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Chair: Peter Kat:zcnstcin, Cornc:ll
Barry Buzan, Univcrsity ofWestrninster
Alcxander L George, Stan!rd
Helga Haflendorn, Free
Fred Halliday, London Schoo! of Econornics
Paul K. Huth,
Stephen D. Krasner, Stanford
Lisa L Martn, Harvard University
James D. Morrow, of
Volker Rittbergcr, Unversty ofTbngen
I Iideo Sato+. of Tsukuba
Ste\-e Smth,
Janice Gross University of Toronto
J. Ann Tickner, Universitv of Southern California
Ole Waever. University
Alcxandcr Wendt, Univcrsity of
Dna A. Znnes, Universitv of lllinots
!-!ideo Sato dicd in Spring 2001
..IJ ....:::;_
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Wa!tu ( ;JJis:n,Jl>'>, fiWIJI,I>
L Manm 202

purpo:;l;s: nt
pnv:l!C; Or >Ln!tcism or f)CCI1llttcd
CnpynghL Dc;ig;n:o; and P:llcnb Acl, 19Xi-\. lhb
lX '( Jnd S
l'haplLr l 1 K;d
nr lrl
rcpmducllon outs!d.C thosc h.::
se m ro thc publl;,l\crs
Lnullon EC1 Y 1
S.-\(,l nc.
Tltnu."}.lllll \) i
Ind1.1 PH l
B 1/1 l Mnlun Cuopt..T,lt!VC
lklht llO
)A( ;r Pullllt-al!nu'>
} ; fll'l--in Stn:l't

Prt 1 tJ
Hrithh Ubr.:u-y CatalogunJ.: i11 Public;tton ..lata
'\ fm 1111,
IX 07619 631!5
ISHN O 7hl{) 630-l 2
av;libhh.: trnm
Librar) ur Cnngn$S ContruJ Numbcr 20l11 135896
Typcscr hy SI VA Math St:ttcrs, Clh:nna1,
Print.:J ,md by
CPI Amny Rowt:. Chip(!<:nham,

Prinred un hum
PP*' lr<>m
-- FSC" C013604
Con tents
Notes on Contrihulors

On thc llistory and Hstoriography of lmemational Rc!auons
Brian C Schmidt
of Social Sciencc and Internatonal Rclations
Rationalism v, Conslructivism: A Skcptical Vew
James Fea ron ami H :IILii
Rational Choice ami Internationa l Relations
/)uncwz Snida/
Const.ructvsm amllntcrnntonal Rclalions
Emanuel Ad/er
Thcory ro Evrdcncc in lntcrnatonal Rcbtrons
Richard 1\. 1 ferrmann
N orms etnd Ethics
,.J11drcw 1/urre/1
lntc:rnational Rdations
State, Sovcr.cignty ami
Thomas J Biersteker
Power and Intemational Relatons
David A. Baldwin
Internatonal Organizations and lnstitutions
Beth A. Simmons ami Usa L lvfartin
r \

.: .ri
... _." .. ,, .
. '
-"< ?.
State, Sovereignty ami Territory
Thc t:onccph
to thc
rebticms. For generations
of !he . .;tak h:1s heen thc
uf 111 nternat10nal
Waltz, i 97Y). lhc p
ha-; pro\Hh:d one of [he central
lnternutional relJtrons,
thc cnd
o ver
HtNr\.'H!f, t(,rrns of st:-th.:, of sovcr-
('Jnc:cpttons of t.::rnturulity are ne1thcr
nor acros.s time and place. Thc nbso-
lutist states of thc: sen:r\tccnth ccntury are
foundly dtfferent fwm the liberal states of
nmetcc.::nth and \.Ventlcth c0nturies. Thc mcanmg
ol' that prevailed
bears only a
rt.:..emblance to and asset1ions of
today. Thc
that separatcd and the mJjor
Europc most of the twcntidh
\ven rz;dctlneJ within
ytl:a\ challcnucs
schola.;, of intt:mauonal
diitErcnt men.nmgs ofst3te, soveregnty and te!Tltory,
aud ro unth-:rstan<.l thc1r origins, comprchend lheir
th.:ir transfonnations. Tl1e
chJph::r is to tl!ustratc 1mpor1anl
.1f meaning of central concepts over
thc course of thc twcntcith century and w suggest
sorne ways of thinking about thern.
The conccpts of statc. soverelgnty and
tach sociatly con::;tructed. are dcfmed,
rcddio<?, by the rule;, actions pracucc;, of di!:
fcreul agents, including in the case of states. by
themsclves. An exmnination of rhc contestatmn of
d1fferent resistances, rules, legal
htstOI) u! tho
thc rncaning
public justificatioos impor-
comnosition ami
ment in pmcticcs of recognition,
thal dc!inc hoth thernsclvcs and each other. At the
time, the mutual n.:cog:mtlon of clatrns of
elcment in ihe detinition
lhcr;; is a school of
thollght whin law that mainrains that
srates can exst wthout fonnal by other
(Shaw, 141>-7). Bmh conccpls of
stare and alsn ha ve territorial cotlCcptl!ons
associilted The idcahzcd,
stak has disnct boundarics, and VVcstphalian
principie of rile
statc and
co-dclennintve sin ce thcir ongms cnn-
ccpb and associah.:d practiccs in the s.txteenth Clnd
scvcntcemh centuncs. But wh1 k thcy a!ways
.:;,\.i fiN-ill8fJ<!K 01 K:--.\ 1 1():-.,\1 I!CI ,\ f itJ\S
IK'L'Il closcl: a-.:-,u..:iatcd, th.:y h,l\::' lHft n.:lllaHh.'d
l"ll!1SLI!lt ur bc-L"ll IHUtllJJiy L'OihtiiU!IVC H1 sanh.'
\\ays ovcr t1111C {lbn...:bon, l9'J5J flut dJfTerc1lt
!orm-. nf '>tJtC h;!\ t' t:On:-.lHU!Cd flK:lf1lllg::- of
<.lllJ ht:CII \\ 1tf1 tl!fh ..
n:pliOO'- uf lt:ITllUrtdJity
tv .. cllilCth-cratUJ) form.-, changH1g
mr;.ullngs uf-:o\Cn:;g.nt_Y ,tud conccpttntb oftt:rnhwy
l }h' mecctbnt!. mtwdurtun how
r llh..'.llllllg OVCI <l
broad rangc n( lilllt: {contr"'"ling thc
\.'ClllUr) absolutLSt :-.t<lte with thc nlth:ll'L'tlth-cl...'ntury
!thl:ral- <.;late, for CXampk'). fiOWl'\Cr, 1 \\Jil! tU i!!us-
tt:l[( . .: chJnucs of mc:nun!l, 0\l'l J lm11tcd ll!fiL'
::;pan. b..: ctH;sldcred lurdcr !C;,l Pl-lhc
pnnc1pal [hesis Jhont thc mcaning of' our
That 1.'), f wc can
cll.mgcs of 1ncanll1g over
shouJd SCilSII/C
charactenzatJon m over
course of thc twenricth ccntury 15 beil
iHustrati\ e purpos ....s. l do not mtend lo
unitarv !o thc
the n<...:xt sect1on or tu thc
tnata: chan!l,C and/tH
lnd..:.d. as 1 \VIIIIIlthtrak, th1..'re W;JS ev1dcncc dt tht.:
cud of twcnt1eth of attcrnptlng to
stnkc hack at (or rcJcfJntlJon of thetr
SO\'CfClgllt)' !{atlJt:r. J Will\t to jJt::;tJ:llt.: qu:lili:JllVL.'
111 tune aud plac..: and to
lo con1pr'"hcnd lhc
!he cure cun..:cpts or
111!-!lOHICUI'\{; \,'\. CO,'\IF'\J{I,\II/1-\{;
S L\ H., Sm 1 Y ., ;D T1.1W1 tolH \LIT\
Forms of'Stulc
ll cnnmwn t:o1 schllbr::; uf intcr-
naliunal r-.LttiOilS to o( statc ( 01 to
tnvok..: iesson::; from the ofstatc pracuces} as
!l lerrn desntbcd , f1xcJ anJ unc:h::.tngng Jnsti-
tutionul phcnomcnor1. This espccially
evJcnl dunng thc iattc1 hall' the twcnllcth
scho!Jrs tir:-,.t to :Jrticulate the
o the subJcCt in
hy bch:1vwrai seicn
\\ nrmg in !he Jnd
v.llh hruadly
;_nd ,1hout
IIJSI, Wah1,

