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ARTIFICIAL LIFT TECHNOLOGY

Oil Field Production Phases


The production of crude oil in oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary recovery. During primary recovery, the natural pressure of the reservoir, combined with pumping equipment, brings oil to the surface. Primary recovery is the easiest and cheapest way to extract oil from the ground. But this method of production typically produces only about 10 percent of a reservoir's original oil in place reserve.

Oil Field Production Phases


In the secondary recovery phase, water or gas is injected to displace oil, making it much easier to drive it to a production well bore. This technique generally results in the recovery of 20 to 40 percent of the original oil in place.

Oil Field Production Phases When companies talk about enhanced oil recovery, they're really referring to the tertiary recovery phase. Tertiary recovery involves injecting other gases, such as carbon dioxide, to stimulate the flow of the oil and to produce remaining fluids that were not extracted during primary or secondary recovery phases.

Oil Field Production Phases


These methods are not used routinely because they are expensive. When the price of oil increases, there is greater incentive to use them and thus increase, to some degree, the proven reserves of oil. The amount of oil that is recoverable is determined by a number of factors including the permeability of the rocks, the strength of natural drives (the gas present, pressure from adjacent water or gravity), and the viscosity of the oil.

Producing The Well

Because oil, gas and water in underground are under a lot of pressure at first, these fluids flow up a wellbore all by themselves, much like a soft drink that has been shaken up. When oil and gas are produced this way, it is called primary recovery. Artificial lift is installed in wells that: i) Do not have sufficient reservoir pressure to raise fluids to surface ii) Need to supplement the natural reservoir drive in boosting fluids out of the wellbore.

MODES OF ARTIFICIAL LIFT


Reciprocating Rod Lift Systems Progressing Cavity Pumping Systems Hydraulic Lift Systems Gas Lift Systems Plunger Lift Systems Electric Submersible Pumping Systems

Selection Parameters
Well Completion & profile Geographical & Environmental conditions Reservoir characteristics Reservoir pressure & Well productivity Characteristics of fluids Surface Constraints Services available Economic considerations Operating ease

Gas Lift

ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS


PC Pumps Hydraulic Pumps

Beam pump

ESPs

Artificial-lift in Assam Asset

Reciprocating Rod Lift Systems


Pumping Units Motors & Controls Continuous & Threaded Sucker Rods Rod Pumps &Accessories Pumping Unit Services

Reciprocating Rod Lift System Advantages


High System Efficiency
Sucker Rod Tubing Anchor/ Catcher

Optimization Controls Available Economical to Repair and Service Positive Displacement/Strong

Sucker Rod Pump Assembly

Drawdown Upgraded Materials Reduce Corrosion Concerns Flexibility - Adjust Production Through Stroke Length and Speed High Salvage Value for Surface & Downhole Equipment

Reciprocating Rod Lift System Limitations


Sucker Rod Tubing Anchor/ Catcher

Potential for Tubing and Rod Wear Gas-Oil Ratios

Sucker Rod Pump Assembly

Most Systems Limited to Ability of Rods to Handle Loads


( Volume Decreases As Depth Increases)

Environmental and Aesthetic Concerns

Rod Lift System Application Considerations


Typical Range Operating Depth Operating Volume Operating Temperature
Sucker Rod Tubing Anchor/ Catcher

Maximum*

100 - 11,000 TVD 5 - 1500 BPD 100 - 350 F 0 - 20 Landed Pump

16,000 TVD 5000 BPD 550 F 0 - 90 Landed Pump <15/100 Build Angle

Wellbore Deviation

Sucker Rod Pump Assembly

Corrosion Handling Gas Handling Solids Handling Fluid Gravity Servicing Prime Mover Type
*Special Analysis Required

Good to Excellent w/ Upgraded Materials Fair to Good Fair to Good >8 API Work over or Pulling Rig Gas or Electric Limited 45%-60%

Offshore Application System Efficiency

Progressing Cavity Pumping Systems


Wellhead Surface Drives Continuous & Threaded Sucker Rods Subsurface PC Pumps & Accessories

Vertical Electric Wellhead Drive

Progressing Cavity Pumping System Advantages


Low Capital Cost Low Surface Profile for Visual & Height Sensitive Areas

Casing

Production Tubing Sucker Rod

High System Efficiency Simple Installation, Quiet Operation Pumps Oils and Waters with Solids

