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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices Below are some engineering devices that operate essentially as steady-state, steady-flow control volumes.

1- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Nozzles and Diffusers

For flow through nozzles, the heat transfer, work, and potential energy are normally neglected and have one entrance and one exit. The conservation of energy becomes

min = mout m1 = m2 = m Ein = E out 2 2 V V m h1 + 1 = m h2 + 2 2 2


solving for V2

F I F I G J G J H K H K

2 V2 = 2(h1 h2 ) + V1

Example 4-3 Steam at 0.4 MPa, 300oC enters an adiabatic nozzle with a low velocity and leaves at 10 kPa with a quality of 90%. Find the exit velocity, in m/s. Control volume: The nozzle Property relation: Steam tables

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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Process: Assume steady-state, steady-flow Conservation Principles: Conservation of mass: for one entrance, one exit, the conservation of mass becomes

in

m1 = m2 = m

= mout

Conservation of energy: According to the sketched control volume, mass crosses the control surface, but no work or heat transfer crosses the control surface. Neglecting the potential energies, we have

Ein = Eout 2 2 V V m h1 + 1 = m h2 + 2 2 2
Neglecting the inlet kinetic energy, the exit velocity is

F I F I G J G J H K H K
V2 = 2(h1 h2 )

Now, we need to find the enthalpies from the steam tables.

T1 = 300o C kJ h1 = 3066.8 kg P1 = 0.4 MPa


At 0.2 MPa hf = 504.7 kJ/kg and hfg = 2201.9 kJ/kg

U V W

P2 = 0.2 MPa x2 = 0.90

U h V W
2

h2 = h f + x2 h fg = 504.7 + (0.90)(22019) = 2486.4 . kJ kg

3- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

kJ 1000 m2 / s2 V2 = 2(3066.8 2486.4) kg kJ / kg 1077.4 m s

Turbines 1

Control Surface

o Wout
2 Turbine control volume.

If we neglect the changes in kinetic and potential energies as fluid flows through an adiabatic turbine having one entrance and one exit, the conservation of mass and the SSSF (steady state, steady flow) first law becomes

min = mout m1 = m2 = m Ein = Eout m1h1 = m2 h2 + Wout W = m(h h )


out 1 2

Example 4-4 High pressure air at 1300 K flows into an aircraft gas turbine and undergoes a steady-state, steady-flow, adiabatic process to the turbine exit at 660 K. Calculate the work done per unit mass of air flowing through the turbine when (a) Temperature dependent data is used. (b) Cp;av at the average temperature is used. 4- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

(c) Cp at 300 K is used. Control volume: The turbine Property relation: Assume air is an ideal gas and use ideal gas relations. Process: Steady-state, steady-flow, adiabatic process Conservation Principles: Conservation of mass:

in

m1 = m2 = m

= mout

Conservation of energy:

Qin

F + V + gz I = W h + m G J H 2 K
e e 2 e e for each exit

out

F + V + gz I h + m G 2 HJ K
2 i i i i for each inlet

According to the sketched control volume, mass and work cross the control surface. Neglecting kinetic and potential energies and noting the process is adiabatic, we have

0 + m1h1 = Wout + m2 h2 Wout = m(h1 h2 )


The work done by the air per unit mass flow is

wout =

Wout = h1 h2 m

Notice that the work done by a fluid flowing through a turbine is equal to the enthalpy decrease of the fluid. (a) Using the air tables, A.17 at T1 = 1300 K, h1 = 1395.97 kJ/kg, at T2 = 660 K, h2 = 670.47 kJ/kg

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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

wout = h1 h2 = (1395.97 670.47) = 7255 . kJ kg kJ kg

(b) Using Table A.2 at Tav = 980 K, Cp = 1.138 kJ/(kg K)

wout = h1 h2 = C p , av (T1 T2 ) = 1138 .

kJ (1300 660) K kg K kJ = 728.3 kg


c. Using Table A.2 at T = 300 K, Cp = 1.005 kJ/(kg K)

wout = h1 h2 = C p , av (T1 T2 ) kJ (1300 660) K kg K kJ = 643.2 kg = 1005 .


Compressors and Fans

i Win
2 Steady-Flow Compressor

Compressors and fan are essentially the same devices. However, compressors operate over larger pressure ratios than fans. If we neglect the changes in kinetic and potential energies as fluid flows through an adiabatic compressor having one

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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

entrance and one exit, the SSSF (steady state, steady flow) first law or the conservation of energy equation becomes.