hfe o\.er the
Wlnlc l(rr lhbcn
1!.1\.:.:- hJd lb a
of tcrnh)rv u
cconontlt', '-.t.'l:urny. :wd {;lher
mtl re oh 1 'JX 1 2J)
llow..:vcr, tcntk'lh.:y to tr-:ut :--l:tlt:s a:-;
nH..:ntdtl) .Similclf lllllt:-. atrps-; tinw <:md pLu..:c b by no
to ncoreal1-.t lt is alsn
L:OflHiloidY found tlt:old'l-l:rals (l<cohanc
l ). u ;ntclllporary \ llu"'ctt and
S tan, 1 9S5 ), and cYeo amung snmt..' cotL')(i uctJvists
(Wcm!t. X "9).
Not schnl:!r
cmploys \\-ord 'slah.: to
o !tHCnl;1tlonal Allhuugh llc IS commonly
1 larh
relattons com-
monly rel:ogmzc t.mJ ackn\l.kdg..: lhc prescncc of
..1 gtcal v:1ncty of statc forrns ovcr time,, exp!Jcit
analys1s of variation ;:tnd ib JlllpliL:atioHs rarcly
llgurcs rromlllt!JH!y tu tlJcr 'f he !me of
puslt\V!St t.:1thcr pr\1...'!'1 tl)U scductlvl',
or the cO!npkx!ly tir" turn:::. out to be
tl}U d!llcult ro
fhc llterallllt.: \Hl lhL naturc o( -.tare rypically
Jstngtllsilt:s betw;.;cn
ronH\ !ti thc SIXkCilth
and \\llar ,)llnlC
;,ute {lkld, ll);..{)) P-:trv (
ha:-; chronidcd thc :tnd l>f thc ab-;o-
lullS1 statc, whlic Ttlly (1'!75), ,\nthuny
(iiddcns ( 1 'JX:i J and M tchacl iVIann ( I'!KX) hove
cach Ucc>cnhcd role ut' war 111 tht.. nukmg ul"!hc
modcrn 5tate. DougLb:-, 1\<orth ( l YX 1) hJ.'t cmpha"
stred the cJrly :>tare'.:-. (UtH:a! rolt.: lll e;'ltahll::;hmcnt
and enforcemcnl of propf.:rt) nghts. l cntrai tu
Jevelopmcnt uf
berween thc

Si All .. SllVf:l(f:lSfY A NI>
of tht: baLJil(L.' 01 pO\\t:l sy:-:h:rn
lcadcr." of thc
thc twvnttdh Ttlury. \\'oodrow \\'llsun
thc imnwralliy of Hu: or PU\\ t..'f
prcvakut_ al thc bcgm1Hng ni' twcntiClit
century and prclcrrcd opcn Jtplomat:y to
and uvcr thl 'unt:onscJunablc
uf hclpkss and lllJJocctlt pLoplt:s' Thc:
thc frcqu-.ntly !lllhcral practit:c") uf
\ilplomacy and thl-' prodJvitl') nr
dcmoaauc h<.J . ...,
the wenttcth ccntury (Cr:llg and (icorge.
Thc COlH.;Cplll;..d!JatHm ofthc 1
modern lws g....:ncratcd
,\lax \\'\:bcr">, co!lCf>ntlon rcvenucs ha:-. bccn \VHkly uulized
thc scho!arship of mtcmo.ttonal tcla-
ether cxplctly ur rnplietly (Weber, 1949).
Thc Wcbcnan conccpt1on of the state has been
tkularly int1uc>ntwl on thc scholarly trad1tion
ttied wl!h political 1cnlmn (Sn11th, 1 Y86), lndccd.
Webcr's of th(' stat....: is ccmral (0 al! of thc
works of thc rcaJists, from
r .. H. Carr and fhns ',!orgc:nth:m, to Jolm Hcrz,
Rc-rnhold and llcnry
of rulmg lx.mrgt.'OlSIC.
l ht:rc ts ttrnh;gult; in thc broadcr
of carly \'rol k \\CII as m tht.
'.\orb of more !hall a 're\ lSJOTlt\t:-:')
to cn-;ure tl11.. ()[" ulhcr mtcrprctatlons ul
thc ;,tate wtthmlhL' 0-brxis[ rradJtl)rL N!Cth
Poulanllas argucd tk1l the stak' could
Y..l)rk agam:-.t fhe ntlrng cbs:-;, 1rir sen eJ. [he broadcr
of nrcscrvmg. lapir;..dtsm as a
Pt'h'r i:van:-. and many
American depcnknt1s1as argued that
could, Hl m::.Lmccs, act re!atively
of dominant social force:\
ccptions ofthc slalc
th;,agrccmcrns abuut thc t:onccplu
a Ullll tmtc
lJJSl'USSOilS of lllOdan
t!t..: concc-ph ol :--;tatc, 1utim1 ami tJJtHm
:)(,lk. '1 ht.thrct: MC :Jnd ttw
chapkt hy th1s \o!wnc
explore:. thcm .1t kngth. \Vllik thcn JS no
tiHJIIIIlllly 011 tite dcfill[IOI; of tJtC St:JtC, holh lhc
thc S(,llC
COIHCidcn(C of nation Jlld Slah.: H1 thC form Of
th(' na! 10n-statr has more ohen than not pro ven to
4111 crhcrneraJ pht:OOIHC!Wil, hOWCVCL
lt is one thmg to establish changes in rhe form.
meaning and cOJH:cptua!J?Qfl(HJ ofthC" <.;t;:ttc o ver tune,
but yct another to establ1sh impltcattons for our
nnalysis anJ undcrswnJing of intem:JtionJ[ rel:Jtion:;.
The basic aiTtmt1es bt:t\H"en the absolutist slate and
the operation of the classical European of
huve already b.::en
rclatlonsh1ps bctwcen the
oro1her !()!'fiiS of ate r.::voJutlonary, derno-
Cfa!!..: tnns- amJ thc intctnational
Amtrican rc\nlutons proJuccd
th-: nncnulhJIIal systcm dunng tht:
thc carly nH1Ch.;cnlh
19\r:. Thcsc werc
th;H h,uJ bl'l:n dLTJ\-Cd lfom. dnd v.crc 111 manv
a C()Jltinuat!On nf, principks lnslun-
v.nll thc absnluttst statc f lu\VC"Vl'r,
IllCtlt 1dcas plaveJ an 1111pmt:Jnl role
transfonnarioll of thc :.Wk ami ol' thc 1111l'fndllOilai
rulJttcal cultun.: thJt \\ ;J:-; sh.tpcd and forwcd
statt: amJ the
1999). However. wc
impmtancc of
wlth nH)e COlnrenm,or:.
exclustvdy fmm thc
powers (:urd thcu mitators)
""""Y o< <loe ""' '""'""" T<o" " '"""'"
mort. than mere states or nntJon-statc:s at
lhc bcgirming of ccntury: wcre ernpires lt
wns not unt!l the miJJlc of tllc cL:ntury
that thc tUnn W;Js uu!y
160 IL\0:Il!JOUK <lF INT!'RNATii>'Ml lU.I.XflllNS
ti.,llowng thc hrcak-up
poii11cs throughour 1hc courst: of thc
tht: mcaning of hds not
or place.
or thc twenticth cen!ury,
empiles v. en: thc 'natura!' state form for thl:
Thc llritish, Frcnch.
and Russion emptres
th-.: world, whilc Germany,
States aspired to empires of
tu J. A. 1t was an era
0! impcriollsm' (Hobson, 1902).
Advocares of
pro:res::;ivc aggrcgation of
units, frum statc.s to Adam
Watson hJs described thJS w rerms 'the world-
wdc expansion of Europcan inten1ational
(Wnt.wn, 1992).
Thc be;::mnin!.! the twent1eth ccntury saw
and increasingly,
the of
in mc,re autocratlc placcs likc
Similar fnnns of mas.s
rin ami proto-natinnahst movcmcnts to
thc colonia! posscssions of the
lfom Alhca and South As !U. to
East and East Asi,t. lt was
thcsc mo\cm;;nb
in combltlation
twemidh ccntury, [lut
demise nf the imperial
kad eventually lo rhe
!orm the twentieth-
thc- for111 is rnost
dunng the mtdUic ycars af
eenwry, from thc l 930s through the
Thc wcH;tre st81l'', tite terntorwl state', tbe
sect1rity state', and thc 'de1
statc are all prornincnt construds of the
of the twenricth ccntury. Tite
pro,ce>S fllowmg the Second World War dtstri-
buted thc natlon-smte fonn throughour thc
rie:; tbe former colonial cmpires. At the
of the twenricrh centurv. Sir Halford
r.::..:ur fLenin,
of the
\\rld \.\raS mcrcasmgly dn:idcd 1mo mltlon-statcs.
\Vh;;re Ilt!W st\ltcs containcd more rhan one nation,
l!fforts predominatcd.
Onc bcst ways to tllustralc the change in the
rneaning of the in the t\\entieth centory to
norn1.s about the !egitimatc role of
bmh !11 c....::onomy and in thc pruvision of
Bctw,ccn the First aml rhe Sccond World
stcmt1al incrcasc:-. in thc degree ot' thc inter-
vcntton 111 the economy (Gerscbcnkron, 1961;
1957) Ir was not unril thc end of the
that therc sgnificant
uves to reverse Jcgree of stat.e cconomic
vention m thc cconomy (HJcrstckcr, 1992).
Thc tliffcrcnt statc