Sucker Rod Coupling Tubing Collar Stator Rotor

Low Power Consumption Portable Surface Equipment Low Maintenance Costs Use In Horizontal/Directional Wells

Tubing Collar

Tag Bar Sub

Progressing Cavity Pumping System Limitations


Vertical Electric Wellhead Drive

Limited Depth Capability


Casing

Temperature Sensitivity to Produced Fluids

Production Tubing Sucker Rod

Low Volumetric Efficiencies in High-Gas Environments Potential for Tubing and Rod Coupling Wear Requires Constant Fluid Level above Pump

Sucker Rod Coupling Tubing Collar Stator Rotor

Tubing Collar

Tag Bar Sub

Progressing Cavity System Application Considerations


Typical Range Maximum* Operating Depth
Vertical Electric Wellhead Drive

2,000 --4,500 TVD 5 - 2,200 BPD 75 -150 F N/A

6,000 TVD 4,500 BPD 250 F 0 - 90 Landed Pump <15/100 Build Angle

Operating Volume Operating Temperature Wellbore Deviation

Casing

Production Tubing Sucker Rod

Corrosion Handling Gas Handling Solids Handling

Fair Good Excellent <35 API Workover or Pulling Rig Gas or Electric Good (ES/PCP) 40%-70%

Sucker Rod Coupling Tubing Collar Stator Rotor

Fluid Gravity Servicing Prime Mover Type


*Special Analysis Required

Offshore Application System Efficiency

Tubing Collar

Tag Bar Sub

Gas Lift Systems


Gas Lift Valves Mandrels Latches Kick over Tools Surface Controls Coiled-Tubing Gas Lift Equipment Pack-Off Equipment

Injection Gas In

Gas Lift System Advantages


Produced Hydrocarbons Out

High Degree of Flexibility and Design Rates


Side Pocket Mandrel with Gas Lift Valve Side Pocket Mandrel with Gas Lift Valve

Wireline Retrievable Handles Sandy Conditions Well Allows For Full Bore Tubing Drift Surface Wellhead Equipment Requires Minimal Space

Side Pocket Mandrel with Gas Lift Valve

Multi-Well Production From Single Compressor Multiple or Slim hole Completion

Completion Fluid Single Production Packer

Injection Gas In

Produced Hydrocarbons Out

Gas Lift System Limitations


Needs High-Pressure Gas Well or Compressor

Side Pocket Mandrel with Gas Lift Valve Side Pocket Mandrel with Gas Lift Valve

One Well Leases May Be Uneconomical Fluid Viscosity Bottom hole Pressure High Back-Pressure

Side Pocket Mandrel with Gas Lift Valve

Completion Fluid Single Production Packer

Gas Lift System Application Considerations


Typical Range Operating Depth
Injection Gas In Produced Hydrocarbons Out

Maximum*

5,000 -10,000 TVD 100 - 10,000 BPD 100 - 250 F 0- 50

15,000 TVD 30,000 BPD 400 F 70 Short to Medium Radius

Operating Volume Operating Temperature Wellbore Deviation

Side Pocket Mandrel with Gas Lift Valve Side Pocket Mandrel with Gas Lift Valve

Corrosion Handling Gas Handling


Side Pocket Mandrel with Gas Lift Valve

Good to Excellent with Upgraded Materials Excellent Good Best in >15 API Wireline or Work over Rig Compressor Excellent 10% - 30%

Solids Handling Fluid Gravity Servicing Prime Mover Type


*Special Analysis Required

Single Production Packer

Completion Fluid

Offshore Application System Efficiency

Plunger Lift Systems

Lubricators Plungers Bumper Springs Controllers Accessories

Lubricator Catcher Solar Panel Controller Motor Valve Orifice Control Valves

Plunger Lift System Advantages


Requires No Outside Energy Source Uses Wells Energy to Lift

Dual T Pad Plunger

Dewatering Gas Wells Rig Not Required for Installation Easy Maintenance Keeps Well Cleaned of Paraffin Deposits

Bumper Spring

Low Cost Artificial Lift Method Handles Gassy Wells Good in Deviated Wells Can Produce Well to Depletion

Lubricator Catcher Solar Panel Controller Motor Valve Orifice Control Valves

Plunger Lift System Limitations


Specific GLRs to Drive System Low Volume Potential (200 BPD) Solids

Dual T Pad Plunger

Bumper Spring

Requires Surveillance to Optimize

Plunger Lift System Application Considerations


Typical Range
Lubricator Catcher Solar Panel Controller Motor Valve Orifice Control Valves

