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KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India,

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BL-101 General English-I I B.A. LL.B. 5 yrs (I Sem.)

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KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

English Q.1 Discuss the aptness of the title of the play Justice. The play should have been called William Falder. Examine the statement. Ans. Justice is a heart-rending tragedy, its central theme being the suffering caused to individuals by the administration of criminal law. Falder is a weak and nervous youngman who works as a clerk in a lawyers firm. He is good at heart and morally up right. He is in love with a woman, Ruth, whose husbands treats her brutally and even tries to strangulate her. As her very life is in danger, and moved as much by pity as by love, he plans to elope with her to South America. As he has no money, he commits forgery, the crime is detected on the very eve of his departure, he is tried in a court of law, and is sentenced to three years rigorous imprisonment. His spiritual agony during his term of solitary confinement is vividly and realistically depicted, so smuch so that critics like A.C. Ward are of the view that Justice is a commentary upon the prison administration of that period.

Its Failure This failure of criminal law and its administration forms the core of the drama and constitutes its central theme. He problem is even if the law is justly administered, does it do real justice to the criminal? The law is a purely human institution built up by the legislators of a country for the safety, protection, order well-being of each individual and the administrators of law-the judges, magistrates etc-are human beings with limited wisdom, however, strict, impartial and zealous they may be in the performance of their duty. But while the law aspires to be just to all and its administrators aspire to be just to each individual offender according to his case, real justice is a causalty at the hands of both the law and its trial of Falder. The judge regards the legal system of England as a majestic edifice, and essential for the protection of society. The lawyer for the prosecution Cleaver, upholds this view, and favours deterrent punishment for criminals like Falder, but the definece lawyer, Frome, is of the view that all the circumstances of the case should be considered, and weak nervous and in experienced youngman should be protected from being crushed by the chariot

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

wheels of Justice. What happens to Falder, subsequent to his release from jail, fully justifies his view that gross injustice is being done in the name of justice. Justice should be tempered with mercy; strict application of the letter of the law will not do.

Falder Merely a Type William Falder would not been a suitable title for the play, for he is a symbolic figure, a type, a representative through whom the dramatist has demonstrated the fallibility of the legal system of the land. Q.2 Elabotate on the character of Falder in the drama justice Or Falder is more sinned against then sinning. Elaborate on this statement. Ans. Falder is one of the erring youngmen who were dear to Galsworthy because they were not bad by nature, and had been forced by circumstances to commit a crime in a moment of recklessness, almost amounting to madness. He is junior clerk in a firm of solicitors and is well-liked by the managing clerk. He is a pale, good-looking youngmen of twenty-three, with quick, rather scared eyes. It appears Falder was very susceptible to love. Ruth was in all probability, the first woman whom he met and that too, through his sister, not at some place of common resort. Had there been any predecessor to Ruth in Falders love we should have heard of her in some context or the other. She was a married woman but she was so charming and so miserable that he could not help loving her; he became devotedly attached to her. When the Judge pointed out to him that it was bad because that she was a married woman, Falder replied, I couldnt help it.I didnt seem able to. Falders concern for Ruth was so great that even when he was facing an imprisonment he requested Frome to try that her name was not published because it would put her in great trouble. Falder was sensitive in various ways. He felt the misfortune of Ruth so much that he was deeply attached to her. After he had committed his crime he was haunted. In prison even the smallest sound moved him. He felt things deeply. After his jail-term he b ecame much more sensitive. It was his sensitiveness that did not allow him to remain at a place after he

