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Grammar guide

1Adjectives 2Adverbs 3Articles 4Cleftsentences 5Makingcomparisons:comparativesandsuperlatives 6Conditionals 7Countableanduncountablenounsandtheirdeterminers 8Future 9Gerundandinfinitive 10Inversion 11Modals 12Narrativetenses 13Relativeclauses 14Reportedspeechandreportingverbs 15Will/wouldandused to 16Soandsuch;tooandenough 17Transitiveandintransitiveverbs 18Wish 19Verbgroups

1.1 Participial adjectives

Manyadjectivesareformedfromthepresentparticle(-ing form)andpastparticiples(-edform)ofverbs. Forexample:tointerest=interested,interesting. 1 djectivesendingin-ingtellusacharacteristicorquality A ofthepersonorthingbeingdescribed. Theyalsohavean activesense.Theyshowtheeffectsomeoneorsomething hasonsomeoneorsomethingelse: Its an interesting book=Itmakesmefeelinterested. 2 djectivesendingin-edhaveapassivesenseanddescribe A whathashappenedtothepersonorthingitdescribes. Theydescribestatesandfeelings: he grammar class was boring =Theclassactivelyhad T thateffect. Nikki was bored = ThatswhathappenedtoNikki. Choosethecorrectformofadjectiveinthesentencesbelow. 1 Wewereworrying/worriedaboutthenewsfromCanada. 2 mIboring/bored,Maria?Peopledontlistentomy A storiesanymore. 3 hatsthemostembarrassing/embarrassedexperience W youveeverhad? 4 eareexhausting/exhausted,babyOliverkeptusawake W allnight. 5 Ivenevereatenanythingquitesodisgusted/disgusting. 6 enjoywatchingSumowrestling,Ithinkitsafascinated/ I fascinatingsport.

1 Adjectives
Weuseadjectivestoclassifyordescribethequalitiesof somethingorsomeone.Weuseadjectives: 1 ftertheverb to be A He is old. Form: to be + adjective 2 fterlinkingverbssuchaslook,seem,becomeandfeel A Are you OK, you look tired. No, I feel fine. Form: verb + adjective 3 eforenounsandpronouns B Her new coat is beautiful. Form: adjective + noun Remember: i) djectivesdonotchangeaccordingtothenumberor A genderofthethingtheydescribe: There were some youngs young boys in the street. ii) djectivescomeafterthetodescribeaclassorgroup A ofpeople: The rich, the unemployed, the homeless. iii)Colouradjectivescomebeforethenoun: She was wearing a red dress, not a dress red. iv) omeadjectivessuchasasleep, alive, afraidcanonlybe S usedafter alinkingverb: The boy who was hiding in the cellar looked afraid. There was an afraid boy hiding in the cellar = There was a frightened boy hiding in the cellar. Whichoneofthefollowingsentencesiscorrect?Correctthe rest. 1 Therewerefourgreenscarsinfrontoftheirhouse. 2 Thatwatchlookslikeexpensive. 3 Youlookalovelytoday. 4 Hewasfeelingsadyesterday. 5 Thegovernmentshouldlookafterthepoors. 6 Therewasanasleepbabylyinginitspram.

1.2 Adjective order

1 henweusetwoormoreadjectivesbeforeanounthen W wegenerallyfollowthisorder:opinion dimension age texture colour shape origin purpose 2 fwewanttousemorethantwoadjectiveswewillusually I trytoplacesomeofthemafterthenoun. She had short curly dark hair. Better:Her dark hair was short and curly. e carried a worn old leather briefcase. H Better:He carried a worn old briefcase made of leather. 3 pinionadjectives,wherewegiveourpointofview O usuallycomebeforeadjectiveswhichgivemorefactual information.Examplesofopinionadjectivesarebeautiful, lovely, nice, pretty, awful, ugly, horrible. She wore a beautiful blue dress, made of silk. Whichoneofthesesentencesshowsacorrectorderof adjectives?Correcttheothersbyputtingtheadjectivesin therightorder. 1 Sheputaplastic black longsnakeonherteacherschair. 2 ewasagivena/ndivers expensive Swiss watchforhis H eighteenthbirthday. 3 hewaswearingashiny Japanese lovely dressing-gown S silk. 4 Hehasboughtawonderful new graphite tennisraquet. 5 Theyhaveagrey big fat gorgeouscatSiamese. 6 astnightIwatchedaSwedish new fascinating L documentaryonTV.


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1.3 Gradable and non-gradable adjectives

1 Gradableadjectives anyadjectivesandadverbsdescribequalitieswhichare M gradable.Inotherwords,theycanhavemoreorlessof thequalityinquestion.Wecanmodify,orgradeordinary adjectivesusing:a little, fairly, slightly, rather, quite, very, extremely, etc. We were fairly tired after a long day of shopping. Howeverwecant useabsolutely, completely, totally, or utterlytomodifygradableadjectives: I was absolutely angry when I heard the news. 2 Non-gradableadjectives Non-gradableadjectivesdescribequalitiesthatarealready attheirlimit.E.g.exhausted. ecanmodifythemtoemphasisethedegreeof W completenesswithabsolutely, completely, totally, or utterly. We were exhausted after a long days shopping. Wecantusea little, fairly, slightly, rather, quite, very, extremely, etc.withnon-gradableadjectives: We were a little exhausted after a long day of shopping. 3 radableadjectivesliketiredorangrymayhaveoneor G morenon-gradablecounterparts. good = marvellous, wonderful, fantastic Gradable
Modifiers Alittle,fairly, slightly,rather, quite,very, extremely Adjectives Tired,hungry, bad,angry,pretty, embarrassed, disappointed Example I was very angry when I heard the news.

2 Adverbs
2.1 Adverbs of frequency
1 euseadverbsoffrequencytosayhowoftenwedo W something: I sometimes go to the cinema at the weekend. hesearesomeofthemostcommonadverbsoffrequency: T ever seldom rarely hardly ever occasionally n sometimes often usually always 2 ordorder:adverbsoffrequencyfollowto be: W She never is on time.She is never on time. therwise,theyusuallycomebeforethemainverb,and O betweenmodalauxiliariesandthemainverb: We occasionally eat out. We dont usually watch TV. Customers will often arrive just before we close. Noticethatwecanreplacesometimesoroccasionallywith expressionssuchasfrom time to time,once in a while, every so often.Theseeithercomeatthebeginningorthe endofasentence: nce in while we go to the cinema. O or We go to the cinema once in a while. Remember: i) ecanuse alwayswiththepresentorpastcontinuous W toshowannoyanceordisapproval: hes always borrowing my dictionary without asking me. S (Iwishshewouldstop.) ii) henwewanttoemphasisesomething,wemaybegin W thesentenceswithanadjectiveofnegativeforce e.g.never, seldom.(SeeSection10Inversionformore informationonthis.) Putthepartsofthesentencesinitalicsintothecorrect order. 1 ealways take nearlythetrainbetweenBrusselsand W Paris. 2 TessandJerrygotocinema time the to time from. 3 hydontwegotoarestaurant?Weseem these eat W hardly to days out. 4 mreallyfedup,clothes he borrowing is my always I withoutasking. 5 heyusedon to tennis mornings always play Sundaybut T sincethebaby time ever they hardly have. 6 inceImovedtoChicagoI see my while only a once S parents in.

Modifiers Absolutely, completely,utterly, totally Adjectives Terrible,awful, dreadful,exhausted, furious,gorgeous, starving,mortified, devastated Example We were utterly exhausted after a long days shopping.

Completetheresponsestotheseexchangesusingnongradableadjectives. 1 :Wereyoupleasedwithyourresults? A B:Pleased?Iwascompletely . 2 A:Youmusthavebeenangrywhenyouheardthenews. B:Angry?Iwastotally . 3 A:Shelookedlovelyinherweddingdress. B:Lovely?Shelookedabsolutely . 4 A:Iheardthattheplaywasbad. B:Bad?Itwasutterly . 5 A:Wereyoutiredandhungryafterthewalk? B: iredandhungry?Wewereabsolutely T and . 6 A:Weretheydisappointedtolosethematch? B:Disappointed?Theywereutterly .

2.2 Adverbs of manner

Adverbsofmannerareusedtodescribehowanactionis performed: She plays the piano beautifully. Wegenerallyformthembyadding-lytoadjectives: Slowslowly. Wetransformadjectivesendingin-ywith-ilyintheadverb: Angryangrily.


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2.3 irregular adverbs

Adjective fast hard good Adverb fast hard well

4 Its a pity butwewontbeabletofixyourcar. 5 ouldyoumindwaiting,Illbewithyouin just a couple W of minutes. 6 heres no question about it,wehavetohavetheroof T mended. 7 ell,what I want to say isyoushouldeatfivepiecesof W fruitaday.

e.g.She is a good singer, she sings well. (ForcomparativeadverbsseeSection5Comparatives and Superlatives.) Completethesentencesbytransformingtheadjectivesinto adverbs.Makeanyothernecessarychanges. 1 esaverygoodchessplayer. H Heplayschess . 2 Gretaisaveryhardworker. Gretaworks . 3 ThewayAprilsangthatpiecewasbeautiful. Aprilsangthatpiece . 4 Becarefulhowyouhandlethatvase. Handlethatvase . 5 Imhappytodothatforyou. Ill . 6 Heisanextremelypersuasivespeaker. Hespeaks .

3 Articles
Articlesprecedeandmodifynouns. a/an=indefinitearticles the=definitearticle

3.1 indefinite article use

Weusetheindefinitearticlea/aninfrontofsingular countable[C]nouns,whenweusetheminageneralsense: They gave us a table for two.

