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ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

Meaning of E-commerce E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-business, are often used interchangeably. For online retail selling, the term etailing is sometimes used. ecommerce, e-commerce, or electronic commerce is the conduct of a financial transactions by electronic means. With the huge success of commerce on the Internet, ecommerce usually refers to shopping at online stores on the World Wide Web, also known as ecommerce Web sites. Examples of E-commerce accepting credit cards for commercial online sales. generating online advertising revenue. trading stock in an online brokerage account. driving information through a company via its intranet. driving manufacturing and distribution through a value chain with partners on an extranet. selling to consumers on a pay-per-download basis, through a Web site. Characteristics of E-commerce: Ease of automated processing. Immediacy of result.

Openness and accessibility of payment processes. Loss of collateral information; Globalization. Emergence of new business models.

Scope of E-commerce

The scope of e-commerce is to transact online. Transaction through online can be either on products or services. Most of us are aware of buying products online through some sites like e-bay or amazon.com. Almost everything from gym equipment to laptops, from apparels to jewelries, are purchased online in this age of e-commerce. There is enough freedom offered to them to go online, look for a product, and compare a few more of different models, along with their prices. The bonus is that the customer can also go to other online product review sites, and discussion forums.

E-commerce, has made it possible for the customers to avoid standing in the queue as to make payments for their bills, or booked tickets of flights and also hotel reservations. They can now do that all with just a click of a mouse, saving both the time and money. E-commerce has enchanted not only the customers but also the businessmen, who can now make their products or services available to their potential customers, who might be at any part of the world. Comparison between Traditional Commerce & E-commerce Direct interaction is present in traditional commerce. products E-commerce proves to be feasible for the standard products, low-value products , intangible and digital products. In traditional commerce customer can verify the identity of the seller and their physical location, whereas in e-commerce customers feel insecure because they cannot identify the seller and are unaware about many things. Traditional commerce is the best when it comes to convincing the customers on certain products. E-commerce uses e-cash, credit cards , debit cards and etc,.

E-commerce is developing a highway system called the information super highway as we have the interstate highway system for traditional e-commerce. Action Traditional commerce

E-commerce

Acquire product information

Magazines, flyers, online catalogs

Web pages

Request item

Printed forms, letters

E-mail

Check product availability and confirm price

Phone, fax

E-mail

Generate order

Printed form

E-mail, web

Send /Receive Order

Fax, mail

E-mail

Check inventory at warehouse

Phone , fax

On-line datab

Confirm receipt

Printed form

E-mail

Schedule payment

Printed form

On-line datab

ADVANTAGES Of E-Commerce Flexible, Lower Cost, Economy. Higher Margins,. Better Customer Service. ,Quick Comparison Shopping., Productivity Gains., Information Sharing, Convenience, And Control. Knowledge Market, Customers can easily select products from different providers without moving around physically,No need of physical company set-ups. Disadvantages Less Secure. Ecommerce Is Not Free. Customer Relations Problems.

Any one, good or bad, can easily start a business. And there are many bad sites which eat up customers money. Mechanical failures can cause unpredictable effects on the total processes. As there is minimum chance of direct customer to company interactions, customer loyalty is always on a check. ISSUES RELATED TO E-COMMERCE Most ecommerce merchants leave the mechanics to their hosting company or IT staff, but it helps to understand the basic principles. Any system has to meet four requirements: 1. privacy: information must be kept from unauthorized parties. 2. integrity: message must not be altered or tampered with. 3. authentication: sender and recipient must prove their identities to each other. 4. non-repudiation: proof is needed that the message was indeed received. 5. Cyber Security 6. Legal Framework 7. Taxation. 8. Processing Capabilities. 9. Copyright Introduction to Computers What Is A Computer A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions (software) stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate data (process), and produce information (output) from the processing. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system What Does A Computer Do Computers can perform four general operations, which comprise the information processing cycle. Input, Process, Output, Storage Data and Information