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

found that the others knew about him. He did not even touch the twenty-five pounds that, the husband of his sister offered him so that he could go to Canada. He cried, I see, good riddance! No, thanks; keep your twenty-five pounds. When Cokeson said that they were all very sorry for him, Falder said, But it doesnt do to associate with criminals! One every strange feature of Falders thinking is that he dislikes the idea of having committed a crime and suffered for it for nothing. He says to the counsel for the Crown, Cleaver in the court scene, When I found Id done a thing like that, to do it for nothing seemed so dreadful. Falder was not quite a fool. Although he forged the cheque in a mad moment when he did not know what he was doing, he went about to complete his work altering the counter-foil in a cold blooded manner. Although he had seen what the cashier Cowley was there for, he stuck to it as long as he could. He was making replies which could implicate the absent Davis. Falder was bitter too. We see definite bitterness in him after his return from prison. When Cokeson enquires about his health he replies, with some bitterness, no doubt. I am alive, Mr. Cokeson. He had declined to accept twenty-five poiiunds from the husband of his sister with a bitter retort. And when Cokeson said that they were all very sorry for him, he replied, with quiet bitterness. But it doesnt do to associate with criminals! When he says to James that it would have been better to put them under somebody that could look after them a bit, and not put in prison and James says that he has very grave doubts of that. Falder replies, with a gleam of malice, Yes, sir, so I found, The next moment he says, with all the bitterness of his past suffering. Its knocked me out of time. Q.3 Discuss the character of Ruth, fixing her responsibility for the tradegy of Falder. Or Ruth was both an Individual and a type. Discuss. Discuss the story of life and suffering of Ruth. Examine Galsworthys plea for easier divorce. Ans. Ruth is a young mother, married to a brutal husband who treats her most cruelly. She is young, pale-looking, but dignified and self-respecting. She is poor; she is awfully tyrannized over; she is in rather illicit love with a friend. But throughout the drama she keeps her dignity and sense of propriety.

Represents Long-Suffering Married Women


KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

Ruth is the type of those helpless women who have to suffer all their lives in a marriage bond which they are unable to break or unite. She is the type of those unhappy married women who suffer all their lives as helpless victims of false notions of social morality. They can find quick relief, if the marriage is dissolved and they are set free to go their own way, but alas! Social laws and social morality do not take their suffering into account, and do not permit divorce merely on grounds of cruelty. The result is they live in constant dread of their lives, victims of outmoded social conventions and traditions. Individual Traits Dignity and Determination Ruth is a type, she is also an individual. She has certain well-marked individual traits. She is dignified, self-respecting, courageous and determined. She can stand alone and face most ticklish situations single-handed. She is not a helpless weakling like Falder. There are numerous instances in the play of her dignified and determined conduct. It is with dignity and determination that she approaches Cokeson to seek a private interview with Falder. She does not cringe or cry, but boldly tells her that it is matter of life and death for her and she must see him under all circumstances. She does not hesitate to use her feminine charms and gives him a honeyed smile. Ultimately, she gains her point and is able to talk to Falder. Later on, during the trial scene her conduct is dignified and calm. There is no agitation and no shedding of tears, even though her suffering and her love of Falder are apparent from her looks. An Affectionate Mother : Her Courage During the time that Falder is in jail, Ruth faces life with courage, determination and stoical resignation. She does not go back to her husband, but lives apart with the children. She does her best to earn enough honestly to support the children and to keep her own body and soul together. She takes to sewing work, but, even though she works hard day and night, she is unable to make both ends meet. An affectionate mother, she cannot endure to see her

children starve. The result is she is obliged to sell her body. She becomes the mistress of her successive employers. The story of her fall is pathetic and heart-rending. She is not immoral, she is only the victim of circumstance, of false notions of social morality which crush her down, as Falder is crushed down by the moving of the chariot wheels of justice. Her Love of Falder : Its Nobility and Purity