3.2 definite article use

Weusethedefinitearticlethewithalltypesofnoun,afor thingswhicharespecific: 1 Whenwewanttorefertoaparticularthing Wheres the key?(Thespecifickeythatopensthisdoor.) 2 Whenmentioningsomethingforthesecondtime hey gave us a table for two. Unfortunately the table was T right next to the door. 3 Withsuperlatives Its the best film Ive ever seen. 4 Withthingswhichareunique The world, the earth, the universe. 5 Withsomegeographicalnames The Himalayas, the Channel. 6 ithsomenamesoforganizationsandtitles,particularly W thosewithof ortheideaofof . The Head Teacher, the International Olympic Committee, the President (of France). 7 Withadjectivestodescribeaclassorgroupofpeople The unemployed, the elderly. 8 Forplacesandamenitiesknowntoeveryone I need to post this letter, Im going to the post office. They took her to the hospital. 9 Whenreferringtosomethingspecific I love wild animals, but the animals I saw at the zoo seemed tired and depressed.(Pluralcountablenoun.) I hardly drink coffee, but the coffee you gave me this morning was exceptional.(Uncountablenoun.) It was a terrible secret. She found the knowledge too hard to bear. The money he earned over the summer allowed him to go on holiday. 1 0 Withordinalnumbers The next meeting is planned for the ninth of January. 1 1 Withmusicalinstruments She plays the violin and the flute.

2.4 introductory adverbs

Manyadverbscanbeusedatthebeginningofsentencesto commentonwhatcomesnext. Basically/essentially studentshavetositdownandlearn theirirregularverbs.(= this is my main point.) Obviously,Ineedtoimprovemycomputerskills.(= its obvious that) Unfortunately/sadly, Hamishfailedtheentranceexamfor medicalschool.(= I regret to give you this news.) Hopefully everythingwillbereadyforthenexttimeyou come.(= if there are no problems.)

2.5 meaning shifts from adjectives to adverbs

Changesofmeaningbetweenadjectivesandadverbs. Adverbsgenerallyretainthemeaningoftheadjectives fromwhichtheyaredrawn.However,sometimesthereisan importantchangeofmeaning. Late = not on time;lately=recently. Short=not tall;shortly=soon. Hardlyisanadverbmeaningalmost not,oronly a little. is handwriting was so messy I could hardly read what he H had written. Replacethewordsinboldwithaone-wordadverb. 1 hdear,thedogisonly justbreathing,IhopeshesOK. O 2 haventseenMalcolmfor a while,hashegoneon I holiday? 3 f everything goes according to planwellbeatyour I placebysixoclock.


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Remember: Somecountablenounsareusedwithoutarticlesincertain situations,suchasseasons,institutions,meals,diseases andtimeofday: i) Im going to the home, Im going home. ii) Im going to eat the dinner, Im going to eat dinner. iii) he spring is a good time to clean, Spring is a good time T to clean. iv) e is sick with the pneumonia, he is sick with H pneumonia.

9 heis S

thirdwomantobe ministerof education. 1 0 fearof snakesismuch morecommonthanyoumightthink.

4 Cleft sentences
Cleftsentencesletusfocusonwhatisimportantina sentence.TheyareparticularlycommoninspokenEnglish andcanaddextraemphasis. 1 entencesacallcarryasimilarmessage,althoughthe S emphasisofbandcistheyearofthefire,ratherthanthe fireitself: a TheGreatFireofLondontookplacein1666. b It wasin1666thattheGreatFireofLondontookplace. c Whathappenedin1666wastheGreatFireofLondon. Noticethatcleftsentencesoftenbeginwithwhatanditand needtheintroductionoftheverbto be. 2 a Youshouldlookforlastminuteflightsontheinternet. b hatyoushoulddoislookforlastminuteflightson W theinternet. 3 a Shetookallofthemoneyfromherboyfriendsaccount. b hatshedidwastakeallofthemoneyfromher W boyfriendsaccount. 4 a Thethingthatworriesmeis b What worriesmeisthat Rephrasethesesentences. 1 Herlastconcertbeganatnineoclockintheevening. Itwas . 2 heytookthelegsoffthepianoandcarrieditthroughthe T window. Whattheydid . 3 Sheslippedontheiceandbrokeherarm. Whathappened . 4 Ithinkyououghttotryadatingagency. Whatyou . 5 Ifindloudmusicinrestaurantsannoying. Whatannoys . 6 Theybroke intoourcarwhiletheywereatthebeach. Whathappenedwas .

3.3 Zero article

Wedontusearticles: 1 ithpluralcountablenounsusedininageneralsense W I love animals. 2 Withuncountable,andabstractnouns Money makes the world go around. Knowledge is power. Completethesentenceswitha,theor(noarticle). 1 twobiggestproblemswefaceare globalwarmingand pollution. 2 hebought S violinforherdaughterwho saidshewantedtolearn guitar. 3 heresnodoubtaboutit, T richare gettingricherand pooraregetting poorer. governmentshoulddo somethingaboutthisandhelp homelessand unemployed. 4 famousauthoroncesaidthat pastwas foreign country. 5 astmonthIbought L pairoftrousersfor 80then minuteslaterIsawexactly sameonesfor50! 6 heysay T littleknowledgeis dangerousthing.Idiscovered truthofthiswhenItriedtofix car.In endIhadto call mechanicfrom nearestgaragetorepairit. 7 costof materials like oil, copper and rubberkeepsgoingup. lasttimeIfilledupmycarI almostfaintedwhenIsaw priceon pump. 8 moneycantbuyyou happinessor love,butIdrather be miserablerichpersonthan miserablepoorone.

5 Making comparisons
5.1 Comparatives
Weformcomparativeadjectivesbyadding-ertoonesyllable adjectives.Forexample: softsofter,cheapcheaper,sweetsweet, shortshorter.


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Remember: Spelling iOnesyllableadjectives: faonesyllableadjectiveendsinasinglevowelletter I followedbyasingleconsonantletter,theconsonant letterisdoubled thinthinner,bigbigger,sadsadder, slimslimmer, fatfatter. fanadjectiveendsin-e,thisisremovedwhenadding-er I widewider, ruderuder, bravebraver. fanadjectiveendsinaconsonantfollowedby-y,-yis I replacedby-iwhenadding-er drydrier, coycoyer. iiTwosyllableadjectives: wosyllableadjectivesendingin-ed,-ing,-ful,or-less T alwaysformthecomparativewithmore or less worriedmore worried, boringmore boring, carefulmore careful, uselessmore useless. oweverwithtwosyllableadjectivesendingin-y,we H use-ierinsteadofmore rettyprettier, happyhappier, p healthy healthier. ithsomeothertwosyllableadjectiveswecaneither W precedethemwithmoreoradd-ertotheadjective clevercleverer/more clever,quietquieter/more quiet, politepoliter/more polite. iiiThreesyllableadjectives: Threesyllableadjectivestakemoreorless expensivermore expensive,dangerousmore dangerous,difficultless difficult. heonlyexceptionsaresomethreesyllablewordswhich T havebeenformedusingtheprefix-un unhappymore unhappy unhappier, unpleasant more unpleasant unpleasanter. Notice: Asmaybeusedtocomparethewaytwothingsare similarordifferent. Form: as + adjective + as She is as old as her husband. This one isnt as valuable/well-made as the other one. Itisusedasasubstituteforthesuperlative(seebelow). There isnt a more expensive hotel in the town.(Itsthe mostexpensivehotelintown.) Itisalsousedwhenwewanttoshowthatactionsand resultsareconnectedinaprogressiveway. The older he gets the more stubborn he becomes.

5.3 Comparative adverbs

Weusecomparativeadverbswhenwewanttocontrasthow actionsareperformed. 1 fwewanttomakeadverbscomparativeweusemoreor I less: She has been working more conscientiously this term. 2 Wedontuse-eror-est. Thereareimportantexceptions,asexplainedbelow.
Adjective good/well bad/badly hard/hard fast/fast Comparative adverb better worse harder faster Superlative best worst hardest fastest Adverb well badly hard fast

5.2 Superlatives
Mostsuperlativesareformedbyadding-est toadjectives whichareshort(oneortwosyllables);andusingthemost/ leastbeforelongeradjectives(threeormoresyllables). Shesmyyoungeststudentandalsothemostintelligent. Weusethesuperlative: 1 Toexpressthegreatestdegreeofcomparison. I think that Use of English is the most difficult part of the exam. 2 Todescribeexperiencesorevents. Its the most frightening ride I have ever been on. Form: superlative + present perfect

1 ompletethesentencesusingacomparativeorsuperlative C formofthewordinbold. 1 twasawonderfulmeal,infactitwas I deliciousIhadevereaten. 2 asttermherEnglishwasexcellentandshewasthe L goodintheclass,butthistermitsthe bad,Iwonderwhathashappened. 3 ordonismuch G happythanHarryand Russell,butGeraldisthe successful and richofallofthem. 4 hyisitthatpeoplewholivethe W closetotheirworkalwaysarrivelate? 5 feelmuch I good thismorningsoIll gotoschool. 6 heexamwasntas T easy Ihad imagined. 7 isbrotherdoesntspeak H goodthan him. 8 ristianoplaysfootballmore C beautiful thananyotherplayer. 9 eliciaswims F fastthanSamanthabut not quickasAna. 10 obodyworksas N hardXu,hehas learnedalltheirregularverbseventhe hard. 2 ontinueandcompletethesecondsentencesothatithas C asimilarmeaningtotheoneaboveit. 1 Ihaveneverfeltsotired. This everfelt. 2 NobodyknewhimbetterthanAmanda. Nobodyknewhimas Amanda. 3 Ihaveneverhadsuchabadflight. Itwasthe everhad. 4 Hercargoesfasterthanmine. Mycardoesnt hers. 5 Doyouhaveamorerecentversionofthissong? Isthisthe ? 6 EachbookIreadaddstomyunderstanding. ThemoreI Iunderstand. 169

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6 Conditionals
Conditionalsentencestypicallycontaintwoclausesa conditionclauseandaresultclause. Theyallowustotalkaboutpossibleandimpossible/unreal situationsandtheirconsequences.

(SeeWishformoreinformationonexpressingregrets.) Form: If + past perfect/would/could/might + have + past participle

6.5 Alternatives to if
1 Unlessandotherwise euseunlessmeaningifnotintheconditionclause W andotherwisebeforethelikelyresult: You will lose marks unless you improve your spelling. Wed better hurry up. Otherwise well miss the start of the film. 2 As long as/provided/on condition that euse provided/as long as/on the condition that whenwe W wanttomaketheconditionstricter: Ill lend you my dictionary provided/as long as/on the condition that you promise to bring it back. 3 Usinginversion: If I had known he would be upset, I wouldnt have said anything. Had I known he would be upset, I wouldnt have said anything.