All computer processing requires data, which is a collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as numbers, words, images, video and sound, given to the computer during the input phase. Computers manipulate data to create information. Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. During the output Phase, the information that has been created is put into some form, such as a printed report. The information can also be put in computer storage for future use. Why Is A Computer So Powerful? The ability to perform the information processing cycle with amazing speed. Reliability (low failure rate). Accuracy. Ability to store huge amounts of data and information. Ability to communicate with other computers How Does a Computer Know what to do? It must be given a detailed list of instructions, called a compute program or software, that tells it exactly what to do. Before processing a specific job, the computer program corresponding to that job must be stored in memory. Once the program is stored in memory the compute can start the operation by executing the program instructions one after the other. What Are The Primary Components Of A Computer ? Input devices. Central Processing Unit (containing the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit). Memory. Output devices. Storage devices. Input Devices; Keyboard.,Mouse

The Keyboard The most commonly used input device is the keyboard on which data is entered by manually keying in or typing certain keys. A keyboard typically has 101 or 105 keys. The Mouse Is a pointing device which is used to control the movement of a mouse pointer on the screen to make selections from the screen. A mouse has one to five buttons. The bottom of the mouse is flat and contains a mechanism that detects movement of the mouse. THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT The central processing unit (CPU) contains electronic circuits that cause processing to occur. The CPU interprets instructions to the computer, performs the logical and arithmetic processing operations, and causes the input and output operations to occur. It is considered the brain of the computer. Memory Memory also called Random Access Memory or RAM (temporary memory) is the main memory of the computer. It consists of electronic components that store data including numbers, letters of the alphabet, graphics and sound. Any information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off. Read Only Memory or ROM is memory that is etched on a chip that has start-up directions for your computer. It is permanent memory. Amount Of RAM In Computers The amount of memory in computers is typically measured in kilobytes or megabytes. One kilobyte (K or KB) equals approximately 1,000 memory locations and one megabyte (M or MB) equals approximately one million locations A memory location, or byte, usually stores one character. Therefore, a computer with 8 MB of memory can store approximately 8 million characters. One megabyte can hold approximately 500 pages of text information. Output Devices Output devices make the information resulting from the processing available for use. The two output devices more commonly used are the printer and the computer screen. The printer produces a hard copy of your output, and the computer screen produces a soft copy of your output.

Storage Devices Auxiliary storage devices are used to store data when they are not being used in memory. The most common types of auxiliary storage used on personal computers are floppy disks, hard disks and CD-ROM drives Floppy Disks A floppy disk is a portable, inexpensive storage medium that consists of a thin, circular, flexible plastic disk with a magnetic coating enclosed in a square-shaped plastic shell. Structure Of Floppy Disks Initially Floppy disks were 8-inches wide, they then shrank to 5.25 inches, and today the most widely used folly disks are 3.5 inches wide and can typically store 1.44 megabytes of data. A folly disk is a magnetic disk, which means that it used magnetic patterns to store data. Data in floppy disks can be read from and written to. Formatting is the process of preparing a disk for reading and writing. A track is a narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of the disk. The disks storage locations are divided into pie-shaped sections called sectors. A sectors is capable of holding 512 bytes of data. A typical floppy stores data on both sides and has 80 tracks on each side with 18 sectors per track. Hard Disks Another form of auxiliary storage is a hard disk. A hard disk consists of one or more rigid metal plates coated with a metal oxide material that allows data to be magnetically recorded on the surface of the platters. The hard disk platters spin at a high rate of speed, typically 5400 to 7200 revolutions per minute (RPM). Storage capacites of hard disks for personal computers range from 10 GB to 120 GB (one billion bytes are called a gigabyte). Compact Discs

A compact disk (CD), also called an optical disc, is a flat round, portable storage medium that is usually 4.75 inch in diameter. A CD-ROM (read only memory), is a compact disc that used the same laser technology as audio CDs for recording music. In addition it can contain other types of data such as text, graphics, and video. The capacity of a CD-ROM is 650 MB of data. Computer Software Computer software is the key to productive use of computers. Software can be categorized into two types: Operating system software Application software.

