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Phrasal Verbs 1-100


abide by

2. 3.

accede to act out

To accept and obey the law, rule, etc., e.g. We have to abide by the law even if we dont agree with it. To reluctantly agree to a demand, etc. To perform a past event; To express ones feelings through ones behaviour.

act up (Children) to behave badly. (Machine, etc.) does not work in the way it should. To include something with something else.


add in

add on

To enlarge something, especially a building, e.g. They added on an extension to the museum to house the fossil collection.

add to

To increase the amount, cost, or degree of something.

To increase by small amounts to reach a total. add up To calculate the total of something, e.g. toadd up ones points, marks, scores, etc. To total up.

add up to

5. 6. 7.

adhere to admit of agree with

To combine small amounts to find out the total, e.g. When the service charges are taken in, the bill adds up to an amount greater than expected. To conduct oneself in accordance to a particular rule, etc. To accept something as capable of existing or happening. To have the same view as someone else.


aim at

To try to achieve an outcome, e.g. She aims atlosing 10 kg by the end of the year.

aim at

To point something such as a weapon, camera, etc. at a target, e.g. He aims his camera at his group of friends. To design something for a specific class or group of people, e.g. The new radio stationaims most of its programs at a teenage audience. To consider all factors involved so the problem can be resolved, e.g. If we allow for inevitable wastage, the amount of material needed will be greater to meet the production quota.


allow for

To show that something is likely 10. 11. allow of allude to amount to To refer to someone or something To equal to something, e.g. The loss through pilferage amounts to at least 3 % of production cost. To have same effect as something else, e.g. Her remark amounts to an insult. To request something in an indirect way, e.g. Quite obviously, hes angling for a date with her. To explain ones wrong deed or to explain on behalf of someone, e.g. The coach mustanswer for the teams poor performance.


angle for


answer for

14. 15. 16.

To explain something, especially having done something wrong, to someone, e.g. Heanswers directly to the Chief Engineer. answer to appertain to To belong to or concern something arse around/about To waste time, e.g. He has been warned not to arse about in the park. ascribe to To accept that an event comes about because of someone or something, e.g. They ascribethe high unemployment rate to the governments mismanagement of the economy.


ask for

To say that one wants something, e.g. Weasked at the counter for free gift vouchers but got none because we have not spent enough. To show something as requested, e.g. I wasasked for my identity card which I had not brought along, so I was not allowed into the office.

ask out 18. attend to


attribute to

To invite someone out, e.g. This is the tenth and maybe last time Ill ask her out after nine unsuccessful attempts. To deal with something or help someone, e.g. He had to attend to more emergency cases today than any other days. To say a situation is caused by something, e.g. The residents attribute the increase in burglary cases to lack of regular patrol of the streets by the police. To say that someone is responsible for something, e.g. They attribute the short stories to him without having any clear evidence that he wrote them. To calculate the usual number of times a thing happens. To be aware of something and its possible effects, e.g. People are starting to awake tothe therapeutic value of herbs. To make someone aware of something and its consequences. To move backwards; To become uninterested or cease participation in something.

20. 21.

average out awake to

22. 23.

awaken to back away

back down To concede defeat or stop being confrontational, e.g. The workers planned to go on strike, but backed down when the employers threaten to sake them.

To move away from someone or something,

back off

usually because of danger or to avoid injury, e.g. He was warned to back off, but he refused and a fight ensued.

back onto

(Building, etc.) To have its back facing a particular area.

back up To make a copy of data on a computer program or disc., e.g. He has cultivated a good habit ofbacking up every piece of work he does.

back up

To provide evidence to support ones statement, claim, etc., e.g. Jack backed up his claim of winning the jackpot by producing a photocopy of his cheque for the winning amount. To move or move a vehicle in the reverse direction, e.g. I backed up my car a little in the parking lot between two cars so we could get out. To support someone in a situation by agreeing with them or doing something to help them, e.g. He is doing it not just for himself, so Illback him up. To put small items into bags. To deposit money for someone to be out of prison while awaiting court trial. To help someone or a financial institution ut of financial problem by providing money. To complicate matters. To unite in order to achieve something. To flaunt or say something repeatedly with intention to impress. To talk incessantly in a boring manner. To sing a song or play a tune loudly and badly. To wreck something. To rely on someone or something to produce an outcome.

24. 25.

bag up bail out

26. 27. 28. 29.

ball up band together bandy about bang on bang out bang up bank on


31. 32.

bargain for barge in

To be prepared for something adverse that may happen to ones plan. To go or dash in uninvited.

33. 34.

35. 36. 37.

barge in on To interrupt rudely. base on/upon To use something as basis for development of a course of action. bash away at To continue working or hitting hard at something. bash on To persist in an activity or process in order to complete something. bat around To engage in a discussion about something. bawl out To scold someone for the wrong they have done. bear down To appear threatening to someone in the way one behaves. bear down To apply pressure on something. bear out To deal successfully with a difficult person or something. To use something to testify to the existence or truth of something else. bear up To be undaunted by adverse conditions. bear with To ask someone to be patient while you are engaged with something. To exercise patience with a difficult person. (Sunlight, rain, etc.) to come down in large quantity. To bargain for or persuade someone to offer a lower price. To frighten or drive someone or something away. To extinguish a fire by beating; beat out To beat out a rhythm on a drum. beat up To defeat a competition rival. To cause injury to someone by physical assault, e.g. Members of the public caught up with the pickpocket and beat him up until he pleaded for


beat down beat down beat off beat out

39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

beaver away bed down beef up beg off believe in

mercy. To be doing some difficult, tiring work. To make person or an animal comfortable for the night. To make something better, e.g. Control in the prison was beefed up after the riot. To say you cannot do something as agreed. To feel sure or accept that something exists, either good or bad, e.g. He just doesntbelieve in Nessie. To feel someone can be trusted, e.g. The children always believe in their father despite adverse rumours being spread about him. To have ones views about something, e.g. Webelieve in the equality of the sexes in the workplace. To become larger, greater or full. To be the property or a member of a group or organization. To sing out loud or play a loud tune from a musical instrument.

44. 45. 46.

belly out belong to belt out

belt up 47. 48. bind somebody over bite back bite into To instruct someone bluntly to keep quiet. To restrain someone from causing trouble under threat of legal punishment. To retaliate. To cut against a surface. To start using up something, especially ones personal savings. bite off 49. black out To use the teeth to cut off a piece from a main part, e.g. He bit off a piece of a pizza and strangely spat it out. To faint, e.g. He blacks out whenever he sees too much blood. (City, etc.) to turn off all the lights in a wide area. To cover or erase something so it cannot be seen or recall.


blank out

51. 52. 53.

blast off blend in block in/out

(Rocket, etc.) to leave the ground. To mix or combine something with its surrounding. To make a drawing of something that gives a general idea but is not exact. To completely close a place such as a road, etc.

block off To prevent light passing through. block out 54. blot out blot up 55. blow away To erase, especially a bitter memory. To cover or hide something completely. To wipe surface dry with a cloth or other absorbent material. To shoot someone to death. To be carried away by the wind, e.g. I put some comic books outside and the wind blew away a couple of them into the drain.

