vestibule';
lit.dursAkk.Pl.drGen.Pl.,dial.andolddresNom.Pl.(theni-inflection:Nom.Pl.drys),lett.
duris,drvis,OldPrussiandaurisf.Pl.`door'(auerror);however,lackslit.dvras`grange'because
ofdvrti`unbolt,unlock'(alsodrys`door'from`*aperture')itisnotcertainlypoln.Lw.;
OldChurchSlavicdvri`door'(*Akk.Pl.in-ns;rootstemdhur-fromthereducedcasewith
consonant-endinge.g.Lok.*dvrch);o-stemOldChurchSlavicdvor`courtyard';
toch.twere`doors'.
References:
References:WP.I870f.,WH.I529f.,Trautmann63,EM377f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I6251.
Page(s):
Page(s):278-279
Root/lemma: dighEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:goat
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Ziege'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:digh- :
:`goat'derivedfromazerogradeofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:deih- :
:`toprick;tick'.
FromtheolderrootRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:deih- :
:`toprick;tick'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ai- :
:`goat'and
Root/lemma: - :
:`goat'[commonbalt.-illyr.-alb.de-,da->zerophoneticmutation].Hencethe
gr.cognatederivedfromprotoillyr.
Material:
Material:Gr.-thrak..(*dighia),comparethrak.PN-(as-to
Hes.);ahd.ziga`goat',withhypocoristicconsonantincreaseags.ticcen,ahd.zick,
zickn`younggoat,kid'(butaboutnhd.Zeckeseeaboveunderdeih- );hereperhapsnorw.dial.
tikka`sheep'(event.hybridizationofschwed.dial.takka`sheep'withnord.equivalentofZicklein),

tiksa`sheep,bitch',tikla`youngsheeporcow',aswellasanord.tkf.`bitch'=mnd.tkeds.
Arm.tik`hosefromanimalskin'itisputherebyLidn(Arm.Stud.10f.,Don.nat.Sydow531)as
originally`goatskin',mustgobackto*dig-(taboodistortion).
References:
References:WP.I814,WH.I632,868.AfterRisch(briefl.)perhapsoriginallyLockruf.
Page(s):
Page(s):222
Root/lemma: d p -ro- ,d p - e r
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:cattle
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Opfertier,Vieh'
Material:
Material:Arm.tvar`ram,herdofcattle'(*tivar<*dper);got.tibr`oblation'(melioratedfromaibr),

ahd.zebar`sacrificialanimal',ags.tfer,tberds.,sptmhd.ungezbere,unzver,nhd.Ungeziefereig.
`impure,animalnotsuitedtothesacrifice'.Afrz.(a)toivre`draftanimal'derivesfromGerm.
Maybealb.(*dber)dorbria`heardofcows'.
References:
References:WP.I765,WH.I323,Feist19b,477a.
Page(s):
Page(s):222
Root/lemma: dl k - ()
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:sweet
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`s'
Material:
Material:Gr.,`sweet',,Hes.(--from-ku-),
(late)`must,stum'(ablautneologism);frombecauseoffolg.;--from--afterfolg.
;aboutlate`must,stum',`sweet's.WH.I380;
lat.dulcis`sweet,mellifluous,gentle'(from*dlkui-s).
References:
References:WP.I816,WH.I380.
Page(s):
Page(s):222
Root/lemma: dn h ,dn hu
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tongue
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Zunge'
Note:
Note:oftenreshapedthroughanlautchangeandrearrangements
Material:
Material:OldIndianjihvf.,av.hizvds.(vorar.*ihufrom*dahuwithifromlih-`lick'orfrom
jih-`turndown';iran.*sizvprobablythroughsounddissimilation);

MaybeRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dn h ,dn hu :
:`tongue'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dhereh- (dhr hn- )::`towind,turn'.
besides-steminOldIndianjuhf.`tongue,spoon'(withuafterjuhti`pourintothefire',different
Wackernagel-DebrunnerIII192),av.hizm.ds.;with-n-for-Oldpers.hizbna-,mpers.huzvn
ds.,nordar.binm.`tongue,discourse'(*vihvnafterE.LeumannNordar.Spr.127f.);
arm.lezu,Gen.lezviplacesinending-ghuawayfrom*dnghu,thefirstsyllableprobablyinfluenced
byleih- `lick';
Note:commonlat.d->l-phoneticmutation;alsocommonItalic-Latind->f-shift.
alat.dingua,lat.lingua(withl-fromlingere);osk.fangvam(VetterSertaHoffilleriana153;
Maybealb.(*dnghu)gluha`tongue,language'notfromlat.linguaforalb.haspreserved-h-in
contrasttolat.Hencealb.d-.l-mutationisgenuine.Alb.(*dnghu)gluha`tongue'issimilarto
formationalb.(*dlaght-)glat,gjat,gjat`long'.
air.teng(-stem)andtengae,Gen.tengadwitht-aftertongid`swears';butair.ligur`tongue'tolat.
ligurri;unclearismcymr.tafawt,cymr.tafod,acorn.tauot,mbret.teaut,bret.teod,whereforecorn.
tava,mbret.taffhaff,bret.tanva`taste'(kelt.*tamto-);
got.tuggf.,an.as.tunga,ags.tunge,ahd.zunga,with-n-insteadof-;asablautneologism
perhapshereanord.tangi`clutchpieceoftheblade',mnd.tange`sandshiftbetweentwomarshes';
bsl.in-m.inOldPrussianinsuwis;lit.lievis(afterliti`lick');OldChurchSlavicjzy-k,skr.
jzik,poln.jzyk,russ.jazk;tocontractionofanlaut.d-s.J.Schmidt,Krit.77;
Note:
Commonillyr.-balt.d->zerophoneticmutation.
toch.Akntu,Gen.kntwis,Bkntwo,Obl.kntwasa(*kantwa,reconvertedfrom*tankwa,idg.
*dnhu).
References:
References:WP.I1792,WH.I806f.,Trautmann104,SpechtDekl.83,HaversSprachtabu123f.
Page(s):
Page(s):223
Root/lemma: dousEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:arm
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Arm'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dous- :
:`arm'derivedfromanarchaicroot*heus `hand,arm'(seebelow).Butshe
shifth->d-isauniqueOldpers.,balt.,celt.,illyr.-alb.phoneticmutation.
Material:
Material:OldIndiand-n.(m.),Gen.do`forearm,arm,lowerpartoftheforefootwithanimals',
av.dao-m.`upperarm,shoulder',npers.d`shoulder';air.do(*dous-nt-s),Gen.doat`arm';lett.

