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Tests for Anions

Anion Bromide Symbol BrTest Results Add silver nitrate solution to a Pale yellow precipitate, solution of substance in dilute nitric dissolves slightly in ammonia acid solution. Carbon dioxide gas is given a)Add dilute hydrochloric acid to the off. substance. b)Add drop of phenolphthalein to a solution of substance. Chloride ClTurns bright pink (HCO3 turns light pink). Thick white precipitate Add silver nitrate to a solution of dissolves in ammonia substance in dilute nitric acid. solution. Carbon dioxide gas is given a)Add dilute hydrochloric acid to the off. substance. b)Add drop of phenolphthalein to a solution of substance. IAdd silver nitrate to a solution of substance in dilute nitric acid. Add iron(II) sulfate solution followed by concentrated sulfuric acid to the solution Add solution of barium chloride to the solution. Add solution of barium chloride to the solution. Add lead(II) ethanoate solution to the solution. Turns light pink (CO32- turns bright pink). Pale yellow precipitate, does not dissolve in ammonia solution. Brown ring forms at the junction of the two liquids. White precipitate, does not dissolve in dilute hydrochloric acid. White precipitate, does dissolve in dilute hydrochloric acid. Black precipitate

Carbonate

CO32-

Hydrogencarbonate

HCO32-

Iodide

Nitrate

NO3-

Sulfate

SO42-

Sulfite Sulfide

SO32S2-

Tests for Cations


Cation Symbol Test a)Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution to a solution of the substance. b)Add dilute ammonia solution to a solution of the substance. Results White precipitate that dissolves as more sodium hydroxide solution is added.

Aluminum

Al3+

White precipitate that does not

Ammonium

NH4+

Calcium

Ca2+

dissolve as more ammonia solution is added. Add sodium hydroxide solution Ammonia gas is given off. to a solution of the substance and gently heat. Add dilute sulfric acid to a White precipitate formed. solution of the substance Also try flame test a)Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution to a solution of the substance.

Pale blue precipitate that dissolves as more sodium hydorxide is added.\. Pale blue precipitate, changing to deep blue solution as more ammonia is added. Pale green precipitate formed.

Copper (II)

Cu2+

b)Add dilute ammonia solution to a solution of the substance. Also try flame test a)Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution to a solution of the substance. b)Add dilute ammonia solution to a solution of the substance. a)Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution to a solution of the substance. b)Add dilute ammonia solution to a solution of the substance. a)Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution to a solution of the substance.

Iron(II)

Fe2+

Pale green precipitate formed.

Red-brown precipitate formed.

Iron(III)

Fe3+

Red-brown precipitate formed.

White precipitate, that does dissolve as more sodium hydroxide is added. White precipitate that does not dissolve as more ammonia is added.

Lead(II)

Pb2+

b)Add dilute ammonia solution to a solution of the substance. Use flame test to distinguish between lead and alumminum. a)Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution to a solution of the substance.

Magnesium

Mg2+

White precipitate, that does not dissolve as more sodium hydroxide is added. White precipitate that does not dissolve as more ammonia is

b)Add dilute ammonia solution

Zinc

Zn2+

to a solution of the substance. a)Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution to a solution of the substance. b)Add dilute ammonia solution to a solution of the substance.

added. White precipitate, that dissolve as more sodium hydroxide is added. White precipitate that dissolve as more ammonia is added.

Flame Tests
Metal Barium Calcium Copper Lead Lithium Potassium Sodium Gas Carbon dioxide Hydrogen Oxygen Symbol CO2 H2 O2 Symbol Ba Ca Cu Pb Li K Na Flame Color Yellowgreen Red Green Blue Pink Lilac Orange

Tests to identify gases


Test Results bubble gas through limewater Turns limewater cloudy. (calcium hydroxide solution) Put a lighted splint into a sample of Burns with a "popping" sound the gas. Put a glowing splint into a sample Splint relights. of the gas.

Anion - An ion with a negative charge, formed when an atom gains electrons in a reaction (it now has more electrons than protons). Non-metals tend to form anions. Cation - An ion with a positive charge, formed when an atom loses electrons in a reaction (it now has more protons than electrons). Hydrogen and metals tend to form cations.