!'L. SO\' II'.!;IC'I'f Y fERRITOH Y j(J
fonn U.!
g cont,lint:d 111 tf1c Ch::111er
Natlon:;. Tbc UN Cha0cr is founded on .tite of
\iobble norrn of non Hlh.:rvc_ntJOn .mto :.Jfta1rs
f m.::rnhcr In
7 uf 1hc Thc Umtcd Na non> a'
sinct.' t;:; t{)undng m bcen
Jssociated \Vith a:;serting the right::. and
conccrns of tts membt:r state:L
\.Yould transccnd
con"'truct, from intcrcsl in
mtc!!ration (Deu1sch et aL, Haas,
ro th-. of global instHutions
tRugg1c, l993J).
end uf thc l\Vcntieth
associatcd with its mldd\1.? dccadt.:s bt:gan tu
show cvidcn.:c waning. Thcrc werc suhslantlal
degrc(' and naturc nf ;c..tatc
in rhe late
expansion of
was aduC\Cd undcr thc banner of
nom!C rcform' and the neol:beral stalc. Thc nadonJ!
securiry state was challcngcd by 1he
tnrHrY1f'.n,v nf the lntemct, it V/as
itsdf by enhancing its
capariry. Govemance had hecomc increasmgly
complex (!ldd, 1945),
At :he ....Jnle tune. tbc fa dure of thc expliclt stak-
t'C!l\HnH: mrervcntion <HJd natur;.:
betwccn. starc and ::;och:ty are
111 difTerellt on . ut
in [ltne. Thc dJ !Tercnct:"' are: mo.;;!
wc thc ::;alicncc uf
\11.' l:uropc
its conlClfl[10rary
Jcvelonmz world. Thc contrasts
most of thc
betwecn Europ
and Asw on
of kvcl of
America on thc onc
th.: othcr
impli..:ations both tr thc wc need to undl.!r-
lhc naturc of statc eonom1c inlcncntion, a:;
well as t'i1r nuture of thc rdationship bctwccn
( Katzenstcin. l 97X).
analysis, why should diffcrenccs
tOrms ofstate- betwccn
state and the nation-s.tate, for
cx.unple conccm us? \Vhy shoul,i thi:) be of m
c:->r to :;wdents ntemauonal rclations
br'! Sr:1te forms rnattcr. bccause thcy
idcntity, aroUJ
commH hvcs.
of empire is far more ubslract :mJ
(jlJ<dit-tt!vcly dtfferent from thc of
nation-5tatc. Swte alsa
cunstruction of thc culture
lJfferent fonns can also ddlne the hkciihood
of imcrnational contlict. Th1s is the
if advucate:-i of thc pcacc hypothC!:>iS
ahout a,;;sessmcnt of tht: rrobablly of
cordhct among do,!mocratic
H muy oftcn appcar to b-: convenlent
dlfkn.:n-.:es in
efJurt to
whld1 to generalize about inti2mariona1 rela- However, thc in terms of mcreaseJ
samplc m ay nor ;ust1 fy the in tcrrns of
thc Jni:c.undcrstandJng of impon:mt intem::'!t!Onal
phenomenu, a point to which we will retum in the
condusion of thi" chaptcL
Stcphen Kmsncr has charactcnzed sovcre1gnty as
' (Krasncr, l999: 42). Krasner
that the institution of
the pnnc1ple of non-inrervcnuon
of other states. intervention has always been
N:ature of intemanonal affJ.1rs. Oruaniz.:d
refcrs to a stJble. game-theoretic ;olutiun
pr::.tctice of asscrtlng thl;! inviu-
hnl nHb nr>-:: on th.: one hand anJ
J h_l 1! \'-llHUOK 111' I'<TLR'<,\Tim,_. Rll 'i'lliJ'.S
tiJL: nf Clllt:-,[Jilt 011 t!JC uthcr.
Tln: und-.:1::-lam.inJ! that "'tatc-. MC :::.O\Tr-
t.:J:.\11, yd con:-:l:trlt h hc:-:t
a . .., l;H .1s he guc:->. ln
pra.:l!l'L''I or :-.raic.-. :-.ave hl
wl1h KrastKI '-; C(lnccptu-
a!lzatlon l)' suvcrcignly tllat 1t cso;cnt!ally J
on.:. Ir doc:; not hl'lp u:: comprchcnd thc
of dwngl' l!l thl' opcrJrional mtamng of
and lt not (nr allow for)
typnlogy for the t{lrms and
o ver tanl' anoss place. Ltke thc
to trt.?at :;tates as fundamcntalty likc units.
au:hority m t!Jc and th:JI no
tina! and
d llJX<1: :2() ). hn Jarn<:.'>, St)\crelgnt) h
kflfleJ m tentl:'l ut constltuunnal an
<Hllhot Hy dcr j ved rn)lll <1 \ C..)!l'>lllUtiO!l, 'wJm,.:h
exlst:-. m O\\'fl nglll' 1'-)'1-)(l .fO). \Vhdc
c;.u:h \)r thc.-.c ddinc:-. c:;:-;cnc<..: of tll<..: con-
Ll'p! or .''l0\1.:1Ctgnty. lik(' thL) COI\Cl'lltratc
n :Le; tralhL:l'IHknt charatll.'! :-;tc:-. rather tkw
m lurm, -.::h,lng,_; 111
drtd -;pau:, or tl!e po:.:-.tbll:ty ofH:. trans
\\'e fiCL'd a fnunewdlk and cltl apfHOach
thts phl'tlOlncnon. 'iOIJlcth;ng
\VJth ref0rence primanly tu
the twentleth ccntury. Onc ofrhe bcst ways to
1mpo11ant in the meaning of soverc1gnty 1s
by examinmg < .Titl:na cxpltcrtly art,:ubtld by
st<Jtcs wiH:.'Jl !IK) Jcc1dC h) statc:':. :Js
/\:.. wdl be ...::\ 1(\cnt rltc dt:-ilUs . ..,
that thc ... of show
tmpnrta111 v:1rwl lon U\cr thc !lh.' rwcnt
urdcr lo h,; rcLglll/t:d "" a r.:n.:rEn statc
t:!!i...TIJ\T )fltrol t...:lTitOr!cd 'ip;p,;C ;.,
Artlde 1 uf th.: !93J 1\lontcvt(ko { 'onventton on
and 1 ol tduttlll....::. ,t ddincd ter-
rhcr\' can he
rcL"0!-2l1lttnn di!f.!rcnt sl:w:._,
fcn . bct'\A,cen countrks
tradll10m hkc thc lmtcJ
rl't.'ognition cnteri:.t vvc!J dlu."ill\1!1..'.'1
111 !he p...::ral!onal mcanmg of :-;ovrcignty
over time.
TlwmJs JctTcrson, the lirst A111cnc:m Secretarv
ot' S tate, 1.:mploycd a conct:ptiun nf !cgtttmacy bo;-
rn\\Td from work of JcJn-Jal'qLll':-. Rot1sscau,
'>Vhl:n he was frst confromcd with the qucsuon of
t.he ncw rcpubhc's critcria fOr the rccognition of
another state. Jn response to an mqtriry from lhe
,\1lnister m 1 792 about
the of the f rendt
LTUctal pomt n:cog-
rntion w.t" th.11 dh.-cttvc
tl'Hllnn:ll 1:ontrol tmd lh:tllt be . .:con.kd ..;urnc furm
uf popular lcgttlll1dC)",
By lhl' or !hl.' h-\'t'llili.:lli CLillury, :m
addllinnal v.ns Jddcd 1o1hc h;;t ofn:cogn;-
tton l'lttcna. StalC:"i W(!rL" lcgJtHnak Jf
thty WL'fL' ;.;apabk of fuJJillirlg !niL'ftctlJonctl
and nbl1gatton:.,, c-,K-ctal!y thcy
rigltb. [ 111.'1 CflkrlOII W.IS .tpphcd
lu { 'olombta ln 1900. tu llondu1 ;h :md !he
1'!01 ami tu l!:ut1 in 1911
112"3). Thc JcidltiUJl or tino
ntcmatioual comm1tmcnb
was cspccially in rhc 1 nos debate
.: ot rl'a,on;.; it tuok lhc { Jmled S tares
. .
l untd till' 1 }j(J:-; [O fr..'COJ;lli/.C tlk Hl.'\'. ."lL!lc of th.:
r ict Uniun _ _
l l)uting th..: l
J:::th. l
rutl.'d \t:l!t':"i c.xpcn-
f mcntcd Wit!J tht: ILka Ul .tddmg thc nltCflOll of
i tlcOlUCratJC go'> ( and_ cxpltl'll rl'Jcc!Jnn 1JI.
ot rcgJrnc). at wtlh
rc!!:.trd IIJ tlv;: t 'cnllal :->tate:-.. This princt-
.. llOt gcm;ra]JL'd to !he fl''>i nf tili..' \\OrJd,
aftcr tite cnrl ot' lhc Cold \Var.
semblance o( lt.:rntonal LOlltrL
atonal oblrgatrons Culrl Wm
mattcrtd more than the prescncc
reunne \\ hcn it camc to thc
Cc;,nllO, SlHtth KorcJ and Soulh Ocmo-
..... in thc discursi ve
than tn the
fly thc end of the l\\cnttdh century, panicularly
following thc enrl of the C:oid War. rlcmocrat1c
becarne J pn:requ1site for
199 l dcclaralion on
RccognalorJ of ;-.J ....w States in
thc >)ovlc! lJnion', thc
and d1plomaw.: praclH:t:s of the Clmon
lt ll' 19')(b 1. ven rnore s1gmficanl
\\ lu:n ( 'roalia ;md l3osnia wcre lr::H
rctugnt7cd 1r1 9() 1. ntllhc po;;sc ......,cd l11111, k11Hor ial
cuntrol. Not ollly dtd tlll'l prnvidc a Jh?W vduc!e for
t:Xli,.'rnal tlller\iCntlll!l ( usmg