pa-duse(zerograde)`Achselhhle;BusendesKleides';sloven.pzduha,pzdihabesidespzuha,
pziha`armpit',andwiththesamed-loss(einErklrungsversuchbyBerneker233f.)abg.etc
pazucha`'.
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dous- :
:`arm'derivedfromanarchaicroot*heus `hand,arm'(seebelow).Butshe
shifth->d-isauniqueOldpers.,balt.,celt.,illyr.-alb.phoneticmutation.
Twootherroots,respectivelyRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hesor-1 ,hesr- :
:`hand'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
hesto-2 :
:`hand,arm'derivedfromanextendedarchaicrootheus +reducedformofthecommon
PIEsuffixvariants-tar,-ter,-tra,-tre.:OldIndianhsta-m.`hand',av.zasta-,Oldpers.dasta-ds.;
ThekeylinkbetweenRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dous- (*heus- )::`arm'derivedfromanarchaicroot*heus
`hand,arm'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hesor-1 ,hesr- (*heus- )::`hand'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:hesto2 (*heus- )::`hand,arm'arebalt.:lett.pa-duse(zerograde)`armpit':lit.pa-ast,pa-astsf.
`placeunderthearm,armpit'.
Note:commonbalt.-illyr.h->zphoneticmutation:Oldpers.,av.,illyr.-alb.-celt.h->z,dphonetic
mutation.
References:
References:WP.I782,Trautmann64.
Page(s):
Page(s):226
Root/lemma: d- :d- ,alsod-u- :du- :duEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:togive
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`geben'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:(perfective)Aoristwurzelwithsecondarypresentdi-d-mi .
Material:
Material:OldIndiand-d-ti(Aor.-d-m,Opt.dym,Fut.dsyti,Aor.Med.dita=gr.,Inf.
dman:gr.,comparelat.damin`handover,deliver,giveup,render,furnish,pay,
surrender',whetheroriginallyinfinitive)`gives'(pli.dinnatoapresent*didti),av.daditids.,Old
pers.Imp.dadtuv`heshouldgive';rootnounsOldIndiand[s]stu`beagiver';Infin.dtum(:lat.
Supin.datum);participledit(uncovered),secondarydatt-,zerogradeintt,pr-t-ta-
`devoted',ablaut.intv-dta-`yougavefrom',av.dta-;toFut.OldIndiandsymi(:lit.dosiu)s.
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I78811;
arm.tam`d',tamk``wehandover,deliver,giveup,render,furnish,pay,surrender'(*d-ie-mi),
Aor.etu(=-d-m,idg.*edm);
gr.--`give',Aor.,Opt.(*doiim).Fut.,Aor.Med.,participle,
Infin.hom.andhom.thess.etc(locativewithoutsuffix);
ven.zoto`he/shehashandedover,delivered,givenup,rendered,furnished'=gr.;zonasto
`he/shehasgivenasapresent,presented,bestowed,granted,vouchsafed,confered'maybefrom
*dn-s-tofromadenom.*dni(*dno-m:lat.dnum);mess.pi-do(*dt:OldIndiana-dt);

alb.(*dhuo-sm)da-shAor.`Igave'(*d-sm);:alb.subjunctivedhasht`lethimgive'
lat.d,ds,dat,dmus(*d-ms),dtis,dnt(secondaryfur*dentfrom*(di)-d-ti),alat.danunt;
ded,dtum,dre`give,grant,bestow',refl.`betakeoneself'(dswithafterst-for*d=lit.du,
do-k[SpechtKZ.55,182],gr.hom.--);
vest.di-de-t`delivers,givesup,renders,furnishes,pays,surrenders',pl.dida`he/sheshould
deliver,giveup,render,furnish,pay,surrender',umbr.dirsa,dersa,tea`he/sheshoulddeliver,give
up,render,furnish,pay,surrender'(*didt),tetu,dirstu,titu`he/sheshalldeliver,giveup,render,
furnish,pay,surrender'(*di-de-td),tete`he/shehasbeengiven'(*di-da-ter),a-tea-fust`he/shewill
havehandedround'(*am-de-da-fos-t);osk.da[da]d`he/sheshouldgiveaway,giveup,surrender,
deliver,consign,yield,abandon,render'(*dd(-di)-dd),dadid`he/shewillhavedelivered,givenup,
rendered,furnished,surrendered'(*dd(-de)-dd),di-de-st`he/shewillhandover,deliver,giveup,
render,furnish,pay,surrender',dedet,umbr.dede`he/shehashandedover,delivered,givenup,
rendered,furnished,surrendered'(=lat.d-d-t,olddedet),umbr.teust,dirsust`he/shewillhave
handedover,delivered,givenup,rendered,furnished,surrendered'(*dedust),etc;fal.porded`he/she
hasstretchedout,spreadedout,putforth,reachedout,extended'(*por(-de)-ded);
redupl.presentital.*did()inlat.redd(reddid,redditum,reddere)`giveback'from*red(i)-d()
isostensiblythemat.rearrangementfrom*didmi;othercompoundsared-d,d-d,d,prd,tr-dand*ven-d;
participlelat.dtus`bestowed'=falisk.datu`given,delivered,givenup,surrendered',vest.data
`beendelivered,givenup,surrendered',pl.datas`beendelivered,givenup,surrendered'(:gr.
);Supin.datum(:OldIndianInfin.dtum);
hereperhapsinspiteofWH.I193lat.ce-d`gofrom,giveplace,remove,withdraw,goaway,depart,
retire!'Pl.cettefrom*ce-dte(:gr.);
lit.domi(nowadayssecondarydodu,lett.dudu,basedonneologismtoalit.Ipv.duodifrom
*ddhi-,ostlit.domu),2.Sg.dosi,3.Sg.dost(i)`gives',OldPrussiandstds.,afterKonekListy
filol.65,445andSzemernyiEt.Slav.Roum.1,7ff.(compareE.FraenkelBalt.Sprachw.11f.)not
onolderreduplication(angebl.*d-d-mi,bsl.*ddmi,3.Sg.*d-d-ti,bsl.*ddti>*dsti),butonan
unreduplicatedathemat.inflection(*dmi,Pl.*dms);lit.dosti,abg.dastareimitationsfromlit.
sti`eats'etc,whichliebesideslit.*(d)mi,abg.jam(from*dm-),wheredwouldbeperceivedas
suffixoftheroot;toFut.lit.dosiuseeaboveS.223.
ThesamewouldbeassumedfromOldChurchSlavicdam`Iwillgive',3.Pl.dadt(afterjadt
etc);OldChurchSlavicdada`gift'isananalogicalformafter*dja`food,eating',wheredwas
perceivedagainaformant.
Infin.lit.doti,lett.dut,OldPrussiandt(*dti-)=OldChurchSlavicdati,serb.dti,russ.dat.
Forpreteritlit.davia,lett.devu`gave'seeunder.
participle*d-na-inOldChurchSlavicpr-dan,serb.dn,ech.dn,klr.dnyj`bestowed';*dtads.inOldPrussiandts,lit.dotas,lett.duts;einzelsprachl.innovationsareserb.dial.dt,ech.
dt;inadditionlit.duotina`nubile,marriageable',russ.-ChurchSlavicpodatn,russ.podtnyj
`generous';Supin.*dtun`togive'inOldPrussiandaton(Infin.);lit.dot,OldChurchSlavicotdat,
sloven.dat;compareslav.*datkinsloven.dodtk,poln.dodatek,russ.dodtok`bonus,
addition';

hitt.d-`take',1.Sg.da-a-i(dai),3.Sg.daai(di),wouldbeplacedherebyPedersen
(Murilis68)andKretschmer(Glotta19,207)(`give'-`forgivetooneself'-`take');againstitCouvreur
206ff.
nominalformation:OldIndiandtar-,dtr-`giver',gr.,ds.,zerograde,,
lat.dtor,datrx.-OldIndiandtr-,av.dra-n.`gift'.