To cause something to drop on the ground, usually by the wind. blow down

To blow air into something with our mouth. blow in

blow off

To treat someone or something as unimportant, e.g. He blew off his overseas assignments by not accepting them.

To put out a flame by blowing, e.g. A strong gust of wind blew out all the candles in the temple when the keeper opened a window. blow out (Car) to blow a tyre, e.g. He just couldnt figure out what caused a tyreof his car to blow out. To cease to function, e.g. An electric bulbblew out suddenly while I was reading.

(Storm) to come to an end, e.g. After a few hours the storm blew itself out. (Electricity) to suddenly stop working, e.g. The fuse of a piece of electrical equipment blows out causing it to stop working. To destroy or damage something, e.g. The explosion blew the shelves right out of the wall.

To be destroyed by an explosion, e.g. A bomb planted by a saboteur exploded, blowing up a power station. To make something bigger by forcing air into it, e.g. He blew up a balloon but it couldnt get bigger because it has a tiny hole. To make a photograph, picture, etc. larger, e.g. She blew her photograph up so that the mole on her left cheek is more noticeable. To become very angry with someone or something, e.g. Jills father immediately blew up when he read the amount on the telephone bill. To say something suddenly without thinking. To pay and arrange for an animal to stay with someone. To cover, e.g. a window, with wooden boards To be too deeply involved in something to have time to do other thing.

blow up

56. 57.

blurt out board out board up


bog down

To tell someone to go away. 59. bog off boil away To heat liquid so much until it evaporates.

boil down

To reduce the quantity of food or liquid due to cooking. To edit information so that unnecessary detail is

not included.

boil down to

To be concerned only with the significant or essential element, e.g. Her wish to continue living with him despite his abusive behaviourboils down to her fear of loneliness.

boil over To overflow.

boil up 60. 61. 62. bomb out bone up book in book on 63. boot out To start losing ones temper. To completely destroy a structure. To study hard for an examination. To check in a hotel. To make arrangements for someone to travel on a plane or train. To dismiss or expel someone, especially from a job or organization. To get a computer ready for use. 64. 65. boot up border on bottle out bottle up 66. 67. 68. bottom out bounce back bow down To hide ones feelings. To stop getting worse, especially prices. To get better or recover, especially from bad times. To lower your head slightly by bending top part of body forward to show respect. To withdraw from an activity, etc. which one has been engaged in for a long time. To be on the verge of, especially on the verge of tears. To withdraw suddenly from an activity you are engaged in.

bow out

To accede to a request or demand. bow to


bowl along bowl out

To move very quickly, especially in a vehicle. To accidentally knock someone down while dashing. To feel you cannot act or move freely. To separate a smaller area from a larger one by partitioning or erecting walls around it. (Road, river, etc.) to separate from another and go in a different direction. To talk something else which is not related to what is being discussed, conversed, etc. To deal bravely with something that causes fear or problem. To deal confidently with a difficult or embarrassing situation. To leave a group or political party, usually due to disagreement, to form their own.


box in box off


branch off

72. 73. 74.

brave out brazen out break away

To cry, e.g. He broke down instantly when informed that his terminally ill mother had passed away in the hospital. break down To gain entry, e.g. Firemen had to break the door down to rescue an elderly occupant from the fire. (Vehicle, machine, etc.) To stop working, e.g. A couple of cars broke down in the midst of a traffic jam, aggravating the situation. (Negotiation) to fail, e.g. The negotiation for the exchange of prisoners broke downbecause one side remains uncompromising in its demands. (Total amount) to separate into individual items or amounts.

break for

To leave whatever you are doing for lunch, etc.

To forcibly enter a place such as a building for

an illegal purpose, e.g. Thieves broke into an office building by breaking a window. break in/into

To discontinue a relationship, diplomatic relations, etc., e.g. Both countries broke offdiplomatic relations after one accused the others embassy staff of involvement in espionage. break off To separate, especially a piece from a larger one, e.g. He broke off a piece of bun and threw it into a pond to feed the fishes.

To escape from a place, e.g. After he broke out of jail once, he was transferred to a maximum security prison.

break out To forcibly go through something, etc., e.g. The burglars broke through a wall to gain entry to the bank safe.

break through To stop a fight, e.g. They use pails and buckets full of water, and hose to splash and spray water to break up a fight between two dogs. To separate a gathering, e.g. Police appeared as usual to break up a peaceful demonstration as expected. break up To end a romantic relationship, e.g. Their relationship broke up after they accused each other of being selfish. To cause something to separate into many small pieces, e.g. Someone broke my mug up, but no one owns up. To take in air; to inhale. To send air out from the lungs To finish or complete something easily, e.g. a task.


breathe in breathe out breeze through


77. 78.

brew up brick off

To make a drink of tea. To separate an area from a bigger one by building a wall of bricks. To fill or close a space by building a wall of bricks in it. (Sky) to become brighter. To make something more beautiful or colourful. (A box, container, etc.) to be overfilled until it cannot be covered. To cause something to happen, or introduce new ideas. To make someone regain consciousness. To persuade someone to agree.


brick up brighten up brighten up brim over bring about bring around

80. 81.

bring back To revive something that was used previously, e.g. More and more people are clamouring for capital punishment to be brought back. To return with something, especially from abroad or shop, e.g. He went to a pet shop and brought back a couple of terrapins. To make one remember or recall something, e.g. Listening to these songs brings back fond memories.

To bring bird, plane, etc. down by shooting. bring down To stop a government from continuing, To bring anything high up such as a kite, helicopter, etc. down to the ground.

To cause something bad to happen to someone, especially financial ruin. bring ... down on

To display something or make it visible. bring forth To make something happen sooner rather than later. bring forward

bring in

To receive an income or earning, e.g. He works for a large company and brings in a handsome salary. To include or invite someone to participate in a discussion, etc. To involve someone in something.

