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Solutions Manual: Ch26-Safety-s

Review Questions
26.1 What is the difference between occupational safety and occupation health? Answer: Occupational safety is concerned with the avoidance of industrial accidents and in particular those that cause injury or fatality. Accidents are one-time events. Occupational health is concerned with avoiding diseases and disorders that are induced by exposures to materials or conditions in the workplace. The effects of the exposure are cumulative; they may take several years to develop. 26.2 What is an industrial accident? Answer: As defined in the text, an industrial accident is an unexpected and unintentional event that disrupts the work procedures and has the potential to cause damage to property and injury or death to workers. To be classified as an accident, the event does not have to actually cause damage, injury, or death; it only has to have the potential for these consequences. 26.3 What are some of the industries in which the frequency of fatal injuries is high? Name two. Answer: The industries with the highest frequency of fatal injuries are mining, agriculture, construction and transportation. 26.4 What are some of the industries in which the frequency of nonfatal injuries is high? Name two. Answer: The industries with the highest frequency of nonfatal injuries are construction, manufacturing, agriculture, and transportation. 26.5 What are some of the most important causes of fatal and nonfatal injuries? Name three. Answer: The most important causes of fatal and nonfatal injuries, as identified in the text, are transportation incidents, overexertion, assaults and violent acts, contacts with objects and equipment, and falls. 26.6 What are the three factors that are commonly identified as reasons why industrial accidents occur? Answer: As identified in the text, the three factors are (1) human errors, (2) job factors, and (3) environmental conditions. 26.7 What are the two basic categories of human error? Briefly define each category. Answer: The two categories and their definitions are (1) errors of omission, when a worker fails to take some action that is called for, and (2) errors of commission, when a worker takes an action that is incorrect. 26.8 Electrical shock is included in the category of job factors involving equipment problems. What is electric shock? Answer: An electrical shock is the discharge of electricity through the body that causes a sudden stimulation of the nerves and possible convulsive contraction of the muscles. 26.9 What are the three categories of materials that cause safety or health hazards to humans?
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Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Solutions Manual: Ch26-Safety-s


Answer: The three categories are (1) corrosive materials, which are substances that can burn or damage human tissue, (2) toxic or irritant materials, which are poisons that disrupt the normal body processes, and (3) flammable materials, which present hazards of fire or explosion. 26.10 What is the difference between single-incident traumas and cumulative trauma disorders? Answer: Single-incident traumas are one-time events that cause injuries and fatalities. Cumulative trauma disorders are injuries or health problems that result from a cumulative condition that may take years before their effects are evident. Also known as repetitivemotion disorders, they are caused by repeated use of certain tendons and nerves, such as those in the fingers, wrist, forearm, upper arm, and shoulder. 26.11 What are the general objectives of workers compensation laws? Answer: As stated in the text, the general objectives are (1) to provide prompt and reasonable income and medical benefits to work accident victims or income benefits to their families (in the case of the victims death), (2) to reduce court workloads, costs, and delays from personal-injury lawsuits, (3) to eliminate fees to lawyers in these lawsuit cases, and (4) to encourage employer interest in occupational safety and health. 26.12 What are the three conditions that must be satisfied for a worker to receive benefits under workers compensation? Answer: The three conditions are (1) the injury must have been caused through an industrial accident, (2) it must have arisen from the workers employment, and (3) it must have occurred during the course of that employment. 26.13 What are the responsibilities of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)? Answer: As listed in the text, the responsibilities of OSHA are the following: (1) implement safety and health programs, (2) establish mandatory occupational safety and health standards, (3) enforce the standards in industry by conducting inspections and assessing penalties for violations, (4) define responsibilities and rights for employers and employees to promote better safety and health conditions, (5) maintain a reporting system and database of occupational injuries and illnesses, and (6) work with the states in the development and support of state occupational safety and health programs. 26.14 What are the responsibilities of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)? Answer: As listed in the text, the three responsibilities of NIOSH are the following: (1) conduct research to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses, (2) promote safe and healthful workplaces, through standards, recommendations, and interventions, and (3) improve global workplace safety and health through collaborations in the international community. 26.15 What are the two aspects of work-related injuries, illnesses, and fatalities that are emphasized in OSHA statistical records?
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Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Solutions Manual: Ch26-Safety-s


Answer: The two aspects of work-related injuries, illnesses, and fatalities that are emphasized in OSHA statistical records are: (1) incidence rates, which measure how many incidents of a certain kind occurred during a given period, and (2) severity rates, which measure the seriousness of the injury or illness.

