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# X INTRODUCTION

Often, we have a formula which describes the behaviour of the quantity, and
differential calculus provides us with the means of obtaining the rate of change
as accurately as the formula will allow. The process of differentiation can be used
to calculate maximum and minimum values; for example, we can find the
dimensions of the box of maximum volume which can be cut from a given area
of sheet metal.

This topic will introduce to you the derivative of a function as the gradient of a
tangent.
T
T
o
o
p
p
i
i
c
c
1
1

X
Differentiation
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. Explain to students how to obtain the derivative of a function from
the first principles;
2. Identify the notations of ( ) ( ) x f x f
" '
, ,
dx
dy
,
2
2
dx
y d
;
3. Carry out differentiation of
x x x x e x
x n
tan , cos , sin , ln , , ,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( ) x g f
x g
x f
x g x f x g x f x kf
o
, , , ,
4. Choose appropriate approach to find the first derivative of an implicit
function and a function defined parametrically;
5. Apply suitable strategies to find the gradients, tangents and normal to
the graph of a function; and
6. Explain to your students how to determine stationary points, local
extremum points, points of inflexion, absolute minimum and
maximum values.
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

2
DERIVATIVE OF A FUNCTION
1.1.1 Differentiation from the First Principles

Consider a point A(x, y) on the curve y = f (x) and B is a neighbouring point with
coordinates ( ) y y x x o o + + , ,where x o denotes a small increase in x and y o denotes
a corresponding small increase in y (see Figure 1.1).

Figure 1.1: Point B( ) y y x x o o + + , , where x o denotes a small increase in x and
y o denotes a corresponding small increase in y.
x
y
AC
BC
o
o
=
As point B is moved along the curve towards the fixed point A, 0 x o and the
direction of the chord AB moves closer to the direction of AD, the tangent to the
curve at A. Thus in the limiting value,
1.1
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
3

x
y
x
o
o
o 0
lim

=
dx
dy

If y = f(x), ( )
( ) ( )
x
x f x x f
x f
dx
dy
x
o
o
o
+
= =
0
'
lim

This process is known as differentiating with respect to x from first principles.
dx
dy
or ( ) x f
'
is called the derivative of f (x).
Example 1

If y = x
2
, find
dx
dy
from the first principles.

Solution:

( )
2
x x f = ; ( ) ( )( ) x x x x x x f o o o + + = + ( )
2 2
2 x x x x o o + + =
=
dx
dy ( )
|
.
|

\
| +

x
x f x x f
x
o
o
o
) (
lim
0
=
|
|
.
|

\
| + +

x
x x x x x
x
o
o o
o
2 2 2
0
) ( 2
lim = ( ) x x
x
o
o
+

2 lim
0
= x 2

1.1.2 Differentiation of x
n

Let us look at the differentiation from the first principles.

2
x y = , =
dx
dy
x
x x x
x
o
o
o
2 2
0
) (
lim
+

= ( ) x x
x
o
o
+

2 lim
0
= x 2 =
1 2
2

x

Hence,
If y =
n
x , then R n nx
dx
dy
n
e =

,
1

EXERCISE 1.1
Find the first derivatives of the following functions with respect to from
the first principles:
(a)
3
x y = (b) 1 3
2
+ + = x x y
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

4
if y = f(x) = e
x
, then = = ) (
'
x f
dx
dy
e
x

If ) ( . then ,
' ) ( ) (
x f e
dx
dy
e y
x f x f
= =
1.1.3 Differentiation of e
x

Consider the exponential function f(x) = e x , then differentiate from the first
principles,
x
x f x x f
x f
x
o
o
o
) ( ) (
lim ) (
0
'
+
=

x
e e
x x x
x
o
o
o

=
+
0
lim
x
e e
x x
x
o
o
o
) 1 (
lim
0

x
e
e
x
x
x
o
o
o
) 1 (
lim
0

Note that can be deduced by using a calculator and substituting values of
x o close to zero. That is,
x
e
x
x
o
o
o
) 1 (
lim
0

= 1, therefore,
x
e x f = ) (
'