To cause something bad to happen to someone, e.g. heavy rain had brought onlandslides. bring ... on/upon

To produce something; To make a person display his best/worst quality. bring out

To move someone or something from where they are to where one is, e.g. She is bringingher sister over tonight for a game of cards. bring over

To help someone endure a difficult period of time. bring ... through To assemble two or more people for a particular purpose. bring ... together To raise a question, subject, etc. at a meeting. birng ... up

82. 83. 84. 85.

bristle with broaden out bruit abroad brush aside brush down brush off

To care for a child until he/she is a grown-up. To have a lot of or be full of something. To become wider. To spread a report or rumour widely. To deliberately ignore something. To clean clothes or pet animals with a bush. To refuse to consider someones idea, opinion, etc. by ignoring them or passing unkind remark, e.g. The police head brushed the whole thing off when informed that some people are planning a bank robbery right in the city centre.

brush up on


buck for buck up bucket down build in/into

To quickly reread work done previously that one has forgotten or to improve ones knowledge, or to practise and improve on an activity, e.g. I think Id better brush up on my singing and resume my singing career. To attempt at achieving something. To make or become more cheerful. To rain heavily. To make or include something as a permanent part of something else, e.g. He had a safe built into the wall of his house.

87. 88.

To add an extension to a building in order to enlarge it. build on To improve on something or carry out more development on it To treat a product so that it becomes or appears thicker or bigger or its quantity appears greater than it is, e.g. I added some potatoes to the stew to bulk it out. To laze about doing nothing. To meet someone you know by chance, e.g. I found it amazing when I bumped into my neighbour in a shopping centre despite it being packed to capacity.


bulk out

90. 91.

bum around/about bump into

To accidentally knock into someone or something, e.g. I hurried round the corner of a corridor and accidentally bumped into a woman carrying drinks on a tray, knocking them all over the floor. To murder someone. bump off bump up bundle off To make something larger or appear to be larger.


To send someone somewhere in a hurry, e.g. He was handcuffed and bundled off in a police car.

To dress in warm clothes. bundle up 93. 94. 95. bung up bunk off burn away To tie things together to form a bundle. To block something up such as putting something in a hole. To leave early and secretly from a place such as school or work. To be completely destroyed or greatly damaged by fire, e.g. The fire burned away all his valuable personal possessions. To be destroyed by fire, e.g. The whole factory was burned down after an explosion. (Fire) to become weaker, e.g. The fire burns down as its flame has become weaker and produced less heat. burn off To get rid of something by burning it, e.g. Sheburnt off all his photos.

burn down

burn out

To become exhausted through overwork, e.g. He burned himself out by working three full days with very little rest and sleep. To be partially destroyed by fire, e.g. The fireburnt out the kitchen and the adjoining

bedroom. (Fire) to stop burning, e.g. After three hours, the fire burnt itself out.

burn up

To be completely destroyed by fire or physical exercises, etc. e.g. The whole building was completely burned up; physical exercises burn up fat, calories, etc.

burn up

To make someone very angry, e.g. It reallyburned her up when the boss disapproved her application for a long leave.


To be entirely possessed by (a desire or emotion). burst in on/upon To interrupt something at an embarrassing moment. burst into To intrude into a place suddenly without thinking. be burning with To suddenly start to cry or burn, e.g. burst into tears; burst into flames. To appear suddenly in a location.

burst onto To explode outward.

burst out To suddenly begin to cry, laugh, or say something in an assertive manner, e.g. The audience burst out laughing when the clowns trousers suddenly dropped revealing a pair of yellow shorts with red polka dots. To escape from a place, especially a prison.


bust out

bust up bust up 98. butt in

To separate as lovers, partners, friends etc; To disrupt something or prevent it from continuing; to damage or break up something. To interrupt or intrude rudely on a conversation or activity, e.g. Whenever Jack talked to a girl at the party, Jill would butt in.

99. 100.

butt out butter up buy in

To tell someone to stop interfering. To flatter someone. To buy something in bulk.

buy in

To withdraw something at auction because it fails to reach the reserve price.

buy into

To make partial purchase of a business with aim to control it; to accept or believe an idea.

To pay someone money to stop them causing trouble or threatening you. buy off

To pay someone to give up ownership, interest, or share of a business. buy out To pay for ones release from the armed services.

buy up

To buy as much and as quickly as you can of something.

2. Phrasal Verbs 101-200


buzz off be buzzing with

To go away or to tell someone to go away. To have an air of excitement or purposeful activity.

102. 103.

calculate on call at call back

To depend on an essential element in ones plans to succeed. (Train, coach, etc.) to stop at a station. To return a telephone call received earlier in ones absence, e.g. She didnt leave her number, so I couldnt call back. To be asked to return, e.g. I was on leave but my boss called me back for some urgent matter.

call by

To visit someone when you happen to be in the same area.

call for

To appeal or demand publicly for something, especially equal rights.

call forth To evoke a quality so that it can be used.

call in To telephone a place to inform about something, e.g. A rescue team was called in to reach the trapped miners. To telephone ones working place to inform one is sick. call ... in To ask someone to see you for a particular purpose, e.g. The villagers are consideringcalling the game warden in to deal with the elephants which have been trampling and destroying their crops.

call off

To decide officially that something should be stopped after it has already started, e.g. to call off a football match due to heavy rain.

To pay a brief visit to someone. call on/uppm To request someone to do something for you.

call up

To select someone to play in the national sports team, e.g. He was called up for the game against Brazil. To call someone by telephone, e.g. He calledme up at midnight to wish me happy new year.


To officially order someone to join the armed services, e.g. He was called up for training for a possible war against a neighbouring country. calm down To make or become tranquil and quiet, e.g. The doctor had to inject her with tranquilizer in order to calm her down. (Situation) to become less confused or violent, e.g. The sea calmed down when the weather ceased to be windy after a heavy shower. To sleep outdoors in a tent. To neutralize or negate the effect of something so that it remains the same. To take the chance to gain as much advantage as you can To look after and provide for the needs of someone who is not able to look after themselves, e.g. His wife has been caring forhim since his discharge from the hospital. To like to have something, e.g. care for a coffee? To lose self-control. To move figures to the next page in accounts. carry forward To keep something to use or deal with at a later time.

105. 106. 107. 108.

camp out cancel out capitalize on care for


(get) carried away

To do something difficult successfully. carry off To forcibly take someone away.

carry on

To continue an activity or task despite the difficulty, e.g. She finds it hard to accept the fact that her husband has left her for another woman, but she still managed to carry on with her life To continue moving in the same direction, e.g. Its of great urgency that they carry straight onthe highway to reach their destination by tonight. To behave in an overemotional way, e.g. Shecarried on complaining in a bad-tempered way despite her spouses apologies and his insistence that he didnt mean what she thought he meant. To be engaged in a love affair with someone.

To perform a planned operation or a task that needs to be done, e.g. They carried out his instructions to draw up plans for the next phase. To move or transport someone or something from one place to another, e.g. They carriedthe injured player out of the playing area.

carry ... out

To extend beyond the normal or original area of application.

To be used or dealt with in a new context; To bring something forward; postpone. carry over To complete something successfully. carry ... over

carry ...