*d-tel-inOldChurchSlavicdatelj(*dteliu-)`giver',ech.udatel`bighead',russ.dtel`giver'.
OldIndian*dti-`bestowal,gift'indti-vra-`allottingwillingly,generous',havya-dti-`procuringthe
offering,presentingthesacrifice',av.diti-`grant,gift,impartment',gr.Hes.(andconservative
stem*dt-in)`gift',-,-,lat.ds,-tis`dowry';
lit.Inf.doti:slav.*dat`gift'(e.g.inOldChurchSlavicblagodat`',russ.pdat`tax'),Inf.dati;
zerogradeOldIndiandti,gr.`gift',lat.dati-,-tinis(old*-tnes)`thebestowing'(suffixasin
gr.`gift');withzerogradationinencliticOldIndianbhga-tti-`luckbringer'.
OldIndiandna-n.`gift'(substantiviertes-no-participle)=lat.dnum,osk.etcdunumds.(duunated
`he/shehaspresented,bestowed,granted,vouchsafed,confered');cymr.dawnds.,air.dnm.`gift,
present,practicalskill,innatequality,nature,temperament(faculty,talent)',compareslav.*dan-k
inserb.dnak`tribute,tax'etcandden-ni-stemOldChurchSlavicdan`tribute,tax,toll',lit.dunis
`gift';zerogradealb.dhn`bestowed',f.`gift,tribute,tax',geg.dhn;(*dhuon-)
Alsoalb.(*dhuonti)dhunti`gift,faculty,talent'.
gr.`gift'(-ro-inpass.value,comparee.g.clrus),OldChurchSlavicdar`gift'(m.as
*dank),arm.turds.;
Maybealb.(*dhuonata)dhurata`gift,faculty,talent'rhotacismn/r;darsm,dasm`wedding':lat.
ds,-tis`dowry';
OldIndiandy-`giving',dy-m.`gift',apreu.dianAkk.`gift',serb.pr-daja`sale'(etc,Berneker
176).
Maybenasalizedalb.ndanj,shprndanj(*shpr-ndanj)`allot,give,separate':lit.pridas`bonus,
addition,wageincrease'.
As2.compositionpartOldIndian-d-e.g.inavad-`horsegiving,horseoffering',slav.with
structureino-Dekl.,e.g.russ.dial.p-dyPl.`tributes,taxes',serb.pr-d`DraufgabebeimTausch';lit.
pridas`bonus,addition,wageincrease'.

d - u- liesbeforeinOldIndiandvn`togive'(alsoPerf.dadu`havebestowed'),av.dvi`to
give',kypr.F`hemaygive',Inf.F(aboutark.participle-s.SchwyzerGr.Gr.I
745f.),contractedhom.-att.;
lat.duim,dusetc`I,youshouldhandover,deliver,giveup,render,furnish,pay,surrender',Fut.IIdu,containanAorist-stem*du-from*dou-;duimisfromOptat.*-doumoriginatedincompounds
(pr-duintfrom*prdouint,etc),thenalsobycompoundsfrom*dh-:perduim,etcForital.optative
*doumprobablytrodonlysecondaryinUmbr.andFal.apresent*douiinfal.doviad`maygrant'(it
seemstobereducedincompoundshencelat.duametc*dovim),umbr.pur-dovitu,pur-tuvitu,-tuetu
`stretchout,spreadout,putforth,reachout,extend',purtuvies`stretchout,spreadout,putforth,
reachout,extend',umbr.purditom(*-d(o)uitom)`stretchedout,spreadout,putforth,reachedout,

extended',purtiius(*d(o)uus)`youwillhavestretchedout,spreadout,putforth,reachedout,
extended',purtifile`*stretchedout,spreadout',fromsynkopiertem*por-d[o]u-withalterationfromdu
tod;inpurdovituImper.itwashinderedsyncopethroughIndik.*pr-dovt;
lit.davia`Igave',dovanf.`gift',lett.dvanaf.`gift',iterativedvt,dvint`offer,give',OldChurch
Slavic-davati`allot'(thepatternformsfortheIterativein-vati).
Aboutas.twthn`grant'etcseeunderdeu-2`friendlygrant'.
References:
References:WP.I814ff.,WH.I266,360ff.,371f.,861,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I6868,722,741,794,
806ff.,Trautmann56ff.
Page(s):
Page(s):223-226
Root/lemma: drehEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:unwilling,displeased
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`unwillig,verdrossen'
Note:
Note:orperhapsoriginally`beslack,tough'
Material:
Material:Got.trigo`mourning,grief,repulsion',anord.tregim.`mourning,grief,hindrance',tregr
`unwilling,averse',treginn`grieving',ags.tregam.`mourning,grief,affliction';as.tregom.`pain',
tregan(onlyInf.)withDat.`beafflicted',mndl.tregen`losethecourage',anord.trega=ags.tregian
`afflict,sadden';comparewithaprobablyoldconcretemeaning`zhe,zhehaftend'norw.mdartl.
tregalso`persistent,firm',trege`toughfibre,filament,sinew,hardskin',schwed.trgen`fatigueless';
lengthenedgradeahd.trgi`idle,slow,querulous',as.trg`evil,bad',ags.trgf.`affliction,
wickedness',as.ahd.trgf.`sluggishness,displeasure';
lit.dry-t,dria,drti`faint,languid,slackbecome'(BgaKalbair.s.219),drinti`slackmake';to
lit.ricompareHirtIdg.Gr.II83.[commonillyr.-balt.-h->-d-shift]
Maybealb.treth`castrate,clip'[commonalb.-g>-thshift](seebelow)
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:tr-eu-d- :
:`topress,push,*displeasure'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dreh- :
`unwilling,displeased'[commonillyr.-balt.-h->-d-,illyr.alb.-g>-thphoneticmutation.
References:
References:WP.I821f.,PerssonBeitr.46f.
Page(s):
Page(s):226-227
Root/lemma: dr- :dr- ,extendeddr- m Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tosleep
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`schlafen'
Material:
Material:OldIndiandrti,drya-ti,-t`asleep',ni-dr`sleep';inadditionzerogradeni-drita-