Maximum*

Operating Depth Operating Volume Operating Temperature Wellbore Deviation

8,000 TVD 1-5 BPD 120 F N/A

19,000 TVD 200 BPD 500 F 80


Excellent Excellent Poor to Fair

Dual T Pad Plunger

Corrosion Handling Gas Handling


Bumper Spring

Solids Handling GLR Required Servicing Prime Mover Type


*Special Analysis Required

300 SCF/BBL/1000 Depth Wellhead Catcher or Wireline Wells Natural Energy N/A at this time N/A

Offshore Application System Efficiency

Hydraulic Lift Systems


Surface Hydraulic Equipment Jet Pumps

Surface Power Fluid Package

Hydraulic Jet Lift System Advantages


No Moving Parts

Production Casing

High Volume Capability Free Pump


High Pressure Power Fluid

Packer Nose Bottom Hole Assembly

Deviated Wells Multi-Well Production from Single Surface Package Low Pump Maintenance

Piston or Jet Free Pump

Standing Valve

Surface Power Fluid Package

Hydraulic Jet Lift System Limitations


Producing Rate Relative to Bottomhole Pressure Some Require Specific Bottomhole Assemblies

Production Casing

Packer Nose Bottom Hole Assembly

High Pressure Power Fluid

Lower Horsepower Efficiency High-Pressure Surface Line Requirements

Piston or Jet Free Pump

Standing Valve

Hydraulic Jet Lift Application Considerations


Typical Range
Surface Power Fluid Package

Maximum*

Operating Depth Operating Volume Operating Temperature Wellbore Deviation

5,000 - 10,000 TVD 300 - 1,000 BPD 100 - 250 F 0 - 20 Hole Angle

15,000 TVD >15,000 BPD 500 F 0 - 90 Pump Placement <24/100 Build Angle

Production Casing

Packer Nose Bottom Hole Assembly

High Pressure Power Fluid

Corrosion Handling Gas Handling


Piston or Jet Free Pump

Excellent Good Good >8 API Hydraulic or Wireline Multi-Cylinder or Electric Excellent 10%-30%

Solids Handling Fluid Gravity Servicing

Standing Valve

Prime Mover Type


*Special Analysis Required

Offshore Application System Efficiency

Electric Submersible Pumping Systems


Wellhead Equipment Power Cables Pumps & Motors Variable Speed Drives Gas Separators

Motor Control Vent Box

Produced Hydrocarbons Out Production Tubing

Electric Submersible Pumping System Advantages


High Volume and Depth Capability High Efficiency Over 1,000 BPD

Pump

Low Maintenance
Flat Cable Extension Seal Section

Minor Surface Equipment Needs Good in Deviated Wells Adaptable in Casings > 4-1/2 Use for Well Testing
Motor

Motor Control Vent Box

Produced Hydrocarbons Out Production Tubing

Electric Submersible Pumping System Limitations


Available Electric Power Limited Adaptability to Major Changes in Reservoir

Pump

Flat Cable Extension Seal Section

Difficult to Repair In the Field Free Gas and/or Abrasives High Viscosity
Motor

Higher Pulling Costs

Electric Submersible Systems Application Considerations


Typical Range
Motor Control Vent Box Produced Hydrocarbons Out Production Tubing Pump

Maximum*

Operating Depth Operating Volume Operating Temperature Wellbore Deviation

1,000 - 10,000 TVD 200 - 20,000 BPD 100 - 275 F 10

15,000 TVD 30,000 BPD 400 F 0 - 90 Pump Placement <10 Build Angle

Flat Cable Extension Seal Section

Corrosion Handling Gas Handling Solids Handling Fluid Gravity Servicing


Motor
*Special Analysis Required

Good Poor to Fair Poor to Fair >10 API Workover or Pulling Rig Electric Motor Excellent 35%-60%

Prime Mover Type Offshore Application System Efficiency

Wellsite Optimization Equipment


Remote Communication Packages Data Gathering Systems

Lift System Selection How to Approach


Do more than merely offer every type of major lift system. Provide smart solutions for enhanced production. This means systematic evaluations to ensure the final solution is one that provides the highest return on your investment.

Artificial Lift Selection


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Project Scope Elimination Process Systems Analysis Final Selection Follow-Up Analysis

1.

Project Scope

General Field Requirements Data Collection Data Confirmation

1.