to wflucncc d;.;\..:tnprncnt:-. on th( ground}, but
a potcnually pmfum1 departure from prac-
that lud pn.:vailcd rhroughout thc cour:-;c or thc
h\cnticth the contro\l'rsy gcncr-
atcd by the in thesc two
il will be sustained 1n
rcvolunonary re gime that ha 1
in Russia. The rL'vnlutionary Jdcu!-
of the ncw n:gunc wa:-. not VIL'\\ cd as consisrcut practJCc,
<1<> " """''' "' '"' '""'"' o< '"''
C\'C!l 0\'l'r
\\ hcthcr thcy mtng m OHC
i;; impn1lant th:m thc f.1ct
tltat thcy are not ftxcd m mc;mmg m tnne :JIH.i place.
ThL'rl' 1;;, somc C\.ttk'ncc that !he mkr-
n:IIIon;ll community ha" tllCt'l'a:-.!1,1!ly more
Jlltrusn e tn!o wh:lt \Va:-. once !(l under
tltL' dotn:w1 nf !he durnc:sttc atTatr-. of sl:tll::...' That
i:-;, thc:n: JS :-oon1c C\'Idcncc ofa progn.:ss1un
mton critcria O\'t..T 1111H:'.
At tllL' oubcr, L'lcml'll[S or thc !etn!onal are
hasil' to n.:cognton {tlom con!Jol, to
\Vebcn;u1 about leg1lnnatc mcans or cmrcl(lll
This is a iunilL'd,
of Clemocratc
global norm for recogntion, bul rcinforce::;:
th(: likdihood thot the >tale i< an exprcssiun of the
general wdl and H may also bl.! associaled with tbc
of unemauon:1l oblig:l!HHIS,
the rccent rclaxJt\On uf thc rcquircrncnt uf firrn.
1orial t.:ontrol in ccnam n-.;J;mccs a pntt.:'n-
ticdly .\l.t_!lllflcant dcp:.trtu1e from pral'ttcc-.
nf recogrutlon \]S \.i.l'll a"' a nt.::w of cxlerncli
mh.::rve;tHJll), should 1t be :,UstaineJ. Thu:-., by thc
c11d of twcnt1clh ccnlury, mcrL'<h-
appcan:d to 'condllllHltJ'
wh;,::n \Ve t:Kammc htslorJ ot cti:HH!C'"> m
JJIU'\trauuns of
cftrts lu n.:Js-.;crt of trad1tional ;;tate
sovcrc1gnty. there appears to have
hcc-n yual[tali\'t: change 111 thc
snvcrctgnty over time {a<>
f('COgnitJOn entena), but
thcre to that change.
L.ike the d1scussion of cham!inu forms of statc)
is not resrrickd
important dif-
fcrence:-. in thc operation:d mcaning of sovcrcgnty
d1ftCrcnt placcs on globc at the :-;ame momcnt
m llm\.' h IS no accHknt that tlw::...: whu havc
histori(:ally boru.: th.: hrunt uf 1:?.\.tt.:rn.JI .. cntwn
in the devdoping world are thc ntu:;t ardr.:nt
crs Of traJJtina] COfh'CptlllnS u!' .St:ttC ;-;(lV(.To,!lgnty,
th-: inviolabilJty uf ::;tale borders and the tmpunancc
uf thc pi inctpl ol' nnn-tnlcrvcntwn (S i 995).
Clltna, Mnlaysla and Russia are rcltH.:I:mt to acccpt
thc prc:,cncc of a dt'mot..:ratc rcg1ml: as dtl i1
critcrion for 01 rccugnitlOrL In
of conditioned :.::nv,r,inntv
of credlbillty.
uf ch .tn!_1ng
importallt implicrHJuns for
8t.?caus-e rhe noml:, of sovcrclgn recognitron d:.::kr-
minc who are alluwcd to be principal a!lcnts 1n
lntcmJllonai affairs. in nonn.s havc
imp(JrtarH llltpltcJtJOtls f,r the naturc of
then1Selves.. lt i;) no longer snffc1cntjust lo nwmtoin
territorial t:ontroi and fulf\1 intemation;l obllga-
tions. To be rccognized
mcrea..:mgly has lo
(ur .t obn to
SJgmticam.:.:: for justiftcattorb J{;r cxtcrnal
discur-;lvt: jusllfcdttons :.;en.e to dctlnc
ofso" .:r..::wnty ( \Veber, 1 so wo do
of cnablc (or umler-
mine) ddfcrcnt for int ..
Dunng Lhc m1ddk purt of tht:: t\\ ccnrury, the
natur..; of thc pollty in control of territory gcncrally
dHI not mJttcr. aud non democratic statc-s \vere not
only as legtt'lrnatc. but \\:ere abo uftcn
the instunon of SO\'tTelgnty. i\t the
the maintcnance of democrauc n:)ti-
dcfcnsc of human righb
tr<.Jn:-;forming the mtturc of tnternat!Onal polirics :.tlld
the likelihuod of internottonal contltct 1beiC
Conccptinns o( Terriiorr
are ncnhcr new nr
of th..: Fr.)m agc ofthc
or s:.::vcnteenth and elghtccnth l:t:ntmic,, through
thc j\;ap,\kllflic war' of th.: ninclt:Jtth L'r.:ntury, the
h,Junduncs dcfning thc grcat m\vt:r::. ilav(.;
dn11nattc ch::mge.s (Kr:ttodlwll, l9k6;
191)9). The samc !::. true :f \\e glancc at rnup of
Eumpc o ver thc cour;:L: ofthe t\Vt::ntlcth ccmury, We
scc tang1blc: Id.:'ncc of emergencc
Sovier l;nion, former the
division ofthc furmcr Cz.:choslovaklJ und rhe un]fi,
caiJon of Gcrmany. HO\VCvcc. hkc of statl;! and
of the s::dlencc of tcrrltury J.nd
rile mt'<Jfllflg of cthc that
Lcrritonc-s are nt:tht:r nor con-:rant acruss time
and place. Therc are aupurt;mt variauons buth in the
salience of phys!cal tcrrituri:ll :md in the
of pcrmcJbJ!Jty of thc function:; of
(KratochWII. 1%6), or wbat ocholars
h.1ve dc::>cribcd JS thc Jcgree of 'soft-
n.:ss' of boundancs (:vlnsrov. 2000)
!\llhe end ofthc ninetccnth .tJJJ
rial entitlc .... vymg with l1nt: ll1r ,;ontro! ovcr
o! the carth's surbcc' (\llllphy. 2001: 2).
O\t:r ph;s1cai terriwn,:d was nbo vttal
for Sir Halford ,\lackmJcr 1 whilc
for Capt;un A.T. l\fah;m, lt \\ .h dunw1ion of thc sea&
that conti"\Jl of tl!stant Cdllrtlflt'::., the
S\:.:iiln of colunJe-s. and
colonJCS) thc ootent"Ti tor an
Thesc about thc \ irlu .. and bcndt:)
of terrltoridl acqulsltJon 1 pn:dominant until
t\:orman Angcll1Urc.:fully in 1910,
wlth thc puhl1cntinn ofthc tst cdltlon .Jf Great
11/usirm. Attgcl\ !dcnt1llcd hmv
vte\v::; were at tht' tu m of rhc cemury n:
and Crt:rJHaJty, ami he- Jcfincd thc gxt:at illusiun'
idea that tcrntonal wou!d nrovidc J
basl:, for prospcnry and
30--1 ). 1'01 Angdl,
:-.,r i\ !"L\
of non-
statcs rclnctcmtly to rc:cognizc stra:cpc
vulncrab!lay, and incrcascJ reliance on the
symbolic tcrritunal protedii1ll provJdt.:d by nuclear
in thmkmg aboul the
saht.:ncc of tcnitory striking. Han::; i\lorgcnthau
dcs.:tlbcd tb.:: m1portJn>21? of having a large ph) -;ica\
erntory w guarantt.?-.: tllc ofa countf) from
a potcntial nuclear Jllack. Wlwn he pontcJ our toa
group of Brirish mt!Harv rhut it \Votlld
take only fom
ubjccrwns frorn amJ poten-
S]licncc of
b,Hdcrs appcJ.rcd to be un
]fCas, with only
movcment of
shn Jway from -;tate
wHhm whid1 probkm-; :.m.:
confrontcd' 1999: .235)
finance. uf
o( cybcrspacc-
important rhan control of
sp,lCl' an
Knnx, 11)94;
t Lukc,
I:Jkt.:: place on
but thc pi ccisc locaLion of
i.s mucdsingly arnblp.LHHIS, and
tcnd to be in (l!ffererH
fercnt (Sassen. 1996).
cnJ oftlte Cold War, the
world ordcr has bcen
Jcsire for t('fritory (Tunandcr, 19'!7). Carl
dtstincllon bctwc-en 'FricnJ' anJ 'Fue',
whcre maJor p\\ cr::;. u re dt:fincd m terrn:l thcJr
rdhink nolions
sovcrclgnty, sr-1(-ddennlnation and citizenship
ric;hts' 2000: 6-- 7), Late twcntcth-ccntury
in rht: of finmh:c, of goods, of lntr-
and in sorne ernploymtnt scctors, ev-.:n ot'
p(.'opk, h:Jve rcndercd boundaries increasingly
purous ot soft'. This dcvclopmcnt has becu
rc-:-.l:m.:d by some statc and the i.:-: by
ncttv!tic..s. lt stJll much casicr for to mov('
across polttical boundaries than for people to movc
JLTOS'i- j
1he wavs the
sorne of