Wnet = m(h2 h1 ) ( Win ) = m(h2 h1 ) Win = m(h2 h1 )


Example 4-5 Nitrogen gas is compressed in a steady-state, steady-flow, adiabatic process from 0.1 MPa, 25oC. During the compression process the temperature becomes 125oC. If the mass flow rate is 0.2 kg/s, determine the work done on the nitrogen, in kW. Control volume: The compressor (see the compressor sketched above) Property relation: Assume nitrogen is an ideal gas and use ideal gas relations. Process: Steady-state, steady-flow Conservation Principles: Conservation of mass:

in

m1 = m2 = m

= mout

Conservation of energy:

Qnet

F + V + gz I = W h + m G J H 2 K
e e 2 e e for each exit

net

F + V + gz I h + m G 2 HJ K
2 i i i i for each inlet

According to the sketched control volume, mass and work cross the control surface. Neglecting kinetic and potential energies and noting the process is adiabatic, we have for one entrance and one exit

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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

0 + m1 (h1 + 0 + 0) = ( Win ) + m2 (h2 + 0 + 0) W = m(h h )


in 2 1

The work done on the nitrogen is related to the enthalpy rise of the nitrogen as it flows through the compressor. The work done on the nitrogen per unit mass flow is

Win win = = h2 h1 m
Assuming constant specific heats at 300 K, we write the work as

win = C p (T2 T1 ) kJ (125 25) K kg K kJ = 103.9 kg = 1039 .

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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Throttling Devices

Consider fluid flowing through a one-entrance, one-exit porous plug. The fluid experiences a pressure drop as it flows through the plug. No net work is done by the fluid. Assume the process is adiabatic and that the kinetic and potential energies are neglected, then the conservation of mass and energy equations become

mi = me mi hi = me he hi = he
This process is called a throttling process. What happens when an ideal gas is throttled?

hi = he he hi = 0

or Te = Ti
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z
e i

C p (T )dT = 0

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

When throttling an ideal gas, the temperature does not change. We will see later in Chapter 10, that the throttling process is an important process in the refrigeration cycle. Example 4-6 One way to determine the quality of saturated steam is to throttle the steam to a low enough pressure that it exists as a superheated vapor. Saturated steam at 0.4 MPa is throttled to 0.1 MPa, 100oC. Determine the quality of the steam at 0.4 MPa. Throttling orifice 1 2 Control Surface Control volume: The throttle Property relation: The steam tables Process: Steady-state, steady-flow, no work, no heat transfer, neglect kinetic and potential energies, one entrance, one exit Conservation Principles: Conservation of mass:

in

m1 = m2 = m

= mout

Conservation of energy:

Qnet

F + V + gz I = W h + m G J H 2 K
e e 2 e e for each exit

net

F + V + gz I h + m G 2 HJ K
2 i i i i for each inlet

According to the sketched control volume, mass crosses the control surface. Neglecting kinetic and potential energies and noting the process is adiabatic with no work, we have for one entrance and one exit

10- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

0 + m1 (h1 + 0 + 0) = 0 + m2 (h2 + 0 + 0) m1h1 = m2 h2 h1 = h2


T2 = 100o C kJ h2 = 2676.2 kg P2 = 01 MPa .
therefore

U V W

h1 = h2 = 2676.2 = h f + x1h fg x1 = = h1 h f h fg

kJ kg

@ P1 = 0.4 MPa

2676.2 604.74 21338 . = 0.971


Mixing chambers The mixing of two fluids occurs frequently in engineering applications. The section where the mixing process takes place is called a mixing chamber. The ordinary shower is an example of a mixing chamber.