6.1 Zero conditional

Weusethezeroconditional: 1 Todescribeastraightforwardcauseandeffect If you open that door, it makes a terrible noise. 2 Towriteascientifictruth If you mix oil and water the oil floats.

6.2 First conditional

Weusethefirstconditional: 1 henwebelievethatsomethingislikely(moreprobable) W tohappen,thannotastheresultofafutureaction If I have the money, I will buy the car. 2 Forpromisesorthreats If you pass your exam(condition),Ill buy everyone a coffee(result). If youdontdo your homework, Ill have to phone your Mum and Dad. 3 eusewhenandas soon aswhenthefirstactionissure W tohappen Ill call you when/as soon as I get the results. Form: If + present simple/will + infinitive (without to)

6.6 mixed conditional

Themixedconditionalcombinesthethirdconditionalinthe conditionclausewiththesecondconditionalintheresult clause.Weuseittodescribeapastactionwhichhasa consequenceinthepresent: If I hadnt eaten that seafood, I wouldnt feel so awful now. 1 hangetheverbsinbracketstoformconditional C sentences. 1 (take) I hertothestationifshe(do) myFrenchhomework! 2 knowitsjustadream,butwhat(youdo) I ifwe(win) the lottery? 3 f(yousay) I thatagain,I(tell) yourfather. 4 hewaslucky.Ifshe(notmiss) S the flightshe(notbe) withustoday. 5 dontbelievehelleverstop,butifhe(giveup) I smokinghishealth(improve) . 6 henourguests(arrive) W ,Lucy,(you callme) immediately? 7 yougive) ( himthemoneyifyou(know) howhewasgoingtospendit? 8 fI(be) I inchargeI(make) somebigchanges,butImjusta temporaryworker. 9 fHannah(know) I thetruthabout Duncanshe(thinktwice) before marryinghim. 10 msostupid,ifI(remember) I lockup mybike,it(notbestolen) .

6.3 Second conditional

Weusethesecondconditional: 1 henwethinkthattheoutcomeofafutureeventisnot W verylikelytohappen If the students were more serious, they would have a better chance in the exam. 2 orunrealorimaginarysituationsinthepresentorthe F future If I ran Cambridge Examinations, Id make the exam easier (but Im just a candidate). 3 Forpoliterequests Would you mind if I borrowed these DVDs? Remember: Can, could may, might, shouldandought tocanreplace wouldinsecondconditionalsentences. Form: If + past simple/would/could/might + infinitive (without to)

6.4 Third conditional

Weusethethirdconditional: odescribeimaginaryorunrealsituationsinthepastand T toexpressregrets If I had known he would be upset, I wouldnt have said anything (butIdidsaysomethingandhewasupset).


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2 Rephrasethesesentencesusingthewordsinbold. 1 ellmissthebeginningofthe W filmifyoudonthurryup. unless 2 fyouleaveyourcarthereyoullgeta I parkingticket.youd better not/otherwise 3 oucanborrowmycaroncondition Y thatyoufillitupafterwards.provided 4 lltellyoursisterwhatyoudid I unlessyougivemeasweet.if 5 nlessyoupromisetotakecareofitI U wontlendyoumyipod.Ill/as long as 6 fhedoesntdrivemorecarefully I hellhaveanaccident.unless

6.7 Contrasting ideas

1 Consequence He felt ill. He stayed at home. nthefirstpairofsentencesthereisnotacontrast I betweenthetwoideas.Afterall,ifwefeelillitislogical tostayathome.Wecanjointheseideaswithso: =He felt ill so he stayed at home. 2 Contrast He felt ill. He went to school. Inthissecondpair,thereisacontrastbetweentheideas a Wecanshowthecontrastbetweentheseideaswithbut: = He felt ill but he went to school. b Wecanshowthecontrastbetweentheseideaswith however/nevertheless: =He felt ill, however/nevertheless, he went to school. Notice:likebut,howeverandneverthelesscomeafterthe originalproposition,andintroducethecontrast,thatis, betweenthecontrastingideas. 3 Otherwaysofexpressingcontrast: a although/eventhough Although he felt ill he went to school. Even though he felt ill he went to school/He went to school even though he felt ill bin spite of/despite+ gerund In spite of/despite feeling ill/the fact he felt ill He went to school. cin spite of/despite+ noun In spite of/Despite of his illness he went to school. d Despite the fact(that)+ tense Despite the fact that he felt ill, he went to school. Notice:Thesewaysofexpressingcontrastintroducethe originalproposition,notthecontrast. Even though he was unhappy he was rich.Even though he was rich he was unhappy.

1Decideifthefollowingsentencesarecorrectorincorrect. 1 twasaperfectdayalthoughwehadawonderfultime. I Correct[]Incorrect[] 2 everthelesswewerelate,wemanagedtoseethefilm. N Correct[]Incorrect[] 3 emanagedtopasshisexamseventhoughhehadnt H studied. Correct[]Incorrect[] 4 venthoughshewenttobedshewastired. E Correct[]Incorrect[] 5 espiteitwasalongjourneyweenjoyedthetrip. D Correct[]Incorrect[] 2 eginningwiththewordinbold,puttherestofthe B sentenceintherightorder. 1 venshecameministerpoorthoughfrom E afamilyshebecameprime. 2 n tiredofthetimedidntspitewefeel I too. 3 hewasroughmanagedseatheport T sailorsneverthelessreachtheto. 4 earaininghadlovelyeveningfactthat W thedespiteitwas. 3 Rephrasethesentencesusingthewordsinbold. 1 Shehaslotsofmoneybutsheneverspendsit.despite 2 Herefusedtowearacoat.Itwascold.nevertheless 3 Shehadhurtherfootbutshestillwontherace.fact 4 Hefelttiredbuthestilldrovethroughthenight.even

7 Countable and uncountable nouns and their determiners

7.1 Countable nouns
Acountablenounisaclearlyseparateunitwhichcanbe easilycounted.Whenthereismorethanone,theycanbe madeplural: tables, chairs, students, cats, ideas, thoughts, people, children.

7.2 uncountable nouns

Uncountablenounsarethingsornotionswhichcannotbe counted(oronlycountedwithdifficulty)orabstractnouns andnotions.Theyincludeliquids,mass,abstractnouns andthingssuchaswater, oil, butter, sand, information, happiness, hair, spaghetti. Remember: Insomelanguagesuncountablenounssuchashair, information,newsandadvicearecountable. Determinerscomebeforenouns.Whichonewechoose dependsonwhetherthenounitintroducesiscountableor uncountable. Wecanmakeuncountablenounsappearcountablebyputting thenameofacontainer,aquantity/weight/itslength,ora piece ofbeforeit: A bottle of water, a jar of instant coffee, a slice of cake, a tin of soup, a packet of biscuits, 200 grams of butter, a grain of sand, a piece of information, etc.

7.3 determiners


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7.4 determiners with countable and uncountable nouns

1 Weuseall a eforeplural countablenouns[C]anduncountable B nouns[U]toexpresstheideaofalltheones: All the students left early.[C] 2 Weuseevery a eforesingle countablenounsanduncountablenouns B toexpresstheideaofeveryone(wedroptheuseof a/the): Every student left early.[C] 3 Weusesome a Beforepluralcountablenounsanduncountablenouns: She met some interesting people while she was on holiday.[C] Iaskedfor an information. I asked for some information about language courses. [U] b nrequestsandoffers,particularlywhenweexpectthe I answertobeyes: Could you give me some advice about which wallpaper to choose? [U] Would you pass me some more coffee, please? [C] Is there some of that lovely cake left? [C] 4 Weuseany a eforepluralcountablenounsanduncountablenounsto B expresstheideaofallornothing: Any child can use this computer programme. = all children. [C] You can come and see me any time. = there is no limit. [U] Oh dear, there isnt any sugar left. = none at all. [U] Remember: 1 Weplacenot beforeany toexpresstheideaofno. eusenot any/nobeforepluralcountablenounsand W uncountablenouns: There werent any students in the classroom/There were no students in the classroom. [C] 2 eplacehardlybeforeanytoexpresstheideaofnota W lot: There were hardly any customers in the shop. [C] 3Weplacehavebefore anytoaskabouttheexistenceor availabilityofsomething: Do we have any milk? [U] 4Some/any/no + one/body/where/thing ddsome/any/nobeforeone/body/where/thingtocreate A indefinitepronouns. Thesefollowthesamerulesofformassomeandany: There is someone outside. Really! I cant see anyone/anybody. There was nowhere to park. We couldnt find anywhere to park.

Completethesentenceswitha,some orany. 1 ouldyoulike W cupofteaand biscuit,orperhaps pieceofcake? 2 oudontneedtoask,youcansit Y whereyouwant. 3 evegot W eggsand cheese,butwedontseemtohave milk. 4 ouldIhave C moretea,please,andis there morecake? 5 ingme R timeyouneed advice,heres card withmynumber. 6 cantget I reply,thereisnt onethereafterfiveoclock. 7 hdear,therearent O rubbish-bags,can youget morethenexttimeyougo shopping. 8 hewontdo S thingwithoutfirst checkingwithherboss. 9 oyoufancy D coffee?Theres newjarinthecupboard. 10 hereisnt T thing one cansayordoitshopeless! 4 Muchandmany;a lot of andlots of a eusemanywithcountablenouns,andmuch with W uncountablenouns: Many students leave their revision to the last minute. The changes to the exam have encouraged much discussion. b owever, a lot of/lots ofareusedwithbothcountable H anduncountablenouns.Wetendtousetheminsteadof muchandmanyinpositivestatements: A lot of/lots of students use bi-lingual dictionaries. Harry wasted a lot of/lots of time trying to mend the Play Station. Remember: i ots of,loads of,plenty ofareconsideredtobelessformal L thana lot of: Dont worry about me, Ive got lots/loads/plenty of friends. ii Muchandmanyaregenerallyreservedfornegative statementsandquestions: How much time do we have before we need to leave? We dont have much money left. How many people have you invited? We werent expecting so many people at the open-day.