110. 111.

through cart off carve out

To take someone or something away. To develop a career, reputation, etc. through painstaking effort. To divide up something ruthlessly into separate parts for sharing. To recklessly overtake another driver. To take advantage of or exploit a situation. To convert an insurance policy, savings account, etc. into money; to take advantage of or exploit a situation.

carve ... up


cash in cash in

cash up 113. cast about cast aside

To total up the days takings received in a shop for checking. To search far and wide. To get rid of something or someone whom you no longer like or who are of no more use.

To be stranded after a shipwreck. be cast away

To feel depressed. be cast down

To get rid of something or someone. cast off/cast ... off To free a boat or ship from its moorings. To take the last stitches off the needle in knitting. To let loose a hunting hound or hawk.

To make the first row of a specified number of loops on the needle. cast on

To force something or someone to go away, e.g. an exorcist who casts out demons. cast ... out

To bring something (by the sea) onto the shore. 114. cast ... up catch at catch on To try to take hold of something. (A practice or fashion) to become popular, e.g. A style may catch on in some countries or areas, but not in others. To begin to understand something, e.g. When one understands something better, it is easier to catch on.

catch out

To discover that someone is lying or has done something wrong. To put someone in a difficult position because they are not ready to deal with it.

catch up

To improve so much that you are now on a par with other people in your class, group, etc., e.g. After a long absence from class due to illness, he finds it hard to catch up. To do what needs to be done because you have not done it earlier.

To meet up with someone whom one has not seen for some time. catch up with To finally find someone who has done something wrong and on the run. To provide with what is needed or required. To satisfy a need or demand. To fall inwards or collapse; to give in.


cater for/to cater to cave in



centre around centre in

To have something as a major concern or interest. To occur mainly in or around something.

118. 119. 120.

centre on/upon To pay more attention on someone or something more than on someone or something else. chalk up To succeed in getting something, e.g. points in a game; to record something. chance To find something or meet someone by accident or on/upon unexpectedly. change around To shift things from one position to another. change down/up change into chase up chat up cheat on To engage a lower/higher gear in a vehicle. To become something different.

121. 122. 123.

To tell someone do something more quickly because it has been taking too long. To talk to someone in a way that demonstrates sexual attraction. To be unfaithful to ones spouse by secretly engaging in sexual activities with someone else, e.g. Jill threw Jack out of her house after she discovered Jack cheating on her. To act dishonestly to gain a personal advantage, e.g. He was suspended from the exam after he was caught cheating on it. To arrive and register at a hotel or airport. To return a book to a library; to have ones baggage weighed.


check in check in

To register ones arrival at a hotel. check into

check ... off

To mark an item on a list to show that it has been dealt with.

check on

To monitor and make sure something is accurate or properly done, or that someone is safe and well.

check out

To find out the truth of something, e.g. Wechecked out a couple of restaurants and confirm their services are reasonably good and prices reasonable. To settle ones hotel bill and leave, e.g. Wecheck out before noon. To pay for ones items to the cashier, e.g. I decided not to buy my one item because of the long queues waiting to check out.

check ... out

To find out if someone or something is suitable for a particular purpose, e.g. They routinelychecked applicants out before accepting them.

To examine or look closely at someone or something to ensure they are acceptable. check ... over To ascertain the suitability, accuracy or truth of someone or something. check up on To ensure that someone or something is safe and well. 125. check on cheer up cheer up cheer on 126. chew on chew out To become or make someone less unhappy. To make or become less miserable. To shout encouragement in support of a person or team in a race or competition. To think about something carefully for a long time. To express strong disapproval to someone of what they have done.

To consider carefully about something for a period

chew... over

of time.

chew ... up

To bite repeatedly on something, especially to facilitate swallowing.


chicken out

128. 129.

chill out chip away chip away at

To be too scared to do something, e.g. He was invited to speak at the annual dinner, but hechickened out. To calm down and relax completely. To remove something little by little,. To gradually and relentlessly make something smaller, weaker or less effective.

chip in

To interrupt a conversation to add in more information or detail; to contribute ones share in a group.


To remove something in small pieces, e.g.chipping old paint off the door. chip ... off choke back To suppress ones emotions, e.g. choke backthe tears. choke down To eat with difficulty. choke off To prevent someone from doing something or stop something happening.


To be very unhappy or worried about something. choke up chop down To fell a tree by cutting it. chop off chop up To separate something from another by cutting it. To cut into small pieces, e.g. They chop upsome firewood to make a fire. To eat. To throw something away. To give up or stop doing something, e.g. chuck

132. 133.

chow down chuck away/out

chuck in chuck out

ones job in. To expel someone from a place, e.g. gotchucked out of the club.

To vomit. chuck up 134. churn out To produce something in large quantities without caring about quality. To damage the surface of something. churn up To make someone upset, nervous or angry. 135. 136. 137. churn ... up clam up clamp down claw at To suddenly stop talking because of some reason. To take firm action to prevent something happening. To scratch or tear at someone or something with the claws or fingernails.


claw ... back clean out

To gradually regain something by working very hard. To make a place tidy and free from dirt, e.g. We cleaned our new house out thoroughly before we moved in. To steal all the contents from a place, e.g. Burglars completely cleaned our glass cases outof all the antique jewellery. To cause someone to spend all their money, e.g. My medical bill really cleaned me out.

To take all of someones money or possessions. clean up To make something completely clean and tidy. To make a substantial gain or profit. To make a place look tidy by removing remains of a meal from the table or putting things back where


clear away

they belong.

clear off

To go away quickly from a place.

clear out

To leave a place quickly, e.g. Police clearedpeople out of the cinema after receiving a call that a bomb had been planted inside.

clear out To tidy a place by disposing of something, e.g. We havent cleared the storeroom out for ages.

clear up

(Something) to get better or disappear, e.g. when weather clears up, it gets better or if an illness clears up, it disappears.

clear ... up

To make a place tidy by removing unwanted items, e.g. The child has been warned repeatedly to clear his toys up after his father stepped on one and broke it into pieces. To explain something that is hard to understand, e.g. Most find the instructions difficult to understand, but further explanations cleared everything up. To cure something such as an infection, etc., e.g. The regular intake of medicine has clearedmy sore throat up. (Weather) to become clear, e.g. The sky had been full of dark clouds since morning, but by afternoon it cleared up, To still regard a belief, etc. as true when it is not. To begin a computer operation by pressing on the computer mouse button. To make an ignominious withdrawal from a position taken up.

140. 141. 142.

cleave to click on climb down

143. 144.

cling to clock in/out

To hold tightly to a belief, idea, etc. To record on a special card using an automatic recording clock ones time of arrival at or departure from work. To reach a particular number or amount, especially the number of flight hours a pilot has attained to date. To be become blocked, e.g. The drain was soclogged up that water and material inside flows over its edges. To stop broadcasting (television station at the end of the day), or doing business permanently (shop, company, etc.)

clock up


clog up


close down

close in

To move closer to someone or something, e.g. the police close in to make an arrest or a pack of wolves closing in to kill their prey.

close off

To close a place for a specified reason, e.g. a road is closed off for repair.

