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RESUMEN MBITO DE INGLS.

GRAMMAR

Los adjetivos comparativos y superlativos en ingls se utilizan para comparar varios sujetos atendiendo a una caracterstica. Los adjetivos se miden en varios grados, que son:

Grado positivo: Inteligente intelligent Grado comparativo:

de igualdad: tan inteligente como as intelligent as de superioridad: ms inteligente que more intelligent than de inferioridad: menos inteligente que less intelligent than

Grado superlativo: el ms inteligente the most intelligent

As pues, vemos que los adjetivos comparativos y superlativos en ingls por regla general se construyen con: as as, more than, less than, y the most, pero esto no siempre es as.

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El comparativo de superioridad y el superlativo siguen reglas distintas en ocasiones especiales. Veamos una tabla con todos los casos posibles:
Adjetivo Intelligent Adjetivos con ms de 1 slaba Beautiful Fast Adjetivos de 1 slaba Tall more beautiful than faster than taller than He is taller than you slower than easier than better than You are better than him worse than farther / further than older / elder than less than more than the most beautiful the fastest She is the most beautiful woman of the world My car is the fastest ( Mi coche es el ms rpido) Comparativo de superioridad more intelligent than the most intelligent Superlativo

the tallest

Adjetivos terminados en y, er, le, ow

Slow Easy

the slowest the easiest

Good

the best

Bad Adjetivos irregulares Far Old Little Many / Much

the worst the farthest / furthest the oldest / eldest the least the most

Conviene hacer algunas observaciones en relacin con:

Latter. Significa el segundo de dos. Last. Es el ltimo, el final. Latest. Significa ltimo hasta el presente. The latest news (Ultimas noticias, las ms recientes en tanto no se reciban otras). Farther. Se refiere generalmente a distancia. (Barcelona is farther from London than from Paris) (Barcelona est ms lejos de Londres que de Pars). Further. Significa adicional. (I will give you further details later.) (Le dar detalles adicionales -ulteriores- ms tarde). Tambin further puede usarse para distancias, al igual que farther, pero, en cambio, slo further puede utilizarse en sentido adicional. Much. Se usa en singular. (I have no much time.) (No tengo mucho tiempo). Many. Se usa en plural. (I have not many pencils.) (No tengo muchos lpices).

Finalmente, si el superlativo se refiere a lugar (complemento de lugar, segn dicen las Gramticas), en ingls se usa la preposicin in. (New York is the biggest town in the U. S. A.)(Nueva York es la mayor ciudad de los Estados Unidos).

Formas simples Presente (yo) voy (t) vas (l) va

Indicativo Pretrito perfecto simple (yo) fui (nosotros) fuimos (t) fuiste (vosotros) fuisteis (l) fue (ellos) fueron

(nosotros) vamos (vosotros) vais (ellos) van

Futuro (yo) ir (t) irs (l) ir (nosotros) iremos (vosotros) iris (ellos) irn

Pretrito imperfecto (yo) iba (t) ibas (l) iba (nosotros) bamos (vosotros) ibais (ellos) iban

Condicional (yo) ira (t) iras (l) ira (nosotros) iramos (vosotros) irais (ellos) ira

Formas simples Subjuntivo Presente (yo) vaya (t) vayas (l) vaya (nosotros) vayamos (vosotros) vayis (ellos) vayan Futuro (yo) fuere (t) fueres (l) fuere (nosotros) furemos (vosotros) fuereis (ellos) fueren

Imperativo
ve (t) vaya (l, usted) vayamos (nosotros) id (vosotros) vayan (ellos, ustedes)

Pretrito imperfecto (yo) fuera o fuese (t) fueras o fueses (l) fuera o fuese (nosotros) furamos o fusemos (vosotros) fuerais o fueseis (ellos) fueran o fuesen