Hence,

If
) ( x f
e y = , let
u
e y = and ) (x f u =
u
e
du
dy
= ; ) (
'
x f
dx
du
=
By the chain rule,
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
. = ) ( .
'
x f e
u
= ) ( .
' ) (
x f e
x f
=

Hence, in general
1.1.4 Differentiation of ln x
The function ln x is the inverse function of e
x
. If y = ln x, then x = e
y
.
Let x = e
y
, differentiate x with respect to y,
We get
y
e
dy
dx
= , therefore,
x
dy
dx
dx
dy 1 1
= =
Hence, if y = ln x, then
x dx
dy 1
= .

Example 2
Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(a)
3
5x (b)
x
e
2
(c)
3
ln x

TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
5
Solution:

(a) Let y =
3
5x (b) Let
x
e y
2
=
) 3 ( 5
1 3
= x
dx
dy

2
15x = ) 2 ( .
2
x
dx
d
e
dx
dy
x
= 2 .
2x
e =
x
e
2
2 =
(c) Let
3
ln x y = ; x ln 3 =
x dx
dy 3
=

1.1.5 Differentiation of sin x, cos x and tan x
Let us look at the differentiation of sin x. If y = sin x, from the first principles,

x
x x x
dx
dy
x
o
o
o
sin ) sin(
lim
0
+
=

## , [using B A B A B A sin cos cos sin ) sin( + = + ]

|
.
|

\
|
+

=
+
=

x
x
x
x
x x
x
x x x x x
x x
o
o
o
o
o
o
o o
sin
cos
) 1 (cos sin
lim
sin sin cos cos sin
lim
0 0

In the limit, as 0 )
1 cos
( , 0

x
x
x
o
o
o and 1
sin

x
x
o
o

Therefore, ) 1 ( cos ) 0 ( sin x x
dx
dy
+ = , hence, if y = sin x, then x
dx
dy
cos =

Similarly, if y = cos x, then x
dx
dy
sin = , and if y = tan x, then x
dx
dy
2
sec =
EXCERCISE 1.2
Find the first derivatives of the following functions with respect to x.
(a)
5
x y = (c)
4 2 3
) (
x
e x y + = (e)
5 3
2 ln x x y =
(b)
4
5

= x y (d)
3 2 2
) 1 (

+ =
x
e x y
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

6
Example 3

Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(a) x x cos sin (b) x x cos
2
(c) x 2 tan

Solution:

(a) ( ) sin cos cos ( sin ) cos sin
d
x x x x x x
dx
= = +

(b)

( ) ( ) ( )
) sin cos 2 ( ) sin ( ) 2 ( cos
cos cos cos
2
2 2 2
x x x x x x x x
x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
x x x
dx
d
= + =
+ =

(c) ( ) ( ) x x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
2 sec 2 2 2 sec 2 tan
2 2
= =

1.1.6 Differentiation of kf(x) where k is a Constant
Let us look at the differentiation of kf(x). Consider ) (x kf y =

| |
) (
) ( ) (
lim
) ( ) (
lim
) ( ) (
lim
0
0 0
x f
dx
d
k
x
x f x x f
k
x
x f x x f k
x
x kf x x kf
dx
dy
x
x x
=
|
.
|

\
| +
=
+
=
+
=

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o o

Hence | | | | ) ( ) ( ) (
'
x kf x f
dx
d
k x kf
dx
d
= = and ( ) R n knx kx
dx
d
n n
e =

,
1

EXCERCISE 1.3
Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.
(a) x x cos 2 sin 3 (b) x xcos (c) x tan
4
5

TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
7
1.1.7 Differentiation of Sums and Differences of
Functions
Do you know that, the rule is used to differentiate functions which are the sum or
difference of two or more functions, is known as the sum and difference rule.
Let ) ( ) ( x g x f y + = , from the derived definition,
| | | | ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
lim
) ( ) (
lim
)] ( ) ( [ )] ( ) ( [
lim
)] ( ) ( [ )] ( ) ( [
lim
0 0
0
0
x g
dx
d
x f
dx
d
x
x g x x g
x
x f x x f
x
x g x x g x f x x f
x
x q x p x x g x x f
dx
dy
x x
x
x
+ =
+
+
+
=
+ + +
=
+ + + +
=

o
o
o
o
o
o o
o
o o
o o
o
o

Hence, if ), ( ) ( x g x f y =
Then ) ( ) (
' '
x g x f
dx
dy
=

Example 4

Find
dx
dy
for: (a)
5
x y = (b) x x y 3 5
2
+ = 8

Solution:

(a)
4 1 5
5 5 x x
dx
dy
= =

(b) 3 10 + = x

3 ) 2 ( 5 + = x
dx
dy
EXERCISE 1.4
Find
dx
dy
for each of the following:
(a)
2
2 x x y = (b)
x
y
4
=
(c) 5 6 ) (
3 4
+ = x x x f (d)
2
1
) (
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
x
x x f
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

8
1.1.8 Differentiation of Products of Functions
Let us look at the rule that is used to differentiate functions which are products of
two functions, known as the product rule.
If ), ( ). ( x g x f y = then ) ( ). ( ) ( ). (
' '
x g x f x f x g
dx
dy
+ =

1.1.9 Differentiation of Quotients
The rule that is used to differentiate functions which are rational expressions is
known as the quotient rule.
If
) (
) (
x g
x f
y = , then
2
' '
)] ( [
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
x g
x g x f x f x g
dx
dy
=

1.1.10 Differentiation of Composite Functions
A function which can be expressed as a composition of two simple functions is
called a composite function. The rule that is used to differentiate composite
functions is known as the chain rule. Consider the function ) (u f y = , where u is
a function of x .
SELF-CHECK 1.1
From the first principles, show that if uv y = , then
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u
dx
dy
+ =
SELF-CHECK 1.2
From the first principles, show that if
v
u
y = , then
2
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
dx
dy

=
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
9

In order to find
dx
dy
, we have
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
=
Hence, if ), )( ( x g f y D = then ) ( )] ( [
' '
x g x g f
dx
dy
=

Example 5
(a) If ) 1 2 ( ) 1 (
2 3 3
+ + + = x x x y , find
dx
dy
using the product rule.
(b) If
1 3
5 2
2
+

=
x
x
y , find
dx
dy
using quotient rule.
(c) If , ) 2 (
3 3
x x y + = find
dx
dy
using chain rule.
Solution:
(a) ) 1 2 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 2 (
2 3 3 3 3 2
+ + + + + + + = x x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
x x
dx
dy

) 2 2 9 20 11 ( ) 1 (
)] 2 2 2 2 ( ) 9 18 9 [( ) 1 (
)] 2 2 )( 1 ( ) 1 2 ( 9 [ ) 1 (
) 2 2 ( ) 1 ( ) 3 ( ) 1 ( 3 ) 1 2 (
2 3 4 2 3
3 4 2 3 4 2 3
3 2 2 2 3
3 3 2 2 3 2
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + =
+ + + + + + =
x x x x x
x x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x

(b)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2 2
1 3
1 3 5 2 5 2 1 3
+
+ +
=
x
x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
x
dx
dy

( )( ) ( )( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
1 3
5 12 15
3
6 5 2 5 1 3
+

=
+
+
=
x
x x
x
x x x

(c) , ) 2 (
3 3
x x y + = let
3
u y = where x x u 2
3
+ =

2
3u
du
dy
= , 2 3
2
+ = x
dx
du
, and ) 2 3 ( ) 2 ( 3
2 2 3
+ + = = x x x
dx
du
X
du
dy
dx
dy

X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

10

DIFFERENTIATION OF COMPOSITE
FUNCTIONS
1.2.1 Differentiation of Implicit Functions
The functions you have differentiated so far are in the form of ). (x f y =
However, some functions cannot be expressed in that form, for example,
xy x x = + + 3 2
2 3
. When a function is specified by an equation connecting x
and y and is not easily transposed to the form ) (x f y = , it is called an implicit
function. In order to find
dx
dy
from a given implicit function, we need to apply
the chain rule
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
= and the product rule ( )
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u uv
dx
d
+ = . The
technique to find
dx
dy
is called implicit differentiation.