147. 148. 149. 150. 151.


153. 154.

To be closed to the public temporarily, e.g. a building closes up for a particular reason. (Sky) to become full of clouds or black clouds. To share the cost of something by combining with others to collect a sum of money. clue in To inform someone about something. clump together To form a group or solid mass. clutch at To seize something eagerly or in desperation, especially at an idea or when one is in a dangerous situation. cobble To quickly make or assemble something that is together useful but not perfect, e.g. cobbled together a ceasefire agreement; cobbled together a tent from some pieces of strings and a big sheet. cock up To spoil or ruin something. comb out To search for pieces of information, e.g. Policemen comb out the entire area looking for evidence. close up cloud over club together

To make hair straight and smooth by combing; to exclude unwanted members from a group.


To search through a wide area or a lot of objects for comb through information, e.g. policemen comb through the field looking for the murder weapon. come about To happen, e.g. How does it come about that he was once my good friend, but now ignores me completely? (Ship) to change direction.

come across

To meet or find by accident or by chance, e.g. While making a boat trip up the river, we came across a hippopotamus. To exude an emotion or quality, e.g. He comes across as being boastful.

come after To go in search of someone, e.g. the police arecoming after him for having involved in a robbery.

come along To follow someone, e.g. I will come along with you. To want to go with someone, e.g. Can I come along with you?

come apart To break or separate into pieces or parts, e.g. They forgot to staple my papers and when the wind blew them off my hand, they came apartand flew in different directions.

come around

To make a visit to someone, e.g. You can come around in the evening;

To regain consciousness, e.g. He came aroundthree hours after the accident.

To approach someone in a threatening manner. come at

come away

To be left with a specified feeling, e.g. Hecame away feeling satisfied. To become separated from something, e.g. The lens came away from the spectacle.

To reply in a quick and forceful way, e.g. I am not coming back! come back To return to where one comes from, e.g. Some of the tourists vowed to come back to this beautiful resort in the near future. (Physical condition) to recur, e.g. He could hardly sleep at night as his backache has come back. To become popular again, e.g. Rumour has it that bell-bottoms will come back in the next season.

To appear before a person or group in authority, e.g. He feels nervous when hecomes before the judge. come before To avoid something from disturbing, e.g. I do not allow anything to come between my study and me. come between To obtain something that is hard to get, e.g. I havent found a job which is hard to come bythese days. come by To get lower, e.g. Prices once go up, hardlycome

down. come down To punish or criticize someone severely, e.g. The police have pledged to come down hard onthose who park their cars illegally. come down on To amount to, e.g. Getting along with peoplecomes down to having a give-and-take attitude. To get from higher to lower level or from North to come down to South, e.g. He is unable to come down tostay with his parents this Christmas due to some personal problems.

To become afflicted with an illness, e.g. The weather has caused many residents in the area to come down with influenza. come down with To arrive to collect someone or something, e.g. Ive come for my books which I left behind this morning.

come for

To volunteer oneself for something such as to be a vigilante, etc.

To be from a place where one was born or is/was living. comb forward To be a source from which something originates.

come from

To arrive, e.g. The ten oclock train came inten minutes earlier. To enter, e.g. As soon as they arrived

theycame straight in. To attain a particular position, e.g. She came infirst in the race this morning. come in (Tide) to rise, e.g. Lets go to the beach, the tide is coming in. To be available when needed, e.g. The tool kit has come in handy before, lets not forget it.

To receive a reaction such as criticism, etc., e.g. The head of police comes in for some criticism for the way the police conducted the investigation.

To inherit money or property. come in for

To result from something, e.g. The police combed the entire area but nothing came oftheir attempts to find the murder weapon. come into

come of

To separate oneself or itself from something, e.g. The sole came off one of my shoes. To produce a good or bad result, e.g. The trip didnt come off the way we expected.

come off

(Something) to take place or happen, e.g. The whole city has been plunged into darkness and the residents are still waiting for the light tocome on. To meet or discover someone or something by chance, e.g. We came upon a couple of our former classmates whom we have not seen for a long time. To begin a television or radio program, e.g. What time does that television documentarycome on? I want to watch it.

come on/upon To feel an illness, etc. happening, e.g. I can feel a sore throat coming on as my throat is getting itchier by the minute. To use it to encourage or correct someone, to hurry them up or tell them not to lie, e.g.Come on, you can do better than that. / Come on, surely you dont believe the Earth is flat. /Come on, the train is not going to wait for you. / Come on, dont bullshit. To enquire ones position, well-being, progress, etc. e.g. How is your journalism course coming on?

To make sexual advances towards someone, e.g. Jack always comes on to Jill whenever he sees her, and Jill deeply resents it.

To leave a place such as a house, room, etc., e.g. She came out of the room and surprised everyone who thought she had gone out. (Facts, information, etc.) to become known to the public, e.g. When the report came out, many were surprised that it laid the blame on the engineer for the collapse of the bridge. come on to To make something such as a book, musical recording, movie, etc. available to the public, e.g. A paperback edition of the book will come out at the end of this month. To remove dirt and stains, e.g. Stains on his shirt easily came out when he used some detergent. come out To attain a placing in an examination. To say publicly one is for or against something, e.g. More and more people have come out insupport of the ban on smoking in restaurants. (Sun, moon, stars, planets, etc.) to make their appearance in the sky.

(Skin) to break out in spots, rash, etc.

To suddenly or unexpectedly pass a rude comment.

To make a visit to someones house, e.g. They usually come over to grannys house on weekend. come out in (Someone) to move to where I am from where they are, e.g. Almost every weekend he comes over to my place and we go out together. To suddenly experience a strong feeling, e.g. I have this strange feeling coming over me that violent argument will erupt in the meeting tomorrow. To migrate from another country, e.g. Their grandparents came over from the East.

come out with To visit someone, e.g. They regularly come round to a neighbours house for a game of cards. (Event) to recur, e.g. New Years day is coming round again. come over To change ones point of view and become agreeable to something. To regain consciousness, e.g. He coughs slightly, and the others are delighted he iscoming round.

(News, information, etc.) to become known, e.g. News of the snowstorm comes throughregularly and people expect the worst as they tune in to it. To live through a dangerous situation, e.g. The bus he was traveling in swerved into a ravine killing some passengers but he came throughcompletely unscathed. To be waiting to receive an important document, approval, etc., e.g. The big cheque we have been

come round

waiting for has finally come through.