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

Her love of Falder is noble and beautiful. It is also self-sacrificing. She is determined not to live with her brutal husband, yet she is self-possessed enough in spite of her deep and sincere, romantic love for the weak-minded Falder to say to him, if youre sorry, say so. Id sooner he killed me than take you against your will. That is a quite generous offer from a women in distress It is her dignity, and the sincerity of her love of Falder that touches the heart of Cokeson when she approaches him with the request that Falder be employed again, and thus given a chance to lead an honest life one again. She even agrees to give up Falder when James asks her to do so, if that would help Falder to secure a job and turn over a new leaf. It is a noble act of self-sacrifice. But such a look of anguish passes across her face that even James, the experienced man of the world, is touched and agrees to wink over their immoral relationship and take in Falder. But that was not be. The very next moment Falder is arrested by detective Wistor, and he ends his life by jumping down the stairs. They play ends fittingly with Ruth bending over the body of Falder and lamenting. My dear, my Pretty. Q.4 What is the message of the play Justice? Or Justice makes trenchant criticisms of the legal and penal system of England in 1910. Elaborate. Ans. Galsworthy was reformer with particular concern for the under-dog and the suffering. He tried his best to lessen the suffering of men and animals. He hated cruelty and injustice and had deep pity for men and animals in distress. The message that Galsworthy gives through Justice is that the existing legal system and penal system is not right. Instead to protect and reform man, it turns him into a criminal. This message is very clearly shown by the play from different angles. Galsworthy, with impartiality puts the opposite views before us. The fight begins in the very beginning. As soon as Falder is found to be guilty there are two views. James says, Nothing for it. Prosecute. But Walter would give him a chance. He depends upon attitude. While Cokeson and Walter wish to take the softer and humane view James hardens up. For the two there are so many excuses on behalf of Falder, but, for James he suddenly becomes the worst of men with several weaknesses that had never been thought of. They think of the individual, he thinks of society. The cruelty of Law and justice is shown in the court scene. Frome puts forward the more sensible view, which is, in fact, Galsworthys message. He protests that a youngmen under

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

violent stress is almost mad temportarily and should not be punished for an act committed in a moment of madness. We should take note of the life which always lies behind the commission of a crime; we should acquit of criminal lies the person who does wrong treat him as a darkness when all sense of proportion is lost; we should treat him as a patient. Frome talks of the cage of the law and the rolling of the chariot- wheels of Justice, both of which destroy humanity, he pleads for human insight which sees them as patients and not criminals. Falder has gone astray, but will come back. If, on the other hand, he is imprisoned as a criminal he will be lost. The message is more forcefully brought up by the scenes at prison and by the tragic end of the weak Falder. As we see the prisoners and hear about the others whom we do not see we feel, more and more clearly, that they were first good men, are still good and sensible, but the legal system and even more the penal system have made them animals and hardened criminals. Their conduct reminds us of Galsworthys message through Frome. Falders conduct in his solitary cell is the most forceful message that no man with even a grain of humanity and justice in him could ignore. In the end, which is the most tragic, and underserved, end of Falder who was about to launch on a better, safer and happier career the message is illustrated most pointedly. That the play had this message is proved by the impression the message had. H.C.Wells, otherwise an unfriendly critic of John Galsworthy was moved and gave in. And the initial period of solitary confinement which had already been reduced as a result of Galsworthys efforts was, as a result of Justice, further reduced and Mr. Churchill informed Galsworthy that Justice had played a most important part, in bring this about. The message bore fruit. What conflicts do you find in Galsworthys justice?


Ans. Conflict is the essence of all drama. This conflict may be of different kinds. In the classical tragedy there was a conflict between the hero and fate. Then came the romantic drama in which there was a conflict between the hero and villain. Once the conflict had come down to exist between man and man it took different shapes. It may be conflict between two individuals; and the community or social order to which he belongs; or in an individuals own mind and heart- a conflict between love and duty.

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

As the society cannot stand out as one person on the stage, she is represented by persons who pose to be champions of social custom and law and the good of society in general. It is they who bring hardship to bear upon the person. But they do not act out of any ill-will or animosity. So the real conflict is not between the chief person and them; it is between him and society. In Justice the main conflict is between Falder and the Law, or good conduct, or society that demands this good conduct. This conflict begins with Falders forging the cheque. James How seems to come in conflict with Falder, but, in fact, it is not James How. At no place, not even once does he refer to his personal loss. He did not begin his fight with Falder. In fact he did not even know that it would be Falder, Davis was more likely. He wanted to clear up things for the sake of Falders name. When it is establishment that Falder was the culprit, James thinks only of good conduct, law ad society. He is against swindling. To Cokesons suggestion that Falder was probably tempted, James gives the reply of the good man: Lifes one long temptation, And when Cokeson points out that prisons are nasty places, James talks of honesty and the society. In the court, if we are to believe the Judge, he has every wish to treat Faider with leniency but his duty comes into conflict with this wish; neither does his conscience allow him to show mercy. He has his duty to society which comes into conflict with the exercise of his powers for mercy. It is in the court too that we see two other instances of conflict : the Conflict between the old advocate, Cleaver and the young advocate Frome and the conflict between the two interpretations of Law. Frome puts up a plea for mercy on the basis of Falders condition which he terms as tragic infatuation and violent distress, but Cleaver calls it bizarre and an attempt to cast romantic glamour over the case. As regards the Law, while Frome compares it to a great cage which never again quite lets a man go, the judge calls it a majestic edifice, sheltering all of us, each stone of which rests on another. In the prison there is again two kinds of conflict. First, there is a conflict between liberality and conservatism. Cokeson is liberal and the Governor is a little inclined to be so. The Chaplain is a characteristic conversation; to him the prisoners seem to be possessed of perverted will-power which must be broken. Secondly, there is the tacit conflict between law and human desire for freedom for conversation as one of the prisoners puts it. In the scene of

