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Kangweon-Kyungki Math. Jour. 11 (2003), No. 1, pp.

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ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS ON FUZZY NUMBERS USING OF LINEAR FUNCTIONS Jae Deuk Myung
Abstract. In this paper, we introduce two types of algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear functions and then show that the Zadeh implication is smaller than the Diense-Rescher implication, which is smaller than the Lukasiewicz implication. If (f, ) is an available pair, then Am B Ap B Aj B.

1. Introduction D. Dubois and H.Prade employed the extension principle to extend algebraic operations from crisp to fuzzy numbers([4], [5]). It is well-known that for two continuous fuzzy numbers, the extension principle method and the cut method are equivalent. In [2], Chung introduced the Lmap-Min method to the extend algebraic operations from crisp to fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear function and minimum(). And it was proven that for two equipotent fuzzy numbers, the Lmap-Min method and the extension principle method are equivalent. A f uzzy set is a function A on a set X to the unit interval. For any [0, 1], the cut of a fuzzy set A on a set X, A , is the crisp set A = {x X|A(x) }. For any fuzzy set A on a set X, the support of A, A+0 , is the set {x X|A(x) > 0}. A fuzzy set A on the set R of real numbers is said to be a f uzzy number if it satises the following: 1) A is a non-empty closed interval for each [0, 1]
Received August 9, 2001. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classication: 03E72, 06D72. Key words and phrases: fuzzy number, Lmap-Min method, Lmap-Addition method, extension principle method, Lmap-Max method, Piecewise linear function, shift. This research is supported by Kyung Hee University.

Jae Deuk Myung

2) A+0 is a bounded interval. 3) A is continuous on S(A), where S(A) denotes the closure of A+0 in the real line R. We use F (R) to denote the set of fuzzy numbers. For a fuzzy number A, we write S(A)=[sA , SA ] and A1 =[mA , MA ]. For a fuzzy number A, the lef t spread of A, L(A) is the interval [sA , mA ] and the right spread of A, R(A), is the interval [MA , SA ]. A continuous binary operation :R R R is said to be: 1) increasing(decreasing, resp.) if x < y, u < v imply x u < y v (x u > y v, resp). 2) hybrid if v < y, x < u imply x y < u v. Throughout this paper, we use to denote the continuous binary operation on R. Addition(+), meet () and join() are continuous increasing binary operations on R and subtraction(-) is a continuous hybrid binary operation on R. Multiplication() is a continuous increasing binary operation on [0, ) and a continuous decreasing binary operation on (, 0]. [ExtensionP rinciple] [7]. For A, B F (R), we dene a fuzzy set on R, Ae B, by the equation (Ae B)(z) = z=xy A(x) B(y). Remark 1. 1. If (Ae B)(z) > 0, then there is a pair (x, y) S(A) S(B) such that (Ae B)(z) = A(x) B(y). We call such a pair the critical point of (Ae B) with respect to z. For two intervals [a, b] and [c, d], a linear function f :[a, b] [c, d] is said to be: dc 1) increasing if for each x [a, b], f (x) = ba (x a) + c, cd 2) decreasing if for each x [a, b], f (x) = ba (x a) + d. For A, B F (R), a linear function f :S(A) S(B) is said to be: 1 1) piecewise increasing if f | R(B) : R(A) R(B), f | B1 : A1 B 1 A R(A) and f | L(B) : L(A) L(B) are increasing linear functions. L(A)
L(B) 2) piecewise decreasing if f | R(A) : R(A) L(B), f | B1 : A1 B 1 A
1

and f | R(B) : L(A) R(B) are decreasing linear functions. L(A) 3) piecewise if it is piecewise increasing or piecewise decreasing.

Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers

For A, B F (R) and a linear function f :S(A) S(B), we use i(A B) to denote the set {x f (x)|x S(A)}. Let A, B F (R) and f :S(A) S(B) a piecewise linear function. Then a pair (f, ) is called an available pair if it satises one of the following: 1) f and are both increasing. 2) f is decreasing and is hybrid. Proposition 1. 2. Let A, B F (R) and f :S(A) S(B) be a piecewise linear function. Then one has the following: 1) i(A B) is a closed interval in R. 2) If (f, ) is an available pair, then i(A B) = {x y|x S(A), y S(B)}. Proof. See[2]. [Lmap-Min Method] [2]. Let A, B F (R) and let f :S(A) S(B) be a piecewise linear function. Then, we dene a fuzzy set on R, Am B, as follows: (Am B)(z) = A(x) B(f (x)) if z = x f (x) for some x S(A) and (Am B)(z) = 0 if z = x f (x) for any x S(A). Then if (f, ) is an available pair, then Am B is a fuzzy number. Definition 1. 3. [2] Let A, B F (R). A piecewise linear function f :S(A) S(B) is said to be a shift (from A to B) if A(x) = B(f (x)) for each x S(A). Definition 1. 4. [2] 1) Two fuzzy numbers A and B are said to be i-equipotent(d-equipotent, resp.), symbolized as A B (A B, resp), provided that there is an increasing(decreasing, resp.) shift from A to B. 2) Two fuzzy numbers A and B are said to be equipotent if they are i-equipotent or d-equipotent. Theorem 1. 5. Let A, B F (R). Then one has the following: 1) If A B and are increasing, then Am B = Ae B. 2) If A B is decreasing and are hybrid, then Am B = Ae B. Proof. See[2]. Definition 1. 6. A fuzzy number A is said to be positive(negative, resp.) if S(A) [0, ) (S(A) (, 0], resp.).

Jae Deuk Myung

2. ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS ON FUZZY NUMBERS In the following theorem, we introduce the algebraic operation on fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear functions and addition(+). Theorem 2. 1. [Lmap-Addition Method] Let A, B F (R) and f :S(A) S(B) a piecewise linear function. Then, we dene a fuzzy set on R, Ap B, as follows: (Ap B)(z) = (A(x)+B(f (x)))/2 if z = xf (x) for some x S(A) and (Ap B)(z) = 0 if z = x f (x) for any x S(A). If (f, ) is an available pair, then Ap B is a fuzzy number. Proof. 1) Suppose f and are both increasing. Since (Ap B) +0 1 i(AB) and i(AB) is bounded, (Ap B) is bounded. Since (Ap B) 1 = 0 and for each (0, 1], (Ap B) (Ap B) , (Ap B) = 0 for each (0, 1]. Suppose z1 , z2 (Ap B) and z1 z z2 . Since (Ap B) i(A B) and i(A B) is an interval, z i(A B) and so there is x S(A) such that z = x f (x). Since z1 , z2 (Ap B) , there are x1 , x2 S(A) such that z1 = x1 f (x1 ) and z2 = x2 f (x2 ). Since f and are increasing, x1 x x2 . Case 1. x1 x mA x2 : Then A(x1 ) A(x) and B(f (x1 )) B(f (x)). Hence A(x1 ) + B(f (x1 )) A(x) + B(f (x)) and so (Ap B)(z) . Case 2. x1 mA x MA x2 : Then A(x1 ) = 1 and B(f (x1 )) = 1 and so (Ap B)(z) . Case 3. x1 MA x x2 : Then A(x2 ) A(x) and B(f (x2 )) B(f (x)). Hence A(x2 ) + B(f (x2 )) A(x) + B(f (x)) and so (Ap B)(z) . Thus (Ap B)(z) = (A(x)+B(f (x)))/2 and hence z (Ap B) . Therefore (Ap B) is an interval. Let z0 = inf (Ap B) . Then there is a decreasing sequence < zn > in (Ap B) such that zn z0 . Then for each n N there is xn S(A) such that zn = xn f (xn ) and (A(x) + B(f (x)))/2 Since f and are increasing, < xn > is a decreasing sequence in S(A). Since S(A) is bounded, there is x0 S(A) such that xn x0 . Since A, B, f , + and are continuous, (A(xn ) + B(f (xn )))/2 (A(x0 ) + B(f (x0 )))/2 and zn x0 f (x0 ) = z0 . Since (A(xn ) + B(f (xn )))/2 for each n N , (A(x0 ) + B(f (x0 )))/2 and so z0 (Ap B) . Similarly we have sup(Ap B) (Ap B) . In
+0

Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers

all, (Ap B) is a non-empty closed interval. Since f , , A, B and + are continuous, (Ap B) is continuous. This completes the proof. Using the exactly same argument as for the case f and are both increasing, the case where f is decreasing and is hybrid can be proved. In the following theorem, we introduce the algebraic operation on fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear functions and maximum(). Theorem 2. 2. [Lmap-Max Method] Let A, B F (R) and f :S(A) S(B) a piecewise linear function. Then, we dene a fuzzy set on R, Aj B, as follows: (Aj B)(z) = A(x) B(f (x)) if z = x f (x) for some x S(A) and (Aj B)(z) = 0 if z = x f (x) for any x S(A). If (f, ) is an available pair, then Ap B is a fuzzy number. Proof. 1) Suppose f and are both increasing. Since (Aj B) +0 1 i(AB) and i(AB) is bounded, (Aj B) is bounded. Since (Aj B) 1 = 0 and for each (0, 1]. (Aj B) (Aj B) , (Ap B) = 0 for each (0, 1]. Suppose z1 , z2 (Aj B) and z1 z z2 . Since (Aj B) i(A B) and i(A B) is an interval, z i(A B) and so there is x S(A) such that z = x f (x). Since z1 , z2 (Aj B) , there are x1 , x2 S(A) such that z1 = x1 f (x1 ) and z2 = x2 f (x2 ). Since f and are increasing, x1 x x2 . Case 1. x1 x mA x2 : Then A(x1 ) A(x) and B(f (x1 )) B(f (x)). Hence A(x1 ) B(f (x1 )) A(x) B(f (x)) and so (Aj B)(z) . Case 2. x1 mA x MA x2 : Then A(x1 ) = 1 and B(f (x1 )) = 1 and so (Aj B)(z) . Case 3. x1 MA x x2 : Then A(x2 ) A(x) and B(f (x2 )) B(f (x)). Hence A(x2 ) B(f (x2 )) A(x) B(f (x)) and so (Aj B)(z) . Thus (Aj B)(z) = A(x) B(f (x)) and hence z (Aj B) . Therefore (Aj B) is an interval. Let z0 = inf (Aj B) . Then there is a decreasing sequence < zn > in (Aj B) such that zn z0 . Then for each n N there is xn S(A) such that zn = xn f (xn ) and A(x)B(f (x)) Since f and are increasing, < xn > is a decreasing sequence in S(A). Since S(A) is bounded, there is x0 S(A) such that xn x0 . Since A, B, f , and are continuous, A(xn ) B(f (xn )) A(x0 )B(f (x0 )) and zn x0 f (x0 ) = z0 . Since A(xn )B(f (xn ))
+0

Jae Deuk Myung

for each n N , A(x0 ) B(f (x0 )) and so z0 (Aj B) . Similarly we have sup(Aj B) (Aj B) . In all, (Aj B) is a non-empty closed interval. Since f , , A, B and are continuous, (Aj B) is continuous. This completes the proof. Using the exactly same argument as for the case f and are both increasing, the case where f is decreasing and is hybrid can be proved. In the following two theorems, we show that {m , p , e and j } is a lattice. Theorem 2. 3. Let A, B F (R). If (f, ) is an available pair, then Am B Ap B Aj B. Proof. Straightforward. Theorem 2. 4. Let A, B F (R). If (f, ) is an available pair, then Am B Ae B Aj B. Proof. Let (x0 , y0 ) be the critical point of Ae B with respect to z i(A B) and x S(A) such that (Aj B)(z) = A(x) B(f (x)). Suppose that f and are both increasing. If x = x0 , then (Ae B)(z) (Aj B)(z). Suppose x0 < x. Since f and are both increasing, y0 f (x) and so A(x0 ) < A(x) or B(y0 ) < B(f (x)). Thus (Ae B)(z) (Aj B)(z). Suppose x0 > x. Since f and are both increasing, y0 f (x) and so A(x0 ) < A(x) or B(y0 ) < B(f (x)). Thus (Ae B)(z) (Aj B)(z). Therefore Ae B Aj B. Using the exactly same argument as for the case f and are both increasing, the case where f is decreasing and is hybrid can be proved. Corollary 2. 5. Let A, B F (R). Then one has the following: 1) If A B and are increasing, then Am B = Ap B = Ae B = Aj B. 2) 1) If A B is decreasing and are hybrid, then Am B = Ap B = Ae B = Aj B. Proof. Straightforward.

Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers

References
1. Kauman, A and M. M. Gupta, Introduction to Fuzzy Arithmetic: Theory and Applications, Van Nostrand, New York, 1985. 2. S. H. Chung, Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers and fuzzy equations, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, submitted. 3. Dubois. D and H. Prade, Fuzzy real algebra: Some results. FSS 2, 1979, 327348. 4. Dubois. D and H. Prade, Fuzzy Sets and Systems: Theory and Applications, Academic Press, New York, 1980. 5. Dubois. D and H. Prade, Fuzzy numbers: an overview In: Bezdek, J. C., ed., Analysis of Fuzzy Information Vol.1: Mathematics and Logic. CRC Press, Boca, Raton, FL, 1987, 3-29. 6. Dubois. D and H. Prade, Possibility Theory, New York, London, 1988. 7. Geordge, J. klir and Bo Yuan, Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications, Prentice Hall PTR, New Jersey, 1995.