Infinitivo : ir Gerundio : yendo


Participio : ido

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Formas compuestas

Indicativo
Pretrito perfecto compuesto (yo) he ido (t) has ido (l) ha ido (l) hay ido (nosotros) hemos ido (vosotros) habis ido (ellos) han ido Pretrito pluscuamperfecto (yo) haba ido (t) habas ido (l) haba ido (nosotros) habamos ido (vosotros) habais ido (ellos) haban ido Pretrito anterior (yo) hube ido (t) hubiste ido (l) hubo ido (nosotros) hubimos ido (vosotros) hubisteis ido (ellos) hubieron ido

Futuro perfecto (yo) habr ido (t) habrs ido (l) habr ido (nosotros) habremos ido (vosotros) habris ido (ellos) habrn ido Subjuntivo Pretrito perfecto

Condicional perfecto (yo) habra ido (t) habras ido (l) habra ido (nosotros) habramos ido (vosotros) habrais ido (ellos) habran ido

Pretrito pluscuamperfecto (2) (yo) hubiese ido (t) hubieses ido (l) hubiese ido (nosotros) hubisemos ido (vosotros) hubieseis ido (ellos) hubiesen ido

Pretrito pluscuamperfecto (yo) hubiera ido (t) hubieras ido (l) hubiera ido (nosotros) hubiramos ido (vosotros) hubierais ido (ellos) hubieran ido Futuro perfecto (yo) hubiere ido (t) hubieres ido (l) hubiere ido (nosotros) hubiremos ido (vosotros) hubiereis ido (ellos) hubieren ido

Infinitivo compuesto

haber ido

Gerundio compuesto

habiendo ido

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Formas simples
Indicative Present I go you go he/she/it goes we go you go they go Preterite I went you went he/she/it went we went you went they went Infinitive to go Imperative go let's go go

Participle

Present going

Past gone

Formas compuestas Past Participle having gone Indicative

Present continuousPresent perfect I am going I have gone you are going you have gone he/she/it is going he/she/it has gone we are going we have gone you are going you have gone they are going they have gone Past continuous Past perfect I was going I had gone you were going you had gone he/she/it was goinghe/she/it had gone we were going we had gone you were going you had gone they were going they had gone

Future I will go you will go he/she/it will go we will go you will go they will go

Future perfect I will have gone you will have gone he/she/it will have gone we will have gone you will have gone they will have gone

Future continuous Present perfect continuous I will be going you will be going I have been going he/she/it will be goingyou have been going we will be going he/she/it has been going you will be going we have been going they will be going you have been going they have been going

Past perfect continuous I had been going you had been going he/she/it had been going we had been going you had been going they had been going

Future perfect continuous I will have been going you will have been going he/she/it will have been going we will have been going you will have been going they will have been going

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Tambin es importante saber que utilizamos el verbo Be para los siguientes casos:
Para presentarnos. Im David (Yo soy David) Saludar .Hello. How are you? (Hola. Cmo ests?) Disculparnos. Im sorry. (Lo siento) Expresar la profesin. We are lawyers (Somos abogados) Expresar la nacionalidad. They are Spanish (Ellos son espaoles) Referirnos a lugares .My dad is in Palencia (Mi padre est en PAlencia) Describir cosas .Its an old film (Es una pelcula vieja) Expresar la edad. En espaol corresponde al verbo tener My brother is 10 years old (Mi hermano tiene 10 aos) Decir cmo nos sentimos. Im very hungry (tengo mucha sed) Hablar sobre el tiempo que hace .Its very hot today (Hace mucho calor hoy) Expresar la hora y la fecha. Its six oclock (son las 6 en punto). Its Monday (Es lunes)

Utilizamos HAVE con o sin got en el sentido del verbo espaol tener, para:
Hablar de las cosas que poseemos She has got a house (ella tiene una casa) Hablar de la familia We have got a sister (nosotros tenemos una hermana) Describir rasgos fsicos .I have got brown eyes (yo tengo los ojos marrones) Expresar el malestar fsico .I have got a headache (tengo dolor de cabeza) Para hablar de comidas, vacaciones y la higiene You have a shower (t te duchas) He has breakfast at seven oclock (el desayuna a las 7)

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Tablas de Conjugacin del verbo en ingls: bring


Infinitive: to bring . Present: bring

Past Simple: brought.