Operating System Software Operating system software tells the computer how to perform the functions of loading, storing and executing an application and how to transfer data. Today, many computers use an operating system that has a graphical user interface (GUI) that provides visual clues such as icon symbols to help the user. Microsoft Windows 98 is a widely used graphical operating system. DOS (Disk Operating System) is an older but still widely used operating system that is text-based Application Software Application Software consists of programs that tell a computer how to produce information. Some of the more commonly used packages are: Word processing Electronic spreadsheet Database Presentation graphics

Word Processing Word Processing software is used to create and print documents. A key advantage of word processing software is that users easily can make changes in documents Electronic Spreadsheets

Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add, subtract, and perform userdefined calculations on rows and columns of numbers. These numbers can be changed and the spreadsheet quickly recalculates the new results. Database Software Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and reporting capabilities Presentation Graphics Presentation graphic software allows the user to create documents called slides to be used in making the presentations. Using special projection devices, the slides display as they appear on the computer screen. Computer Definition computer is a programmable machine. This means it can execute a programmed list of instructions and respond to new instructions that it is given. Today, however, the term is most often used to refer to the desktop and laptop computers that most people use. When referring to a desktop model, the term "computer" technically only refers to the computer itself -- not the monitor, keyboard, and mouse. A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digitalized data) and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. Complex computers also include the means for storing data for some necessary duration. A program may be invariable and built into the computer or different programs may be provided to the computer. Components of computer system

Input Unit: Data and Instructions must enter the computer system before any computation can be performed on the supplied data. This task is performed by the input unit that links the external environment with the computer system. Data and instructions enter input units in forms that depends upon the particular device used. The following functions are performed by the output unit: It accepts the list of instructions and data from the outside world. It convert these instructions and data in computer acceptable form. It supplies the converted instructions and data to the computer system for further prOutput Unit: The job of an output unit is just the reverse of Input Unit It supplies information and results of computation on the outside world. The following functions are performed by the output unit: It accepts the results produced by the computer which are in coded form and hence cannot be easily understood by us. It convert this coded results to human acceptable form. It supplies the converted results to the outside world.

Storage Unit: The data and instructions that are entered into the computer system through input units have to be stored inside the computer system before the actual processing starts. Similarly, the results produced by the computer after processing must also be kept somewhere inside the computer system before being passed onto the outputs units. The following functions are performed by the output unit: All the data to be processed and the instructions required for processing. Intermediate results of processing. Final results of processing before these results are released to an output device. Central Processing unit: The Control Unit and the Arithmetic Logic unit of a computer system are jointly known as the CPU. The CPU is the brain of any computer system. In a human body, all major decisions are taken by the brain and the other parts of the body function as directed by the brain. Similarly, in a computer system, all major calculations and comparisons are made inside the CPU and the CPU is also responsible for activating and controlling the operations of other units of a computer system. Memory and memory hierarchy Primary memory Types of Primary Memories: 1. RAM (Random Access Memory) 2. ROM (Read Only Memory) PROM(Programmable Read Only Memory) EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) Cache Memory Secondary memory Types of Secondary Memories: 1. Magnetic Tape

2. Magnetic Disk 3. Floppy Disk 4. Magnetic Drum 5. Hard Disk Drive CD Drive Characteristics of computer system Speed Accuracy Reliability Storage Capacity Provides a Capability that would otherwise be Impossible Intangible Benefits Reduced Cost A computer system has two basic parts: Hardware Software The equipment associated with a computer system is the hardware. Computer hardware is responsible for performing four basic functions: input, processing, output, and storage. Hardware Input Devices: It accept data in a form that the computer can utilize. Also, the input devices send the data or instructions to the processing unit to be processed into useful information. There are many examples of input devices, but the most commonly used input devices are shown below: Keyboard Mouse Speakers Scanners

OMR (Optical Mark Reader) OCR (Optical Character Reader) BCR (Bar Code Reader) MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader) Output Devices: he last component of a computer system is the output device. An output device displays the processed information to the user. The two most popular forms of output devices are the printer and the monitor. The monitor produces output that is temporarythe output is lost when it is rewritten or erased or when power is lost. Monitor output is called softcopy. The printer displays output in a permanent manner; it is called hardcopy. the most commonly used input devices are shown below: Monitor Printer Impact Printers Non Impact Printers Impact Printers Dot Matrix Printers Daisy Wheel Printers Line Printer Drum Printer Chain Printer Non Impact Printers Inkjet Printers Laser Printer Software As important as hardware devices may be, they are useless without the instructions that control them. These instructions used to control hardware and accomplish tasks are called software. Software falls into two broad categories:

Application Software: It allows you to perform a particular task or solve a specific problem. A word processor is the most widely used example of applications software; it can be used to create a letter or memo or anything else you need to type. Other examples include games, spreadsheets, tax preparation programs, typing tutor, etc. Applications software can be purchased in stores and is called packaged or commercial software. In other words, it is prewritten. However, there may be situations that require a specific type of software that is not available. The most important applications software categories included in office suites are described in the table below

Word Processor

Provides the tools for entering and revising text, adding graphical elements, formatting and printing documents. Provides the tools for working with numbers and allows you to create and edit electronic spreadsheets in managing and analyzing information. Provides the tools for management of a collection of interrelated facts. Data can be stored, updated, manipulated, retrieved, and reported in a variety of ways. Provides the tools for creating graphics that represent data in a visual, easily understood format.

Spreadsheets

Database Management

Presentation Graphics

Communication Software

Provides the tools for connecting one computer with another to enable sending and receiving information and sharing files and resources.

Languages Types of Languages: Machine language High Level Language Assembly Language Translators There are three types of Translators: Compiler: It converts High Level language to machine Language (Whole Program at a time) Interpreter: It converts High Level language to machine Language (one line of a Program at a time) Assembler: It converts Assembly language program to machine Language. Operating System Operating system as the programs that make the hardware useable. In brief, an operating system is the set of programs that controls a computer. Operating Systems software is the set of programs that lies between applications software and the hardware devices. Operating Systems are resource managers. The main resource is Think of the cross section of an onion. The inner core of the onion represents the hardware devices, and the applications software represents the outside layer. The middle layer is the operating systems software. The instructions must be passed from the outer layer through the middle layer before the reaching the inner layer. Unit 2 Introduction to MS- Windows

Microsoft Word is a word processing program which allows you to create text files. Word calls those files documents. You can use it to type letters, reports, and other documents Parts of the word screen Title Bar Standard Toolbar and Formatting Toolbar Ruler Text Area Horizontal and Vertical Scroll Bar Status Bar . Title Bar The Title bar displays the title of the document on which you are currently working. Word names the first new document you open Document1. As you open additional new documents, Word names them sequentially. When you save your document, you assign the document a new name. Tool Bars: Standard and formatting A quick and easy way to do many of the things found on the menus is to use the buttons on the Standard toolbar or the Formatting toolbar. If you are not sure what a button will do, simply point to it, allow the pointer to rest there a few seconds and a screen tip will open identifying the function

4. Ruler: The ruler is found below the Ribbon.

Text Area: Just below the ruler is a large area called the text area. You type your document in the text area. The blinking vertical line in the upper-left corner of the text area is the cursor. It marks the insertion point. As you type, your text displays at the cursor location. The horizontal line next to the cursor marks the end of the document. Horizontal and Vertical Scroll Bar: The vertical and horizontal scroll bars enable you to move up, down, and across your window simply by dragging the icon located on the scroll bar. The vertical scroll bar is located along the right side of the screen. The horizontal scroll bar is located

just above the status bar. To move up and down your document, click and drag the vertical scroll bar up and down. To move back and forth across your document, click and drag the horizontal scroll bar back and forth. Cut, Copy and Paste Word Provides the cut, copy and paste commands to manipulate text within a document. Copying text allows you to keep the text in its original location and then paste a copy of the text in a new location. Text that you cut is removed from its original location, and can then be pasted in a new location. To Copy & Paste Text: Select the text by highlighting the text you wish to copy. Click Copy on the Edit menu or the Copy button on the Standard toolbar. A copy of the text is placed on the clipboard, leaving the original untouched. Place the insertion point in the new destination and click Paste on the Edit menu, or the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. The text you have highlighted will appear at the new destination. To Cut and Paste Text Select the text you wish to cut by highlighting the text. Click Cut on the Edit menu or the Cut button on the Standard toolbar. The text will be removed from its original location and placed on the clipboard. Place the insertion point at the new destination, and click Paste on the Edit menu or the Paste button on the Standard toolbar. The text will be placed at the new destination. Undo and Redo If you make a mistake, dont panic! Word has an Undo/Redo feature on the standard toolbar. The left arrow is Undo. The right arrow is Redo. Clicking on Undo displays a list of the most recent actions you can undo. Click the action you want to undo. If you don't see the action, scroll through the list. But, when you undo an action, you also undo all actions above it on the list. If you decide you didn't want to undo an action after all, click Redo