Project Scope

Data Collection/Confirmation

Well Information Production & Fluid Information Desired Production Rate System Details

Selection Process
2.
Elimination Process

Easy Eliminations More Detailed Reviews Applicable Systems

2.

Elimination Process

Rod Lift Operating Depth Operating Volume (Typical) Operating Temperature Corrosion Handling Gas Handling Solids Handling Fluid Gravity Servicing Prime Mover Offshore Application Overall System Efficiency 100 16,000 TVD 5 - 5000 BPD 100 550 F Good to Excellent Fair to Good Fair to Good >8 API Work over or Pulling Rig Gas or Electric Limited 45% - 60%

Progressing Cavity 2,000 6,000 TVD 5 - 4,500 BPD 75-250 F Fair Good Excellent <35 API Work over or Pulling Rig Gas or Electric Good 40% - 70%

Gas Lift 5,000 15,000 TVD 200 - 30,000 BPD 100 400 F Good to Excellent Excellent Good >15 API Wireline or Work over Rig Compressor Excellent 10% - 30%

Plunger Lift 8,000 19,000 TVD 1 - 5 BPD 120 500 F Excellent Excellent Poor to Fair
GLR Required 300 SCF/BBL/ 1000 Depth

Hydraulic Piston 7,500 17,000 TVD 50 - 4,000 BPD 100 500 F Good Fair Poor >8 API Hydraulic or Wireline Multicylinder or Electric Good 45% - 55%

Hydraulic Jet 5,000 15,000 TVD 300 - >15,000 BPD 100 500 F Excellent Good Good >8 API Hydraulic or Wireline Multicylinder or Electric Excellent 10% - 30%

Electric Submersible 1,00015,000 TVD 200 - 30,000 BPD 100 400 F Good Poor to Fair Poor to Fair >10 API Workover or Pulling Rig Electric Motor Excellent 35% - 60%

Wellhead Catcher or Wireline

Wells Natural Energy N/A N/A

2.

Elimination Process

Characteristic Rates Gas Production Viscous Fluids Emulsions Solid Handling Wax Mitigation Corrosion Reliability Efficiency Capital Costs Operating Costs

Performance Comparison SRP PCP ESP Poor Fair Good Fair Poor Poor Good Excellent Fair Good Excellent Fair Fair Fair Poor Fair Fair Fair Good Good Fair Excellent Good Varies Good Good Fair Moderate Low Moderate Low Low High

Gas Lift Excellent Excellent Fair Fair Excellent Good Good Excellent Poor Moderate Low

Jet Good Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Good Poor Moderate Moderate

2.

Elimination Process

SPE 59026

2.

Elimination Process

35,000

Barrels per Day

30,000

ESP
25,000

Gas Lift

High Volume
Hydraulic Jet Pumps, Electric Submersible Pumping and Gas Lift

20,000

15,000

Hydraulic Jet Pump


10,000

5,000

10,000

4,000

6,000

8,000

3,000

5,000

7,000

9,000

11,000

14,000

15,000

12,000

13,000

Lift Depth

16,000

1,000

2,000

2.

Elimination Process

Lower Volume
Reciprocating Hydraulic Pumps, PC Pumps, Rod Pumps & Plunger Lift

Barrels per Day

4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000

Recip. Hydraulic
1,500

Recip. Rod Pump


1,000

PC Pumps
500

Plunger Lift
14,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 15,000 16,000 2,000 1,000 3,000 5,000 7,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 9,000

Lift Depth

Selection Process
3.
Systems Analysis

Type Lift
Reciprocating Rod Lift PCP Gas Lift Hydraulic ESP

Programs
Rod Star, NABLA, API Rod, Tamer C-Fer
PROSPER, PIPESIM,GLIDE

Jet 4.1, Super H & Pump Eval SubPUMP,PROPSER

4.

Final Selection

Selection Process

Proposal for Viable Forms of Lift Economic Evaluation Model - Capital Expenditure - Operating Expenses - Comprehensive Analysis What Equipment is Available?

4.

Final Selection

CAPEX / OPEX SUMMARY*


Cost Category CAPEX Installation Cost Energy Cost Per Month Failure Frequency Equipment Repair $/Failure Well Service Cost $/Failure OPEX Annual Total $ Rod Lift PCP Gas Lift Plunger Lift Hydr. Piston Hydr. Jet ESP

5.

Follow-Up Analysis

Did System Meet Expectations?

Continuous Process of Evaluation and Follow-Up on Failure Rates, Confirm Costs, etc.