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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Example 4-7 Steam at 0.2 MPa, 300oC enters a mixing chamber and is mixed with cold water at 20oC, 0.2 MPa to produce 20 kg/s of saturated liquid water at 0.2 MPa. What are the required steam and cold water flow rates? Steam 1 Cold Water 2

Mixing

Chamber

Saturated Water 3 Control Surface

Control volume: The mixing chamber Property relation: Steam tables Process: Assume steady-state, steady-flow, adiabatic mixing, with no work Conservation Principles: Conservation of mass:

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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

m1 + m2 = m3 m2 = m3 m1
Conservation of energy:

in

= mout

Qnet

F + V + gz I = W h + m G J H 2 K
e e 2 e e for each exit

net

F + V + gz I h + m G 2 HJ K
2 i i i i for each inlet

According to the sketched control volume, mass crosses the control surface. Neglecting kinetic and potential energies and noting the process is adiabatic with no work, we have for two entrances and one exit

m1h1 + m2 h2 = m3h3 m1h1 + (m3 m1 )h2 = m3h3 m1 (h1 h2 ) = m3 (h3 h2 ) (h h ) m1 = m3 3 2 (h1 h2 )


Now, we use the steam tables to find the enthalpies:

U V W T = 20 C U h V h P = 0.2 MPa W P = 0.2 MPa U h V =h Sat . Liquid W


o 2 2 2 3 3

T1 = 300o C kJ h1 = 30718 . kg P = 0.2 MPa 1


f @ 20 C
o

= 83.69

kJ kg
kJ kg

f @ 0.2 MPa

= 504.7

13- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

m1 = m3

(h3 h2 ) (h1 h2 ) kg (504.7 83.69) kJ / kg = 20 s (30718 83.96) kJ / kg . kg = 2.82 s

m2 = m3 m1 = (20 2.82) = 17.18


Heat Exchangers Heat exchangers are normally well-insulated devices that allow energy exchange between hot and cold fluids without mixing the fluids. The pumps, fans, and blowers causing the fluids to flow across the control surface are normally located outside the control surface.

kg s

kg s

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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Example 4-8 Air is heated in a heat exchanger by hot water. The water enters the heat exchanger at 45oC and experiences a 20oC drop in temperature. As the air passes through the heat exchanger its temperature is increased by 20oC. Determine the ratio of mass flow rate of the air to mass flow rate of the water.

Air Inlet

Water Inlet

Control Surface

Water Exit
2

Air Exit
Control volume: The heat exchanger Property relation: air: ideal gas relations water: steam tables or incompressible liquid results Process: Assume steady-state, steady-flow Conservation Principles: 15- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Conservation of mass:

)steady(0

min mout = msystem

( kg / s)

for two entrances, two exits, the conservation of mass becomes

min = mout mair ,1 + mw ,1 = mair , 2 + mw , 2


For two fluid streams that exchange energy but do not mix it is better to conserve the mass for the fluid streams separately.

mair ,1 = mair , 2 = mair mw ,1 = mw , 2 = mw


Conservation of energy: According to the sketched control volume, mass crosses the control surface, but no work or heat transfer crosses the control surface. Neglecting the kinetic and potential energies, we have for steady-state, steady-flow )steady(0

Rate of net energy transfer by heat, work, and mass

Ein Eout

E system
Rate change in internal, kinetic, potential, etc., energies

( kW )

16- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

mair ,1hair ,1 + mw ,1hw ,1 = mair , 2 hair , 2 + mw , 2 hw , 2 mair (hair ,1 hair , 2 ) = mw (hw , 2 hw ,1 ) (hw , 2 hw ,1 ) mair = mw (hair ,1 hair , 2 )
We assume that the air has constant specific heats at 300 K ( we don't know the actual temperatures, just the temperature difference). Because we know the initial and final temperatures for the water, we can use either the incompressible fluid result or the steam tables for its properties. Using the incompressible fluid approach for the water, Cp, w = 4.184 kJ/(kg K) .

C p , w (Tw , 2 Tw ,1 ) mair = mw C p , air (Tair ,1 Tair , 2 ) kJ 20 K kg w K = kJ 1005 . 25 K kgair K kg / s = 3.33 air kg w / s 4.184

b g b g

A second solution to this problem is obtained by determining the heat transfer rate from the hot water and noting that this is the heat transfer rate to the air. Considering each fluid separately for steady-state, steady-flow, one entrance, one exit, and neglecting the kinetic and potential energies, the first law, or conservation of energy equations become

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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Ein = Eout mair ,1hair ,1 + Qin , air = mair , 2 hair , 2 mw ,1hw ,1 = Qout , w + mw , 2 hw , 2 Qin , air = Qout , w
Pipe and Duct Flow The flow of fluids through pipes and duct is often steady-state, steady-flow. We normally neglect the kinetic and potential energies; however, depending on the flow situation the work and heat transfer may or may not be zero. Example 4-9 In a simple steam power plant, steam leaves a boiler at 3 MPa, 600oC and enters a turbine at 2 MPa, 500oC. Determine the in-line heat transfer from the steam per kilogram mass flowing in the pipe between the boiler and the turbine.