To regain consciousness, e.g. He came to hours after he was admitted to the hospital. To reach a total amount, e.g. The total of these items comes to $60.60. To have an idea, thought, etc., e.g. The ideacame to me when I was in the shower.

come through

To be attacked or shot at, e.g. As soon as the group of commandos landed on the beach, theycame under attack from enemy fire. To fall within a particular article, section of the law, etc., e.g. the offence comes underSection 34(B) of the penal code.

To approach someone, e.g. A stranger came upto me and asked for the time. To draw near, e.g. The annual fun fair is coming up soon. (Sun, moon, etc.) To rise, e.g. The sun wascoming up by the time I woke up. come to To move northward, e.g. They come up all the way to Alaska to visit me. To move up the social ladder, e.g. He has reallycome up from his early days as an office clerk to his present position as marketing director. (Something such as a problem, difficulty, etc.) to happen suddenly, e.g. He couldnt attend the longawaited annual dinner because something important has suddenly come up. come under To cope with opposition, difficulty, problems, etc.,

e.g. Their chances of winning the next round are not good, having to come up againstsuch a strong opponent.

come up

To produce idea, suggestion, answer, etc., e.g. He was the only one who could come up withall the correct answers to the questions.

come up against

156. 157.

come up with complain of con into

To express that one is suffering physically or from an illness. To trick or deceive someone into doing something, e.g. He was conned into paying excessively for a watch which was a cheap imitation.

158. 159. 160. 161. 162.

To deceive someone to give one something, e.g. He conned a number of old people out of large sums of money. con ... out concentrate on To focus all your attention on something. condole with To express sympathy for someone. conduce to To help to produce a particular quality or state. cone off To close part of a road by using traffic cones. confide in To tell someone about a personal secret or private matter in confidence. To entrust something to the care of someone.


confide ... to conjure up

To bring an image to ones mind.

164. 165. 166.

To call upon a spirit to appear by means of a magic ritual. conk out (Car, macine, etc.) to break down. connect up To join something to something else, e.g. the telephone is connected to the telephone network. consist in To be based on or depend on something. consist of contend for contend with To be composed of. To engage in a struggle or campaign to achieve something. To deal with difficulties or an unpleasant situation. To choose to be involved in. To choose not to take part in something.



contract in contract out

169. 170.

contract out To arrange for work to be done by a person or company outside your own organization. cook up To prepare a quick meal; to invent a clever or devious story or excuse. cool down To become cool or cooler. cool off To return to normal temperature after being hot, e.g. It usually cools off in the evening. To make someone or something cooler, e.g. He had a cold shower to cool off his body. To become calm after being angry, e.g. His temper should have cooled off by now.

171. 172.

coop up cop off cop out cop to

To confine someone in a small space. To meet and start a sexual relationship with someone. To avoid doing something that one is supposed to do. To accept or admit to something. To write exactly the same thing as it is written somewhere else. To seal off an area to prevent access to it by the public. To begin to understand. To begin to like or have a liking for someone or something. To give something, especially money, unwillingly. To consider or regard someone or something in a particular way.

173. 174. 175.

copy out cordon off cotton on cotton to

176. 177.

cough up count as

count down

To record the time passing until an important event happens.

count ... in/out To include/not include someone in a planned activity.

count on/upon To depend on someone or something, e.g. He is counting on his secretary to prepare a good acceptance speech for him.

count ... out

To count up to ten seconds when a boxer is knocked down to conclude defeat. To put in or take out items one by one as you count them for recording.

To determine the total of something or someone. count ... up

178. 179.

couple with cover for cover oneself cover up

To combine to produce a particular result To temporarily take over the duties or role of someone. To take precautions against future blame or liability. To hide or protect something by putting something on top of it, e.g. Look at the fly on the buns, why are they not covered up? To prevent a wrongful act or crime from being known by denying or hiding the evidence, e.g. The whole affair was covered up to protect certain important people.

cover ... up To wear thick clothing or use blanket to keep warm, e.g. I need to buy an electric blanket tocover me up in this cold weather. crack down on To take stricter measures to deal with certain problems, e.g. The local authority have decided to crack down hard on illegal parking.


crack on

To work incessantly in order to complete a job.

crack up

To burst or cause someone to burst into laughter. To become mentally disturbed. To produce something regularly and routinely. To increase the intensity of something. To choose and take away the best people or things from a group. To burst or make someone burst out laughing. To surprise someone by appearing behind them suddenly. To seem to come sooner than expected, especially an anniversary. (A feeling for someone, idea, etc.) to gradually


crank out crank up cream off crease up creep up on

182. 183. 184.


crop out crop up

increase when it creeps on you. (Rock) to appear or be exposed at the surface of the earth. To appear or occur suddenly and unexpectedly. To delete an item on a list, e.g. Jill crossed a wrong item off the shopping list and ended up short of one vital ingredient.


cross off

187. 188. 189.

corss ... out crowd out crush up cry off cry out cuddle up culminate in curl up cuss out cut across

To delete a word, etc. by drawing a line through it. To take the place of someone or something by forcing them out. To squeeze with others into a small space To break a promise to do something. To shout out in pain or of fear. To lie or sit very close to someone or something. To reach a climax or the highest point of development. To sit or lie with arms and legs bent close to body. To swear and shout at someone out of anger. To take the shortest way, e.g. If we cut acrossthis terrain well arrive there before dusk.

190. 191. 192. 193. 194.

cut away

To remove what is irrelevant or unnecessary, e.g. Just cut away all those unnecessary details and come to the point will you?

cut back

To reduce on something such as money, time, etc., e.g. We have to cut back on the number of days we are away on holiday as it is getting more expensive. To do or use something less, e.g. Jack was advised to cut back the number of hours he spends at the gym and concentrate more on his study.

To reduce ones consumption of something. To bring down a tree, etc. by cutting, e.g. It should

cut down

be made compulsory to acquire an official permit to cut down a tree. To kill or injure someone with a sword or gun. To shorten the length of something such as a piece of writing, etc. To reduce the importance of someone, e.g. Jack is a self-important, pompous little man; lets think of a way to cut him down to size.

To suddenly drive too closely into the space in front of another vehicle. To interrupt someone who is speaking.

cut in To include someone in a deal with share of the profits.

To block access to a place, e.g. Heavy snowfall has cut off access to many areas in the countryside. cut ... in To stop supply of something such as electricity, water, etc., e.g. The electricity supply company has sent me a warning to pay within a week, failing which my electricity will be cut off. To abruptly disconnect a telephone call. To separate a piece from the main part by cutting, e.g. She cut off a piece of cake for her guest. To disinherit someone, e.g. My parents threatened to cut me off their will unless I go to college. To stop having a good relationship with someone due to some reason, e.g. After she recovered from a severe nervous breakdown, she cut herself off from her circle of close friends. To rudely interrupt someone, e.g. I was relating a

cut off/cut ... off

story to friends when he came in and cut meoff.