Problems
26.1 The following injury data have been compiled during the most recent year for a construction contracting company: 137 workers worked an average of 2,354 hours (job exposure hours); 22 injury cases occurred; no fatalities; of the 22 injuries, 12 were cases in which lost workdays occurred; a total of 129 workdays were lost. For these injuries, determine (a) incidence rate, (b) severity rate, (c) average severity, and (d) average days away from work. (e) How does this companys incidence rate compare with the rest of the construction industry, as listed in Table 26.1? Solution: (a) Hje = 137(2,354) = 332,498 hr of job exposure IR = 200,000(22)/322,498 = 13.6 injuries per 100 workers (b) SR = 200,000(129)/322,498 = 80 lost work days per 100 workers (c) AS = 129/22 = 5.86 lost work days per recordable case (d) ADAW = 129/12 = 10.75 lost work days per case in which lost work days occurred. (e) The incidence rate of 13.6 injuries per 100 workers is nearly twice the construction industry average, but the fatal injuries (no fatalities) is better than the industry average of 12.2 fatalities per 100,000 workers. 26.2 A distribution centers injury statistics for the most recent year are as follows: 528 workers worked an average of 1,979 hours (job exposure hours); 42 injury cases occurred; 1 fatality; of the 42 injuries, 18 were cases in which lost workdays occurred; a total of 537 workdays were lost. For these injuries, determine (a) incidence rates for fatal and nonfatal injuries, (b) severity rate for nonfatal injuries, (c) average severity, and (d) average days away from work. (e) How does this distribution centers incidence rates compare with the rest of the wholesale and retail trade industry, as listed in Table 26.1? Solution: (a) Hje = 528(1,979) = 1,044,912 hr of job exposure Nonfatal injuries: IR = 200,000(42)/1,044,912 = 8.0 injuries per 100 workers Fatal injuries: IR = 200,000(1)/1,044,912 = 0.191 deaths per 100 workers = 191 deaths per 100,000 workers (b) SR = 200,000(537)/1,044,912 = 102.8 lost work days per 100 workers (c) AS = 537/42 = 12.8 lost work days per recordable case (d) ADAW = 537/18 = 29.8 lost work days per case in which lost work days occurred. (e) Both the nonfatal injury rate of 8.0 injuries per 100 workers and fatal injury rate of 191 deaths per 100,000 workers are much worse than the industry averages 5.1 injuries per 100 workers and fatal injury rate of 2.4 deaths per 100,000 workers.

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Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Solutions Manual: Ch26-Safety-s


26.3 An automobile final assembly plant has compiled the following statistics on injuries sustained in the plant during the most recent calendar year: 1,892 workers worked an average of 2,160 hours (job exposure hours); 127 injury cases occurred; 1 fatality; of the 127 injuries, 55 were cases in which lost workdays occurred; a total of 173 workdays were lost. For these injuries, determine (a) incidence rates for fatal and nonfatal injuries, (b) severity rate for nonfatal injuries, (c) average severity, and (d) average days away from work. (e) How does this plants incidence rates compare with the rest of the manufacturing industry, as listed in Table 26.1? Solution: (a) Hje = 1892(2160) = 4,086,720 hr of job exposure Nonfatal injuries: IR = 200,000(127)/4,086,720 = 6.2 injuries per 100 workers Fatal injuries: IR = 200,000(1)/4,086,720 = 0.049 deaths per 100 workers = 49 deaths per 100,000 workers (b) SR = 200,000(173)/4,086,720 = 8.5 lost work days per 100 workers (c) AS = 173/127 = 1.36 lost work days per recordable case (d) ADAW = 173/55 = 3.15 lost work days per case in which lost work days occurred. (e) The nonfatal injury rate of 6.2 injuries per 100 workers is slightly better than the manufacturing industry average of 6.4 injuries per 100 workers, but the fatal injury rate of 49 deaths per 100,000 workers is much worse than the industry average of 3.1 deaths per 100,000 workers. 26.4 Based on the statistical data in Table 26.1 for the mining industry, how many fatal and nonfatal injuries can be expected for a mining company that employs 12,628 workers? Solution: The industry average for fatal injuries is 23.5 per 100,000 workers. With 12,628 workers, we can expect 12,628(23.5/100,000) = 2.96 deaths per year at the company. The industry average for nonfatal injuries is 3.8 per 100 workers. With 12,628 workers, we can expect 12,628(3.8/100) = 480 injuries per year at the company.

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Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.