Qout
1 Steam from Boiler

Steam to Turbine 2 Control Surface

Control volume: Pipe section in which the heat loss occurs. Property relation: Steam tables Process: Steady-state, Steady-flow

18- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Conservation Principles: Conservation of mass: )steady(0

min mout = msystem

( kg / s)

for one entrance, one exit, the conservation of mass becomes

min = mout m1 = m2 = m
Conservation of energy: According to the sketched control volume, heat transfer and mass cross the control surface, but no work crosses the control surface. Neglecting the kinetic and potential energies, we have for steady-state, steady-flow )steady(0

Rate of net energy transfer by heat, work, and mass

Ein Eout

E system
Rate change in internal, kinetic, potential, etc., energies

( kW )

We determine the heat transfer rate per unit mass of flowing steam as

m1h1 = m 2 h 2 + Qout Qout = m(h1 h2 ) qout Qout = = h1 h2 m

We use the steam tables to determine the enthalpies at the two states as

19- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

U V W T = 500 C U h V = 3467.6 kJ kg P = 2 MPa W


T1 = 600o C kJ h1 = 3682.3 kg P1 = 3 MPa
o 2 2 2

qout = h1 h2 kJ = (3682.3 3467.6) kg kJ = 214.7 kg


Example 4-10 Air at 100oC, 0.15 MPa, 40 m/s flows through a converging duct with a mass flow rate of 0.2 kg/s. The air leaves the duct with at 0.1 MPa, 113.6 m/s. The exit-to-inlet duct area ratio is 0.5. Find the required rate of heat transfer to the air when no work is done by the air.

Qin
1 Air inlet

Air Exit 2 Control Surface

Control volume: The converging duct Property relation: Assume air is an ideal gas and use ideal gas relations. Process: Steady-state, steady-flow

20- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Conservation Principles: Conservation of mass: )steady(0

min mout = msystem

( kg / s)

for one entrance, one exit, the conservation of mass becomes

min = mout m1 = m2 = m

Conservation of energy: According to the sketched control volume, heat transfer and mass cross the control surface, but no work crosses the control surface. Here keep the kinetic energy and still neglect the potential energies, we have for steady-state, steadyflow )steady(0

Rate of net energy transfer by heat, work, and mass

Ein Eout

E system
Rate change in internal, kinetic, potential, etc., energies

( kW )

2 2 V V m1 h1 + 1 + Qin = m 2 h 2 + 2 2 2 2 2 V V2 Qin = m (h2 h1 ) + 1 2


In the first law equation, the following are known, P1, T1 (and h1),

F I G J H K F G H

F G H

I J K I J K

21- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

V1 , V2 , m , and A2/A1. The unknowns are Qin , and h2 (or T2). We use the first law and the conservation of mass equation to solve for the two unknowns.

m1 = m2 ( kg / s) 1 1 V1 A1 = V2 A2 v1 v2 P1 P V1 A1 = V2 A2 2 RT1 RT2
Solving for T2

P A V2 T2 = T1 2 2 P1 A1 V1 = (100 + 273) K = 3531 K .

F01 MPa Ibg .6 m / s I 113 G. MPa J 0.5 F40 m / s J G 015 . H K H K

Assuming Cp = constant, h2 - h1 = Cp(T2 - T1)

2 2 in = m C p (T2 T1 ) + V1 V2 Q 2

F G H

I J K

kg kJ = 0.2 (1005 . (3531 373) K . s kg K (113.62 402 )m2 / s2 kJ / kg + ) 2 2 2 1000m / s kJ = 2.87 = 2.87 kW s

22- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Looks like we made the wrong assumption for the direction of the heat transfer. The heat is really leaving the flow duct. (What type of device is this anyway?)