somc have suggcstcd th3[ we
'unbundlt:' our cotH. .:Cp[ of tcrriloriality
Tabl" X 1
S tate forfll"

IIV'IlB[Hih 01 1:-;TLJ(N,\1 HFL\IJ(J'-;:>
lmpl'rral :-.tat.:
( gn . .:JI povn.'f'i
c;rrtunal nnHrul

control ;.md
;)CLllpa!JO!! d["L'
____________ ,_i\_1 id
'>Ct:Unly 'i(\tlo,;,
1 tard htJUndatr::. wnh
nuclc,u \ulrKr:thdrty
(!letlltb-:r,d 'ddk,

( undliHllh:d
obli; ..

,\nrt hntw,Ln
Table u?_!!:e c _ _:-o_:n_:l<:_:'':_:n,_t':_:o_:n_:u_;_J_' '_:''_:"":_____________ _
Advauccd, post-industria[ <otate:-.
Statt furrus netlhhL'r:tl stotc 1'\..:ulib...r:ll Jlid

lntcrH:miun 10 Non-1ntcrvcntion in domcstic
(Ruggie, l9'J3b:
Cumrol nctworks
nelv.urks 1:. hecoming mportJnt than
cal control o\er phy':lical tcrritonal
l99l). cmcrgcncc of l't..:O-
aftJir:s inviolabk
of restoring J hard boundary
ofnattomli secur'1ty.
Tablcs 1 and 8.2
lliusaations prescnteJ up to
in meamng
and of ternlonallty
surnmary of the
po1nt about
lile tahk
thClf Sl!VCI"Llgnty.
agam that 1lus chJract"'ruatlon :.,
intcnded to :mply tha1 moving incxorably m
iJTcvcr:;;ihk dircct1on or toward sorne
or endpmnt.
OF 1 'iTER:>iA TI O:\ \l. Rt:IXI'JO:\'
1t Hnponant that
to when and how
not assume 3cross
and place and tu takc changes of
rneaning into considcra11on whcn wc attcmpt
evaluate bypo!hesc:> anti rnakc vahU statcmcnls
about International rc:lations.
'" 1\ A:"ll
t.'ignty' a:-; a
llllL"> u_kntt!y
1 ()9(): 17X).
othcr's to an
the construction sraks
of thc core componcnts uf
idcnt1ty and is also
cntails thc externa!
of claims of final authority
Htlwcvcr, likc thc inslitution of
thcsc cblm;:. not Jb:soiutc
Thc aurhonty cl;tmb hy
11'\\.IHlil(JK Uf,
rhis lile kcy nndcrst:mdmg the
nl('(!l!llg lllld or
not a
utttt::Iry condition :-;tute of beittg, hut how da!tn:i
nf aurhority and changc ovcr time
T o co1 ne to tcm1s
of sovcr.:ign state authority
or ts ahout lt is not ncccs-
a clcar!y defincd, ncw global
to the h.:tcronomy ot' 1he
cmcrging states of
to pmcced is to

ltS bc:,;ause
o ver claimcd
rccognized as (y othcr -stalC:-.}
fixed ll1 sp:.1cc and tim.:. Authoray cl.lirn:; (ami
Nhcr:-.) vary, aml th1s variance
in thc me.ming of sovcr-
eignty irself. Tht:-. a!IO\\S movc
beyond SlRtlc, timch::ss
natun.:: of ouvc!Cic!uv,
Many scholar:; mtercstcd in lhc of -:;o\ er-
havc long dffcrent!alcd bctween m terna/
externa! dimcnsions SO\ crcignty.
intemal dimens1on gcnerJlly refcrs to thc con:;oit-
datln of the terrih1ry undcr a ;jUthorlly and
thc reco!..!nltion of that hy thc
the generully
distinction betwccn the inremal and
s!ons of be adapted tu
wcnt about thc maure
That is, both the and mn
has changed traditional
dunens!on of sovcrcignty), as han: !he number an.J
of claims that extemal!y
{the 'externa!' d1mensionl
abo.ut thc chang111g
earher m chaptcr
IIONAL /U'I.A llc.,S

dhp(:fiJi ln tltC lncatH)Il Of
authorty on a
JS.sues, and l faces challcngt:s frorn ther locations.
In sume !he state no long,t::r dmms to have
authority, in othcr mstances, it lS no longer
rccognized by othcrs authoritv
in c;;;rlain domJin':l, and othcr cases, lt "
cl;1irns and chJI!en:.:cs from
Ceding Cams o/ Final Aulhurur
statl:S may cut b.Jck
authority thcy rnake.
tences over
stat,.:;s to the Europc:m Un11Jn 5 a
reducing clmms
less l.!xtcnsive. transfcrence
in thc dtspute rcsolution mcch:misms
\VIthJr'l the
Oiher intemattauJI
mstances. The opcrative IS::;ue:
v,,.hether mtCr\\ . .:ntion5
"hether Ui\ cJn
dcrnanJ m su
has Jbo h::en a sJgmft.:.:am
the exrent and the apparent
by international
from the
S<l '\ 1 E. SOVf/U:IC;r-;ry
ut:.;iJe ha . .; and dramatically
Changing ,\/urms r?f Externa/ Recognirion
ofA utlwrity C!aims
secnnd, therc havc
c:.. both

tcrnatlonal of snn1e ofth.: claims pre-
viously made by states. For cxample, statcs no
longer rccognizcJ kgttirnatc final authonlics
when it comes lo rhc vloiauon of the hunum
or groups located within
domams, Shortly aftcr n was trst
JY4S, thc Universal Dccbration
could h!.! di::..mlssed as just anothcr Unit.:"d Nations
wth no cffccllve internati(lnal
Thc innuencc of rhe
on thc
convement during the Cold 'Viar,
when a .:riw:al partner was
Tday. ideas
human righrs h:1vc been
exlcnt that they havc
1t the unlvcrsallzation of
nolitutlnalizcd to the
nrerouatvcs of
thcrc are important
concepttons of human
Jcginnntc about scope,
tu individuals to bro:Jder appwcatHlll5
to groups) (Hurrdl, there \s a
tance of the d!scourse nghts. is,
everyone constructs thclr in tem1s
of of lcgitnatc
(Sikkink, Js sgmticant
as was thl'
population;), such as torture or
violat1ons of in di\ idual rights, but a lso
to thc protect10n of other aspecb o f the
ind1V1duals within statcs. emcr-
party human nghts law has extended
n :nH1 o tn ](J')
!h.: rangc of inlcmatJonal