`sleeping,dozedoff';
arm.tartam`slow,sleepy'(*derd-,PedersenKZ.39,416);
gr.hom.Aor.(*e-dr-dh-om),new`slept',secondary`dozedoff';
lat.dormi`sleep,drowse'(*drmi);
slav.*drmi`drowse'inChurchSlavicdremljudrmati`drowse',serb.drjemljmdrijmati`have
sleepdesire',etc
maybealb.dremit`drowse'.
AbouttheformalVerhltnisses.EM.284,to-em-extensionalsoPedersenGroupement22.
References:
References:WP.I821,WH.I372,Trautmann60.
Page(s):
Page(s):226
Root/lemma: dumb- (-bh)
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:penis,tail
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`penis,Schwanz',perhapsactually`Stab'
Material:
Material:Av.duma-m.`tail',npers.dum,dumb(*dum(h)ma-),ahd.zumpfo`penis',mhd.zumpf(e),
zumpfeln(StterlinIF.4,93);inadditionperhapsav.dumna-n.`hand()'(*dumbna-),s.
ScheftelowitzIF.33,142withnumerousparallelsforthemeaning-development`shaft,pole,staffpenis,tail'and`staff-arm,hand'.Probablytomnd.timpe`cusp,peak,acme,apex',ags.timplian
`providewithnails',nasal.formfromgerm.*tippa`tip,tail'inengl.tip`cusp,peak',mhd.zipf(el);germ.
*tuppa-`pigtail'inanord.topprds.,ags.toppm.`acme,apex',mhd.zopf`plait,tress',withbb:mnd.
tobbe,tubbe`spigot',comparelett.duba`assignedsheaf';germ.*tappan`spigot'inags.tppam.
(engl.tap),mnd.tappem.,ahd.zapho,mhd.zapfem.apparently`popularsaying'withintensive
consonantincrease,nasalizationandvowelchangea:i:u;compareaboveS.221drop- :drip-:
drup-.
References:
References:WP.I816,FickIII155,164,168,PeterssonHeterokl.70f.
Seealso:
Seealso:seealsoaboveS.177.
Page(s):
Page(s):227
Root/lemma: dusEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:bad,foul
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`bel,mi-'as1.compositionpart
Material:
Material:OldIndiandu-,dur-,av.du-,du-`dis-,wrong,evil',arm.t-`un-',gr.-`dis-,de-,evil',
lat.indifficilis`difficult,hard',air.do-,du-ds.(constructionaftertheexamplefromso-,su-),got.tuz(intuz-wrjan`doubt'),anord.ags.tor-,ahd.zur-`un-',slav.inabg.dd(*duzdjus`badweather'

=)`rain',russ.dod,poln.deszcz,aech.d,Gen.dandanalogicaldete.connectionwith
deus- `lack'isveryprobable.
Note:
ProbablyfromafusionofRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:dheu e s- ,dhu s - ,dheus- ,dh s - `todissipate,blow,etc.
*scatter,dust,rain,breathe,perish,die'+Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:dei-1 ,dei - ,d- ,di - :
:`toshine;day;
sun;skygod,god'derivedslav.(*dus-diu-):OldChurchSlavic:
OldChurchSlavic:dd`rain'[mjo](seebelow).
Onlyind.fromdu-hasevolveddyati`goesbad,goesoff',dua-`spoiled,evil,bad',dyati
`spoiled,disabled'.
References:
References:WP.I816,E.FraenkelMl.Pedersen453.
Page(s):
Page(s):227
Root/lemma: du e iEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:tofear
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`frchten'
Material:
Material:Av.dva`menace';
arm.erknim`Ifear',erkiu`fear'(anlautasinerku`two':*duuMeilletMSL.8,235);
gr.hom.`dread'(*-F-),Plur.(i.e.F),att.(thereafterthenewSg.
hom.,i.e.F,att.),Aor.hom.(i.e.F),hom.`dreaded';reshaped
from*FPerf.hom.,att.,kret.FHes.(Hs.),inaddition
Hes.`timorous';to(afterhom.)`terrify'(*-F--)wouldbeshaped
secondary,whereofpreviouslyatt.,hom.;hom.`timorous'
(*F);n.`fear'(*F),`godfearing'(*-F),n.,m.`fear',
`terrible',,`timorous,fearful;unlucky,lamentable'(*F);`tofear,dread'
(*F-);
lat.drus`ill-omened,ominous,boding,portentous,fearful,awful,dread'(fromServiustoAen.III235
alsoassabin.andumbr.statedword,sothatdi-insteadofbi-from*dui-asadialectalsound
development),withformants-ro-`beforewhatoneisafraid',ascl-rus`audible,distinguishable'.

s-extensioninOldIndiandvi`hated,ishostile',dvi-`detested',dva-m.,dvas-n.`hate',
av.dva-,tba-`behostileto,mortify',participletbita-,dvaa-,tbaa-`hostility',mpers.b
`affliction,mischief',probablytodu i s- S.232.
References:
References:WP.I816f.,WH.I353f.,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I7106,769,774.AfterBenveniste(briefl.)
belongstherootas`beindoubt'toconsecutivedu (u) `two'.
Page(s):
Page(s):227-228
Root/lemma: du (u) (*du e i- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:two

Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`zwei'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:m.(grammaticaldoubleformduu u ),du a i f.n.,besidesdu e i- ,du o i- ,
du i Note:
Note:comparethesummarybyBrugmannII22,6-82passim.
Material:
Material:1.OldIndianm.dvau,dv(ved.alsoduvu,duv)=av.dvam.,OldIndianf.n.dv(ved.
alsoduv)=av.baf.andn.`two';
Instr.Dat.Abl.OldIndiand(u)vbhym(haschangedwith),av.dvaibya(witholdi-diphthong,as
lit.dviemetc),Gen.Sg.OldIndiand(u)vyo;bycompressionofOldIndiand(u)v-:d(u)vdaa`12'
(==gr.);
arm.erku`two'(=OldIndiandv);
gr.hom.(F)(*Fin-),Gen.Dat.ion.att.,nexttowhichuninflectedhom.att.dor.
etc(F)(toforms.SchwyzerGr.Gr.I588f.;torudimentidg.*dus.MeilletBSL.21,273,dueto
arm.erko-tasan12,lat.du-dn,OldIndiandva-k-`thetwotogether',butitcouldbedirectedafter
compositionswitho-stemsinthefirstpart,aswellasfromgot.anord.as.ags.afries.wi-t`wetwo',
anord.it,as.ags.git`youtwo');
alb.dm.,djf.`two'(*duu,respectively*duuai);
lat.duo(from*du),f.duae(neologism),umbr.(onlywithplur.inflection)durNom.m.`two'(*dus,
*dur),desen-dufAkk.m.(12),duir`two',tuvaAkk.n.;
air.du,dNom.Akk.m.(=OldIndiandvu),beforeSubst.d(procliticform),fem.d(=OldIndian
dv),neutr.dn-`two',acymr.bret.masc.dou,fem.cymr.dwy(etc);gall.VNVo-cor-ii,Vo-contii
(compareTri-corii)with*u-besidesdu-;compareThurneysenGr.182;
got.m.twai,f.tws,n.twa,anord.tueirm.,turf.,tuaun.,ags.tm.,twf.(=OldIndiandv);ahd.
zwnem.,zw,zwf.,zwein.etc(ahd.zweio`totwo'Lok.Du.=lit.dvejau,dvejaus);
lit.dm.(from*dvo=OldIndiandv),dvf.(=OldIndiandv);lett.divim.f.(from*duwif.n.),Old
Prussiandwaim.f.;OldChurchSlavicdvam.,dvf.n.;
toch.Am.wu,f.we,Bm.f.wi(neologism);compareabovegall.vo-;hitt.taaan(tn)`secondly,
second',taaiugaa(tyuga)`twoyearsold'(:lit.dveigs`twoyearsoldanimal').
Aboutthefirstpartfrom,vgintetc(olddissimilationfrom*du-,*dueidkmt)s.u -k m t -
`twenty'.
Note:
Thefollowingdw-,vd->b-isoriginallyalat.-italicphoneticmutation.
Incompoundidg.du i - andfromitunderunclearconditiondevelopeddi- :OldIndiandvi-(e.g.dvipd-`bipedal'),av.bi-(e.g.bi-mhya-`lastingtwomonths'),arm.erki(erkeam`biennial'),gr.-(e.g.
;da`curulechair,seat'wasnot-,ratherF-,ifnotperhapsdissimilatorylossof
Fisnotagainstthefollowing,alsoforother-formationtoconsiderfromidg.*dui-),alat.dui-,lat.
bi-(e.g.duidens,bidens;aboutformsasdienniums.WH.Iunderbiennium,SommerHdb.3223;