Qout = Qin = 2.87 kW

Liquid Pumps Fluid exit 2

P Pump

Fluid inlet 1 .Liquid flow through a pump

The work required when pumping an incompressible liquid in an adiabatic steadystate, steady-flow process is given by

2 2 V V1 Q W = m h2 h1 + 2 + g ( z2 z1 ) 2
The enthalpy difference can be written as

L M N

O P Q

( kW )

h2 h1 = (u2 u1 ) + ( Pv ) 2 ( Pv )1
For incompressible liquids we assume that the density and specific volume are constant. The pumping process for an incompressible liquid is essentially isothermal, and the internal energy change is approximately zero (we will see this more clearly after introducing the second law). Thus, the enthalpy difference reduces to the difference in the pressure-specific volume products. Since v2 = v1 = v the work input to the pump becomes

23- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

L( P P ) + V V v W = mM 2 N
2 1 2 2

2 1

+ g ( z2 z1 )

O P Q

( kW )

W is the net work done by the control volume, and it is noted that work is input to the pump; so, W = Win , pump If we neglect the changes in kinetic and potential energies, the pump work becomes

( Win , pump ) = m v ( P2 P1 ) Win , pump = m v ( P2 P1 )

( kW )

We use this result to calculate the work supplied to boiler feedwater pumps in steam power plants. Uniform-state, Uniform-flow Problems During unsteady energy transfer to or from open systems or control volumes, the system may have a change in the stored energy and mass. Several unsteady thermodynamic problems may be treated as uniform-state, uniform-flow problems. The assumptions for uniform-state, uniform-flow are The process takes place over a specified time period. The state of the mass within the control volume is uniform at any instant of time but may vary with time. The state of mass crossing the control surface is uniform and steady. The mass flow may be different at different control surface locations.

To find the amount of mass crossing the control surface at a given location, we integrate the mass flow rate over the time period.

Inlets: mi = mi dt Exits: me = me dt
0 0

z
t

z
t

The change in mass of the control volume in the time period is

24- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

(m2 m1 ) CV =

z
t
t

dm dt 0 dt CV

The uniform-state, uniform-flow conservation of mass becomes

m m
i

= (m2 m1 ) CV

The change in internal energy for the control volume during the time period is

(m2 u2 m1u1 ) CV =

z
2 Vj

dU 0 dt

dt
CV

The heat transferred and work done in the time period are

Q=

z
t 0

Qdt and

W=

z
t 0

Wdt

The energy crossing the control surface with the mass in the time period is

m
j

F + + gz Idt =zG m h H 2 J K
t 0 j j j

where j= i, for inlets e, for exits

The first law for uniform-state, uniform-flow becomes

F + V + gz I m F + V + gz I + b e m e g Q W = m G h h H 2 J G 2 J m K H K
e e 2 e 2 e i i i i 2 2 1 1 CV

When the kinetic and potential energy changes associated with the control volume and the fluid streams are negligible, it simplifies to

25- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

Q W = me he mi hi + m2 u2 m1u1
Example 4-11

g
CV

( kJ )

Consider an evacuated, insulated, rigid tank connected through a closed valve to a high-pressure line. The valve is opened and the tank is filled with the fluid in the line. If the fluid is an ideal gas, determine the final temperature in the tank when the tank pressure equals that of the line.

Control volume: The tank Property relation: Ideal gas relations Process: Assume uniform-state, uniform-flow Conservation Principles: Conservation of mass:

m m
i

= (m2 m1 ) CV

Or, for one entrance, no exit, and the initial mass is zero, this becomes

mi = (m2 ) CV
Conservation of Energy: 26- Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

For an insulated tank Q is zero and for a rigid tank with no shaft work W is zero. For one inlet mass stream and no exit mass stream and neglecting changes in kinetic and potential energies, the uniform-state, uniform-flow conservation of energy reduces to

Q W = me he mi hi + m2 u2 m1u1 0 = mi hi + (m2 u2 ) CV
Or,

g
CV

( kJ )

mi hi = (m2 u2 ) CV hi = u2 ui + Pvi = u2 i u2 ui = Pvi i Cv (T2 Ti ) = Pvi i


Cv (T2 Ti ) = RTi T2 = Cp Cv + R Ti = Ti Cv Cv = kTi

If the fluid is air, k = 1.4 and the absolute temperature in the tank at the final state is 40% higher than the fluid absolute temperature in the supply line. The internal energy in the full tank differs from the internal energy of the supply line by the amount of flow work done to push the fluid from the line into the tank. Rework the above problem for a 10 m3 tank initially open to the atmosphere at 25oC and being filled from an air supply line at 90 psig, 25oC until the pressure inside the tank is 70 psig.

27- Chapter 4

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