Example 6
2
3 3
= + + y xy x
Differentiate each term with respect to x .

1.2
Find
dx
dy
for each of the following:
(a) ) 5 )( 1 2 (
3
+ = x x y (b)
3 3 2
2 ) 1 ( x x y + = (c)
( )
2
2
1
2 3
x
x
y
+

=
(d)
3
2 3
2

=
x
x
y (e)
4 2
) 3 ( + x (f)
x x 3 2
1
2
+

EXERCISE 1.5
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
11
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
2 3
= + + y
dx
d
xy
dx
d
x
dx
d
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
2 2 3 2
3
3
3 3
0 . 3 3 0 3
y x
y x
dx
dy
y x
dx
dy
y x
dx
dy
y
dx
dy
x y x
dx
dy
y
dy
d
dx
dy
x x
dx
d
y x
+
+
= + = +
= + + + = + + +

1.2.2 Differentiation of Parametric Equations
Some function can be represented by expressing x and y separately in terms of
a third variable, called a parameter. Consider two expressions ) (t f x = and
) (t g y = , where f and g are functions of parameter t . The derivative
dx
dy
can
be obtained by applying the chain rule:

Example 7
) 4 ( 3 = t x
4
) 2 ( = t y
3 =
dt
dx
;
3
) 2 ( 4 = t
dt
dy
; By the chain rule,
3
) 2 ( 4
3

=
t
dx
dy

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dt
dt
dy
dx
dy
1. Find
dx
dy
for each of the following functions in terms of x and y.
(a) x y x 3 9 4
2 2
= + (b) xy xy x 6
2 3
= +
2. Find
dx
dy
in terms of the parameter t for each of the following:
(a) ) 2 ( 4 = t t x , 3 2
2
= t y (b)
2
1 t x + = , ) 1 (
3
t t y + =
EXERCISE 1.6
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

12

APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIATION

Figure 1.2: Gradient of a curve
The gradient of a curve, ) (x f y = , at a point R on the curve is given by the
gradient of the tangent at R. It is also given by the value of
dx
dy
at the point R,
which can be calculated using the equation of the curve. Thus, we can calculate
the gradient of the tangent to the curve at any point R.

Example 8
Find the gradient of the curve 4 8
2
+ = x x y at the point where 1 = x .

Solution:
Differentiate with respect to x , 8 2 + = x
dx
dy
. When , 1 = x 10 8 ) 1 ( 2 = + =
dx
dy
.
Therefore, the gradient of the curve 4 8
2
+ = x x y at , 1 = x is 10.
1.3
SELF-CHECK 1.3
A curve has parametric equations t x sin 2 = and t y cos 3 = . Show that
2
tan 3 t
dx
dy
= .
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
13
1.3.2 Equation of the Tangent and the Normal to a
Curve
(a) Equation of the Tangent to the Curve

Let us look at the gradient of a curve at a point which is the gradient of the
tangent to the curve at that point. If ) (x f y = represents the equation of a
curve, then
dx
dy
is the gradient of the tangent to the curve at that point. If
the coordinates of the point are known, we can find the equation of the
tangent.

Example 9
Find the equation of the tangent to the curve 4 2
2 3
+ = x x x y at the
point where 1 = x .

Solution:
4 2
2 3
+ = x x x y , 1 2 6
2
+ = x x
dx
dy
, when 5 , 1 = =
dx
dy
x
and when 2 4 1 1 ) 1 ( 2 , 1 = + = = y x , therefore, the gradient of the
tangent at ) 2 , 1 ( is 5. Equation of the tangent to the curve at the point
) 2 , 1 ( is given by

7 5 ) 1 ( 5 ) 2 ( ) (
1 1
= = = x y x y x x m y y

(b) Equation of the Normal to the Curve

Figure 1.3: Normal to the curve
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

14
The normal to a curve ) (x f y = at a particular point is the straight line
which is at the right angle to the tangent at the point. Consider the gradient
of the tangent is
1
2
m , of the normal is given by
1
2
1
m
m = . This is used to find the equation of the normal at any specific
point on a curve.
Example 10
Find the equation of the normal to the curve 5 2 3
2 2
= + y xy x at the
point ) 2 , 1 ( .