umbr.difue`cleft,parted,split'probablysoundpatternfromdui-),anord.tve-(alsotv-,seebelow),
ags.twi-,ahd.zwi-(e.g.ags.twifte`bipedal',ahd.zwi-houbit`bicipital'),lit.dvi-(e.g.dv-gubas
`twofold',OldPrussiandwi-gubbus).
Ital.du-inlat.dubius,-plus,-plex,-pondius,-cent,umbr.tuplakAkk.Sg.n.`twofold',du-pursus
`bipedibus'isinnovationafterbeingperceivedasdu-stemfromduo;alsoistodefinedu-inumbr.duti
`again,asecondtime,oncemore,anew',plidutiyam`forthesecondtime';aboutlett.du-celes
`zweirderigerWagen'compareTrautmann125,Mhlenhach-EndzelinI509,EndzelinLett.Gr.358.
Zerogradesdu e i- incompoundsistobeadmittedforKelt.(e.g.air.d-riad`aspanofhorses,pair,
twohorsesharnessedtoanopencar',dabul`twofold',cymr.dwy-flwydd`twoyearsold';air.das
`dualityofpersons'probablyfrom*dueio-stho-)andforGerm.(e.g.anord.tu-faldr`twofold'besides
tufaldr;got.tweifla-,probablyn.,ahd.zwfaln.besidesgr.-,lat.duplus).

du o i- inags.getwfan,twman`separate,cut,clip'<*twaifjan,*twaimjan;perhapsalsofortheAr.
(av.barzufraah-`twofingerswide',dvapa-n.`island'orratherfromduaii-,asprobablyOld
Indiandvdh`twofold,(*divided)intwoparts',comparedvp-`island'aboveS.51);perhapsphryg.
GN,Gen.-(*duoi-nt)`twin'.
Slav.dvo-,dvu-,dve-incompoundss.Berneker247.
2.ordinals:OldIndiandvitya-,av.bitya-,dabitya-,Oldpers.duvitiya-`second';underduti`again,a
secondtime,oncemore,anew'(probablyreplacementfor*ditifrom*duitiomafterdu-,seeabove);
arm.erkir,erkrord`second';alb.i-dte;allnewneologisms.
3.Multiplikativadverb:du i s `twice':OldIndiandv(ved.alsoduv),av.bi,gr.,alat.duis,lat.
bis,mhd.zwir`twice'(butnir.fo-d=OldIndiann.dv,PedersenKG.I301,II127),germ.myth.PN
Tuisto`hermaphrodite';
Maybealb.dsh`intwo'
throughu-formsextendedav.bivat,anord.tysuar,tuisuar,ahd.zwiro,zwiror(zwiron,zwiront),with
voicedz-reductionags.twiwa,twiga,twia,tuwa,twie,afries.twia,twera,as.twio(totheseforms
lastlyLoeweKZ.47,98-108,remindedintheformsinOldIndiankrtvas`male');
therefromwithformants-ko-ahd.zwisk,as.twisk`twofold'(seebelow),probablyalsoarm.erkics
`twice';
withl-formsags.twislian`bisect',twisla`confluenceoftwostreams',nhd.Zwiesel`bifurcation'
(perhapsrestrictedto*duisinthemeaning`divided',seebelow);
witht-formsOldIndiandvit`twofold,double'(therefromdvit-m`Dualitt'),ap.duvitparnam`intwo
Linien',gthav.daibit`again()'.
4.multiplicative:gr.,,lat.duplus,umbr.dupla`double,twiceaslarge,twiceasmuch',
air.dabul(*duei-plo-;seealsoabovegot.tweifls),whereforeperhapsav.bifra-n.`comparison,
affinity'(:rootpel- `fold',comparewitht-extension:)
gr.(*plt-io-),ion.`wavedwithbothhands',ahd.zwifaltds.
Gr.,lat.duplex,umbr.tuplakn.`duplex'(:rootplk- `flat,spread');fromAdv.z.B.duv-dh,
dv-dh(probably*dvaii-dh,thattobereadintheoldesttexts3-syllable)`twofold,intwoparts',

wherewiththeendingfromair.dde`dualityofthings'seemstobeconnected,aswellasthefrom
and.twdi`halb',ags.twde`twothirds',ahd.zwitaran`hybrid,mongrel,halfbreed',nhd.Zwitter.
Gr.`twofold,dividedintwoparts'(afterhom.,),nexttowhich(throughhybridization
with*-toOldIndiandvdh)hom.`',therefromion.`twofold'(*or*),
and,att.ds.(*,SchwyzerGr.Gr.I598,840);abouthitt.dak-a-an`Halbteil's.
PedersenHitt.141.
Herealsoalb.deg`twig,branch,bough,brushwood'(*duoigh);
ahd.zwg`twig,branch'(*dueigho-),ags.twig`twig,branch'(*duigho-);as.tg(o),mnd.toch,ahd.
zuog(o)`twig,branch'arereshapedaftercardinalformswithtw-;
lit.dveigsm.`zweijhrigesanimal',serb.dvzk`zweijhrigerAries,ram',olddviz`biennial'(:hitt.
dyugas,seeabove).
5.collective:OldIndiandvay-`double'(dvaym`twofoldcreature,falsity',nachved.`pair'),Dat.f.
dvayyi=hom.;dvandvm`pair'(fromved.duv-duv`everytwo');
gr.hom.,`double,two'(withpreservationof--throughinfluenceof*F[F]),`in
doubt'(ir.dasfrom*dueio-stho-);
got.Gen.Pl.twaddj(comparewithotherendingOldIndianGen.Dualdvyos,lit.Gen.dviej),
anord.tueggia,ahd.zweiio,ags.m.twgen,f.tw,n.t`two'(seeaboveSievers-Brunner264),
Nom.Akk.Pl.ahd.zwei(*duei),nexttowhichfromidg.*dueio-ahd.mhd.zw,g.zwesm.n.`twig,
branch'(then-stemanord.tyja`doubt'presumablybalancedfromNom.*tvja,Gen.tyju);
bsl.dueia-andduuaia-inlit.dvej,f.dvjos`two'(thesubstantivaln.Sg.indvjatek`twiceas
much');
OldChurchSlavicd()vojiAdj.`twofold,two',d()vojen.Subst.`twothings'(therefromderivativesas
russ.dvojnj`double',dvjni`twins',dvjka`pair',dvojnk`zweidrhtigerFaden',dvot`inzweiTeile
teilen,zweiFdenzueinemzusammendrehen',etc,s.Berneker247).
With-no- (partlyduetofromduis):
arm.krkin`double'from*(r)ki-rki-no-,idg.*dui-duis-no-()(L.MarisREtIE.1,445);
lat.bn`everytwo'(distributive)and`two'(collective)from*duis-no-(=germ.*twizna-);
germ.*twi-na-inahd.zwinal,zwenel`borntogether,twin-born,twin-',zwinilingm.,mhd.zwinilnn.
`twin',*twaina-inas.twne`two',ahd.zwneds.(ithassubstitutedwithinsteadofeiafter*zw=
got.twai),ahd.zwein-zug,as.twn-tig,ags.twn-tig`20'(`Doppelzehn');
Maybealb.20,nj-zet`one-ten',40,dy-zet`double-ten'
germ.*twiz-na-inanord.tvennr,tvinnr`twofold',Pl.tvenner`zweizusammengehrige'(tvinna
`redouble'),ahd.zwirnn,-n`zweifachzusammendrehen',mhd.zwirn,mnd.twern`doppelt
zusammengedrehterFaden'probably=ags.twn,holl.twijn`linenthread,linen'(ags.getwinne`every
two',getwinnas`twins'isledbackthento*twinja-).Besidesdueto*twha-,idg.*duei-ko-,got.
tweihnai`two',ags.Dat.twonum,betwonum,engl.between`between';