r...::la1ionships Wllnm tnc tannly cort"ll-
dered part of' rhc domam of thc O<hcr
Jnrernation:d instituuons !Jkt: the Trade
to cxtend their
to fre-e
doma in of the
policies, con-
Lmergence of Compeng Locations
of Awhorily
compcnng claims of
nat10n-states< Therc are very specitlc
under vvhch can
but thc armnge-mcnt establishes a competing
tion of authority to thc state. In lhe case of thc
World lhnk luspcction Pand,
who can daim a s1gnificant material harrn from a
\Vorld Bank pmjcct can initiate a quas!-!n(/CpC!ld<:nt
rcvJC\V of invcstmcnt decis1ons Bank
th Panel wilhin
15 indcpcndent of it, Not
lnd!VJduab ha ve thc initiatc a rcvew
dectsJons. but mtcrvcnlion can lead
rminatlon of a proje:..:L The indi vidual3 who
irHtal\.' the review do nol necd thc sanction or back-
tng of lhc1r own
fvrcing the
as legmmate a)1:ents bv both statcs and bv thc
Evt:n more _signific:mt are nctions of trans-
national nctworks that mnst effec-
tivcly in thc domams ofhuman and thc
cnvnonment. networks
are incr...:asingiy
inrcrnatJonal s.yskm. especa(ly the emerging moral
aurhoriry of represcnteJ transnational
-.;omt.:: observers dcscribcd
1!,\NDII< lllK < ll- i"-JTEI<I'A ri0'\.\1 RFI <\-1 10'\S
u( rhl.'" pub
stalL::-,, lll
oa.lcr to avuid bt:lf1g a pan,th stol!c, to J:.!aln
cmry tlltn tiJL' 'iOctcty of :-..tJtc.-,, to ohtain to
t:omlltwnal rcsourL'>..'S, orto rl.'glon:tl cuttllthm
marJ...cb sw . .:h thc Lnropccm tJmurt.
opcratc by
to ntnbth?iug thc!r nctworL->
thc glbal agenda. Thl pr<h.:ttcc of
of iOs
S0t11 H1S[(\nCL'S.
tbe global ization of and thc emer-
mtc.::ratcd global financia! rnarkcts have
w al! st<ttc-s. evcn thc
has been a rnajor shift
demarcakJ nationa! tinanctal
tn place
the elrnn-
emcrgcnce of rH.:Vr ftnancwl actor;., (bonJ
cuJTC:tii:J tradcts, ponlollo lum!
1nanagcrs) wllo h;vc dc\clopcd gluh,ll stratcgJt:;.. and
c on ,ltl ,uJ
[ls1s. A::-. a n:sult. thc woriJ tlnan-
mar"d nol compri"cd ol llflk..:d nati\)Jlal
hul 1:'. 'a m:lwork through ck:i.>
systcnr-. tlut cnt:..ul"
ln dt;;ctpl!nc)
policws H
lt l)fh.:ratcs, in efi;.;L't,
han\ buclgcl t..:onslraint' 011 thc hchnvmr
nornic and lirwncial deciswn-makers whu ha ve
ceded 1nfurmal authunty to thc markcts thruug:h
both thetr ptthlic statcmcr1ts anJ thctr
\Vhcn J ftnancc mir11stcr or hcad or statc
and puhlldy declare markets have thc
disciphne thclr actiorts, thcy slgna1 thelr
cmpo\v("rmg as
m C"\h'Hlttl ot' fiu<t! Juthontv, and the
CIJII:r_t.:,L'rlt..'C \Jf comp1.2tmg 1\H.
:trc uf, ;.nd fWl ti\.'ipat-: in tht
[h OJ' :--!<ttC . . Tn:ly wd} rem:un,
but lb pl'rallonal bcconH . .:'l
cmp!y. /\-.; th:t! \\T may to be
lo CI\ITlprchLnd ;rn altl?l"lldtl'vl: to -.;ovcre1gnty as
Htl organl/lllg prJI\Upk 0!' lin,:: llltLTJU[l(lll;,.d S}'::ilC!ll
lf \\e d(l Jll)t on of p!acttcc:r.;
tlnK'. \\C dl'(' nol to >:Olllpr<::hcnJ thl' qttal!ta-
tlvc tran:d(HllEIIJOn
pilllt.:lpk ur thc
changcs consHkrcd
uf territonal!ty), lunkmg ten othcr
bmls oCpract!CCS that mdH.:;ltc und pro( luce changc.
\Vtrh r:.?gard f\) J(Fm-; of 'ftate. tht: of ..:.tate
inter\'entwn in the economy for
mkmational intcrvcntion inJicatc the
of variation in state fonn. With regard to
vf tCJT!tunalny, thc degrec of
comrol of tcrnt(J!"V and/or the
poru.':ltty ot bordas \vouhl b,; mda:atJVL' cinJ
l\Jilvc of ch;.wgc:.
AGEl'lH" Fl ISL\HCil
Thcre ,Ir-. a lllli1Jbt.:r .111d kft unn:-
by ln.-.totlCl/tllg :md contl'\tuahnng con:
L:O!ICL'Ph IJI.. c stalc. and tunlnn,dtlv.
Tln:-. chaplcr i:-; to ;.;ene d hl'!_:llllllng,
a stnmtlu:-: tu furthcr rdh::ctron and \ ..'Prk on tbc
Lorc conccph uf rd:ttHln;.,, r:tthcr than
,n1 dtklltpt to rc:h.:h clusurc on lhctn. rllu.... woulJ
tu use conclusinn l\i hcgn: chart the
Fonm of StaiL-
As alrcady abuvc. lhen.: ..; 11n conscmu:-;
on flO\\ bcst to duraclenze cnwrPIIHJ hm111:-.1of
statc_ Wlnlc th of
rcccivcd a grcal dcal dttcnnon ln
(Hcrbst, 2000), othcrs havo
ofthe st::Hc'

chJr<H:tCI"l:!C illL' jWl!!.J L'IHCI"_I;Jng l!l thl' \\Ub.: uf
\)f thc h1rnpc.m Union (.hngl'lbC'n,
l!%; Wallacc_ l'!'!'i)_
nHportanl arca of contcrnpontry rcsc.Jrch
un thc nall!l\.:' tlh: :-.tak [:-; found l!l thc gloh:tll:tk
tiun In a rcturn lt) :nany of [t!lulut
Wllh tln.: Jch;ltC O\ C!' ((Jfcnr,n,n-