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5 Fewanda few/littleanda little eusefew/a fewwithcountablenounsandlittle/a little W withuncountablenouns.A fewanda littlemeansome, whilefewandlittlemeannotmuch/many,orlessthan normalorwhatwewouldusuallyexpect: Afew(= some) studentsknowhowtopronounceth properly. Few (= not very many)studentscarryontotakethe Proficiencyexam. Theresalittle (= some)bitofcoffeeleft,whowould liketofinishit? Thereslittle (= not much)pointintryingtolearn anythingnow. 6 Several Several isusedwithcountablepluralnouns.Ithasa similarmeaningtoafew(i.e.threeorfour): There were several people waiting in the doctors surgery. 7 A great (large) number (amount) of/great (good) deal of a eusea great/large numberofwithpluralcountable W nouns: A great number of tourists were affected by the strike. Not:A great deal of tourists b eusea great/good deal ofwithuncountablenounsto W meanmanyormuch: The strike caused a great deal of inconvenience. Not: The strike caused a large number of inconvenience. Choosethecorrectwordtocompletethesentences 1 owmany/muchbutterandhowmany/much raisinsdo H weneedforthisrecipe? 2 tdoesntmatterhowmuch/manytimesyoutellher,she I neverremembers. 3 erex-boyfriendisgivingheragreatnumber/dealof H trouble. 4 hereslittle/a littleadvantageinchanginginternet T serviceproviders. 5 hepolicefoundthefingerprintsoffew/severaldifferent T suspects. 6 eretheremuch/lotsofpeopleattheprocessionon W Sunday? 7 otreally,therewerentmuch/manyatall.Just N afew/few regulars. 8 hesluckyshehasgota lots of/loadsofmoneyanda S bighouse. 9 hehasgotverylittle/fewfriends,shestaysinherroom S watchingTVallday. 1 O 0 uradvertisementreceivedagreatdeal/numberof replies. 1 T 1 heredoesntseemtobemany/muchchoice,letstrythe otherplace. 1 I 2 calledhimloads/severaloftimesbutonlygothis answeringmachine.

8 Future
Therearedifferentwaysofexpressingthefuture.Theform weusedependsonthecircumstancesandhowweviewthe futureevent. 1 eusethepresent continuoustotalkaboutfuture W personalarrangementsandplans,especiallywhenwe mentionthetimeandplace: Were leaving for Athens on Saturday. 2 eusethepresent simplewhenwerefertotimetablesor W programmes: The next train to Brusssels departs in fifteen minutes. 3 Weusebe going to: a totalkaboutthingswehavealreadydecidedtodo. Im going to take part in the Erasmus programme next year. b tomakepredictionsbasedonwhatwecanseeright now. Oh my goodness, look at that child. Shes going to fall off her bike and hurt herself.

8.1 The future simple (will )

Weusewill (thefuturesimple): 1 Forfactsandpredictions: Anika will be three years old on Friday. Next season will be a good one for our teams supporters. 2 Fordecisionsmadeatthetimeofspeaking. Dont take the bus, Ill drive you home. 3 Topredictwhatisabouttohappen,orhasjusthappened. Theres someone at the door. That will be the post woman (she always comes at this time). Youre right, shes carrying a parcel. That will be the books I ordered. (They always come by mail and I ordered them last week.) Remember: ecanalsouseshouldtomakepredictionsbasedon W experienceandexpectedbehaviour. What time do we get to Amersham? Well, we should be there at six oclock(thatsthetimethe trainusuallyarrivesthere).

8.2 Future continuous

Weusethefuturecontinuous(will be + -ing)totalkabout actionswhichwillbeinprogressatatimeinthefuture. Hi, Jen, its me. Just to say Ill be arriving at 17.15. Can you pick me up? Sure, Ill be waiting outside the station.

8.3 Future perfect

Weusethefutureperfecttoexpresstheideathatsomething willhappenbeforeaspecifictimeinthefuture. Well have taken our exam by July. Dont worry about us, well have already eaten.


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8.4 Future perfect continuous

Weusethefutureperfectcontinuoustodescribeactivities whichbeganbeforeapointinthefutureandwhicharestill inprogressatthatpointintime: By next September, shell have been studying German for two years. In six months time well have been living in this house for ten years.

8.5 Was going to (the future in the past)

1 as going toisusedtalkaboutsomethingthat,inthe W past,wasthoughtwouldhappeninthefuture: Dont blame me, I didnt know he was going to react so badly to to the news. We were going to go camping, but then it rained so we decided against it. 2 Be to eusetheverbto be + infinitive tomake W announcements: The student exchange programme is to begin in the autumn.

enny:Luckyyou!How3are you getting/do youget J there? atie:Well,we4will take/are going to taketheplane. K Theresaflightthat5leaves/will leaveateight.It6is taking/is going to take justoveranhour. enny:Marvellous.Who7looks after/is going to look J afteryourdog,Toffee? atie:Nowtheresaproblem,Maryse8was going to/ K wouldlookafterthedogbutnowshesaysshecant. enny:Dontworry,9Ill/going totakecareofherifyou J like.When10will you come/are you coming back? atie:We11should/duebebackonSundayevening,by K nineoclock.I12am going to/willpickherupthen. atie:No,dontbother.You13are feeling/are going to K betiredafteryourtrip.14Ill drop/Im going to drop her offatyourplaceonmywaytowork. enny:Thatsreallykind,15Im waiting/Ill be waiting J foryououtside.Iwillhave taken/be takingherforawalk beforeyoupickherup.

9 Gerund and infinitive

9.1 The gerund
Thegerundisthenounformoftheverb.Weformitby adding-ingtotheverb.Becarefulnottoconfusethegerund withthepresentparticiple: Smoking is bad for you = gerund. He is smoking his pipe = presentparticiple. Weusethegerund 1 Afterverbssuchasinvolve, avoid,consider, mindand risk: Do you mind telling what you are doing in my room? 2 ftermanyverbswhichexpresslikesanddislikes,suchas A hate, love, loathe, enjoy: I love cooking but I loathe doing the washing-up. 3 Asasubjectorobject: Eating is not permitted on the premises. 4 fterprepositions,phrasalverbsandexpressionsendingin A apreposition: He burned the letter after reading it. She took up studying Ancient Greek in her spare time. Im tired of listening to your excuses. Remember: i espite,andin spite ofareprepositions/prepositional D phrases.Assuchtheyarefollowedbythegerundor anothernoun: She played tennis despite feeling tired. She played tennis despite her tiredness. Form: used to + doing /look forward to + doing ii lthoughtoispartofthefullinfinitive,itcanalsobe A aprepositionandbefollowedbythegerund: Im used to get up getting up early in the morning. (used to=adjectivemadefromthepastparticiple.) Im looking forward to see seeing the latest film with Julia Roberts. iii ecanfollowneed withthegerundtolenditapassive W sense: These windows need cleaning = Someone needs to clean these windows.

8.6 Adjectives with a future meaning

1 ound/likely and due + infinitive areadjectiveswithan B implicitfuturemeaning. euseboundto whenwearesurethatafutureeventwill W happen: The plane is bound to land late because of the fog. euselikely towhenwethinkitishighlyprobablethat W somethingwillhappen: She is likely to be disappointed with her results. eusedue towhensomethingwhichhasbeenplannedis W expectedtohappen: The reception is due to begin at six oclock this evening. 1 eadthesituationscarefullyandcompletethesentences R withwill orgoing to. 1 Youlooknice,whatsthespecialoccasion? Thanks.I (visit)myboyfriends parents. 2 Comebacktomyplacefordinner. Thatskind,I (bring)somewine. 3 aveyoumadeupmymindaboutyourstudiesnext H year? Yes,Ivefinallydecided.I (study) hotelmanagement. 4 Iminthebath!Canyoupickupthephone? Sure,I (answer)it. 5 aveyouheard?MaxBremner H (play) forChelseanextseason. 6 Isthatthetime!WherecanIgetataxi? Dontworry.I(giveyou)alift . 2 ompletetheconversationbychoosingbetweenthewords C initalics. enny:1Are you doing anything/Do you doanythingnice J nextweekend? atie:Yes,actually,2Im going/I go toBordeauxwith K Vincent. 174 GrA mmAr Guide

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9.2 The infinitive

1 Weusethebareinfinitive(infinitivewithoutto) a Aftermodalverbs: We should listen to what she says. b Aftermakeandlet: They made me wear school uniform. They wouldnt let me play. 2 Weusethefullinfinitive(with to) a Toexpressareasonorpurpose: He enrolled in evening classes to improve his German (to achieve an outcome). She took off her shoes so as not to wake up the baby (to avoid an outcome). b ftercertainverbssuchasappear,manage, seem, want, A would like, and prefer. c Withthelexicalfuture:intend, plan, decide: We intend, plan, decide to stay there for three nights. d ithsomeverbswhichhavetwoobjects:encourage, W request,advise, recommend, tell, and ask: His mother encouraged him to apply for the course.

9.3 Gerund or infinitive

Someverbstakeboththeinfinitiveorthegerundwithlittle, try.Othershaveanimportant changeinmeaninge.g.stop, remember, andhate. 1 Asmallchangeinmeaning: I like to go to the dentist every six months. (Itsa habit.) I like going for long country walks. (Itgivesme pleasure.) I tried to openthe door.(Thiswasmyaim.) I tried turningthe key in the lock andpushingit. (This ishowItriedtodoit.) 2 Animportantchangeinmeaning: We stopped to look at the map. (Westoppedinorderto lookatthemap.) We stopped looking at the map and continued our journey. (Wefinishedstudyingthemap,afterwards,we continued.) I remembered to pay the bill. (IrememberedIhadto payit,soIdid.) I remembered leaving my bag on the bus.(Ileftmybag onthebus,lateronIremembered.) We hated telling him the awful news.(Wetoldhimeven thoughitwasapainfulanddifficulttask.) I hate to tell you this.(Iamabouttotellyou somethingyouwontlike.) I meant to post the letter but I forgot.(Iintendedto posttheletter.) When we discovered the problem it meant starting from the beginning.(Itinvolvedstartingfromthebeginning.) 1 Choosethecorrectformtocompletethesentence. 1 etriedto open/openingthedoorbutitwaslocked W fromtheotherside. 2 didntenjoyto play/playingrugbywhenIwasat I school. 3 hateto tell/telling youthisbutsmokeiscomingout I oftheengine.