Past Participle: brought.

Gerund: bringing.

Meaning: traer

Present Simple ( do-does , y aade s o -es al verbo en las 3 pers. Singular. Affirmative I bring. You bring. Interrogative Do I bring? Do you bring? Negative I do not bring. You do not bring.

Present Simple Continuous to be + -ing Affirmative I am bringing. You are bringing. Interrogative Am I bringing? Are you bringing? Negative I am not bringing. You are not bringing.

He/She/It brings. Does he/she/it bring? He/She/It does not bring. We bring. You bring. They bring. Do we bring? Do you bring? Do they bring? We do not bring. You do not bring. They do not bring.

He/She/It is bringing. Is he/she/it bringing? He/She/It is not bringing. We are bringing. You are bringing. They are bringing. Are we bringing? Are you bringing? Are they bringing? We are not bringing. You are not bringing. They are not bringing.

Present Perfect Se compone del verbo Haber : Have has ( 3pers.sing ) + la forma del verbo en participio ( Termina en ed , o en los verbos irregulares sera la forma verbal de la 3 columna.

Present Perfect Continuous Verbo have has + been + verbo en gerundio ing

Affirmative I have brought. ( He trado) You have brought. (has trado)

Interrogative Have I brought? Have you brought?

Negative I have not brought. You have not brought. He/She/It has not brought. We have not brought. You have not brought. They have not brought.

Affirmative I have been bringing. (He estado trayendo) You have been bringing. He/She/It has been bringing. We have been bringing.

Interrogative Have I been bringing? Have you been bringing? Has he/she/it been bringing? Have we been bringing? Have you been bringing? Have they been bringing?

Negative I have not been bringing. You have not been bringing. He/She/It has not been bringing. We have not been bringing. You have not been bringing. They have not been bringing.

He/She/It has brought. ( ha trado) Has he/she/it brought? We have brought. You have brought. They have brought. Have we brought? Have you brought? Have they brought?

You have been bringing. They have been bringing.

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Past Simple Pasado del presente simple : El auxiliar es did para todas las presonas. El pasado de un verbo se hace con la terminacin ed ( verbos regulares ) , o la 3columna verbos irregulares. Affirmative I brought. You brought. He/She/It brought. We brought. You brought. They brought. Interrogative Did I bring? Did you bring? Did he/she/it bring? Did we bring? Did you bring? Did they bring? Negative I did not bring. You did not bring. He/She/It did not bring. We did not bring. You did not bring. They did not bring. Past Continuous Es el pasado del presente continuo. Verbo to be en pasado : was- were + verbo en gerundio ing. Affirmative I was bringing. You were bringing. He/She/It was bringing. We were bringing. You were bringing. They were bringing. Interrogative Was I bringing? Were you bringing? Was he/she/it bringing? Were we bringing? Were you bringing? Were they bringing? Negative I was not bringing. You were not bringing. He/She/It was not bringing. We were not bringing. You were not bringing. They were not bringing.

Past Perfect Es el pasado del presente perfecto. Had ( forma pasada de have) + participio (verbo terminado en ed , o los irregulares la 3columna ) Affirmative I had brought. ( Haba trado) You had brought. He/She/It had brought. We had brought. You had brought. They had brought. Interrogative Had I brought? Had you brought? Had he/she/it brought? Had we brought? Had you brought? Had they brought? Negative I had not brought. You had not brought. He/She/It had not brought. We had not brought.

Past Perfect Continuous. Pasado del presente perfecto continuo: Se forma con had been + verbo en gerundio ing. Affirmative I had been bringing. (haba estado trayendo) You had been bringing. He/She/It had been bringing. We had been bringing. Interrogative Had I been bringing? Had you been bringing? Had he/she/it been bringing? Had we been bringing? Had you been bringing? Had they been bringing? Negative I had not been bringing. You had not been bringing. He/She/It had not been bringing. We had not been bringing. You had not been bringing. They had not been bringing.