Solution:
Differentiate with respect to , x
( )
x y
x y
y x
x y
dx
dy
x y
dx
dy
y x
dx
dy
y y
dx
dy
x x

+
=

+
=
= = + +
4
6
4
) 6 (
6 4 0 4 6

When
7
8
1 8
6 2
, 2 , 1 =

+
= = =
dx
dy
y x
The gradient of the tangent is
7
8
and the gradient of the normal is
8
7
.
Equation of the normal to the curve at the point ) 2 , 1 ( is given by
23 7 8
8
23
8
7
) 1 (
8
7
2 ) (
1 1
+ = + = = = x y x y x y x x m y y

(c) Increasing and Decreasing Functions
If the tangent to the curve with equation ) (x f y = at any point ) , ( y x
makes an angleu with the positive x-axis, then u tan =
dx
dy
. If the curve is as
shown in Figure 1.4(a), as x increases, y increases and
2
0
t
u < < , i.e.
dx
dy

is positive and y is said to be an increasing function of . x
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
15

Figure 1.4(a): Increasing functions Figure 1.4(b): Decreasing functions

If the curve ) (x f y = is as shown in figure 1.4(b),
then 0 tan
2
< < < u t u
t
, i.e.
dx
dy
negative and y is said to be a
decreasing function of . x

) (x f increases as x increases if ) (
'
x f > 0; ) (x f decreases as x increases
if ) (
'
x f < 0.

Example 11

Determine the intervals of increase and decrease for the function
x x x f 6 ) (
2
= .

Solution:

6 2 ) (
'
= x x f ;
When ) (
'
x f > 0, Condition for increasing function
then 6 2 x > 0, x > 3
When ) (
'
x f < 0, Condition for decreasing function
then 6 2 x < 0, x < 3
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

16

Figure 1.5: Intervals of increase and decrease for the function x x x f 6 ) (
2
=

Therefore, the function ) (x f is increasing in the interval ) , 3 ( and
decreasing in the interval ). 3 , (

1.3.3 Stationary Points
What does a stationary point mean?
In Figure 1.6, P, Q and R are stationary points of the curve ) (x f y = .
1. Find the gradient of each of the following curves at the point with the
given points.
(a) , 3 5 2
3
+ = x x y 3 = x (b) ), 1 2 )( 2 (
2 2
+ = x x y 0 = x
2. Find the equations of the tangent and the normal to each of the
following curves at the given point.
(a) 5 9 2
2
+ = x x y , point ) 2 , 2 (
(b) ) 1 )( 1 (
2 2
+ = x x y , point ( 1, 6)
3. Determine the intervals of increase and decrease of the functions:
(a) 2 6 ) (
2
+ = x x x f (b) ( ) ( ) 3 1 ) (
2
+ = x x x f
EXERCISE 1.7
A stationary point of the curve ) (x f y = is a point at which the tangent to
the curve is parallel to the x -axis, i.e. the gradient of the curve is zero.
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
17

Figure 1.6: Stationary points
To find the coordinates of the stationary point on the curve ) (x f y = , solve the
equation . 0 =
dx
dy
For each solution of o = x , the point | | ) ( , o o f P is a stationary
point and each value of ) (o f is known as the stationary value.
Example 12
Find the coordinates of the stationary points on the curve 1 3 5
2 3
+ = x x x y .
Solution:
3 10 3
2
+ = x x
dx
dy
, at the stationary point, 0 =
dx
dy

( )( ) 0 3 1 3 0 3 10 3
2
= = + x x x x 0 1 3 = x or 0 3 = x
3
1
= x or 3 = x ; when
27
14
,
3
1
= = y x ; when 10 , 3 = = y x
Therefore, the stationary points are |
.
|

\
|

27
14
,
3
1
and ( ) 10 , 3 .
1.3.4 Maximum or Minimum Points (Local points)
Lets consider a point P on the curve ) (x f y = at which the gradient is zero, i.e.
0 =
dx
dy
or 0 ) (
'
= x f . Let
0
x x = , such that ( ) 0 '
0
= x f , then ( ) ( )
0 0
, x f x P is a
stationary point. Choose all x near
0
x .
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

18
Case (i) if x <
0
x and ) (
'
x f > 0 ; if x >
0
x and ) (
'
x f < 0
The stationary point ( ) ( )
0 0
, x f x P is a maximum point or local maximum point.