lit.m.Pl.dvyna,russ.dvjni`twins'.
With-ko- :
OldIndiandvik-`auszweienbestehend,zweifach'(dvak-`inpairs,bypairs'connectedafter
kak-);
ahd.zwe(h)o,as.twe(h)o,ags.twom.`doubt',ags.be-twih,-tweoh`between',midunctwh
`betweenusboth'(compareabovegot.tweih-nai);
fromduis-from:ahd.zwisk,as.twisk`twofold',Pl.`both'Dat.Pl.ahd.(undar,en)zwiskn,nhd.
zwischen;inadditionags.getwisam.,as.gitwiso,mhd.zwiselinc`twin'.
Withduis-`twice'identicalisduis-`divided,asunder'ingot.twisstandan`todivide'andden
derivativesanord.tvistra`separate',mnd.afries.twist,mhd.zwist`discord(split)'andmengl.twist=
anord.kvistr`twig,branch'(asalsobair.zwist),furtheranord.kvslf.`splitbranchortools,armofa
river'(thesewithidg.ei);furtheranord.tvis-var`twice',tvistr`dichotomous,sad'(=OldIndiandviha`ambiguous',gr.*in`doubt',idg.*dui(s)-sto-:rootst-,atmostduis-to-withformantto-),ags.twisla`armofariver',twislian`bisect',ahd.zwisila,nhd.Zwiesel`dividedobject,twig,
branch',mhd.zwisel`double';hereveryprobablyar.dvi-`hate'(seeunder*duei-`fear,dread').
Maybealb.mdysh`apart,intwo',dyshi`two'
6.Idg.additionalformdis- inlat.dis-,as.afries.te-,ti-,ags.te-,ahd.zi-,ze-(newzir-through
amalgamationfromzi-andir-)`dis-',got.dis-`apart'(probablyborrowedfromLat.,barelypreceding
from*tis-=lat.dis-),alb.tsh-e.g.intshk'ep`unpick',gr.(i.e.afteretcfilledin*[]),e.g.
-`through':lat.discindo`totearasunder,cutapart,cleave,divide,rend,tear'(`*splitinthe
middle'),asprefixalso`throughandthrough,thoroughly,allthrough'=`very'(ol.-).
References:
References:WP.I817ff.,WH.I104ff.,354f.,381ff.,860,861,Feist484ff.,Trautmann64,
SchwyzerGr.Gr.I588f.,Wackernagel-DebrunnerOldIndianGr.Ill,342f.
Page(s):
Page(s):228-232
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:(ebhi ):obhi :bhi
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:around,fromto,etc.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`auf-to,aufetwashinandesberwltigend'
Material:
Material:OldIndianabhi-prefix`from-to',abhprepositionwithAkk.`to',gthav.aib,jav.aiwi,avi,
aoi,Oldpers.abiyasprefix`to,around-',asprepositionm.Akk.`to-toward',withLok.`about,in
regardto'(inAr.abhiliesalsopartly*mbhi`before',seeaboveS.34);
lat.ob`towards,to'appearsonlyinthefunction,butnotthesoundsaccordingtothepartial
successorsfromidg.obhi(seeunderepi );
got.bi,ahd.etcbi,b`from-to(got.),withregardto,about'withAkk.;`an,by'withDat.(Lok.),also
withInstr.,prefix`be-',s.alsounderambhi ,aboveS.34,whichcontainsinfinalsoundidentical
element;
OldChurchSlavicob,baspreverb`around-,about-,to-'inb-stojatiorb-stojati`encircle',in

compounds,asobdon.`treasure,tribute',inderivatives,asobt,russ.-ChurchSlavicb
`common'(*obhitio-);intensifiedformobi-inruss-ChurchSlavicobichoditi`towalkaround,
perambulate';theformo,obcontainsprevious*op-(lit.ap),seeunderepi .
References:
References:WP.I124,Trautmann1,MeilletSlavecomm.2155f.
Page(s):
Page(s):287
Root/lemma: edh-2
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:fence,paling
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Zaunstecken,ZaunfromPfhlen'
Material:
Material:Doubtfulgr.`stall,hurdle'(*odh-tro-)
Ags.eodorm.`hedge,fence,dwelling;prince,lord'(ablaut.mnd.ader`fencepost'),ahd.etar,nhd.
Etter`fence,edge'(ifinadditionbair.ester,schweiz.ester`penstock'),aisl.jur-r,jaarr`edge,
upperfencepole',perhapsags.ediskm.`fencedpasture',bair.iss(e)`enclosedmeadow'
(*edhsi);abg.odr`bed',odrina`stall',russ.odr`scaffoldingboard',ech.odr`picket,pole',skr.
odar,odrina`encirclinggrapevine'.
References:
References:WP.I121.
Page(s):
Page(s):290
Root/lemma: edh- (*he- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:sharp
Note:
Fromanolderroothe-elderived:Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ak - , ok -:
:`sharp;stone'andRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
i k - : k - :
:`spear,pike',finallyRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:edh- (*he- )::`sharp'[commonillyr.-balt.h- > dphoneticmutation.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`spitz'
Material:
Material:Lat.ebulus,-f.and-umn.`dwarf-elder(danewort,afetidEuropeanspeciesofelder,also
dane'sweed,dane'sblood[saidtogrowonspotswherebattleswerefoughtagainsttheDanes]';
Note:commonlat.->b-phoneticmutation,hencelat.ebulus<*he-elwhere-el,-ulare
diminutiveformants.
ablaut.(withk-suffix)gall.andgallorom.odocos`dwarfelder';
ahd.attuh,attah,as.aduk`dwarfelder'(borrowedfromKelt.);
bsl.*edl-and*edli-f.`fir'in
OldPrussianaddle(*edle),lit.gl(outofitdial.gl),lett.egleds.(secondary-stem;-g-from-d-);