4 ouldyoumindto check/checkingthisformIhave W filledin? 5 reyoulookingforwardto go/goingtocollegenext A year? 6 knowitsdifficult,buthaveyoutriedto tell/telling I herthetruth? 7 ildredlikesto keep/keepingemptyegg-boxes,itsa M strangehabitofhers. 8 hechildstoppedto cry/cryingwhenwegavehiman T ice-cream. 9 regkeepsonto phone/phoningSarahitsreally G annoying. 10 idyourememberto post/postingthatletterIgaveyou D thismorning? 11 ouldyouliketocomeround/coming roundfordinner W tonight? 12Thatsnottrue,Idontrememberto say/sayingthat! 13 hedidntmeanto upset/upsettinghimbywhatshe S said. 14 heyweretiredafterto climb/climbingthehill,sothey T stoppedtohave/havingarest. 15 ouldyouremindmeto take/takingthecartothe C garage? 16 egotsolost,itmeantto go back/goingbacktheway W wehadcome. 2 ompletethesecondsentencesothatithasasimilar C meaningtotheoneabove.Usethekeywordincapital letters. 1 Iforgottotakemypassport.REMEMBER I . 2 Remindmetorecordthatprogramme.FORGET Dontlet . 3 IcantwaittogotoCanadanextsummer.FORWARD Im nextsummer. 4 Doyouthinkyoucouldclosethewindow,please?MIND Would . 5 Hewasoverweightsohewentonadiet.ORDER Hewentonadiet weight. 6 Howaboutgoingtoarestauranttonight?LIKE Would toarestauranttonight? 7 venthoughhedidnthaveatickethetravelledto E Athenstowatchthematch.SPITE etravelledtoAthenstoseethematch H aticket.

10 Inversion
Sometimes,wemayinverttheverbandsubjectofaphrase. 1 nversionisusedwithso andneitherinshortanswersto I agreewithsomethingsomeonehasjustsaid. A: I really enjoyed the play. B: So did I. Not: So I did. Notice:youusesoforansweringapositivestructure. I dont have any money left/I havent got any money left. Neither do I or I dont either. Neither have I or I havent either. Youuseneithertoprovideashortanswerwithanegative structure. 175

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Remember: heshortreplymustusetherightauxiliary.Wecanfind T thisoutbyturningtheoriginalstatementintoayes/no question: She ate pasta for lunch.Did she eat pasta for lunch? So did I. 2 nversionisusedwithadverbsofnegativeforcetoexpress I surpriseoremphasis.Thisuseiscommoninmoreformalor literarywriting: Not only did they steal the kitchen equipment but also the food from the fridge/the food from the fridge too. Hardly had I opened the door than I noticed a strange smell. No sooner had they left the flat than Mary rang to say she couldnt come. Never/Rarely/Seldom had we witnessed such a terrible scene. 3 Withthethirdconditional: If we had known about his past, we wouldnt have gone to the police. Had we known about his past, we wouldnt have gone to the police. 1 atchthestatementswithshortreplieswhichagreewith M whathasbeensaid.
1 laughedallthewaythrough I a NeithercanI____. thefilm____. b Soarewe____. 2 Wedontofteneatout____. c Ididtoo____. 3 IamgoingtoItalythissummer____.d Sohadwe____. 4 edidntmeantoupsether____. e Wedidnteither____. W 5 Icantskiverywell____. f Neitherdowe____. 6 heyhadplannedtoleaveafter T lunch____.

11.1 Can (infinitive to be able)

Weusecan 1 Totalkaboutabilities: She can skate beautifully. 2 Toaskforpermission: Can I borrow your dictionary? 3 Forrequests: Can you lend 10? Remember: i Theinfinitiveformofcanisto be able to: I may be able to attend. iiThesimplepastofcaniscouldorwas/were able to: He could drive before the accident/He was able to drive before the accident.

11.2 Could
Aswellasbeingthepastformofcanweusecould 1 Todiscussalternativesandoptions: We could invite everyone to a restaurant, or else we could have a picnic on the beach. 2 Tomakemorepoliterequests: Could you bring me the bill, please? Could you speak a little more slowly, please? 3 eusecanforspeculating,guessinganddiscussing W possibilities: The weather could be better tomorrow (itspossible.) 4 Could orwas able to: Weusecouldtotalkaboutgeneralpastabilities. He could run for miles and miles when he was younger. However,ifwewanttosaywesucceededindoing somethingonaparticularoccasion,orafteralotof difficultyweusebe able to: I drove around for forty minutes, finally I was able to find somewhere to park.

2 Beginningwiththewordinbold,rephrasethesentences. 1 hemomenthefinishedonejobhisbossgavehim T another.Hardly 2 hesecondIgottheexamresultsIphonedmyparents. T No 3 Ihaveneverseensuchanuntidybedroom!Never 4 ShespeaksItalian,ChineseandJapanesetoo.Not 5 IwouldhavetoldhimifIdseenhim.Had

11.3 Must
We use must 1 Fororderswegivetoourselves: I must pay the phone bill, otherwise they will cut me off. 2 oprohibitsomething(usedinmainlywrittenrulesand T regulations): You mustnt speak on your mobile while youre driving. Remember: Non-nativespeakerscanover-usemust.Itcansoundrude oraggressive.Togiveorders,ortodescribeduties use have to instead.Makepoliterequestswithcould you? instead. 3 Forastrongrecommendation: You must see the new James Bond film, its wonderful. 4 Formakingintelligentguessesanddeductions: She must be Melanies twin sister. They are almost identical. 5 ordeductionsinthepastweusemust have been/cant F have been: He must have been disappointed not to pass. His teacher cant have been pleased either.

11 Modals
Modalauxiliaryverbssuchascan,must,andwillallowusto expressconceptssuchasabilityandobligation.Wealso usethemtoallowustoperformawiderangeoffunctional tasks,suchasmakingrequestsorspeculating.Thecontextin whichmodalverbsappearisimportantaseachmodalhasa numberofdifferentuses. Somemodalsdo nothaveafutureorpastform. Wecantusetwomodalstogether.


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Fornegativedeductionsweusecant be,notmustnt be. My parents want me to revise all weekend they cant be serious!(Not:They mustnt be serious.)

11.4 Have to
Weusehave to: 1 Totalkaboutourdutiesorobligations I have to deal with phone calls and enquiries and give advice to students. 2 Toshowthatsomethingisntobligatoryornecessary. You dont have to bring a dictionary to school, we have one in every classroom.

Remember: Shallcansometimesbeusedinsteadofwill. nformal,ormoreold-fashionedEnglish,whenthesubject I ofthemodalisIorwe,wecanuseshall,althoughthisis quiterare. I shall give you my decision in the morning. ShallismorecommonlyusedwithIandweforoffers,orto askforsuggestions. Shall I answer the phone? What shall we do tonight? Shall we go to the cinema?

11.8 Would
Weusewould: 1 Tomakepoliterequests. Would you look after my bag for a few minutes? 2 Inconditionalsentences.(SeeConditionals.) 3 Inreportedspeechasthereportedformofwill. He said he would help me, but he didnt. 4 Totalkaboutpasthabits. When we were young we would sit on that old bench near the entrance to the park. (SeeWill, would and used to formoreinformation.)

11.5 May
Weusemay: 1 Totalkaboutpossibility It may rain this afternoon. 2 Toaskforpermission May I use your phone? Remember: MayIisgenerallyconsideredmorepolitethanCanI.

11.6 Might
Weusemight: 1 Toexpressamoreremotepossibilitythanmay,andto speculate It might be difficult to get a baby-sitter. 2 saverypoliteorformalwayofaskingforpermission,or A makingarequest Might I say something here? Might I borrow your phone book for a minute?

11.9 Should and ought to

Weuseshouldand ought to: 1 Togiveadvice You should/ought to be more careful about what you say in front of her, she repeats everything. 2 Tosaywhatwethinkismorallyright Rich countries should help developing countries. 3 Tocriticiseapastaction You should have made sure that the tickets were in the bag. You shouldnt have been so greedy. etendnottouseoughtnt to/oughtnt to haveasitis W toohardtosay. 4 omakepredictionsbasedonpreviousexperience,orwhat T isexpected Dont panic, there should be another bus in a couple of minutes.

11.7 Will
Weusewill: 1 ormakingpredictionsandtalkingaboutthefuture.(See F Future formoreinformation.) 2 Whenwemakeoffersordecisionsaswespeak Leave the washing up, Ill do it later. Q:Can someone answer the door? A: Ill go. 3 Totalkabouthabitualactions Most days, Ill normally take the 7:42 train to Marylebone. 4 Tomakerequestsorgiveorders Will you drop me off in front of the bus station, please?

11.10 Need
1 euseneed tosaywhensomethingisnecessaryor W unnecessary: We need to enrol everyone for the exam before the deadline. 2 euseneednt to(dontneed)tosaythatsomethingis W notnecessary: You neednt buy/dont need to buy uniforms and equipment, everything is included in the fees.


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Remember: Need canbeusedbothasamodalauxiliary,andasa fullverbwithanauxiliary.Thiscanbeusedtomakean importantdistinctionofmeaninginthepast. Need as a modal: I neednt have worn a suit because everyone else was dressed casually.=Iworeasuit,butit wasntnecessary. Need as a full verb: I didnt need towearasuit,soIjust dressedcasuallylikeeveryoneelse. Need as a modal: I neednt have bought the tools because the company supplied everything. =Iboughtthetoolsbutit wasntnecessary. Need as a full verb:I didnt need tobuy any tools because the company provided everything. = it wasnt necessary to buy any tools so I didnt. 1 Choosethecorrectmodalverb. 1 ccordingtothelaw,youhave to/mustpayyourtaxes A byJanuary1st. 2 ouneednt have bought/didnt need to buythis.We Y alreadyhaveone.Takeitback. 3 A:Ineedsomeonetohelpmewiththis. B:Ihavenothingtodo.Ill/d helpyou. 4 heymust/mightbelate.Julierangearlierandsaidits T possiblebecauseRayhastoworklate. 5 A:Whatshall/willwedotonight? B:Wecouldgotothecinema. A:Goodidea. 6 ouwould/ought toinvitethemtooortheyllbe Y insulted. 7 Are you able to/couldyougivemethebill,please? 2 ewritethefirstsentenceusingthewordsinthesecond R sentence. 1 o youalwayssaythefirstthingthatpopsintoyour D head? youthinkbeforeyouspeak? 2 Youshould gotonight. You togotonight. 3 ourfathermust havebeenangryaboutyourexam Y results. ourfather Y happyaboutyourexam results. 4 Wewereable tofindsomewheretopark. We findaplacetopark. 5 Theresnoneed tohelp. Youdont tohelp. 6 Maybetheyleftearlier. Theymight .