Figure 1.7(a): Maximum point

Figure 1.7(b): Minimum point
Case (ii) if x <
0
x and ) (
'
x f < 0 ; if x >
0
x and ) (
'
x f > 0
The stationary point ( ) ( )
0 0
, x f x P is a minimum point or local minimum point.

Example 13
Find the coordinates of the maximum and minimum points on the curve
6 3
2 3
+ = x x y .
Solution:
x x
dx
dy
6 3
2
= ; For minimum or maximum point, 0 =
dx
dy

= = 0 ) 2 ( 3 0 6 3
2
x x x x 0 = x or 2 = x
A turning point is a stationary point, either a maximum or a minimum point.
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
19
When 6 , 0 = = y x , when 2 , 2 = = y x ; the stationary points are ( ) 6 , 0 and ( ) 2 , 2
For the point ( ) 6 , 0 , choose 1 = x < 0, 9 =
dx
dy
> 0 ; choose 1 = x > 0, 3 =
dx
dy
< 0
Therefore, the point ( ) 6 , 0 is a maximum point.
For the point ( ) 2 , 2 , choose 1 = x < 2, 3 =
dx
dy
< 0 ; choose 3 = x > 2, 9 =
dx
dy
> 0
Therefore, the point ( ) 2 , 2 is a minimum point.

1.3.5 Point of Inflexion
Do you know what is a point of inflexion?
At the point of inflexion, 0
2
2
=
dx
y d
or 0 ) ( ' ' = x f and the value of
dx
dy
or ) ( ' x f
has the same sign as the curve passes through the point of inflexion.
EXERCISE 1.8
1. Find the coordinates of the stationary points of each of the following
curves:
(a) 6 3
2 3
+ = x x y (b) x x
x
y 6
2
5
3
2
3
+ =

2. Find the coordinates of the stationary points of the following curves,
and determine whether the point is a maximum or minimum point.
(a) 2 4 ) (
3 4
+ = x x x f (b) ( ) ( ) 1 2 ) (
2
+ = x x x f
SELF-CHECK 1.4
Show that the curve xy y x 3
3 3
= + has a turning point at
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
2
3
1
2 , 2 .
A point where a curve changes from concave upwards to concave
downwards (or vice versa) is known as a point of inflexion.
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

20

Figure 1.8 (a): Point of inflexion Figure 1.8(b): Point of inflexion

Figure 1.8(c): Point of inflexion
Conditions for a point | | ) ( ,
0 0
x f x to be a point of inflexion.

(a) Method I

or

(b) Method II

Summary of conditions for the nature of a point | | ) ( ,
0 0
x f x on the
curve ) (x f y = (See Table 1.1)
(i) 0 ) (
0
' '
= x f
(ii) 0 ) (
0
' ' '
= x f
If , 0 ) (
0
' ' '
= x f
Use method I
(i) 0 ) (
0
' '
= x f
(ii) ) (
'
x f has the same sign, for all x near
0
x
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
21
Table 1.1: Summary of Conditions for the Nature of a Point | | ) ( ,
0 0
x f x on the
Curve ) (x f y =
Stationary point Maximum point Minimum point Point of inflexion

0
'
0 ) ( x x x f = =

0
'
0 ) ( x x x f = =
and
) (
0
' '
x f < 0
or
0
'
0 ) ( x x x f = =
and
if x <
0
x , ) (
'
x f >0
if x >
0
x , ) (
'
x f <0

0
'
0 ) ( x x x f = =
and
) (
0
' '
x f >0
or
0
'
0 ) ( x x x f = =
and
if x <
0
x , ) (
'
x f <0
if x >
0
x , ) (
'
x f >0

0
'
0 ) ( x x x f = =
and
) (
0
' '
x f = 0
or
0
'
0 ) ( x x x f = =
and
) (
'
x f have the
same sign for all
x <
0
x and x >
0
x

Example 14
Find the coordinates of the point of inflexion on the curve 1 3
2 3
+ + = x x y .