Spell and Grammar check The squiggly lines you see above indicate that Word views these terms as either spelling or grammar errors. This does not always means that the flagged items are incorrect. It may not recognize foreign languages or certain terms. You can run the spell/grammar check by clicking on the standard toolbar If the item is not an error you can choose to Ignore the alternatives offered in the Suggestions box and even Add the item to the Word dictionary so it will recognize it in the future. If the item is incorrect you may click on the correct suggestion and then on the Change button. Ignore Rule Next Sentence Ignore this rule throughout the document. Check the next sentence. Include this word in the program's dictionary.

Add to Dictionary Change

Use the suggested word in the Suggestions pane. Use the suggested word to change all instances of this word. Use the first suggested word each time you click AutoCorrect

Change All AutoCorrect

Saving a Document You must save your files if you wish to recall them later. Before you can save, you must give your file a name. To save your file and close Word, follow the instructions given here: Choose File > Save As from the menu. Specify the correct folder in the Look In box. Name your file by typing in the File Name box. Click Save button to save your file. Opening a File To continue working on a file you previously saved, you must open the file. To open the file 1. Choose File > Open from the menu. 2. Make sure the folder you noted during the previous lesson displays in the Look In field. 3. The file is named "lesson3.doc." Type lesson3.doc in the File Name field.

4. Click Open. The file you created during the previous lesson appears. Print Preview Before you print the document you may want to see how it will actually appear on the printed page. Click the Print Preview button on the Standard toolbar. This will show basically how your margins look and how the text is positioned on the page. If you would like to examine a page more closely you can zoom in on a page simply by clicking on it. Click again and you zoom back out. Often when you first open Print Preview only a single page is displayed although there are more pages to your document. The Multiple Pages button on the Standard toolbar will display all pages. How to use this feature is explained in the example below Print a Document The Print dialog box that opens when you click on Print from the File menu allows you to choose options such as the printer, which pages are printed and the number of copies. It also allows you to decide whether or not to collate your pages. 1. Click on drop down arrow to choose a different printer. 2. Use arrow buttons to set number of copies or just type in the number. 3. Click check box to have pages collated. 4. Once all of your choices are set click OK. Find and Replace If you need to find a particular word or piece of text, you can use the Find command. If you want to search the entire document, simply execute the Find command. If you want to limit your search to a selected area, highlight that area and then execute the Find command. After you have found the word or piece of text you are searching for, you can replace it with new text by executing the Replace command. Steps to Find: Type the following: Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School.

Highlight: "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School." Choose Edit > Find from the menu. Type east in the Find What field. Click Find Next. Note that the "East" in Easton is highlighted. Click Find Next. Note that "east" is highlighted. Click Find Next. Note that the "East" in Eastern is highlighted. Click Find Next. The following message should appear: "Word has finished searching the selection. Do you want to search the remainder of the document?" Click No. Click Cancel. Steps to Replace Highlight "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter attends Eastern High School." Choose Edit > Replace from the menu. Type "east" in the Find What box. Click Find Next. Do not replace the "East" in "Easton." Click Find Next. In the Replace With box, type west. Click Replace. Word replaces east with west. The "East" in Eastern is highlighted. Click Replace. Eastern becomes Western. The following message will appear: "Word has finished searching the selection. Do you want to search the remainder of the document?" Click No.

Click Close. Your text should now read, "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the west side of town. Her daughter attends Western High School Font In Microsoft Word, you can change the font (the "family" of type you use for your text). This feature is illustrated in the following exercise: Type the following: Arial Courier Times New Roman Highlight "Arial." Choose Format > Font from the menu. Choose the Font tab. In the box below the Font field, click "Arial." Click OK. Highlight "Courier." Choose Format > Font from the menu. Choose the Font tab. In the box below the Font field, click "Courier New." Click OK. Highlight "Times New Roman." Choose Format > Font from the menu. Choose the Font tab. In the box below the Font field, click "Times New Roman." Click OK. Your text should now look similar to the following: "Arial Courier Times New Roman" Tab