12 Narrative tenses
12.1 Past tenses
1 Pastsimple Weusethepastsimple: a otalkaboutsinglepastactionsoraclearsequenceof T pastactions. Remember: Wedonthavetorepeatthesubjectifitdoesntchange. She opened the envelope, (she) took out the letter and smiled. b Totalkaboutpaststates I taught in that school for thirteen years. 2 Pastcontinuous Weusethepastcontinuous: a odescribepastactionswhichwereinprogressata T giventimeorperiodinthepast. b tthebeginningofanarrativeweusethepast A continuoustosetthescene: The lawyers were looking through their papers preparing their arguments for the trial to come. The defendants wife was anxiously twisting a handkerchief between her fingers. c oshowanactionwasinprogresswhenanotheraction T tookplace: We were watching TV when we heard a loud bang from the street below. d oshowthatdifferentactionswereinprogressatthe T sametime: While we were lying on the beach someone was going through our things in the hotel room. Remember: Wecanoftenleaveoutwas/wereandusethepresent participleonitsown.Asinthepastsimple,wedonthave torepeatthesubjectifitdoesntchange: Shoppers were crowding round the counter, (they were) snatching bargains from under each others noses. 3 Pastperfect Weusethepastperfect -toshowthatanactionhappenedearlierthanalater action: By the time we got there, the film had already started. Remember: Thepastperfectisalsousedintheconditionclauseof thethirdconditional,andtoexpresspastregretswith wish.(SeetheThird conditionaland/orWish formore informationonthis.) 4 Pastperfectcontinuous Weusethepastperfectcontinuous a oshowthatanactionhadstartedandwasstillin T progresswhenanotheractiontookplace: We had been standing there for ages when the night bus finally turned up. b Todescriberepeatedactionsuptoapointinthepast: I had been ringing her all morning but I couldnt get a reply.


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Completethestorybychangingtheverbsinbracketsintoa suitablenarrativetense. Afewmonths1 (goby)sincethedisaster atthebeachsoOlivier2 (decide)totry hisluckwithIsabelleagain.He3 (try)to ringher,buteachtimeshe4 (hear)his voiceshe5 (hangup).Thistime;however, Olivier6 (have)asecretweapon!He 7 (receive)aninvitationtoasmartpartyin acountrychteau,andmanystars8 (going to)bethere.Isabelle9 (notable)toresist. ThistimeOlivier10 (borrow)hismothers newBMWIsabelle11 (wear)asilkevening dressandpearlsshe12 (neverlook)so wonderful.They13 (drive)throughthe foresttothechteau,whensuddenlyawildboar 14 (appear).Olivier15 (cannot)avoiditandthecar16 (gointo) itwithatremendousbangkillingthecreature!Fortunately theboar17 (notdo)toomuchdamage,but Olivier18 (know)hismotherwouldnever believewhat19 (happen)withoutseeing theevidence.WithIsabelleshelp,they 20 (push)itintotheback.Unfortunately whilethey21 (do)this,Isabellesnecklace 22 (break)sothey23 (haveto)spendtenminutespickingupthepearls.Oncethey 24 (finish)they25 (be)werereadytocontinueontheirjourneywhen they26 (hear)aloudcryfromthe backtheboar27 (wakeup)!They 28 (jump)outofthecarand 29 (watch)inhorrorastheangrycreature 30 (destroy)theinterior.Whenthepolice 32 (arrive)they32 (haveto)firefiftyshotsintothecartokillit.Needlessto say,theynever33 (go)totheparty!

Inthefirstsentence,Debbieisthesubjectofthesentence andthecakestheobject.Inthesecondsentence,thecakes arethesubjectandDebbietheagent(i.e.theperformerof theaction);thereisnoobject. Weusethepassive: 1 hentheagent(thepersonwhoperformedtheaction)is W assumed,unimportant,orunknown: The poor old gentleman was taken directly to hospital (probablybyambulance,butthisisntimportant.) My bag has been stolen(byanunknownperson.) 2 hentheaction,event,andprocessisseenasmore W importantthantheagent.Thisisoftenthecaseinformal orscientificwriting: The formula was checked carefully. 3 Toputnewinformationlaterinthesentence: Pride and Prejudice was written by Jane Austen. Remember: Thepassivevoiceisnotatense. Italways includesaformoftheverbtobeandapast participle.Themainchangesare: Present simple:She eats the cake/s. The cake/s is/are eaten. Present continuous:She is eating the cake/s. The cake/s is/are being eaten. Simple past: She ate the cake/s. The cake/s was/were eaten. Past continuous: She was eating the cake/s. The cake/s was/were being eaten. Present perfect: She has eaten the cake/s. The cake/s has/have been eaten. Past perfect: She had eaten the cake/s. The cake/s had been eaten. Going to future: She is going to eat the cake/s. The cake/s is/are going to be eaten. Modals in present:She can/should/will eat the cakes. The cake/s can/should/will be eaten. Future perfect: She will have eaten the cake/s. The cake/s will have been eaten. 4 Thecausativehave(have something done) Weusethe causative have a Totalkaboutservicesothersperformforus: She had her teeth whitened by a famous dentist. Form: have + something + past participle She didnt whiten them herself, the dentist did it for her. b Todescribeunfortunateincidentsandaccidents: She had her handbag stolen from under the seat in the cinema. Remember: Thepresentandpastperfectcontinuousdonothavea passiveform(exceptforrareexamples).

12.2 Passive voice

Theactivevoiceemphasisestheactionsperformedbypeople orthings.Thepassivevoicefocusesonwhathappensto peopleorthingsastheresultoftheactionstheyexperience. Active: a. Debbie ate all the cakes. =wearemoreinterestedinwhat Debbiedid. Passive: b. All the cakes were eaten by Debbie. =wearemore interestedinthecakesandwhathappenedtothem.


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5.Intransitiveverbsdonothaveapassiveform a Get Getcanbeusedinasimilarwaytothe causative have: We got (had) our car repaired at that garage. Getisalsousedwithadjectiveslikemarried andhurt: Luckily nobody got hurt in the crash. Getalsohasapassivesense: I thought we had bought too much food, but in the end all of it got eaten. Remember: Let doesnothaveapassiveform.Weuseallowed tointhe passive: She doesnt let us talk on the phone. We arent allowed to talk on the phone. b Need Needcanbeusedwithapassivesense. euseneedwhensomethinghastobedonewithout W sayingwhoshoulddoit: We need to freeze the vegetables (activesense.) The vegetables need freezing (passivesensegerund.) The vegetables need to be frozen (passiveinfinitive.) 6 Passivewith say, know and believe eusereportingverbssuchassay,knowandbelievein W thepassivewhenwewanttoreportwidely-heldviews,or opinionswhicharecommonknowledge.Itisalsousedto distancethespeakerfromtheinformation,whichiswhyit iscommonlyusedinnewsbroadcasts: The victim was known to have a large number of enemies in the underworld. Chinese silk is said to be the best in the world. He was believed to have a fortune in gold hidden in his house. 7 Agentorinstrument? Withaninstrumentweusewithratherthanby: The cakes were eaten by Debbie. by = theagent. They broke into his desk with/by means of a paper knife. with = theinstrument. Continuethesecondsentencesothatithasasimilar meaningtotheoneaboveit. 1 rchitectshaveturnedthebuildingintoluxury A apartments. Thebuilding byarchitects. 2 Themayorisgoingtoopenthenewleisurecentre. Thenewleisurecentre themayor. 3 SomeoneshouldshowSallywhattodo. Sallyshould whattodo. 4 Ajournalistwaswritingthestoryaswewaited. Thestory aswewaited. 5 Aphotographerisgoingtotakemyphotograph tomorrow. Tomorrow,Im . 6 WeneedtohideMelaniespresentbeforesheseesit. Melaniespresentneedsto . 7 hievesbrokeintotheirapartmentwhiletheywereon T holiday. heyhadtheir T whiletheywereon holiday.

8 Weusedalargescrewdrivertoopenthecarwindow. Thecarwindow largescrewdriver. 9 lotofpeoplesayLe Cheval Blancisthebestrestaurant A intheregion. Le Cheval Blanc is intheregion. 10 Hisparentsdidntlethimwatchthematch. Hewasnt watchthematch.

12.3 Phrasal verbs

Phrasalverbsconsistoftheverbandoneortwo prepositionaloradverbialparticles.Whencombinedinthis waytheirmeaningcanbeidiomatic. Compare: He turned up the street(thisjusttellsuswhereheturned, hecouldhaveturneddownthestreet). He turned up three hours late(=Hearrivedthreehours late.Hereupispartofthephrasalverbturn up,meaning toarrive). Therearefourprincipaltypesofphrasalverb.Tofully appreciatethedifferences,weneedtounderstandthe differencesbetweentransitiveandintransitiveverbs(see Section17). Type 1:intransitivenoobject,e.g.get on; to progress/ have a relationship: How are you getting on? ntransitivephrasalverbsdonothaveanobject.Wecan I followthemwithanadverbialorprepositionalphrase: How are you getting on with your new flatmate? Type 2:transitiveseparable,e.g.let down. Transitiveseparablephrasalverbshavetotakeanobject. fanobjectpronounisuseditmustcomebetweenthe I verbandtheparticle.Thepronouncantcomeafterthe particle: He let Sally/her down. (Not: He let down Sally/her.) Type 3:transitiveinseparable,e.g.break into. hedirectobjectandobjectpronouncannotcome T betweentheverbandtheparticle.Theymustalwaysfollow theparticle: They broke into my flat while I was on holiday. (Not:They broke my flat into while I was on holiday.) Type 4:three-parttransitive(phrasalprepositional),e.g. look forward to. ere,theobjectalwayscomesafterthephrasalverb.Three H partphrasalverbsarealwaysinseparable: Im really looking forward to seeing Ian again. (Not:Im looking forward really to seeing Ian again.) Remember: 1 hesamephrasalverbcanhaveadifferentmeaningand T adifferentgrammar. She turned up late=Shearrivedlate.(Type1 intransitive.) His trousers were too long so he turned them up.= Healteredthetrousers.(Type2transitiveseparable.)