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

Falders cell we see the great conflict with his situation. He struggles helplessly and all that he can do is the important fury of beating at his door like the others.


Bring out the element of humour in Justice. Or What humorous relief is there in Justice? Would the play have been strengthened if there had been more of it?

Ans. Galsworthy has included a proper amount of humour in his play, Justice. As an artist he could not have dispensed with humour in his plays. The pieces of humour provided by him in Justice are quite natural and appropriate. This humour saves the play from becoming dull, provided comic relief and also enhances the tragic element in the play. There is some slight humour in the fact that the people in the offices of James and Walter How use legal language. Instead of saying person or woman they say party when they refer to Ruth. The person most responsible for humour in Justice is Cokeson the managing clerk of the firm of solicitors James How and Walter How. Galsworthy gives him a comic figure, he has a pug-dog face, a bald head and wears spectacles. The short turned up nose of this kind of dog helps in creating humour; the persons with edentary occupations often have a habit of bending their head and looking over their spectacles. This act becomes more funny when the person has a bald head which he often pops towards the audience. Most of the legal terms are used by Cokeson. He is very careful in making statements, which creates humour every time he speaks in that moo. This part of Cokesons humorous manners is witnessed most in the court scene. When asked how long Falder had been in their employ he at once replies Two years but corrects himself immediately- all but seventeen days. He had Falder under his eye all the time Except Sundays and holidays. When he puts his hand to his ear and says I am a little deaf his manner is certainly humorous. There are some other ways in which we have some fun from Cokeson. It is his manner of talking, again. His intelligence and knowledge seem to be so limited that he cannot go beyond dogs when he has to say something out of the ordinary. We will do well to imagine his special pose of the body when he says such things. When James asks him to engage Cowley in conversation poor Mr. Cokeson can think of no proper subject and simply says Do you keep dogs? The matter is so irrelevant, so sudden and put forward in such a manner that it cannot

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

tail to create humour- possibly some laughter too. Again, when talking to the prison Chaplain, in a tone of dogged hostility he says, I keep dogs. And we know that he has a pug-dog face. In all probability the Chaplain is taken aback and possibly alittle frightened. He does not know of Cokeson is threatening to set one of his dogs at him and can only say, Indeed? There are some instances of humorous statements from other person too. However slight the fun, Sweedles words have certain humour in them when he tells Ruth in the office early in the morning that he the only person preset because the others dont waste their time hurrying down in the morning. Some humour comes from the prisoners too. Their manners are humorous, particularly of Clipton, who protrudes his neck. One perhaps enjoys his own humour, e.g., When the Governor says to OClearly, Wheres the joke? Ive not seen one for a long time. The other prisoner, Moaney, is not being funny: he says to the Governor ; I quite put meself in your place. We cannot help smiling at it. This amount of humour, in our opinion, is quite enough for the tragedy, Justice. More of it was not possible and should have spolit the atmosphere of the play. Any humour in Act IV should have been absolutely out of place and rather harmful. Neither can we imagine any of the other characters behaving in a comic manner. There could have been only thus much of humour and from these persons only.

Exercise -1 Fill in the blanks with correct forms of the verbs given within brackets : 1. He always (write) with his left hand. 2. The sun (rise) in the east. 3. Rakesh always (read) the newspaper in the morning . 4. They dont (play) cricket in summer. 5. Dont they often (go) to the pictures on Sundays? 6. The school holidays (begin) next week. 7. Doesnt he usually (go) to his village on foot? 8. Who (teach) you Hindi? 9. How much does a kilo of mangoes (Cost)? 10. The soul (be) immortal. 11. Rashmi usually (get up) at 6 Oclock in the morning.