The default tab setting for Microsoft Word is .5 inches. When you press the Tab key, the cursor moves 1/2 inch across the page and an arrow appears on the screen. The arrow is a nonprinting character, when you print your document the arrow does not print. To change the default tab setting: Choose Format > Tabs from the menu. The Tabs dialog box opens. Enter 1" in the Default Tab Stops field. Click OK. Press the Tab key a few times. Note how the cursor moves across the page. The cursor stops at every inch.
You can also set up custom tab stops. To set your tab stops to 1.5", 3.5", and 6":

Choose Format > Tabs from the menu. The Tabs dialog box opens. Enter 1.5" in the Tab Stop Position field. Click Set. Enter 3.5 in the Tab Stop Position field. Click Set. Enter 6 in the Tab Stop Position field. Click OK. Press the Tab key a few times. Note how the cursor moves across Bullet and Numbering In Microsoft Word, you can easily create bulleted or numbered lists of items. Several bulleting and numbering styles are available. To Insert a Bullet Type the following as shown. Apple Orange Grape Mango Cherry Highlight the words you just typed. Choose Format > Bullets and Numbering from the menu. Choose the Numbered tab. Several styles are available to you. Click the style you want to use.

Click OK. Your list is now numbered. To remove a Bullet: To remove the numbering: Highlight the list again. Choose Format > Bullets and Numbering from the menu. Click None. Click OK. Your list is no longer numbered. To insert Bulleting Highlight the list you typed. Choose Format > Bullets and Numbering from the menu. Choose the Bulleted tab. Several styles are available to you. Click the style you want to use. Click OK. Your list is now bulleted. To remove bulleting: Highlight the list again. Choose Format > Bullets and Numbering from the menu. Click None. Click OK. Your list is no longer bulleted. Highlight the list you typed. Choose Format > Bullets and Numbering from the menu. Choose the Bulleted tab. Several styles are available to you. Click the style you want to use. Click OK. Your list is now bulleted. To remove bulleting: Highlight the list again.

Choose Format > Bullets and Numbering from the menu. Click None. Click OK. Your list is no longer bulleted. Tables in MS-Word Creating a Table To create a four-column, five-row table: Choose Table > Insert > Table from the menu. The Insert Table dialog box opens. Type 4 in the Number of Columns field. Type 5 in the Number of Rows field. Select Auto in the Column Width field. Selecting Auto allows Microsoft Word to determine the size of your column widths. Alternatively, you can enter the column width you desire. Click OK. Your table should look like the one shown here, with four columns and five rows. Different Views Normal View Normal view is the most often used and shows formatting such as line spacing, font, point size, and italics. Word displays multiple-column text in one continuous column. Web Layout Web layout view enables you to view your document as it would appear in a browser such as Internet Explorer. Print Layout The Print Layout view shows the document as it will look when it is printed Reading Layout Reading Layout view formats your screen to make reading your document more comfortable. Outline view Outline view displays the document in outline form. Headings can be displayed without the text. If you move a heading, the accompanying text moves with it Text Attributes Bold, Underline, and Italicize

You can bold, underline, or italicize when using Word. You also can combine these features -- in other words, you can bold, underline, and italicize a single piece of text. In the exercise that follows, you will learn three different methods for bolding, italicizing, or underlining when using Word. You will learn to bold, italicize, or underline by using the menu, an icon, or the keys. Bold On the line that begins with Menu, highlight the word Bold. To do so, place the cursor before the letter "B" in "Bold." Press the F8 key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. Choose Format > Font from the menu. The Font Dialog box opens. Click Bold in the Font Style box. Note: You can see the effect of your selection in the Preview window. To turn off the bold, click Regular. Click OK to close the dialog box. Click anywhere in the text area to remove the highlighting. You have bolded the word bold. Underline On the line that begins with "Menu," highlight the words "Underline these words." Choose Format > Font from the menu. In the Underline Style box, click to open the pull-down menu. Click the type of underline you wish to use. Note: To remove an underline, you select None from the pull-down menu. Click OK to close the dialog box. Click anywhere in the Text area to remove the highlighting. Italicize On the line that begins with "Menu," highlight the word "Italicize." To do so, place the cursor before the letter "I" in "Italicize." Press the F8 key; then press the right arrow key until the entire word is highlighted. Choose Format > Font from the menu.