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Decideifthesesentenceswithphrasalverbsarecorrector incorrect 1 hefinallyfoundoutthetruthaboutherrealparents. S CorrectIncorrect 2 Wegotintothecarandsetoff. CorrectIncorrect 3 hecantturnupitatthistime,classstartsathalfpast S eight. CorrectIncorrect 4 igarettesweregivenupasaNewYearsresolution. C CorrectIncorrect 5 anyoulookafterwhileIgototheshops? C CorrectIncorrect 6 Ihavealwayslookeduptomyfather. CorrectIncorrect 7 ontworryaboutthelights,Iswitchedoffthembefore D weleft. CorrectIncorrect 8 uesswhat!Ibumpedhermotherintoatthe G supermarket. CorrectIncorrect 9 SorryIamlate,thebushadbeenbrokendown. CorrectIncorrect 10 Theyarereallylookingtheirholidayforwardto. CorrectIncorrect 11 ycarwasbrokenintowhileIwasatthecinema. M CorrectIncorrect 12 Herillnesswasgotoverinfivedays. CorrectIncorrect

Remember: Someoftheseverbscanalsobedynamic,withachangein meaning: Tobe(stative)=naturalstate. Tobe(active)=toact/behave. Dynamicverbscanbeusedinthepresentcontinuousto showthetemporarynatureoftheaction: What do you think about global warning? Whats your general opinion (stativesense.) Is everything OK? What are you thinking about?(rightnow dynamicsense). She is lazy (itishernaturalstate). She is being lazy (atthemoment). She is smelling the flowers. The flowers smell nice. The flowers smell are smelling nice. She is tasting the soup. The soup tastes good. The soup is tasting good. 2 Presentcontinuous Weusethepresentcontinuous: a Totalkaboutactivitieswhichareinprogress Q : Hey, what are you doing in my room? A:Im looking for the CD I lent you. b otalkaboutongoingactivities.Inotherwords, T activitiesthatbeganinthepast,aregoingonnowand intothefuture Justine studies at Bordeaux University; at the moment she is spending a term in Oxford. c Totalkabouttrendsorachangingsituation Unemployment is still going up by 1% a month. d Toexpressafuturemeaning(SeeFuture forms). e Withalwaystoaddexpression Shes always taking my things (toexpressannoyance). 3 Presentperfectsimple Weusethepresentperfectsimple: a otalkaboutsomethingwhichstartedinthepastand T continuesintothepresent We have lived in this house for thirty years. b otalkaboutpasteventswhennospecifictimeisgiven T orsuggested Have you ever eaten oysters? Mandy has been to Argentina. c otalkaboutrecenteventswheretheresultisstill T visible Your sitting room looks different. Have you painted it? d ithadverbssuchasyet, justandalready(especiallyin W BritishEnglish) Have you written your composition yet? e otalkaboutquantities,anumberofrepeated, T completedactions She has done more than fifty parachute jumps. 4 Presentperfectcontinuous Weusethepresentperfectcontinuous: a otalkaboutcontinuousactivitieswhichstartedinthe T pastandcontinueintothepresent(withanemphasis placedonthedurationoftheactivity) Your father has been working in the garden since eight oclock this morning. b Totalkaboutrepeatedactionsuptothepresent Ive been trying to call the box-office all day, but I just cant get through. 181

12.4 Present tenses

1 Presentsimple Weusethepresentsimple: a otalkaboutfacts,routinesandwithadverbsof T frequency She comes from the north of Brazil. I go to English classes three times a week. We usually order a pizza on Friday nights. They often take on extra staff at Christmas. b ealsousethepresentsimpleverbswithstativeverbs: W -whichdealwithlikesanddislikes:like, love, prefer, hate, detest, dislike -whichdealwithstates:be, seem, looks withverbsofcognition:think, know, understand, believe, remember, mean -withverbsofperception: see, taste, hear, smell -withverbsofpossession:own, belong -otherverbs:need, want, cost.

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c Toemphasiseanactivityratherthanaquantity/result She has been writing short stories for ten years (activity), she has written more than fifty (result). d otalkaboutarecentactivitywherearesultisstill T visible Q:Why are you all red? A:Ive been sunbathing. Remember: Ratherisnotaverb.Not:I rather the cinema than the theatre but I prefer the cinema to the theatre. = Id (would) rather go to the theatre than the cinema. Ifwewanttoincludeanounorpronounwithinthe sentencethenwehavetousethesimplepast: Id rather go to the cinema. Id rather we went to the cinema.(SeeTime). Choosethecorrectform. 1 heyregularlyleave/are leavingthisearlyinthe T morning. 2 A:Whereisshe?Weneedtogo. B: hebe/is beingdifficult.Shewontcomeoutofher S room. 3 A:Whatdo you do/are you doinghere? B:Iworkintheproductiondepartment. 4 hepriceofoilactually falls/is actually fallingaround T theworldatthemoment. 5 A:Howsthecheese? B:Ittastes/is tastinggood! 6 Theyare working/have workedhereforovertenyears. 7 hesbeen revising/revisedforoverthreehours.Its S timeshetookabreak. 8 Thephonehasnt stopped/been stoppingringing allday. 9 hisroomlooksnice.Haveyouredecorated/been T redecoratingit? 10 hisroomislookingnice.Howlonghaveyoupainted/ T been paintingit?

Whom (InmoreformalwrittenorspokenEnglishwhomis usedastheobjectpronoun) Here is the man whom we told you about Whyforreason He gave the reason why he couldnt come. 2 nwritingandmoreformalspeechwemayuse I prepositionswithapronoun: on which=whene.g.This is the day on which we got married. in which=where for which=why to whom=whoto Remember: Indefiningrelativeclauses,who,whichandthat canbeleft outwhentheyrefertotheobjectoftheverbintherelative clause. Do you want to watch the DVD (which/that) I got for my birthday? The person(who/that)I spoke to yesterday said it would be free. Sam bought the jeans (which/that) shed seen last week.

13.2 Non-defining relative clauses

Non-definingrelativeclausesgiveextrainformation whichisnotabsolutelyessentialforthemainmeaningof thesentence.InwrittenEnglishweseparatethemfrom themainclausebycommas.Inspeech,thespeakerwill generallypauseaninstantbeforecontinuingwiththeextra information: The Colossus of Rhodes, which/that stood by the harbour, was destroyed by an earthquake. Notice:Wecantusethatinnon-definingrelativeclauses. Vincent, that who had never eaten mangoes before, developed dark red patches all over his body. Correctthepronounsineachsentence. 1 Jurgaisthemanwhosegavememyfirstjob. 2 Thisismylodger,thatIwastellingyouabout. 3 ndia,whereistheplaceIfirstvisitedin1980,isa I countryIdliketoreturnto. 4 hristmasisatimeinsomecountriesthatfamilyand C friendsgettogether. 5 hereasonwhenIdidntcallyouwasbecausemyphone T batteryranoutofcharge. 6 yonlysister,thatlivesinToronto,iscomingtovisitnext M month. 7 Thechurchonwhichwegotmarriedisnolongerhere. 8 Mycar,whichIleftathomehadaflattireyesterday.

13 Relative clauses
Relativeclausesgiveusmoreinformationaboutthesubject orobjectofasentence.Theylinktwoideaswithinthesame sentenceandcanbedefining,ornon-defining.

13.1 defining relative clauses

1 sedefiningrelativeclausestocompletesentenceswith U essentialinformation. Definingrelativeclausesoftenbeginwiththepronouns: Who/thatforpeople Theres the man who/that helped me. Which/thatforobjectsandanimals This is the computer that/which broke down. Whereforplace This is the restaurant where we first met. Whoseforpossession Thats the stupid woman whose dog bit me. Whenfortime Do you remember the time when Mary and Jack came to stay? 182 GrA mmAr Guide

14 Reported speech and reporting verbs

Weusereportedspeechtosaywhatsomeoneelsehassaid. Weusuallytakeonestepfurtherbackinthepastwhenwe report.Thisiscalledbackshift. enny:I am going to see BarryJenny said she was going J to see Barry.

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Form: present continuous + past continuous 1 Usesayandtelltoreport statements Steve: Ive got a headache, Malcolm.Stevesaidthathe hadaheadache. tevesaidtoMalcolmthathehadaheadache.Steve S toldMalcolm/him(that)hehadaheadache. Not: Steve told to Malcolm/him that he had a headache Steve said Malcolm. Form: verb (+ that) + clause 2 Tellisgenerallyusedtoreport instructions and orders Mum: Tidy up your bedroom, Felix.FelixsMumtoldhim totidyuphisroom. Form: verb + object + infinitive with to 3 ReportedQuestions a h-questions:Useaskandwant to knowtoreport whW questions Katia: Where does Gnther live, Rita?Katiaasked(Rita) whereGntherlived. atiawantedtoknowwhereGntherlived.(Wedont K knowwhoKatiaasked.) Form: The wh- word is followed by a statement word order (subject followed by verb) b es/Noquestions:Useifandwhethertoreportyes/no Y questions Katia: Do you know where Gunther lives?Katia wanted to know if/whether we knew where Gunther lived. Form: verb + if/whether + word order is the same as reported statements 4 Adviceandsuggestions. Terry: Lets go for a bike ride. Terry suggested going for a bike ride. Terry suggested that we go for a bike ride(lessformal). Terry suggested our going for a bike ride (moreformal). Terry suggested that we should go for a bike ride. Form: suggest + -ing; suggest + that + past simple; suggest + that + (should) + infinitive without to a ou ought to go on a diet. Y Dr Morris advised Henry to go on a diet. (Usedtoadvise someonetodosomething.) b Lets buy a drink, she said. She suggested buying a drink. She suggested that we buy a drink. She suggested that we should buy a drink. Remember: Somereportingverbscontainthesentimentoftheoriginal statement.Itisimportantthatthecorrectformsandword patternfollowthereportingverbsinquestion. Form: verb + to + infinitive (offer, refuse, threaten, promise, agree) verb + object + to + infinitive (convince, persuade, tell, advise, encourage, remind, warn) verb + gerund (suggest, propose, recommend, deny, admit, mention) Cindy: Im sorry about breaking the vase.Cindy apologised for breaking the vase. Paul: Dont touch that switch, Ben.Paul warned Ben not to touch the switch.

