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An Introduction to Hygiene and Safety

Future Managers 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without prior permission of the copyright owner. To copy any part of this publication, you may contact DALRO for information and copyright clearance. Any unauthorised copying could lead to civil liability and/or criminal sanctions.

Telephone: 086 12 DALRO (from within South Africa); +27 (0)11 712-8000 Telefax: +27 (0)11 403-9094 Postal Address: P O Box 31627, Braamfontein, 2017, South Africa www.dalro.co.za ISBN 978-1-77581-068-1 First published 2013

FutureManagers
Published by Future Managers (Pty) Ltd PO Box 13194, Mowbray, 7705 Tel (021) 462 3572 Fax (021) 462 3681 E-mail: info@futuremanagers.net Website: www.futuremanagers.net

Contents
Module 1 Cleaning and care 1. Cleaning and care ................................................................................................................................................... 2 1.1 Large and small apparatus and equipment................................................................................................ 2 1.1.1 Large kitchen equipment ................................................................................................................ 3 1.1.2 Mechanical equipment (ranges, peelers, mincers, mixers, processors, refrigerators, dishwashers) ..................................................................................................................................... 7 1.1.3 Electrical beaters e.g. Kenwood Chef/ Kitchen Mate, hand beaters and stick blenders....... 11 1.1.4 Utensils and small equipment (pots, pans, whisks, bowls, spoons, etc.)................................ 12 1.2 Different surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 39 1.2.1 Cleaning work surfaces ................................................................................................................. 39 1.2.2 Clean and reasseble food production equipment...................................................................... 44 1.2.3 Washing glasses.............................................................................................................................. 53 1.3 Reasons for the maintenance of measures conducive to health and hygiene ..................................... 54 1.3.1 Cuts, grazes and illness .................................................................................................................. 55 1.3.2 Food preparation ........................................................................................................................... 56 1.3.3 Working hygienically when preparing different food types .................................................... 56 1.3.4 Cooking food types ....................................................................................................................... 56 1.4 Hygienic storage of food ............................................................................................................................ 57 1.4.1 Storage of food items under correct conditions ........................................................................ 57 1.4.2 Safe practices in moving goods into storage areas .................................................................... 60 1.4.3 Correct methods for freezing and thawing foods ..................................................................... 63 1.5 Cleaning routines/procedures................................................................................................................... 64 1.5.1 Keeping storage areas clean and free of refuse .......................................................................... 65 1.5.2 Maintaining security in storage areas ......................................................................................... 66 1.5.3 Why cleaning is important ........................................................................................................... 66 1.5.4 Working in an organised and efficient way ................................................................................ 68 Module 2 Personal Hygiene 2.1 Care of the body.......................................................................................................................................... 70 2.1.1 Maintaining personal cleanliness and hygiene .......................................................................... 70 2.1.2 Control of bacterial growth and temperature control .............................................................. 74 2.1.3 Food control and cleaning............................................................................................................ 81 2.1.4 Washing up crockery and cutlery................................................................................................ 83 2.1.5 Pests encountered in the food industry ...................................................................................... 84 2.1.6 Insects that present a health hazard ............................................................................................ 87 2.1.7 Legislation pertaining to toilets and protective clothing.......................................................... 90 Module 3 Safety in the food service unit 3.1 Rules in the food service unit ...................................................................................................... 94 3.1.1 Whats safe? What isnt? ................................................................................................................ 94 3.1.2 How do you find a hazard? ........................................................................................................... 94 3.1.3 How to treat a burn ..................................................................................................................... 107 3.1.4 How to control bleeding ............................................................................................................. 108 3.1.5 How to treat broken bones ......................................................................................................... 109 3.1.6 How to treat for shock during First Aid ................................................................................... 109 3.1.7 How to treat fainting ................................................................................................................... 110 3.1.8 How to treat electric shock ......................................................................................................... 110 3.1.9 How to treat poisonous gas inhalation ..................................................................................... 111