Click Italic in the Font Style box. Note: You can see the effect of your selection in the Preview window. To turn off the italics, click Regular. Paragraph Space Before and Space After Space Before sets the amount of space before the paragraph. Space After sets the amount of space after the paragraph. Following are the sample paragraphs with Space After set to 12 pt. The exercises that follow give you a chance to see how Space Before and Space After work. Space Before Highlight the title of the sample text: "Sample Paragraphs." Choose Format > Paragraph from the menu. Choose the Indents and Spacing tab. Enter 18 pt in the Before field. Click OK. You now have 18 points before "Sample Paragraph." Space After Highlight all of the text you typed (the title and both paragraphs): Choose Format > Paragraph from the menu. Choose the Indents and Spacing tab. Enter 12 pt in the After field. Click OK. You now have 12 points after each paragraph. Line Spacing Line Spacing sets the amount of space between lines within a paragraph. Single spacing is the default. The spacing for each line is set to accommodate the largest font on that line. If there are smaller fonts on the line, there will appear to be extra space between lines where the smaller fonts are located. At 1.5 lines, the Line Spacing is set to one-anda-half times the single-space amount. For double-spaced lines, the line spacing is set to two times the single-space amount. Indentation

Indentation allows you to indent your paragraph from the left or right margin. The following examples show different types of indentation. Alignment Microsoft Word gives you a choice of several types of alignment. Left-justified text is aligned on the left side. It is the default setting. Right-justified text is aligned on the Right side. There are four type of alignment for a paragraph and they are: Right Alignment Left Alignment Center Alignment Justified Thesaurus The Microsoft Word Thesaurus makes it possible to look up synonyms and antonyms to words as you type with a few clicks of your mouse. Once you learn to use the thesaurus, you'll be able to automatically replace words as you type to improve your writing. Steps to use Thesaurus Step 1 Open Microsoft Word and begin typing your document. When a word comes up you would like to use the thesaurus for, select it. Step 2 Choose "Language" from the "Tools" menu and then "Thesaurus." You can also press Shift and the F7 key simultaneously to activate the thesaurus. The thesaurus window pops up. Step 3 Find the list of word meanings on the left side of the window. These are the possible meanings of the word you selected. Select the meaning that most closely fits how you intended to use the word. For additional help in selecting a meaning, Microsoft Word will put the part of speech of the word in parenthesis. When you have selected your meaning, hit the "Look Up" button. Step 4

Look on the right side of the window for a list of synonyms generated by the thesaurus. Depending on the word, the thesaurus may also list a few antonyms. These will be displayed with ("Antonym") behind the word. Step 5 Pick the synonym you'd like to use and hit the "Replace" button. The synonym replaces the original word in your document. If you're unhappy with your list of words, pick the one you like best and hit "Look Up" again. The Microsoft Word thesaurus will then generate synonyms of the synonym Header and Footer Header and footer information varies from one document to another. Decide before you begin, decide how much information you want to include: document title, chapter titles, page number, number of pages, date of creation, creator, date last saved, filename, or pathname. These instructions work for Microsoft Word 97 or 98. Steps to Insert Header and Footer Step 1 Go to the View menu and select Header and Footer. The Header and Footer window opens, and the body text fades to gray to show that the document text is not active. The Header and Footer text boxes are positioned at the top and bottom of each page of the document. Step 2 Place the cursor in the Header box at the top of any page or in the Footer box at the bottom of any page. Step 3 Type the information you want to include. This information will be included on every page of your document. Step 4 Use the # button in the Header and Footer window to insert page numbers for the document. Step 5

Use the ++ button in the Header and Footer window to insert the number of pages in the document. Step 6 Use the Insert Date and Insert Time buttons in the Header and Footer window to insert the current date and time. Inserting Page Numbers Word permit you to insert the page numbers in all pages. Steps to Insert Page Numbers in MS-Word 1. Put your cursor on the first page, and from the Insert menu, select Page Numbers... . 2. Select the position and alignment you want for the page numbers .3 Uncheck Show number on first page, and then click Format... . 4. Select your desired format. 5. At the bottom of the window, select Start at: , and then select the number just below what you want your first page number to be (e.g., if you want the page after the title page to be page 1, select 0 as the starting page number). 6. Click OK twice to return to Word.