Note:commonillyr.-balt.h- > d-phoneticmutationhence-g-from-d-iswrongetymology.


moreoverprobablyIterat.lit.adti`prick',lett.adt`knit',comparelit.data`sewing-needle';
ChurchSlavicetcjela(*edl),russ.jel,aech.jedletc(*edli-).
References:
References:WH.I14,388f.,Trautmann66.
Seealso:
Seealso:fromzumFolgenden(edh-2 )
Page(s):
Page(s):289-290
Root/lemma: ed- (*heh- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:toeat,*tooth
Note:
Fromanolderroot(*heh- )derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ed- (*heh- )::`toeat,*tooth'andRoot/
Root/
lemma: embh- ,m b h- :
:`tobite;tooth'
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`essen'
Note:
Note:originallyathematic,butmostlythematicchange
Note:
Commonillyr.-balt.h->d-,z-,OldPrussian-illyr.h->zz-,ss-,s-phoneticmutation
Material:
Material:OldIndianathematicpresent1.Sg.dmi,3.Sg.tti`youeat',Perf.dim(:lat.dimus,
got.etum);themat.inMediumadasva;
av.3.Sg.Konj.aiti;
arm.utem`eat',themat.(*d-);
gr.hom.Infin.,Fut.(olderKonj.)--,Imper.originally*(:OldIndianaddh),
thereaftersecondary()`eat';secondarythemat.(afterparticiple-andthe
thereafterresultedin3.Pl.),Perf.hom.--,(after-),att.;
lat.ed,s,stetc`eat'(lengthofeitheroldorafterthesog.Lachmann'sruletodefine;ifoldin
participlesusandpassives(s)um);Perf.d;osk.Infin.edum,aboutumbr.ezariafseeunderS.
288;
air.Konj.ci-niestar`althoughhedoesnoteat'(*ed-s-tro),Fut.ss-(*ieds-),Perf.dofaid(*deu(p)o-od-e),participleesse`eaten'(*edtio-);cymr.ys`youeat'(*ed-ti);
got.themat.itan(Perf.1.Pl.tum,ahd.zumetc:alat.dimus),anord.eta,as.ags.etan,engl.eat,
afries.ta,ahd.ezzan`eat'(=OldIndiandanam`actofeating',gr.`dish,food');withprefix
fra-(*pro-):got.fra-itan`consume',ags.fretan`gnaw',ahd.frezzan`devour';kaus.got.fra-atjan;
anord.etia`allowtoconsume',ags.ettan`allowtograze',ahd.azzen,ezzen`givetoeat,allowto
graze',nhd.tzen,actually`aspicydishthatcanbeeaten';

Maybealb.geg.etun`thirsty',etje`thirst'
bsl.*dmiin:
lit.du,diau,sti(alt.[d]mi,3.Sg.st)`eat,devour',Supin.st;lett.mu(older*mi)anddu,
stds.,Supin.stu;OldPrussianst,stwei`eat';OldChurchSlavicjam(*m),3.Sg.jast(*st)
idg.*dti),3.Pl.jadt(idg.*dnti),Infin.jasti(oldsti),Supin.jast,aech.jst;
lit.participleds,OldPrussianduns,OldChurchSlavicjad`havingeaten';
hitt.et-`eat',Imper.eit(et),1.Sg.presenteitmi(etmi),3.Pl.a-da-an-zi(adanzi);thefirsta
throughassimilation,s.FriedrichIF.41,371;differentPedersenHitt.128;
incompounds:gr.-(*-dtom)`breakfast';withlengtheningincompound
`mealtime',`timeforsupper,eveningmeal,evening'(comparealsohom.`Rohes
essend':OldIndianmd-ds.);gr.,-isarrangedfrom*,*after(as
from*).
nominalformation:
1.Lengthenedgrade:

di o - , di : inOldIndiandy-`edible'(dyna-`voracious'isderivedfrom*dyu-`eatingfood,');
anord.tr`eatable'(comparealsogot.aftjam.`excessiveeater');
lit.diosf.Pl.`Raufe',di`devourer'(originally`foodfedtolivestock'),dism.`dish,food',msdis`carnivore,familyofmeat-eatinganimals';OldPrussiandism.`food,eating';russ.j`food,
eating,dish,food'(underlikewise;s.Berneker271f.);
aboutlat.india`fast's.WH.393.

do- , d: inanord.tn.`ravenousness,dish,food'(alsotaf.`ravenousness,nourishment,food'),
ags.tn.,as.tn.,ahd.zn.`dish,food'(comparealsogot.uztam.`crib,manger'),lit.daf.`the
eating'(=anord.ta),lett.dasf.Pl.`foodfedtolivestock',OldPrussiandaif.Nom.Sg.`theeating',
OldChurchSlavicbd`repast,meal'(perhapsalsojad`poison',s.Berneker271f.),russ.jdf.
`breakfast,dish,food'.
di-: inOldChurchSlavicjad`dish,food',medv-d`thebear'(honeyeater,compareOldIndian
madhv-d-ds.).
d-to-: inlit.stas`eaten',OldPrussianSubst.Dat.Sg.stai`food,eating',mbg.jasto`servingof
food',etc.
des-: inlit.desis`dish,food',skf.`appetite',old`foodfedtolivestock,carrion'=lat.sca
(*dsk)`dish,food,foodfedtolivestock,carrion',lett.ka`wolverine';ahd.as.s`fleshofa
deadbody,bait,carrion',ags.s`carrion'(*d-s-om);OldChurchSlavicjasliPl.m.`crib,manger,
manger'(*dsli-);ifumbr.ezariafstandsfor`food',itcanbemaybeexplainedfrom*des-sio-;
differentaboutlit.skEM2295.
Maybealb.eshk`driedmushroomsforkindlingthefire'

With:gr.f.,Pl.`throesofchildbirth',`beinlaborpains'(FriskEtymaArmen.13);
--`dish,food'(compare);inadditionlit.odas,lett.udsm.`mosquito'(SchulzeKZ.
43,41=Kl.Schr.627;fromZubatAfslPh.16,407,BrugmannGrundr.I2337placedtowruss.
wadzen`agad-fly,horse-fly,breese').
2.Fullgrade,e.g.:
OldIndiandman-n.`dish,food'(:);-advan-`eating';
arm.erkn`birthpain,laborpains'(*edun),erk`plague'(*eduo-);
hom.,-n.`nourishment,food'(i.e.F,compareHes.),,
`dish,food';
lat.prandium`alatebreakfast,luncheon'(*pramediom),edulus`trencherman'(seealsoWH.I
underacrdula,ficedulaandmondula),edlis`eatable'(possiblybecauseoffromFickIII424,Falkrpunderjtteas*etuna-`voraciouseater'or`cannibal'ourrootformaddedtoanord.jtunn
`giant',ags.eoten`giant',olderndd.eteninne`witch'anolderu-stemedu-isadded);
3.o-grade:(ol.but)`pain'(comparelat.craeedcs),`lament,bewail,
mournfor,feltpain'etc.(influencedfrom`flow,run,trickle,cry,weep').