To remove something or someone, e.g. The editor cut out an offending remark in a piece of news report. / The parents decided to cut himout of their will. To remain healthy, e.g. He cuts sugary snacks and fizzy drink out of his list of items for consumption To remove something by cutting, e.g. Hes always cutting out articles from newspapers to assist in his writing course. (Engine) to suddenly stop working, e.g. The engine of my car suddenly cut out when I stopped at the traffic lights.

cut out/cut ... out

To cut something into smaller pieces, e.g. Jill iscutting an apple up to feed her birds. To sustain multiple injuries in a road accident. To behave in an unruly manner.


cut up dally with

To think but not seriously about something.

196. 197.

To be involved in a casual romantic or sexual relationship with someone. damp up To dam a river, etc. damp down To make a fire burn less strongly. To control or reduce something such as a feeling. To leave very quickly.


dash off dash off


To write something hurriedly and without much thought. date from/back To have existed since a particular time. to


dawn on

To realize something for the first time.

3. Phrasal Verbs 201-300

201. deal in deal in deal out

To buy and sell a particular product. To bring in a new player in a card game. To distribute something, e.g. deal out cards to players in a card game.

deal with

To do business with someone, e.g. Ive beendealing with him for the past several years. To take appropriate measures to solve ones problem, e.g. Im on medication to deal withmy depression problem.

To deal with a particular subject, e.g. The bookdeals wholly with acupuncture. 202. decide on To select one thing from many, e.g. to decide on a wedding date. 203. declare To state publicly you support or oppose someone for/against or something. 204. defer to To agree or accept someones opinion or decision. 205. delight in To take great pleasure in something. 206. deliver up To give or pass over something to someone. 207. delve into To search for more evidence about someone or something. 208. depart from To deviate from the normal or usual course of action. 209. depend on/upon To rely on others for their help and support. 210. deprive of To prevent someone from having something they want or need. 211. derogate from To reduce the worth or value of something so as to make it seem less impressive. 212. descend from To have developed from something or to be related to someone who existed in the past.

To be able to feel or know when something descend on/upon descends on you, e.g. when darkness descends, it

begins to get dark.

descend to

To pass by inheritance.

To behave in an unacceptable manner. 213. detract from To underrate the value or importance of something. 214. devolve on/upon To entrust responsibility, duties, etc. to someone at a lower level.

devolve to

To entrust responsibility, duties, etc. to someone at a lower level. To transfer property to someone when the owner dies. To become weaker, less loud or strong, e.g. light, sound, or wind.

215. die away

die back

(Plant) to remain alive at the roots but dead above the ground.

die down

To becomes less active, strong or loud.

die off

To become extinct.

die out

To become extinct

216. dig in

(Soldiers) to protect themselves by making a trench; to begin eating;

To mix fertilizer with soil by digging. dig into To make use of what one has, e.g. to dig intoones

energy or strength.

To unearth something from the ground. dig out To find something that one has been searching for, e.g. to dig out the photo one has been looking for.

To find something in the ground by digging. dig up 217. dilate on/upon 218. din into 219. dine on/off dine out To eat outside the home, e.g. at the restaurant. dine out on To entertain friends and others at meal by telling anecdotes To put ones hand into a bag, container, etc. in order to take something out. To have to use something that one has such as ones savings. (Weather, seafood) to have a bad effect on someone. To make a long speech about something; To serve food to people. To distribute something indiscriminately. To discontinue using something because it is no longer required. To get rid of something. To deal effectively with a difficult problem or situation. To begin to take part in an activity with enthusiasm. To discover something after investigating or searching, e.g. to dig up information about someone. To write or speak fully or in detail about something. To firmly instill in someones mind by continuous repeating. To eat a particular kind of food, especially expensive food.

220. dip into

221. disagree with 222. discourse on/upon 223. dish out

224. dispense with 225. dispose of

226. dive in

227. divest of

To remove oneself of whatever clothing one is wearing. To rid oneself of an interest or investment under obligation. To deprive someone of power, rights, etc. To get rid of something, e.g. Kissing the hand of women should be done away with. To kill someone, e.g. Some neighbours believe she did away with her husband while others believe he ran away.

228. do away with

do by To treat or deal with something in a specified way.

do ... down To criticize someone, especially behind his or her back.

do for

To do something to something else, e.g. what is to be done for the leak?

do for To ruin or kill someone. do in To improve the quality or appearance of someone or something.

do out

To kill someone; To make someone feel very tired.

do ... out of

To cheat or do a secretly dishonest thing to someone.

do ... over To decorate or furnish a room or building in a particular way. To attempt again at doing something, e.g. My homework is so full of mistakes that the teacher has no choice but to tell me to do allover. To decorate a wall, room, etc. To injure someone by beating him up. To ransack and steal from a place.

do ... up To fasten or fix something, especially ones clothing. To improve an old car, building, etc. by repairing or redecorating it. To make oneself look attractive by dressing and making up. do with To need or would like to have something, e.g. I could do with a drink. To connect one thing to another, e.g. When questioned by police about a robbery case, he said he had nothing to do with it.

do without

To have to manage on ones own without something or someone, e.g. Her husband has just passed away, so she has to do without. To have to tolerate someone or something, e.g. I can do without all her endless grumbling. To distribute something such as money, food, etc. to people. To dress and make oneself up attractively. To sleep somewhere which is not the usual place or ones bed.

229. dole out 230. doll up 231. doss down

To do very little work. doss around/about 232. dote on/upon 233. double as double back

To have a very strong affection or liking for and is clearly demonstrated by ones actions. To have a second use, job, or purpose. To return the way you have come.

double up

To share something such as a room. To use the winnings from a bet as stake for another bet. To bend ones body due to excessive laughing, pain, etc. To play another or different role in a play, etc. To fall asleep unintentionally, e.g. Each time he listens to the same speaker, he dozes off. To cause someone to feel upset, lose confidence or enthusiasm.

234. doze off 235. drag down

drag ... in

To involve someone in something with which he has nothing to do.

To get someone unwillingly involved in something such as a discussion, conversation, etc. drag ... into

(Meeting, etc.) to last longer than is necessary. drag on

drag ... out

To prolong a meeting, argument, etc. unnecessarily.

drag ... up

To raise unpleasant or embarrassing subject without regard to the feelings of the persons involved.

To improperly bring up a child. 236. dragoon into To force someone into doing something. 237. drain off To cause liquid in something to run off, leaving it empty or dry. 238. draw back To recoil or to withdraw from doing something. draw in To get dark earlier in the evening and so there are fewer hours of daylight. To get someone involved in something.

draw into

To cause someone to participate in, especially criminal, activities

draw ... off

To extract some liquid from specific holder of liquid.