Solution:
x x
dx
dy
6 3
2
+ = ; 6 6
2
2
+ = x
dx
y d
; for point of inflexion, 0
2
2
=
dx
y d
first condition
1 , 0 6 6 = = + x x ; When 3 , 1 = = y x ; 0 6
3
3
= =
dx
y d
second condition
Therefore, the coordinates of the point of inflexion is (1, 3).

Find the coordinates of the point of inflexion on each of the
following curves:
(a) 6 15 6
2 3
+ = x x x y (b) ( ) ( ) x x y = 3 1
3

EXERCISE 1.9
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

22
1.3.6 Absolute Minimum and Maximum Values

Figure 1.9: Absolute minimum and maximum values
Figure 1.8 shows a graph in the interval [a,b] . Do you know that there are five
important points? Let us look at them one by one.
(i) The points B ) , (
2 2
y x and C ) , (
3 3
y x are known as the local extremum
points;
(ii) The point B ) , (
2 2
y x is the local maximum point and
2
y is the local
maximum value;
(iii) The point C ) , (
3 3
y x is the local minimum point and
3
y is the local
minimum value;
(iv) The absolute maximum value of a function is the biggest value of the
function in the interval [a,b]; and
(v) The absolute minimum value of a function is the smallest value of the
function in the interval [a,b].

Example 15
Find the absolute extremum value of the function 2 4
2
+ = x x y .

Solution:
4 2 = x
dx
dy
, and for stationary point, 0 =
dx
dy
; 2 , 0 4 2 = = x x
When 2 , 2 = = y x ; 2
2
2
=
dx
y d
> 0
Therefore, the function has an absolute minimum value of -2.
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
23

1.3.7 Solving Problems
(a) Rates of Change
We called
dx
dy
the rate of change of y with respect to . x
If
dx
dy
> 0, y increases as x increases;
and
if
dx
dy
< 0, y decreases as x increases.
- The velocity,
dt
ds
v = , is defined as the rate of change of displacement s
with respect to time, . t
- The acceleration,
dt
dv
a = , is defined as the rate of change of velocity, v
with respect to time, . t

Example 16
Find the rate of change of the volume h r V
2
3
1
t = , of a container in the
shape of cone, with respect to the radius, . r Hence, find the rate of change
of the volume when cm r 20 = and . 15cm h =

Solution:
The rate of change of the volume with respect to the radius, r, is
rh h r
dr
dV
t t
3
2
) 2 (
3
1
= =

Find the absolute extremum value of the following functions:
(a) 15 8
2
+ = x x y (b) 1 4
2
+ + = x x y
EXERCISE 1.10
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

24
When cm r 20 = , cm h 15 = , t t 50 ) 15 )( 20 (
3
2
= =
dr
dV

Hence, the rate of change of the volume is 50t cm
3
.

(b) Minimum and Maximum Values
We will illustrate through the example how the methods developed can be
used to solve practical problems.

Example 17

A field has a perimeter of 200 metres. Find the length and width of the field,
so that the field has a maximum area.

Solution:

Let x be the length of the field, y be the width of the field and A be the
area of the field; A = xy . Given that the perimeter = 100
Therefore, 200 2 2 = + y x ; 100 = + y x
Substitute x y =100 into A = xy
We have A = ) 100 ( x x
2
100 x x =

Differentiate A with respect to x ; x
dx
dA
2 100 =

For maximum or minimum value, 0 =
dx
dA

(a) A cuboid with a square base is to be made with 200 cm
3
of thin
metal sheet. Show that the volume, V is given by
3
2
1
50 x x V = ,
where x is the length of the side of the base. Find the maximum
volume of the cuboid.
(b) Find the volume of the largest right circular cone that can be
inscribed in a sphere of radius, r .
EXERCISE 1.11
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
25
50 0 2 100 = = x x ; 2
2
2
=
dx
A d
< 0, for all values of x
That is, A has a maximum value when 50 = x and 50 = y
The field has a maximum area when the length and width are equal to
50 metres.