for thc
tlwse whu are h1gldy
oJ'Ihc pfwnon1t:rhm
r, 19%; Panly,
that to ::-.takL'
ounJ "' thc debate (Sasscn. l')')g )-
of lhc mo::-.t pnmli-..;inr.; of ..:ontcm-
porar) nn thc :-t:11L' h;;3cd on un cffurl w
the 'failed litcruture
1 (BendLx, l <l64), a litemturc that wu;
drivcn by rhc pr:lctical nccd::. and
m in!.! from the JHOCe% of Jccolon?;Jtion. [t
of intere:->t wJthin 1ntenntional mstltutions
concerned wilh dc\cloprnent, like the Uruted
:-.iation> anJ thc World Bank_ Twenty or th-rrty
thc ::;uhjcct of statc-b1tilding would e
st:clncd esotcnc, applicahlc ouly to thc fc\v rema m
culom,JI ternloncs. trusrccshms and col-
Burnnd1, Catiiliotll;J, A(gh.m1stan
wcll as lo li"e Kn:-.o\o
al ... o tu prot.:css undcr way in
F;-;t Ti mor (argu;1bly unda a prohlcrnJIIC and cnn-
tcstcd leN fru.<tcc<i"P)-
lhcrL' 1s Hnport;m! nc.\ wur" hcing done
011 crm:rgtng pol1ttcal :onns ol'cun(c(kr:rtlon \Vllhm
multH.:thnh,.' statc:-- (w[Hch !uve hccont? lhc mud;d
111 thc "orld tndcry) (Koslowski,
wor" on th-:' nonns of rccognrztng
ctcrmmalion, and
mstJtutmnal fonns ..:armbk uf addn:;:-;;;ing lhc
mtcrc:-.ts uf
Hnpol1Jnt lhC!..lretJcal
5'tate.\ o(Sow.::rcignty
crisis in lhe Balkans and thc failnrc or co!lapsc
of '->ome s!atcs m Afnca ha ve led to
l{)r thc of of tru:::,tccship by
lhe mh:rn.ltwnal
de /trefo sen:-.:..', tlu-: !Ja...,
ot rh..: 11onndtivc of dcvclopmcJ;t
ha ve )"''-'t to be cxplot cd !t h al:--o hkdy to h.: ;lll
c:xtn...:tncly JftJcult undcrLtl-.ntg, Ottc that raJ:-.c.....
about lhe cr;.:dhiiHy, capabil-
of Httcrnallon<t! instHullOn:-..
Jn unporlotH dcvclop-
ltkt:iy to he
Not only .., n !-.UCI;ll consrruct,
too are c.Kb of eon:-.tthlt!VC demcnt:-.
Jcntity and tellJlor _v} Thus, therc
htcra!ltrc- cxplnrmg thc cnllslrm:llon uf Hkrittty dnd
autlwnty, as wcll as 1mpn11ant n.scan..:h und:er
W<ly 011 IhL' ,)' ha:.;ed (or pn-
vatt) rorms of atJihonty. Most of th!S ['(.'Sl'an:h has
becn contnt.'d to rcalm or thc internatiorwl
(Cutler ct al, 1999)_ bul thcrc has
on Lhc moral
dJC scnous, noiTnJrive d.bout thc Jccount-
abdJty of org;mi;:Hion", mstllu-
trons that .. accotmtablc to thL'Jr rrtL'mbcrs, but
ha\.e an influenl.T ov('J {Jnd makc dalms on bchalf
of) a tJr bnJIH.kt uf potcnllal Thcn:
ISSUC:-> raiscd by
rhl' glob.d ltuman nghts rcginl('.
to w!JJCit
lhcrc are
qncstwn<-; abonl thL' accountubllrty of
mar"ct actor;. (:tn<Lor thc lac" uftran7'parcncy m lhc
manncr in :1uthority has hl'L'II tran-.;fcrn:d
tu sOJllL' of thcm) \992\). Tht:; has kd to
c.a!b fur countcr\aillllg movcmcnts lo
brlng scrutlny and partH.:ipation lo bGar 011
markct actors.
Finally, therc: havc bcen trnportant 1s::.uc-.
by about the dc-linking of state ami
be) omlthe conccpt of statc
i99S ), research that
and recognitlon or claims
states and non-statcs alikc) ho!Js
our undcrs[andmg of
mc::mmg of
1......_ ___ _
( 'onct'ptiuns uf Terriwrialily
control o\..:r
tury, control ovcr nctworks
tant (Kohrin. 19')7; Strange. 1996).
much important rcscarch rcm:.tins to be; done 011 thc
1 rrh:amng of ndworks wrthin different
Thcre -::onsJcrablc vanatiOn ln the
scop<2 and nctworks, from fnancwl to
technological. Thcre :..tre also
abour how nen.vvrks emerge. how thcy
hov/ are how are reguJa[cd, and
how mrght be 1997).
:1re a numher about how
to conc(;ptualizc altcrnativc:;; to the of
important con-
debate \vhethcr wc are witn;;ssmg
e of a globaization ora
of lhc workl cconomy For
movcmcnt from thc
cipal mark\:t is
e-.ononaes, rathcr than to
onc (Ohmac. 1995: Storper,
Scott, 1992).
There is also a
lhC ln1nOIC"I"H"i>
oC culture, a syncrctic
that stt'esses the role of bordcrs m con-;1ructing:
forms of idcntty, well as the multilay-
naturc uf that id;ntity ( Donnan and
i 99) ).

i\o conccpt or framc\vork 1s ever
w ..h.:quate for al! situations or
nh.enm,,,., Future on the concc-pts of
anJ like rescardt of the
P"'t wi!l be dmen by dialectlcal intcrplay
betwccn chnts and theo!etlcal eCforts to
comprehcnd and tmJcrstand thcm. The "''"""''""
aml conrradictions wthin
fr:nuev.:orks: and
thcir adequaey (or
cvcnts . .-:\t lhe same
shapin; of those
reason th:'H it i;:;
the central
conccpb of and

would _ :hank _\Va!tcr Iklk Ma!mvig,
Tbomas R1:<St', lklh Smunons and John Tomasi thcir
I \VOuld al so lth: to thJnk
Fmally, [ would
a;":kDowlcUg;; a long-sr:mdl!lf! d...:bt 1o
on n:latcd i layward Tahir
lnoguchi i\llhough
::;tanJ dnil :t
hr:> .slat...: cc:ntJsm
tll,; of d;fkr,;l( statc forrn;;, and he mak;;s
ob$enJttOn thc should be a 'rmJcct'
pohlh..:al program
!lll)!lOpo!y on thc

are thc
lutist slLW..', wm..:t!nng his crit1cs would nw;ntain
N1xon appc:arcd times in!.:nl on n.:crc,lltng
wonh notmg th..: ambit;ul ry
Chorwr on thc ofsoven.'1gnty. cspc-
A.riJCk JI, Chapk1 that 'N-.)!hing con-
lamed in thc pr..:&cut Chancr shan awhorw:: Umtcd
tlw- onc h:md, thl!:i s!alcment can tnlerpn:tcd as tn kccp
wilh thc pn:dommam f0nn of statL during
hc ccntury thc na!Ion -statc
on dH,;
,.IJcdon ofJn)- st;_tc' subscqu_;nl
changcs of tntcrprctal!on nnd more
1!H..::t v-:nuon,
the Cofd \'/ar.
W..: nced
!dcnt1y n\.-;o crucJiJL
o ver
it d.:fln..:-s phy.s..:a!
clatmcd to
Jn:dysi:. to autllonty, hm\
1t dct' ncs a pcopk
,;n;kHy, bccau:-,1.:
aut!hmry lS

Sl't\! l, S(J\

thl' hound-
A;.o:n:..:w, John ( 19Y:5l Rvvi.\tomng
LondLHl Jnd Routkdgc
and Knox, Pau! (199-+J Tlw Ge;gnpfry u/
Ar,Jrci.l". P-:trr
r\.fetico Univcr:-;ty
iU their
Banat.:::olJgh. G,:offrcy
Con!t'mponin' York: Per.gu1n B1Jks
Band ... nn, Jcns ( 1995) A Ge!lc_'O/ogv- oj
Cambr 1dgc Camhndg, Univcr->!ty
BcnJ,, R.:inhJrd i Jl)()4") Ci!i::enship
N<.::\\ York.
CHnbndg.: Press
Tllorwt;; J. and Weber, Cynrhra (1996) Sta/e
lhl!' Fr.:nch Rcvolurion and
, Ncvww ojlmerncdtr;tw/5:twlu_s,
t 1 Y'X
1) 'T he Hal.tnc.: of Powcr
R, lln-t o{lntrmarwnal Srw/..:.J, l5
l'<:_, Rnhl!'rt \\'
/ l)f!Crnwdw
tllit!Wn.'. 'i.:w
D:..:uJn..:.y, U;tmd (19:#6) 'Bmdmg
l!CS. StruciUrcs, Gc;.lpnlm..:;:; 1n Phi!ackipluJn
Sy:->t<.!rns', in Thomas J BH:rskk..:r and Cynd:w \Vch,:r
, L:dth:mun, l\l:1rtin. L
( 1957 J l'ulmcal
Lc:nd1_1n Paei
and \\tlso11, \\1 (]909
liorder.; Fwnfi<--'FS n __f"M,:nriry. :\urion .md Stuu
and N..::\Y' York tkrg:
E\an:., P:..:ln 13 (!979)
Src:tc Anti-SU!btJI ami Ir.)
Srrwegy. Pnnt.:t'ln: PnnLcmn Un\\..:rsny
ot' C::1\i r"orn1a
G1l pm, Roben
Pn .. ':-,'>
Gn.:c:n H ( 1 L)J
R.:co_\!mzing G\-t:rnmcnts ctmmg lh...:
Past Twcnty-Fivc
o) !nterrwtionol l.uw a! i!.1
Alt.!ding DC:
pp 120-]7
Rodn;,;y B ( 1999) VaJimuti Coltcctve !Jcll!i!_t'
ond Ncw York
Umvcrstty Prc..,:-;
B. (2000) 1 Au1honty ol" t11c
:Vbrk.-::1 AtHhonL;
ilJ!J 111 th..:: .\smn
papcr prl!'scn:cct m -tl s.t

David ( 1 YSY) Cmu!itwn u{ P01mwdern::y:
into the Origun
Culwrul Chunge.
(11 l'iTI i(C.X! 10\ fi,FL \ 111 l'\:'
tbvid ( 1 q,r.o N t.:\\ Y ur!..
Nt-'W lu1k lJ!IiVl'lSil)' flci!/!!,':.!lllj!l/1. i Jun,:;e 1!/ Ll/tti}J,u .\(.fi- Sblcn
D:l\JJ (1')
,1.:: 1' (w,J rh.- (Jiuf,/
( :nrtlilj)(!IUun (,,n,
( !JII!f!tU u!l\'e Lc\.'dniS
. 1Jn,,r
L;m\.:t-...,Hy Prt:-.s
(i/utu/.::uiUH/ w
lhe /'u,l,l//u/iun
1 {ohbcs. 'l'lwma'
L1h\:ral Art;.

