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P-substrate

a) Lets start with bare substrate which highly doped with P-type material.

SiO2

P-substrate

b) Grow a layer of oxide (Epitaxy layer involves growing a single crystal film on the silicon surface). The wafer is first oxidized in a high-temperature (900 1200 Celcius) furnace cause Si and O2 react and become SiO2.

Photoresist

SiO2

P-substrate

c) Next, lets define the N-well. An organic photo resist that softens where expose to light is spun on to the wafer.

Photoresist

SiO2

P-substrate

d) The softened photo resist is removed to expose the oxide.

Photoresist

SiO2

P-substrate

e) The oxide is etched with hydrofluric acid (HF) where is not protected by the photo resist.

SiO2

P-substrate

f) The remaining photoresist is stripped away using a mixture of acids called piranha etch.

SiO2

n-well p-substrate

g) The well is formed where the substrate is not covered by oxide. Two ways to add dopants i.e Diffusion or ion implantation. The oxide layer prevents dopant atoms entering the substrate.

SiO2

n-well p-substrate

h) Oxide stripped with HF.

polysilicon

Thin Gate Oxide

n-well p-substrate

i) Next to form gate. Gate is formed by polycrystalline silicon, or called polysilicon over a thin layer of oxide. The thin oxide is growth in furnace. Then, the wafer is placed in reactor with Silane gas (SiH4) and heated again to grow the polysilicon layer thru a process called CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition).
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polysilicon

Thin Gate Oxide

n-well p-substrate

j) As before, the wafer is patterned with photo resist and the polysilicon mask.

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polysilicon

Thin Gate Oxide

n-well p-substrate

k) To form n+ region, again a thin oxide layer form.

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polysilicon

Thin Gate Oxide

n-well p-substrate

l) Again, with photo resist and etching process, we open an n+ area.

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polysilicon

Thin Gate Oxide

n+

n+

n-well p-substrate

m) With ion implantation method or diffusion method, we form n+ region.

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polysilicon

Thin Gate Oxide

n+

n+

p+

p+

n-well p-substrate

n) With all repeat processes, we form p+ region as well at the PMOS area.

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polysilicon

Thin Gate Oxide

n+

n+

p+

p+

n-well p-substrate

o) Next, the field oxide is growth to insulate the wafer from metal and patterned with the contact mask to leave contact cuts where metal should attach to diffusion or polysilicon.

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polysilicon

Metal Thin Gate Oxide

n+

n+

p+

p+

n-well p-substrate

p) Finally, aluminium is sputtered over the entire wafer filling the contact cuts as well. Sputtering involves blasting aluminium into a vapour that evenly coats the wafer.

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