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3.2 Prevention of food poisoning and gas ................................................................................................... 112 3.2.1 Food poisoning ............................................................................................................................ 112 3.2.2 Bacteria ......................................................................................................................................... 114 3.2.3 Food spoilage ............................................................................................................................... 116 3.2.4 The ideal growth conditions for pathogenic bacteria ............................................................. 117 3.2.5 Causes and symptoms of bacterial food poisoning, and access to food............................... 119 Staphylococcus ............................................................................................................................. 122 Clostridium .................................................................................................................................. 123 Bacillus .......................................................................................................................................... 125 3.3 Handling electric apparatus and gas ...................................................................................................... 127 3.4 Preventing accidents, and procedures for reporting accidents........................................................... 130

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Module 1

Cleaning and care

Learning Content 1.1 Large and small apparatus and equipment 1.2 Different surfaces 1.3 Reasons for the maintenance of measures conducive to health and hygiene 1.4 Hygienic storage of food 1.4.1 Dry storage 1.4.2 Cool storage 1.4.3 Refrigeration and freezing 1.5 Cleaning routines/procedures Learning oBJeCtiVeS Identify the three categories of kitchen equipment: Large equipment (ranges, steamers, boiling pans, fish-fryers, sinks, tables, etc.) Mechanical equipment (ranges, peelers, mincers, mixers, processors, refrigerators, dishwashers) Utensils and small equipment (pots, pans, whisks, bowls, spoons, etc.) Explain the procedures for the cleaning and care of the different apparatus and equipment which are made from a variety of materials, e.g. non-stick, coated metal, iron, steel, copper, wood, aluminium, etc. Discuss the correct cleaning of all equipment used for the serving (inter alia, crockery and cutlery) and cooking of food Identify and describe the cleaning of the different surfaces in the food service unit (working surfaces, walls and floors) Give reasons for the maintenance of measures conducive to health and hygiene Explain the rules for the hygienic storage of food inter alia, meat, fish, eggs, milk, salad, cream Explain how to control pests in the storage areas and in the food service unit Name the aims of cleaning Explain the following terms and name examples of cleaning agents: solvents, abrasives, powders Give reasons for the maintenance of correct cleaning routines/procedures.

Module 1

1.
1.1

Cleaning and care


Large and small apparatus and equipment
restaurant kitchen departments A typical restaurant kitchen is composed of different stations. A station is the area where a certain type of food is prepared. Stations help a restaurant kitchen to run smoothly. The number of stations is dictated by what is on the restaurants menu. A restaurant may have several stations with specialised equipment, or just one or two areas that are designated for cooking certain menu items. Budget and space are the two biggest factors in determining how many stations there are in your restaurant kitchen. Many of these stations can be combined to save space and money. You certainly dont need a cook at each station during slow shifts. The saut station The most experienced cooks work the saut station, since this is where the most complicated dishes are prepared. An experienced saut cook is also necessary because they usually cook several dishes at one time during the dinner rush. Typically a saut station is equipped with a multiple burner gas range, saut pans and tongs. A saut station usually has its own prep area, with all the cooks ingredients, cutting board, cooler, and seasonings. The grill station The grill station consists of the grill, which can be a char broiler or a flattop, a cooler for grill items (chicken, beef, kebabs, ect.) tongs, grill brush and whatever house seasoning you use. The grill cook needs to have a good degree of experience. Like the saut cook, the grill cook prepares several dishes at once. He also needs to know how to properly cook beef to well, medium and rare temperatures. The fry station The fryer is for fried foods, such as chicken wings, onion rings and French fries. Since a great deal of food that goes into a fryer is a frozen, most fry stations have their own freezer. Other equipment needed includes fry baskets, tongs and bowls for breading. The fry station is a good entry-level cooking position, ideal for someone just starting out in a restaurant kitchen. The Pizza station If pizza plays a prominent role on your menu then a pizza station is a good idea. A combo reach-in cooler with prep area is a good choice. Of course, you will also need an oven for cooking. You can invest in a speciality pizza oven or use the ovens on your gas range. Again, if you plan on serving a lot of pizza, having a large oven that can cook several pizzas at once is your best bet. Besides an oven, a well-stocked pizza station should have pizza screens for cooking and serving, a pizza paddle, pizza cutter and sheets of wax paper. other kitchen stations Restaurants with enough space may have a salad station and/ or a dessert station. These might also be incorporated into the wait station. A well-stocked salad station includes a cooler for lettuce, vegetables, salad dressing and plates. A dessert station needs to have cooler for deserts and space for plates, dessert forks and an area to assemble desserts. The kitchen line Last but certainly not the least is the kitchen line. The line is the area where the servers pick up their food. Sometimes the line refers to the line of stations in a kitchen. The line is often manned by the expeditor the person who sends the dishes to the dining room looking great. The line should have garnish, plates, a spindle for order tickets, and heating lamps to keep waiting food hot.