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

12. She never (go) to office late.

Exercise-2 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb given in the brackets : 1. The players ---------------- not going to the field. 2. He -------------- early in the morning. 3. Ram and Shyam ---------- my friends. 4. The news -------------- correct. 5. My father ---------- in a factory. 6. I never ------------- to school late. 7. Who --------------- you Mathematics these days ? 8. I have --------- Physics for a year. 9. He ---------always --------- when you see him. 10. Sheela -------- to Lucknow tomorrow. 11. Rahim ---------- it since morning. 12. Rashmi ----------- in her room at present. 13. The child -----------for three hours now. 14. The girls ----------on the harmonium daily. 15. It ----------- our duty to serve our mother land. 16. The Rajdhani Express ------------at 10 a.m. 17. The Prime Minister -------- the school tomorrow. 18. -------- you ever ----------- the Taj Mahal. 19. He never ------------ a lie. 20. The earth ---------- round the sun. 21. Honest people ------------in the society. 22. He always--------------the truth. 23. You--------------not---------------well. 24. He always ---------------his tea without sugar. 25. The sun --------------in the east. 26. The children ---------------the T.V. this time. 27. What are these decorations for ? What ------ in the school today?

(is, are, am) (get up) (is, are) (is. Are) (work) (go) (teach) (learn) (read) (go) (do) (sleep) (weep) (play) (is, was, are) (leave) (visit) (see) (tell) (more) (respect) (speak) (look) (take) (rise) (watch) (happen)

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

28. Mr. Yadav--------- the election. He is now an M.P. 29. He ---------already ------------his breakfast. 30. How long --------------you-------- in this town? 31. You ----------your work. You can go home now. 32. ------------ you play cricket? 33. The train ------------- not arrived yet. 34. Five subjects -------taught at the Intermediate stage. 35. You -------------not allowed to enter the class. Exercise-3 Fill in the blanks with the correct tense form of the verbs given in brackets: 1. This task doesnt ------------ much effort. 2. A bus ------------- down Mohan last night. 3. I ------------ from your advice. 4. We -------------- to God daily. (need)

(win) (have) (live) (complete) (are, do does) (has, did, is) (are, have, had) (have, are, do)

(knock) (profit) (pray)

5. Ultimately truth ---------------, though he is trying to conceal the facts. (prevail) 6. He has a beautiful garden. He --------------- it with rose-bushes. (plant) 7. After a brief peace war -------again. 8. I ------------ all the rent before I left the house. 9. It was not a dream, I really------------ somebody come in. 10. Have you ever --------------- me behave rudely? (break out) (pay) (see)


11. He -----------here as a teacher for five years. He is still teaching here. (serve) 12. The police caught the thief and -----------his arms behind with a rope. (tie) 13. The examinations are near so they -------- their notes. (revise) 14. He -----------the book on the table and slept. (put)

15. My class teacher, who also teaches me English, -------------- (many) 16. It is two years since I -------------------him. 17. I ---------------- the same mistake. 18. Whenever he is in trouble, he ------------- to me. 19. He is a soldier. He ---------- in the army for ten years. (see) (make with always) (come) (be)

20. I have worked in this office since my father ------------------it. (leave) 21. What were you doing before you ---------------here?


KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

22. I am always in time. I ------------ late for work. 23. The flower ------------- sweet.

(be with never)

Exercise-4 Turn the following sentences into the Passive Voice : 1. You must not spoil the library books. 2. They manufacture very fine sarees in Varanasi. 3. Newton discovered the law of gravitation. 4. Mr. Sharma teaches us Geography. 5. Nobody offered me help. 6. They call the Indian flag the national Tricolour. 7. Did you take my grammar book? 8. Will thy hold the elections this year? 9. Russia defeated Germany in the World War II. 10. Someone has picked my pocket. 11. Why did you not attend the function last night? 12. Are they decorating the house for marriage? 13. The teacher didnt allow him to enter the class-room. 14. They were taking out the winning candidate in a procession. 15. Late Mangeshkar has sung many melodious songs.