edont-, dont-, dn t -`tooth',probablypreviousparticiplepresent


OldIndiandnm.,Akk.dntam(*dont-),Gen.dat(=lat.dentis)`tooth'(secondarydnta-m.);av.
dantan-m.ds.,dtf.ds.;
arm.atamn,Gen.-man`tooth'(*ednt-mn);
gr.(ion.att.),-`tooth'(att.neologismafter()),ol.(assimilatedfrom*-),`edentulate,toothless'for*after:under
likewise;
lat.dens,-tism.(*dnts);osk.dunte[s]isablaut`teeth';
air.dtn.,cymr.bret.dant,corn.dans`tooth'(*dnt-);
ahd.zand,ags.t(Dat.Sg.,Nom.Pl.t,conservativestem),anord.tnn(Nom.Pl.ter,tennr,
conservativestem);zerograde(fromtheweakcase),got.tunus(fromdemAkk.tunu=lat.
dentem)`tooth'(derivativeags.tsc`fang'from*tun-ska-);
lit.dants,Gen.Pl.dant(dial.alsodani)`tooth';
slav.probablyinpoln.dzigna`stomatitis,inflammationofthemouth,mouthdecay,inflammationof
thegums'(*dt-gna,s.Berneker190).
formswithe-gradedon'tstandfirmaccordingly;anord.tindr`cusp,peak,crag',mhd.zint,-des
`prong,spike,tine',ags.tindm.ds.,ahd.zinna(*tindj)`pinnacle',ahd.zinko(*tint-k)`tine'belongto
air.dind`hill,lifting',phryg.mountainname,illyr.VN.
References:
References:WP.I118ff.,WH.I340f.

Page(s):
Page(s):287-289
Root/lemma: egnis :ognis
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:fire
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Feuer'
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:egnis :ognis :
:`fire'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ong- (betterang- )(*heng-)::coal
<Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ok- :
:`tosee;eye'
Grammaticalinformation:
Grammaticalinformation:m.
Material:
Material:OldIndianagn-m.`fire'(=hitt.Agnis,HroznZA.38,185,afterLaroche,Recherchessur
lesnomsofdieuxhittites119,takenoverfromHurrians);
lat.ignis,-ism.`fire,flame,light,blaze,glow'(*egnis);
lit.ugnsf.(alit.alsom.,SpechtKZ.59,2782),lett.ugunsm.f.ds.;uderivesfromaschwed.ughn
`oven';
OldChurchSlavicognm.`fire'(*ognis;i-stem,secondaryio-stem),ech.ohe(ohne),russ.ogn
(ognja);aboutech.vhef.`flue,chimney,smithy',skr.vganjm.`blacksmith',withquiteunclear
anlaut,s.MeilletSlavecomm.285,lastlyJ.HolubStrunslovniketym.jazykaeskoslov.341.

Maybealb.vigan`giant':skr.vganjm.`blacksmith'[atranslationofCyclopswhoweregiant
blacksmiths;theygottheirnameforcoveringoneeyeasaspareifonegotdamagedfromsparksof
meltedmetal,thatiswhyRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:egnis :ognis :
:`fire'derivedfromanextensionofRoot/
Root/
lemma: ok- :
:`tosee;eye'];commonalb.protheticv-beforebareinitialvowels.
References:
References:WP.I323,WH.I676,Trautmann334f.
Page(s):
Page(s):293
Root/lemma: egEnglishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:alackofsmth.
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Mangel'
Material:
Material:Lat.ege,-re`want,beinneed;withgenit.orabl.tobeinwantof,tobewithout,notto
have;alsotodesire,wishfor,want',egests`poverty,indigence,need;withgenit.,wantof',egnus
(*egesnos)`needy,destitute;withgenit.orabl.,inneedof'.Hereuponalsoosk.egmof.`athing,
object,matter,affair,circumstance;possessions,property,wealth;interest,advantage,benefit;
cause,ground,reason;amatterofbusiness;alawsuit,action'(tomeaningdevelopmentcomparegr.
:);
anord.ekla`lack',ekla`barely',ahd.ekordo`bare,only',ekrdi,eccherode`thin,weak'.

References:
References:WP.I114f.,WH.I394f.
Page(s):
Page(s):290
Root/lemma: ehero- (*hehero- )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:lake,innersea
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Landsee'
Note:
FromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ehero- :
:`lake,innersea'derivedRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:ad(u)-,ad-ro- :
:`water
current':Illyr.pannon.VN[commonalb.-illyr.-balt.-h-
h- > -d-, -z-;OldPrussian-illyr.
-h-
h- > ss-, s-phoneticmutation].
Material:
Material:Maybeillyr.TNOseriates(Osseriates)[commonitalic-illyr.-h-
h- > ss-, s-phonetic
mutation].
Dercomparisonfrombsl.*eera-n.`seashore'inOldPrussianassarann.`sea',lit.erasm.(outof
itdial.alsoeras),lett.ezersm.,OldChurchSlavic(j)ezero,russ.zerods.,with:
balt.*eif.`borderline'inOldPrussianasy,lit.e,lett.ea;slav.*m.inserb.-ChurchSlavic
jaz`canal',aech.jz`waterweir',aruss.z,russ.jaz`fishweir',isdoubtful,alsothewithpannon.
VNintheflatseasurface(becauseof.ofitmustbethrak.),andwith:
gr.,-,riveroftheunderworld(therefromand`abele,white
poplar'),whose(insteadofor)couldindeedderivefrom`atrembling,quaking,shaking,
terror,anxiety,fear,dread,alarm';
Note:commongr.-h->--phoneticmutation
bsl.formscouldgobackparticularlyperhapsalsoto*aera-,inwhichcaseonecouldplaceidg.
*ahero-.
References:
References:WP.I1841,Trautmann73,KretschmerGl.14,98,JoklEbertsReal-lex.6,39.
Page(s):
Page(s):291-292
Root/lemma: ehi- (*ehi-no-s )
Englishmeaning:
Englishmeaning:hedgehog(*serpenteater)
Germanmeaning:
Germanmeaning:`Igel'
Note:
Note:probablyshortformtoehi-no-s `oftheserpent,serpenteater'(seeaboveS.44).
Note:
Root/lemma:
Root/lemma:ehi- (*ehi-no-s )::`hedgehog(*serpenteater)'derivedfromRoot/lemma:
Root/lemma:
ang(h)i- (*eghi-,oghi- andehi- )::`snake,worm,(*hedgehog=snakeeat