You had not brought. They had not brought.

You had been bringing. They had been bringing.

Future Simple Se forma con will para todas las personas + el verbo en infinitivo sin to. Affirmative I will bring.(Traer) You will bring. He/She/It will bring. We will bring. You will bring. They will bring. Interrogative Will I bring? Will you bring? Will he/she/it bring? Will we bring? Will you bring? Will they bring? Negative I will not bring. You will not bring. He/She/It will not bring. We will not bring. You will not bring. They will not bring.

Future Perfect : Se forma con will+ presente perfecto Affirmative I will have brought. You will have brought. He/She/It will have brought. We will have brought. You will have brought. They will have brought. Interrogative Will I have brought? Will you have brought? Will he/she/it have brought? Will we have brought? Will you have brought? Will they have brought? Negative I will not have brought. You will not have brought. He/She/It will not have brought. We will not have brought. You will not have brought. They will not have brought.

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Conditional : Se forma con el pasado de will : would + infinitivo sin to. Conditional Perfect : Se forma con would + have+participio (-ed , los verbos regulares,3columna los irregulares).

Affirmative I would bring.(Traera) You would bring. He/She/It would bring. We would bring. You would bring. They would bring.

Interrogative Would I bring? Would you bring? Would he/she/it bring? Would we bring? Would you bring? Would they bring?

Negative I would not bring. You would not bring. He/She/It would not bring. We would not bring. You would not bring. They would not bring.

Affirmative I would have brought. You would have brought. He/She/It would have brought. We would have brought. You would have brought. They would have brought.

Interrogative Would I have brought? Would you have brought? Would he/she/it have brought? Would we have brought? Would you have brought? Would they have brought?

Negative I would not have brought. You would not have brought. He/She/It would not have brought. We would not have brought. You would not have brought. They would not have brought.

Shape - Forma

Size/Measure -Tamao/Medida

Age/Time -Edad/Tiempo

Weather - Tiempo (clima)

Temperature - Temperatura

square - cuadrado round - redondo curved) - curvo big - grande high - elevado old - viejo quick - rpido rainy - lluvioso foggy - con niebla freezing - helado rectangular crooked) large - grande low - bajo young - joven slow - lento stormy overcast - nublado chilly - fro rectangular torcido huge - enorme tall - alto new - nuevo senior - mayor tormentoso cloudy - nuboso cold - fro triangular - triangular broad - ancho small - pequeo short - corto, bajo modern - moderno junior - ms joven sunny - soleado clear - despejado cool - fresco oval - oval narrow -angosto tiny - diminuto long - largo ancient - antiguo current - actual windy - ventoso mild - templado lukewarm - tibio conical - cnico flat - plano heavy - pesado medium - medio old fashioned past - pasado snowy - con nieve chilly - fro boiling - hirviendo spherical - esfrico steep light - liviano narrow - angosto anticuado future - futuro damp - hmedo icy - con hielo muggy - caluroso cubical - cbico empinado thick - grueso deep - profundo updated -actualizado fast - rpido dry - seco hot - caluroso straight -recto hollow - hueco thin - delgado shallow - playo outdatedwarm - clido cylindrical - cilndrico solid- slido wide - ancho broad - ancho desactualizado pleasant - agradable Personality (positive) - Personalidad (positivo) Personality (negative) - Personalidad (negativo) ambitious- ambicioso tolerant - tolerante courageous - valiente disciplined - disciplinado dishonest - deshonesto lazy- haragn possesive - posesivo gullible - ingenuo modest - modesto patient - paciente intelligent - inteligente sympathetic - comprensivo pessimistic- pesimista greedy - codicioso conceited - engredo stubborn - terco sensible - sensato honest - honesto generous - generoso considerate considerado miserly- avaro resentful - resentido arrogant - arrogante careless - negligente friendly - amistoso optimistic- optimista humorous - divertido responsible - responsable coward (- cobarde envious - envidioso fussy - quisquilloso selfish - egosta practical - prctico sincere - sincero jealous - celoso impatient - impaciente