Exercise-5 Transform the following sentences from Affirmative to Negative : Example : He came in time. He did not come late. 1. Great men make a sacrifice when necessary. 2. Karim is taller than Sohan. 3. Gopal is very careful about his studies. 4. As soon as we came out, it started raining. 5. Can you touch the sky? 6. Only good boys are successful.

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

7. He helped me in my need. 8. Fortune favours the brave. 9. False friends will come to you when you have money. 10. She proved to be a faithful wife.

Exercise-6 Put the following sentences into the Interrogative (question) form. change : 1. His friends are faithful. 2. He is an obedient servant. 3. Everybody worries in difficulties. 4. It is no good to help a bad man. 5. They could have done nothing without your help. 6. It is useless to give money to dying man. 7. Everybody likes an obedient boy. 8. His sons are intelligent. 9. You cannot leave him in this miserable condition. 10. There is no armour against death. Meanings should not

Exercise-7 Put the following sentences in the Assertive (Statement) form. Meanings should not change : 1. Why should I help him again? 2. Has he not broken all his promises? 3. How can you ever think of leaving him? 4. Was that the way to speak to your elders? 5. Who does not feel happy at his success? 6. Who is not sorry at his failure? 7. Who is not sorry at his failure? 8. Why should we waste our time in this case? 9. Could Hari have ever succeeded without Ramas help? 10. Havi you come here simply to make a fool of me?

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

Exercise-8 Add question tags to the following :1. Its very hot today, . 2. You like him, . 3. Kishore will come, , . 4. We must hurry, , . 5. He will never give up, , . 6. Your father is a doctor , . 7. You have tea for breakfast , . 8. I didnt hurt you,. 9. You arent going out, , . 10. They have sold the house, , . 11. I neednt get up early tomorrow , . 12. It is nt ready yet, , . 13. Gopal hasnt passed the exam , . 14. They will go home soon, , . 15. He didnt paint it himself, , .

Exercise-9 Answer the following (a) in the affirmative, (b) in the negative. 1. Can you swim ? 2. Do you like sweets? 3. Are you angry with me? 4. Is it going to rain ? 5. Am I in your way? 6. Does your father smoke? 7. Did you go to college yesterday? 8. Will they be at the cinema? 9. Is Suresh staying with his uncle? 10. Has he meet you?


KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

Exercise-10 Directions : After each blank below two verb-forms are given in brackets. Choose the correct form and fill in the blank. 1. Each of these shirts (has, have) a wide collar. 2. Mr. Ram has two children. Both (is, are) boys. 3. Few of the boys .. (know, knows) Hindi well. 4. He have invited ten guests for the dinner. All . (is, are) expected to come. 5. ------------------ (do, does) either of his sons have a job? 6. He made a lot of money in his business. But now all --------- (is, are) gone. 7. I have got two pens, but neither ---------- (writes, write) well. 8. A few of the boys .. (want, wants) to have a swim in the lake. 9. -------------------- (is, are) there any among you without his text books? 10. ------------------- (is, are) one of your books missing? 11. There ------------------- (was, were) not many in the audience. 12. I want some food ------------------- (is, are) there any left? 13. Lets have a late dinner. No one ------------------- (want, wants) to eat now. 14. Are there any reasons for your not wanting to marry now? Oh yes, there(is , are) several. 15. Most of the trees in our garden (is, are) fruit-bearing ones. 16. Everyone . (is are) asking for a pass to the film festival. 17. Most of the milk (has, have) been drunk by the cat. 18. Every one of your reasons for not marrying (sound, sounds) funny. 19. None of the books in the library .. (is, are) missing. 20. . (do, does) anyone want to ask a question? 21. None of his poetry ..(deserve, deserves) to be published. 22. Someone .(has, have) walked away with my umbrella. 23. Most of the boys .(come, comes) to school by the school bus. Some (come, comes) in their own cars. 24. .. (has, have) everybody taken down the new words? 25. Some of the old mans obstinacy .. (is, are) seen in his sons too. 26. Every worker .. (was, were) taken back when the strike was over.

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

27. Many an attempt (was, were) made to climb the Everest before Tenzing and Hillary succeeded. 28. Each child (gets, get) a glass of milk every morning at the school. 29. Every shop and every restaurant ..(was, were) closed on the day of the bandh. 30. Each son and each daughter(get, gets) an equal share of the old mans property.