Cleaning and care

1.1.1 Large kitchen equipment


Let us look at the following Large eQUiPMent that normally forms part of the kitchen of a restaurant or catering establishment:

Boiling pan 135 Litre oil-jacketed boiling pan Inner pan, base and curb manufactured from 2 mm type AISI 304 CR-NI stainless steel 40 mm fibreglass insulation Spring-balanced with safety handle Fitted with breather tube, oil filler pipe, oil drain valve and chrome-plated draw-off cock Stainless-steel clad immersion elements Thermostatically controlled 50C 160C, preset overriding thermostat 180C

Bain Marie hot cupboard counter line equipment Bain Marie well-manufactured from AISI type 304 CR-NI stainless steel Surround and closure panels 430 stainless steel Thermostatically controlled immersion element 0110C with low water cut-off valve Swivel waste with gate-fitted valve Capacity 3 1/1 GN pans (pans optional extras) Stainless-steel interior and exterior, stainless- steel sliding doors Insulation doors 15 mm Preset thermostat 70C (hot closet)

Module 1

electric deep-fryers Stainless-steel front, door and side panels Pan manufactured from type 430 stainless steel and surround from 430 stainless steel Large surge area and effective cold zone 2 20 litre stainless-steel pans Each pan thermostatically controlled 100 180C with overriding thermostat preset 215C Pans fitted with drain cocks and unit supplied with oil receivers Oil level indicator

electric ranges Heavy duty External finish 430 stainless steel Large 145 litre capacity aluminised steel oven with two grid shelves and three position runners Stainless steel drop-down door, dead weight counter-balanced Oven thermostatically controlled from 50300C Top thermostatically controlled from 50250C

gas ranges Chargrill/Broiler (Gas)

Cleaning and care

Microwave 1 000 Watts of power for fast heating 30 capacity Stainless steel interior and exterior for easy cleaning Digital display 20 programme 5 power levels Ceramic base


Mobile Heated Plate Dispenser 100plate double-cartridge with heated dispenser Stainless steel body Easy to clean Ergonomic design Long life

Combination ovens The energy supplied to the food is meted exactly, and can be extremely powerful if required. The sensitive measuring and control central functions ensure a uniform cooking cabinet climate that can be matched individually to the food. Thus challenging and sophisticated products such as pan-fries, gratins or grilled food are always successful, even when the unit is fully utilised. This applies rack after rack, piece after piece, and portion after portion. Available in electric or gas.

Module 1

tilt pans Heavy duty External finish stainless steel Mounted on stainless-steel closed pedestal Pan manufactured from 304 stainless steel Sides integrally welded to a 10 mm boiler plate base Heating by means of gas nickel-plated steel burners Thermostatically controlled from 50240C Spring-balanced lid with heat-resistant handle Snap-acting thermostat has a 50240C temperature range Electronic igniter Safety feature flame failure device


Salamander 430 stainless steel construction 5position rack Large grilling area Heavy-duty 3position switch Available for counter use, wall mounting, table or range mounting Stainless-steel drip tray

toasters Serves slices from both back and front Adjustable top and bottom heat controls Adjustable toaster levels Easy cleaning Variable speed conveyor belt Up to 420 slices per hour

Cleaning and care

Water boilers Interior and exterior construction 304 stainless steel Safe and hygienic Modern design, easy to clean and maintain LED temperature display Automatic water refill Layered heating system saves energy and water boiling time Easy to install either on a benchtop or wall-mounted Sizes available: 4, 8, 15 and 30