Steffi: Dont forget to keep the receipt, Martyn.Steffi reminded Martyn to keep the receipt. Rees: I think you should see a doctor, Milton.Rees advised/encouraged Milton to see a doctor atie:YoumustgoandseeBorat,itshilarious. K Katie recommended seeing Borat. orKatie recommended that we see Borat. John: You were stupid to leave your car unlocked, Martha. John criticised Martha for leaving her car unlocked. 5 Changestoplaceandtime ememberthatusingreportedspeechmayinvolvemaking R changestoreferencestoplaceandtime. Nowthen Todaythatday Beforeearlier Thedaybeforeyesterdaytwodaysearlier Thiseveningthatevening Lastnightthepreviousnight/thenightbefore Thenextdaythefollowingday 1 Correctthesentences. 1 Paulsaidmetocallthisnumber. 2 Melindatoldshefelttired. 3 MarissatoldtoKevintobecareful. 4 Hetoldtomethestory. 5 Sheaskedwhattimedidthetrainleave? 6 owardwantedtoknowfromwherewehadboughtthe H flowers. 2 sethereportingverbyouaregiventochangethe U sentencesfromdirecttoreportedspeech.Makeanyother necessarychangestothewordsinbold. 1 Lionel:Youreallyshouldapplyforthejob,Romain. Lionelencouraged . 2 am:Iwouldntwalkroundthispartoftownafterdark, S Derek. Samwarned . 3 Joan:Letsvisittheruinstomorrow. Joansuggestedthat . 4 Lori:ImsorryIwaslatethe day before yesterday,Kim. Loriapologisedto . 5 atrick:Dontforgettocollectmyprescriptionfromthe P chemists,Charlene. PatrickremindedCharlene . 6 aul:Ididntcallyoulast night,Sarah,becauseI P couldntfindyournewnumber. PaulexplainedtoSarahwhy . 7 Doctor:Youshouldtrytogotobedearlier,Mr.Rossi. Thedoctoradvised . 8 Penny:Youshouldnthavebroughtthesubjectup,Nick. Pennycriticised .


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15 Will/would and used to

15.1 Will and would
1 Willisusedtotalkaboutexpectedbehaviour: The cat scratched me when I tried to pick him up. Ah yes, he will do that with strangers.(Hehasdonethis withotherpeople.) 2 Wouldisusedtodescribepasthabitsandrepeatedactions: When mother came home from working in the shop all day long she would sit in the armchair and put her aching legs up. Wouldcantbeusedtotalkaboutpaststates: He would be fat when he was a child. 3 Used toisused a Asanauxiliary Used to + base form canbeusedtodescribeboth discontinuedpasthabitsandstates: She used to be skinny when she was a teenager(=a state). I used to play tennis every Saturday morning (=a habit). Form: used to + base form Remember: Ifwegivepreciseinformationabouthowlongastateor habitlastedthenweusethesimplepast. Not: I used to smokefor ten years;but:I smoked for ten years. :Do you smoke Martin? Q A: Not any more, but I used to (Noticetheshortreply) b Asanadjective. eusebe used to +gerundorget used to +gerund W toexpresstheideaofbeing,orbecomingaccustomed/ familiarwithsomething. Sally is used to getting up early.(Sheisaccustomedto gettingupearly,itsnotaproblemforher.) Form: be used to + gerund henSamwenttouniversityhemissedhisfamilyalot, W butnowthingsarebetter,he is getting used to living away from home. (Heisdevelopingthehabitofbeing awayfromhome.) Form: get used to + gerund Completethesesentenceswithwill,would,wasorused to. 1 Nigel dothatwhenhestired,Imafraid. 2 e W alwayswalkthiswayhomewhenwe werechildren. 3 She haveblackhairdidntshe? 4 hey T alwaysbelateevenwhenthey werechildren.

16 So and such; too and enough

1 sesoandsuchclausestoshowarelationshipofcause U andeffectbetweenclauses.Soandsuchappearinthe causeclause. The lesson was boring.I fell asleep at my desk. Causeeffect The lesson was so boring that I fell asleep at my desk. Form: so + adjective It was such a boring lesson that I fell asleep at my desk. Form: such + (adjective) + noun Alessusualvariationis It was so boring a lesson that I fell asleep at my desk. Form: so + adjective + a (indefinite article) 2 setooandenoughtoshowthattoomuchortoolittleof U somethingpreventedsomethingelsefromhappening.Too andenoughprovideanexplanationforwhathappenedor didnthappen: ulian wanted to join the army. He was only 15 years old. J =He was too young to join the army. Form: too + adjective + infinitive He wasnt old enough to join the army. Form: not + adjective + enough + infinitive Remember: Weputenoughbeforenouns,butafteradjectives. She didnt have enough money to rent a flat. Form: enough + noun She wasnt rich enough to rent a flat. Form: adjective + enough 1 eginningwiththeword/sinbold,putthesentencesinto B therightorder. 1 he havefinishenoughdidnttimeexam S theto. 2 he filmwasallmademethatsolaugh T itdayfunny. 3 hey tooholidaychildrenwerepoortake T totheiron. 4 He criedbecausedayhesadallsowas. 5 upert wassuchthatainmoodtorefused R badmehetospeak. 6 nfortunately tofitLucyenoughinwasnt U finalplaythe. 2 ontinuethesecondsentencesothatithasasimilar C meaningtotheoneabove. 1 eweresotiredafterthejourneythatwewentstraight W tobed. Itwas . 2 Sheistooyoungtotravelonherown. Sheisnt . 3 isexamresultsweresuchadisappointmentforhis H parents. Hisparents . 4 Thereisntenoughspaceforanextrasuitcase. Thesuitcase .


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17 Transitive and intransitive verbs

17.1 intransitive verbs Intransitiveverbs(I)onlyconcernthesubject(theperson whoperformstheaction)andtheverb(theaction).Thereis nodirectobject.Examplesofintransitiveverbsarearrive,go, come, sleep, watch, move, vanish and disappear: The bus came. The boat disappeared. Wecanintroduceanotherpersonorthingwithanadverbial phraseoraprepositionalphrase: Melinda finally arrived twenty minutes late. The boat disappeared in the storm. Form: subject + verb

2 orpresent/futuresituationsyouwouldliketochangewe F usewould: I wish he would stop whistling, (but I dont think he will). Form: wish + would + infinitive (without to) 3 orregretsaboutthingswhichhappenedentirelyinthe F pastandwhichweareunabletochangeweusewish+ pastperfect: I wish I hadnt said anything. Form: wish + past perfect (had + past participle) Remember: Toexpressregrets,wishesandlostopportunitiesinthe pastwecansubstituteif onlyforwish: If only I hadnt said anything. Matchthetwohalvesofthesentences.
1 IwishIcould____. 2 IwishIwasable____. 3 Iwishhe____. 4 IwishIhadvisited____. 5 IwishIspoke____. 6 Ifonly____. a wouldstopinterrupting. b German c tospeakChinese. d IspokeGermanandChinese e speakChinese. f Germanylastyear.

17.2 Transitive verbs

Transitiveverbs(T)concernoraffectanotherpersonorthing (theobject)aswellasthesubject. 1 heycannotstandaloneandmusttakeanobject. T Transitiveverbsincludesee, do, make, and own. I found.=incomplete. I found her watch. = complete. Form: subject + verb + object 2 ransitiveverbs,unlikeintransitiveverbscanbemade T passive: Her watch was found under the sofa. 3 Manytransitiveverbscanbeusedintransitively: Q: What did you do this morning, children? A:We played.(I) A:We played tennis.(T) Remember: Donotconfuseintransitiveverbsandtheirtransitive equivalents. ie(I)kill(T);rise(I)raise(T);vanish/disappear(I) d lose(T) Arethesesentencescorrectorincorrect?Write or. 1 Sheslept. 2 Iown. 3 Weplayedgolf. 4 Weplay. 5 Threehundredpeopledied. 6 Threehundredpeopleweredied. 7 Magically,thewizardvanished. 8 Whathaveyoufound?

19 Verb groups
19.1Irregularverbscanbeorganizedintogroupswhich behaveinasimilarway.Someverbs,includingsomeofthe mostcommon,donotfollowapattern.
be do eat go see win was/were did ate went saw won done eaten gone/been seen won

19.2 Past simple and past participle (the same) Wecanmakesub-groupsofsimilarverbs. Ending in -ought or -aught catch caught bring brought buy bought seek sought think thought Ending in -eep, -ept keep kept sleep slept Present and past participle the same become became come come run run Ending in t or d caught brought bought sought thought

18 Wish
Weusewish: 1 oexpressourhopesforwhatwewanttohappenornot T tohappeninthefuture: I wish I knew the answer (=butIdont). Form: subject + simple past I wish I could speak Arabic (=butIcant). Form: subject + wish + could/was able to + infinitive (without to)

kept slept become come run


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get learn mean meet sit find have hear hold make stand understand lend send spend sell tell pay say

got learnt meant met sat found had heard held made stood understood lent sent spent sold told paid said

got/gotten(US) learnt meant met sat found had heard held made stood understood lent sent spent sold told paid said

Change from -i to -a to -u begin began ring rang swim swam Change from -ear to -ore to -orn bear wear bore wore

begun rung swum

born worn

Change from -ow or -y to -ew to -own or -awn fly grow know draw No change cost cut forecast hit put read flew grew knew drew flown grown known drawn

cost cut forecast hit put read

cost cut forecast hit put read

Past participle in -en beat beat break broke choose chose fall fell forget forgot freeze froze give gave hide hid rise rose speak spoke take took write wrote 186 GrA mmAr Guide

beaten broken chosen fallen forgotten frozen given hidden risen spoken taken written

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