Exercise-11 Directions : After each blank below two verb-forms are given in brackets. Choose the correct form and fill in the blank. 1. Speaking and writing .(is, are) two different skills. 2. Mr. Ram and his brother together ----------- (own, owns) 3. Neither the women nor the children in the car . (was, were) injured in the accident. 4. A friend and colleague of mine. (is, are) the emblem of the Communist Party. 5. Neither my brothers nor my sister .(go, goes) tochurch 6. Either this big tree or these three small ones.. 7. Either this big tree or these three small ones .(has, have) to be cut down to make room for the building. 8. A coat and tie .(is, are) Mr. Raos usual dress for office. 9. Mr. Raos secretary and his typist .(is, are) going with him to the conference. 10. My guru and benefactor (come, comes) here tomorrow. 11. Either you or I ..(am, are) wrong. 12. Either the lawyers or the judge .. (is, are) wrong.

Exercise-12 (Solved) Punctuate the following : 1. He wrote I cant come because I am ill. 2. I said to ravi you will not fail if you work hard. 3. The master said to the servant what do you say now 4. Ram said uncle may we come in 5. When did you buy this book ram asked rams mother 6. During our journey we slept read and played cards

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7. Will you go to delhi the teacher said to sompal 8. Raju my friend he is a good boy he lives in delhi 9. Ravinda jain the famous musician is blind 10. Is this your final decision asked kepil I am afraid I cannot change my decision said sachin 11. I am poor and old my sons are self-centred they do not take care of me 12. Walking along the road I n oticed a dead cobra 13. Ravi as well as hari and shyam likes coffee 14. He who is my friend should stand by me 15. Anu said uncle may we come in I have a friend with me

Answers 1. He wrote, I cant come, because I am ill. 2. I said to Ravi, You will not fail if you work hard. 3. The master said to the servant, What do you say now? 4. Ram said, Uncle, may we come in? 5. When did you buy this books? asked Rams mother. 6. During our journey, we slept, read and played cards. 7. Will you go to Delhi? the teacher said to Sompal. 8. Raju is my friend. He is good boy. He lives in Delhi. 9. Ravindra Jain, the famous musician, is blind. 10. Is this your final decision? asked Kapil. I am afraid, I cannot change my decision, said Sachin. 11. I am poor and old. My sons are self-centred. They do not take care of me. 12. Waling along the road, I noticed a dead cobra.

Exercise-12 Fill in the gap with a or an, where needed 1. I had very bad night. 2. He is honourable gentleman. 3. English is difficult subject. 4. I bought ..cow, and hen

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

5. Go by .taxi. 6. I went by . Express train. 7. They want to European country. 8. I take ..sugar in tea. 9. It is useful project. 10. He is intelligent student.

Ans. (i) a (ii) an (iii) a (iv) a, a, a (v) x (vi) an (vii) a (viii) x, x (ix) a (x) an

Exercise-13 Fill in the blanks with some or any. 1. Have you plant in your garden? 2. There is .. milk in the pot. 3. There is hardly .rice in the sack. 4. Is there message for me? 5. The judge did not ask.question. 6. He put questions to me. 7. There is ..good news for you. 8. Did you see ..tiger. No we saw wolves. 9. Have you left .vegetable for me? 10. North India did not have rain but South India had. 11. I there student who has not submitted his answer sheet? 12. Have you .pen? 13. Yes, I have pens. 14. Have you seen.lion in the zoo? 15. The police wanted .information. 16. Our school library has . Books on History but it does not have book on Civics. 17. I there . Letter for me? No, there is not . 18. Saharanpur has good institutions but it has not . Medical college. 19. Have you complaint against me? 20. I doubt if there is money left in the bank.

KAMKUS COLLEGE OF LAW ( BHAGIRATH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS) (Affiliated to CCS University, Meerut & Approved by Bar council of India, New Delhi

Ans. (1) any (2) some (3) any (4) any (5) any (6) some (7) some (8) any, some (9) any (10) any, some (11) any (12) any (13) some (14) any (15) some (16) some, any (17) any, any (18) some, any (19) any (20) any.