1.1.2 Mechanical equipment (ranges, peelers, mincers, mixers, processors, refrigerators, dishwashers

Dishwashers / Hood type 69 racks per hour 42- wash-tank capacity 7- boiler tank capacity Simple operation 3 time cycles: 60, 85 and 120 seconds for selection Corner or straight operation Self-draining pump Low energy and water consumption Pressed tank for hygienic cleaning

Module 1

refrigeration upright cooler Adjustable shelves LED digital temperature display Illuminated header with light switch Fan-assisted cooling Equipped with heavy-duty castors Auto defrost Double-layered tempered glass doors, with argon injection Lockable

Potato peeler Peels 30 kg of potatoes per minute Stainless steel unit Operated with a reductor system Timer stops the machine automatically when scheduled time is over HACCP compliant Evacuation from the front of the unit Stabilised feet

Waste disposal units Corrosion-resistant body permanently moulded from heat-treated aluminium alloy Teflon lip water seal protects motor from damage by water Tapered roller bearing provides long motor life, quiet operation and shock absorbing. Water-cooled motor provides maximum efficiency and longer life Quiet operation extra thick rubber mounting adaptor and drain isolates sound and eliminates vibration

Cleaning and care

electric shredder, grater and slicer Slices, dices, shreds, grates, makes julienne and potato chips Optimum utilisation of raw materials Fast and trouble-free cleaning Compact Capacity: 5 kg per minute

Food processors A food processor can make many food preparation tasks much faster and easier. A variety of models exist at varying price points with a variety of features; most come with several blade attachments so they can be used in a many different ways. A chopping blade can chop fruits, vegetables, herbs and nuts within seconds, and can puree fruits and vegetables if you use it longer. Some food processors also come with a dough hook so you can easily mix pizza, bread and pasta dough. With a shredding blade, you can grate cheese for recipes.

Module 1

Blender A blender is a glass or stainless-steel jar with a tight-fitting lid. It rests on top of a small motor that spins a rotary blade inside the jar. The motor runs the rotor at a variety of speeds. Use the machine to blend and puree foods. You can make smoothies, cream soups, sauces and gravy and anything that requires food to be blended, pureed or whipped.

Mandoline A mandoline is a hand-operated tool for slicing vegetables and fruit. A compact machine, made out of either metal or plastic, it uses adjustable blades to cut the produce from thin to thick depending on the cooks needs. Warming: the blades are extremely sharp. Use caution when operating a mandoline.

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Cleaning and care

1.1.3 Electrical beaters e.g. Kenwood Chef/ Kitchen Mate hand beaters and stick blenders

Beaters used for various functions: mixing batters Beaters are used for various functions: mixing and batters and egg whites, etc. dough, whiskingdough, whisking egg whites, etc

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Module 1

1.1.4 Utensils and small equipment (pots, pans, whisks, bowls, spoons, etc.) Utensils
Before you begin to cook, you need to consider the utensils you will need. Everyone has a favourite tool for a particular job but there are a few basics you really need.

Knives
These are the most important things in the kitchen. With a good knife you can do most of the tasks you need to prepare basic ingredients. They come in all shapes and sizes and are made from different materials. Be prepared to spend in order to buy the best you can. A good knife will really last a lifetime. A cooks knife, a serrated knife and a small vegetable knife would be a good start and then add any of the others when you feel you need them. Good quality knives are made from high-quality steel, which is virtually stainless. It is important that they are kept in a safe place, away from children and also to protect their sharp edges. A knife block is ideal and always keeps them handy for use. A knife roll can also be used but the knives are not so easily accessible. A sharp knife is safer than a blunt one, so always make sure that the blade is sharpened regularly, either by using a sharpening steel or a simple pull-through sharpener. A knife-grinder can also be used.

