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Table of Contents

1.1. 1.2. 1.2.1. 1.2.2. 1.2.3. 1.3. 1.3.1. 1.3.2. 1.4. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.5. Introduction Introduction to Computer Evolution of Computer Technology Advantages of Computers Types of Computers Basic elements of Computer System Basic Computer Functioning Components of Computer System Generations of Computers and Computer languages Generations of Computers Computer Languages PC Software Packages

1.1. Introduction
Man always searched for a fast calculating device. As Necessity is the mother of invention so humans invented first computer 5000 years ago named Abacus .In early times performing a big calculation was huge problem for scientist and normal peoples. So this reason urged scientists to make a more fast and reliable device which can accept data, process data into useful information and store it for later use. We can simply say modern computers base was calculations.

1.2. Introduction to Computer

It took a long time to invent digital computer. John Napier created logarithm tables to facilitate calculations. He created a device known as Napiers bones which can perform arithmetic calculations. Blaise Pascal created a mechanical adding machine in 1642 but that device could not provide sufficient precision for practical use. Von Leibniz was a German scientist who developed a calculating machine in 1694 which can multiply and divide as well. A French scientist Charles Xavier also developed a machine that could perform addition subtraction, multiplication and division. A French engineer Joseph developed punchboard system for power looms which helped lately in computing devices. In 1822 a mathematician Charles Babbage invented first programmable, mechanical Analytical Engine which was automatic could perform 60 additions per minute. Ada Byron was the first programmer in computer history she wrote a program for analytical engine.

1.2.1. Evolution of Computer Technology:

In 1904 A British scientist John A. Fleming made a vacuum tube which was used in first generation computers. In 1936 a scientist Alan Turing invented a Turing machines. The Atanasoff-Berry Computer was the world's first electronic digital computer. It was built by John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University during 1937- 42. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the MARK series of computers at Harvard University. The first transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories on December 16, 1947 by William Shockley. In 1950 Yoshiro Nakamats invented first floppy disk at the Imperial University in Tokyo.In 1952 Grace Murray Hopper created first computer compiler software. In 1971 Intel designed the world's first universal microprocessor named as 4004. On August 12, 1981, IBM introduced first PC(personal computer) based on intel 8088 microprocessor. Apple introduced the Macintosh to the nation on January 22, 1984. Cern Introduced first time World Wide Web (www) in 1989.

1.2.2 Advantages of Computers:

Compared to traditional systems, computers offer many noteworthy advantages. This is one reason that traditional systems are being replaced rapidly by computer-based Systems. The main advantages offered by computers are as follows: High Accuracy Superior Speed of Operation Large Storage Capacity User-friendly Features Portability Platform independence Economical in the long term

1.2.3 Types of Computers:

Computers are classified in two categories one is digital computer second is analog computer. Analog computer works on analog signal; abacus and slide rule are types of analog computers. There are five major types of digital computers. Super computer is a computer which can performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers. Supercomputer is typically used for scientific and engineering applications. Mainframe computer is second major type of computers. It is

capable to support thousand of users simultaneously with multiple tasks. Minicomputer or server computer is third type of computer it lie between Mainframe computer and desktop (workstation) computer. Minicomputer can support from 4 to 200 users simultaneously. Fourth one is Desktop computer which are also called microcomputers. Low-end desktops are called PCs and high-end known as workstations. Computer is use for web surfing and productivity applications. Workstations are used for more demanding tasks like low-end 3-D simulations and other engineering & scientific apps. Fifth computer type is Portable computers. Portable computers can be easily transported and relocated. Some major types of portable computers are laptops, PDA, Smart phones.

1.3 Basic Elements of Computer System

Basic elements of a computer system inside system unit are Motherboard, Hard disk, CPU, RAM, Power supply, Modem. Outside of system unit computer have Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, Speakers. These all help computer system to take input from user and process it and after processing show results to a user and store this information for further use.

1.3.1 Basic Computer Functioning:

A computer can be defined as an electronic device that accepts data from an input device, processes it, stores it in a disk and finally displays it on an output device such as a monitor. we can understand it by diagram

There are four main building blocks in a computer's functioning input, processor, output and memory. The data is entered through input devices like the keyboard, disks or mouse. Then this data is process by CPU and after processing it is passed to Output device monitor. Mean while that data was in RAM and further then it is process to store for further use in secondary storage.

1.3.2 Components of Computer System:

The motherboard is the main component inside the case. It connects the various parts of the computer as the CPU,RAM, Disk drives (CD, DVD, Hard disk or any others) as well as any other peripherals Connected via the ports or the expansion slots. The central processing unit (CPU) performs most of the calculations. It is installed on motherboard with a heat sink. RAM (Random Access Memory) stores all are running processes (applications) and the Current running OS. The Basic Input Output System (Bios) includes boot firmware and power management. Bios tasks are handled by operating system drivers. A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to low voltage DC power for the internal components of the computer. CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, USB flash drive are type of removable media devices. In secondary storage component hard disk is used to store data.

1.4 Generations of Computers and Computer languages

The development of electronic computers can be divided into generations depending upon the technologies used. Using size and features as the bases, computers are classified into Five generations. They start from 1940s to present.

1.4.1. Generations of Computers:

Computer generations summary by table is below. Name First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Technology Vacuum Tube Transistor Time period 1942-1955 1955-1964 Advantages Hundred instructions per seconds. thousands of instructions per second. Millions of Instructions per second Thousands of ICs per circuit. Billions of instructions per second Disadvantages Costly, Big size, Faulty. Costly, Large Size, specific purpose. Heat issue. Costly for single person. Not Easy to manufacture. Not possible 100%.

Integrated Circuits(IC) Large Scale Integrated Circuits(LSI-VLSI) Artificial Intelligence

1964-1975 1975-Present Present and Beyond

1.4.2 Computer Languages:

The programming languages are classified as Low-level language and High-level language. Low-level language is further classified as Machine language (0, 1) and Assembly language. Low level language directly communicates with computer and not a human language. High level language is easy for humans but it is translated by compiler or assembler to computer. Examples of High level language are BASIC, FORTRAN, and COBOLC. C++, etc.

1.5 PC Software Packages

Computer has two types of software system software and application software. System software is design for computer hardware and it provides environment in which a user can use application software. Bios and operating systems are main types of system software. Application software is specific purpose software. There are four major types of pc software packages classified as Word Processing. Spread sheet, Presentation and Graphic Software. MS-word is word processing software. It is used for creating documents. Drafts, letters, reports, essays, write-ups etc. MS-excel is example of spread sheet software. It is used for financial information because a lot of mathematical formulas can be deployed in it. MS-PowerPoint is type of presentation software package. It is use to create presentation for education and business purposes. Adobe Photoshop and 3D Studio Max are graphic software. Both of them used to design and create graphic purpose solutions.