(lr:th:llllt: ( l 1)\)o
fnkllhiiU!!It// .:, t!NO/ll\
SclltlcJd<.:! i'<...:w
lobso11, J.:\. lmtLlHtli\!11 A Ncw Yn1 k
Honm,HL :'vllnlh'apoiJs.
Kdatmns and
Human Righrs' r<lpcr
r!iml \Vnr1d at tht:
thc Cold War
hkology, lkvL'lnpmcnt
Quc...:n Elo:abcth Hmtsc,
Jack::;;rm, Quasf ...)'ratel
lnren:utumul Re!diiow und
Cambride..c. Untvcrsty Pn::>s
Jackson. Rob-.:rt 1999; 'So\crcJgnty tn World A
l'ulttwal Stw.he.\, -17 tJ)
Abn ( l'-JX(J
1\LHJI>Oll. !JniVC!'SilY \11
Y.urk: Charks Scnbncr's
Stcplh.:n J. {19CJ7)


m a Nctv,.orkt:d , m John
(cd.), Gm,errrmt'nt.\, G!obu/i;;arum aud
lntnrwtwllul Oxford
( f

(J;r nson St.uc,
Yrk P1css
( 1 ):-\<)) !be Balnce of
ln!tTJWirdll:d S1udu.1, 1 S
TunntlJy \V. (1'-191)
o( Sccunty
ami ( Pdcs 0f Contamrncnt Lc;Jrning
Kuwan', .-lltumH:\'f!.), l6 (_J) 315-44.
Lusttck. Jan t 1993 C!N!ftl::d StMe.>'.
l"ram:!! ami A.!gencl,
Corncll Univcrsity Prcs..:::
L;t)n, { !99}; RtSl: and hJJl :md Po.ssibk R.'VI'>.-:tl
of lntcrnalional T; u::.rcc:d11p', Jut:ma! oj ComnW!l\l't!a/ih
lnmv/nro;.r(on tUU!
lh'll\ crsJty
J l.m:-
Ncw Yod-. AH1cd
!'uirt1n .lmnng
Wutson lnsututc for lntcrnat!Oflal
cnnrncnc..: '\\. SI.'! f-Dctcnmnanon. ;\g('ncy and
Amnc:-.1:1 in th..:: of Yugo::;lavia'
STAIT, Si \;,IJ TI -,
'rc . ..;:-.
Loui::-. W {
1.,\\\. ;Jtd
'"Pulr!JLa! ( ico;;r:tptly',
Natwn Sra re T/r,
York. Thc
J:'ftnul the H,uhe'"> 'J
111 thr.: /hHid
(1075) m
Ncw Lcft Books.
J. (1994 'On of
Eco1wmy, l (.)). HJ5
h)hll li.
Tan"<.KtJon;,, anJ
16 12): ]'!9
W ti hccman
Pe ter ( l
und ,)Jl,llll 111 rlh'
Agf' oj

Conccprual Amb1guny and
!nrenwfion,rl Polil!cnl
, !ntenwtionul
N\_'W Ymk
'l11c J/,tklllg
Bcrkclq, of
tlll9X Glohalc:a/J(JJl
.\'ew !'cu;/c ami Jlloner
N<..'W Prcss
;\ndr\:as, f)arnonJ, Larr; Pbttna, 1\larc 1-
The Sdj-Rc:draimng Power
:foum,i/Ji/!fy Jn New Denwcranes, Hou!J::r
London. Lynnc Ricnncr
S..:hmill, Carl ( T/u:o!ogy
Cambndgc'. 'YIJ\. MIT
;..,ln:cl'k (-.:d":>},
Lfmnn [ .undun .
s,_Juncdlr. P:wl \V

Schmrttcr amJ
r w r!J,
or i'olllrcd
NcV/I'H.'o/lntnrwliOIJal,\ithlrn, 15 (2) l.iS .::4
Y ;m: ( 1 9Y5) Re1g11.';. Suptcna: ',
N ( l9'J7 J flll<ffWfiUJU!/
( 1\)tr;) 'llwnan
Lat1n Amt:nc<i'.
!nft'mutumrd O J: 411 -t!.
J Davaf (19h!) 1 Pr(1hkm
m lntLTn;lllOnul R\.bttll!l.-. m KL11h Knnrr ..tnll S1dt:cy
\\tha (Lds), Tire int,'rnatuJno! Svsfem.
Pnncclon 1 fm-.crslly
a Cifu!Jtil Yurk:
GmHord Prcss.
( 1992) Paihways to
in.dustrw!izulion and Deve!opmenL London

Su:-;an (1905) "1hc Statc', Daedufuj,.
(2: '5-7<1.
T!rl..' Rt'fn'ul o
m tire
l'nnc.;ton. Pnn\.."\..'"lon L'mvcrsHy
tCd$), Ueow/lrcs 111
\\ atk, l<ubcrt \1 \):o\7') Gnveming :he
7'heorv ami t!w Ru/1 nf Govcrnmc/11 m
lmllillnoh:aU1111 Pnm'Cton Pnn.:cttHI 1.111iH'l".;ty
\Vade" t J9!Jf1) Cluhali/alJn ;
of thc lkath or thc Na!Ort:ll l'L'Ofh1!ny dll'
Urcatlv l:x:;ggt:ratcd', in
(cds), Dnaqty und
O k ( l 997 'lrnp;:nal i\kl,rphor:'
!ngrld E1nagcl (cdj), w f'osi-Wa!l
London Sagc
WJ!Iacc. \Vd1mrn
than a Rcl!imc;
lll Wallacc, William Wallac\.: and Carole \Vcbb
{eJs), i'o!icy-:Hakin; in the European 2nd
edn Ctli,JKstn:
(l9'J'i) t ht' rhc
\\.all;, oj /ufrnuriowd
R ..'adlflg, l'v1:\. Addbon W..:slcy
( 1992) Til( fviJ!IIful/l uf /IJlcrn;rl;rJIIa!
.\clciV /1 CompuraI'C' 1 /irJricof ,/na(pt.l l.nndn:
Wch:r, CyrHhl3 ( l (,llJ)) Sw1u!mrng
ven1ion. the .St."le,
Cambridge UmvcrSrty p,, 'i:'L
\\'chlr. (194'./) ruw....:r Parl2', in Fu1m Mu.\ lf'e!Jf:r
In (tr:w-., and cd !Lm:-. H Gcrth and
(' tvlill:q J',;c\\' Ymk. (hford UnlVL'rSly Press
\Y l l!ld,t ( l Yl./8) Thc J!yth of the
lih:.h:a. C(Jmd! UnlV\'ISilJ
\\\:ndt, Akxandcr \ .).n:wf T!lt'my oj lntcrnatimwl
Puli!rc.1 l :n\C"lSJ!:;. Prcss
Power antf Jnternational Relatiom;
for po!itics. '1 hus, it S not surpnsmg that
powcr has bccn prommcnt in dJsCu:..s1on;::; uf
lJJtioo:ll intcractlon from Thucydidcs tn h.'
day The lnng hiswry o!' of Lhe role of
pov,-e in mrcrnational h;b
rnuch agrt.:"t:menl. Sdtolars no t.
\vitb respc-ct to tht: of pO\\:T but abo\\ th
respect to th.:::: naturc of power.
relatlons'il9SI iJ)anJ
that the and \anety ofdcfinitions
he an cmharras!':.mcnt to po!ttJcal sc.:ntlsts'
(1975: 24), There is, howe1er, conscn-
su:::, among internatHma! rclations un both
the "''"''sity of addressmg the role of
int.:ractiuns, and the
fullmvs, A' n.:fc-r:-; t0 the actor havmg or CXCTLismg
inOucnce; while B' refers t0 the nctor mt1u-
A lthough altcrnatlvc dcfintt1ons pow.;:'r
abuund. neme riv:.:tls this in ""'id-:sprcnd accepr-
abdity. In the followtng tcnn
\vith )uch tt:rms
'"l:nntrol' unless indi..::atcd, Thi:"l
not in tended to den y lhe 'alidity or thc utiilt;;
arnong sud1 for other
Pm\ER -''ll TitE StTll\
OF 1:\TER'\AT!O,\AL !'ot 1 IK:,
b-..:cn \J(
thc workl rn
uns:J.vory COlll1\)tatwns fur ;-;orne,
sulh a ddlnition tlut thc rcnn redundant
(Carr, [1939]19-!6; Mortcnthau, ('1
and Sprout, 1945: Spvkman, 194c;
Fmm ltu;- all
\Y t.: re 'Gn::<Jt Powas', and the
of imematwnal pvlltics was 'phl)ed'
marily by them tSrrout and Sprout, 1
Wtgl:t, 1'!46), :\oting tltat only a fe"
SL'S"<-:cd the

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