Selecting the correct knife

(See key on next page)

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Cleaning and care

Key to photograph on left 1. 2. 3. Steel to sharpen knives note the safety guard near the handle. Zester for removing the fine outer skin from oranges, lemons, limes, etc. Peeler for peeling potatoes and other vegetables and fruit with a firm but thin skin. The sharp point is used for cutting out eyes from potatoes and small blemishes from other vegetables. Paring knife with a thin, sharp and slightly flexible blade, useful for handheld work, for example cutting an apple into segments, trimming potatoes. 57 Cooks knives sometimes called French cooks knives or professional cooks knives of varying sizes. With firm blades and sharp points their uses include slicing, shredding or chopping vegetables, trimming and cutting meat. Filleting knife with a thin, very flexible blade that makes it ideal for following the bones closely, as in filleting fish. The blade and point should be one of the sharpest knives in your set. Large (and heavy) cooks knife used for chopping large items and also for tasks like chopping parsley when a rocking motion is used (see page ??). The wide blade is also useful for crushing garlic cloves. Butchers steak knife is an example of a knife developed for a very specific use. The firm blade with its curved back and makes it useful for slicing raw meat quickly. Carving knife with the long, thin, flexible blade makes it possible to slice meat thinly. Some cooks prefer to use a carving knife with a scalloped edge for cold meats, poultry, ham, and smoked salmon. The hollows create a kind of vacuum, so that the food does not stick to the blade, and you get a cleaner cut. Serrated knives are ideal for crusty breads and cakes. Deep-freeze knife with a serrated blade specially developed to cut through frozen meat. This knife is strictly for use when frozen meat has to be cut at short notice, so is not a particularly practical tool in a catering kitchen. Saw-edged cutting knives (not shown) with the fine indentations along the cutting edge quickly penetrate the tough skin of tomatoes, citrus fruit, etc. Bread knife with a long thin blade and a serrated cutting edge. Boning knife with a fine pointed razor-sharp tip. Most of the work is carried out towards the end of the point. The knife is held like a dagger. Because it has a strong, firm blade it will not bend or break under the considerable force that may have to be used. But this means that great care must be taken, because if the knife slips it could cause serious injury. 1517 Palette knives of varying lengths and widths to shape smooth mixtures, or lift firm foods such as a burger. The blade is flexible, has a rounded end instead of a point, and is not sharp. Oyster knife is used to force open the shell of a fresh oyster; it has a short firm blade and a safety guard. Cutlet bat is for flattening pieces of raw meat, for example, veal escalopes and minute steaks . Poultry secateurs for cutting through poultry bones. Some cooks prefer to use a knife to do this. USE EXP

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Module 1

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Cooks fork is a particularly dangerous item with its long, sharp points. It is used for lifting roasted meats, although this needs to be done with great care to avoid piercing the meat, which would allow the juices to escape. In the case of a chicken, for example, you should insert the fork into the chest cavity and then lift. Carving fork with a guard to protect the fingers from slipping into the way of the carving knife and short prongs to hold the meat firmly in place. Wherever possible, avoid piercing hot joints repeatedly with a fork. Some joints can be safely held by the bone, when the meat has been scraped off the bone before cooking, e.g. leg of lamb. Cleaver or chopper is found mainly in the butchery section of kitchens and used for chopping through large bones. The back of the chopper blade is used for cracking bones. Kitchen scissors used for cutting the fins and tails of fish (some cooks prefer to use a cooks knife for this job). Scissors are also used for more general tasks like cutting the string or the paper for a steamed pudding.

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it is important to select the correct knife for the food preparation task you are carrying out. The following guide will assist you to select the right knife. Cooks knife Carving knife Utility knife Boning knife Filleting knife Meat cleaver Paring knife Bread knife Palette knife Sharpening steel Chopping, slicing, dicing and cutting. Blade can be used flat for crushing and bruising Long thin blade, used to carve roast meat and poultry General-purpose knife for chopping, slicing, trimming, dicing most vegetables and meat Removing meat from the bone or carcass Thin, flexible blade with a sharp tip, used for filleting fish For tougher cuts and joints of meat. Chops through cartilage, sinew and bone For fine work such as segmenting oranges, removing eyes from potatoes, trimming, peeling foods Slicing bread, cakes and fruits such as tomatoes Applying fillings, icing, finishing baked items For sharpening knives

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