- Differentiation of a function ) (x f y = with respect to x is defined as:

x
x f x x f
dx
dy
x f
x
o
o
o
) ( ) (
lim ) (
0
'
+
= =

- Differentiation of standard functions

Functions (y)
Derivatives (
dx
dy
)
n
x
1 n
nx
x
e
x
e
x ln
x
1

sin x cos x
cos x -sin x
tan x sec
2
x

(a) A balloon is inflated at a rate of 6 cm
3
s
-1
. Find the rate of increase of
the radius when the radius is 3 cm. Find the rate of increase of the
surface area at this instant.
(b) A cuboid is expanding in such a way that its volume is changing at a
rate of 216 cm
3
s
-1
. Find the rate of change of the edge when the edge
is 3 cm.
EXERCISE 1.12
X TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION

26
- Differentiation of sums and differences
If ), ( ) ( x g x f y = then ) ( ) (
' '
x g x f
dx
dy
=
- Differentiation of products
If ), ( ). ( x g x f y = then ) ( ). ( ) ( ). (
' '
x g x f x f x g
dx
dy
+ =
- Differentiation of quotients
If
) (
) (
x g
x f
y = , then
2
' '
)] ( [
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
x g
x g x f x f x g
dx
dy
=
- Differentiation of composite functions
If ), )( ( x g f y D then ) ( )] ( [
' '
x g x g f
dx
dy

x Parametric differentiation
If ) (t f x and ) (t g y , then

x Gradient of a curve is
dx
dy

x Rate of change
If ) (x f y , then
dt
dx
dx
dy
dt
dy
u
x For maximum point
(a)
dx
dy
changes from positive to negative when moving through the
stationary point;
(b)
2
2
dx
y d
< 0
(c) values of y on either side of the stationary point are smaller.

x For minimum point
(a)
dx
dy
changes from negative to positive when moving through the
stationary point;
(b)
2
2
dx
y d
> 0
(c) values of y on either side of the stationary point are larger.
dx
dt
dt
dy
dx
dy
u
TOPIC 1 DIFFERENTIATION W
27
x For point of inflexion
(a)
dx
dy
has the same sign on either side of the stationary point;
(b)
2
2
dx
y d
= 0
x Equations of tangent and normal
(a) The equation of the tangent is
1 1
x x m y y at the point P
1 1
, y x ,
dx
dy
m
(b) The equation of the normal is
1 1 1
x x m y y at the point P
1 1
, y x ,
where
1
m is the gradient of the normal at P and 1
1
mm

Absolute extremum value
Absolute minimum value
Absolute maximum value
Differentiation
Differentiation of composite functions
Differentiation of implicit functions
Differentiation of parametric equations
Differentiation of products
Differentiation of quotients
Differentiation of sums and differences
Equation of the normal
Equation of the tangent
First principles
Local maximum
Local minimum
Maximum point
Minimum point
Point of inflexion
Rate of change
Second derivative
Stationary point

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Education Asia Pte. Ltd.
Koo Seng Her, Lim Chuan Chai, Lye Min Soon, Ong Beng Sim & Tan Chong Eng.
(2006). Success in STPM Mathematics T. Shah Alam: Penerbit Fajar Bakti
Sdn Bhd.
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28
Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia. (2002). Mathematics S syllabus and specimen papers.
Kuala Lumpur: Percetakan Warni Sdn Bhd.
Tai Pon Hoy. (2007). Longman Pre-U text STPM Mathematics S&T Paper 1.
Petaling Jaya: Pearson Malaysia Sdn Bhd.
Tey Kim Soon & Tan Ah Geok. (2003). STPM Mathematics S & Mathematics
T-paper 1. Johor Bahru: Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn Bhd.