To suck in smoke from a cigarette, cigar, etc. draw on To make use of expertise, savings, resources, etc. for a particular purpose. (Winter, spring, etc.) to come nearer when it is drawing on.

draw out (Days) to become longer due to the changing seasons. draw out To induce someone to open up by being more willing to talk. To prolong or extend something such as an event,

meeting, etc. draw up (Vehicle) to reach a place and stop there. To prepare an official document such as a list of appointees, etc. To pull ones legs closer to the body, e.g. knees drawn up to the chest 239. dream away To idle by thinking about something that one would like to happen.

dream on

To be used to tell someone that what they are hoping for may most likely not happen, e.g. You think of striking the jackpot? Dream on!

dream ... up 240. dredge up

To imagine or mentally invent something, e.g. Who could have dreamed up those ideas of how the dinosaurs became extinct? To bring out something from the distant past. To remove whatever there are from the bottom of a river, harbour, etc. To wear informal clothes. To express disapproval that something someone has done is very wrong.

241. dress down dress down

dress up

To put on clothes, e.g. She always dresses upto appear younger than her age. To wear a special costume appropriate for a formal occasion, e.g. At every costume party he attends, he dresses up like Popeye.

242. drift apart drift off 243. drill into

(Relationship) to end gradually. To doze off. To continuously impress something on someones

244. drink in drink to

mind to produce a lasting effect. To enjoy taking in all the sights and sounds. To wish someone success, good luck, good health, etc. before drinking alcohol.

To finish up all the rest of a drink. drink up 245. drive at drive away drive off To leave in a vehicle. To cause an enemy, animals, etc. that are threatening or attacking you, to flee. The point that one is attempting to make. To behave in a way that forces someone to leave him/her.

drive out drive up 246. drone on 247. drop away drop in

To force someone or something to leave. To cause rapid rise in prices, costs, etc. To speak at length in a boring way. To become lower in level or amount. To visit someone without appointment, e.g. Jack dropped in on Jill and almost couldnt recognize her as she had not had her usual make-up on.

To doze off or begin to sleep, e.g. He dropped off while watching television. drop off To move someone or something to another place, e.g. He dropped me off at the Post Office. To become lower in level, interest, amount, etc., e.g. Readership of the magazine has beendropping off since early last year.

To abandon an activity, course, etc. before

completing it, e.g. dropped out of school. drop out 248. drum into drum out To remove or expel someone from, or force someone to leave employment, office, school, etc. drum up 249. dry off To attempt to obtain support by meeting a large number of people. To become dry or to make something dry, e.g. He rubbed his head vigorously with a towel to dry off his wet hair. (A term or phrase) to be no longer in use if it drops out of a language. To drive something into someone by constant repetition.

dry out

To become or make something, such as washed clothing, very dry after it has been very wet. To succeed in dealing with alcoholism.

dry up

To deprive a place of water, e.g. The rivers and lakes completely dry up in areas that suffer severe drought. (Supply) to diminish with no addition, e.g. research fund has dried up. To dry plates, dishes, etc. with a cloth. To avoid doing what you have to do or promised to do.. To fight someone and injure them. To beat someone up. To treat or criticize someone badly or harshly. To unload all of ones problems onto someone else. To remove dust from surface of ones clothes by brushing with hands.

250. duck out of 251. duff in duff up 252. dump on

253. dust down

To clean something by brushing or wiping it with dust off

a cloth. To use something again after a long period of disuse. 254. dwell on/upon To think, speak, or write at length about something. 255. ease away/off To slacken a rope or sail slowly or gently. ease off /up To do something with more moderation; (Situation) to get better. ease out ease out ease up 256. eat away at (Vehicle) to slowly move forward into the traffic. To deliberately try to make someone leave office. To take it easy after working too fast or too hard. To erode or destroy gradually; to worry someone constantly, e.g. the thought of contracting a serious illness is eating away ather.

To reduce something over time such as money, time, etc. eat into To damage or destroy something gradually, e.g. rust is eating into the metal door.

eat up

To use resources excessively.

257. 258. 259.

260. 261. 262.

To finish eating all of something, e.g. Our uncleate all the donuts up, leaving us none. edit out To remove harmful, objectionable, or unpleasant material in preparing a recording or broadcast. egg on To encourage someone to do something foolish or risky. eke out To make something last longer by using or consuming it sparingly, e.g. to eke out a living/existence. emanate from To emit or come from a source. embark in/upon To begin a new course of action. empty out To discharge the contents from a container, e.g. I empty out a container by holding it upside down

and let all the sweets drop out. To discharge itself of someone or people, e.g. As soon as a movie ends, the people head for the exit and soon the cinema empties out. To intrude on someones rights, time, territory, possessions, etc. To advance on more and more land, e.g. housing development encroaching on farmland. To have a particular result, or finish in a particular way. To come to be in a particular situation or place, e.g. We took a wrong turn and ended up in an unknown place. To make someone popular or liked. To naturally have a good feature or quality.

263. encroach on/upon

264. end in end up

265. endear to 266. endow with

267. 268. 269. 270.

To give something to someone. endue with To endow someone with a good quality or ability engage in To participate or become involved in an activity. enlarge on/upon To speak or write about in greater detail. enter into To begin to be involved in something. To impose an obligation on oneself to do something. enter on/upon To begin something such as job, an activity, etc. To make equal in number, amount, value, etc. To make a situation or competition more equal. To result in. To give more details about something. To speak or write in detail about a particular subject. To minimize the significance of something embarrassing by giving an excuse or justification. To excuse or justify ones behaviour.

271. even out even up eventuate in expand on/upon expatiate on/upon explain away

272. 273. 274. 275.

explain oneself 276. eye up To look at someone with sexual interest. 277. face down To deal with someone in a strong and confident way. face up to

face with

To face fact however objectionable it is. To provide someone with evidence of their guilt. To include something as a relevant element when making a decision or an estimate. To make a picture or sound appear/disappear or be heard/become quieter gradually. To perform some useless task. To deceive someone. To have a good laugh about something. To break into pieces; (System) to stop working or become ineffective; To suddenly develop a lot of, especially personal, problems. (Machine, car, etc.) to be in very bad condition.

278. factor in 279. fade in/out

280. faff about/around 281. fake out 282. fall about fall apart

fall away (Noise, feeling, scenery, etc.) to recede as you move through it. To separate from the main part.

fall back

(Soldiers) to retreat. To make sudden backward movement caused by fright, pain, surprise, etc.

fall back on To have a source of help in a difficult situation when needed.

fall behind

To slacken so that others move ahead or finish, e.g. In long distance running competitions, runners try to keep pace with the leader, but increasingly they fall behind due to a variety of

reasons. To become less successful than someone else, e.g. Industrial disputes have caused production to fall behind schedule. To fail to keep up with schedule for payments, e.g. I fell behind with the payments on the car and it was repossessed, and now I move around on a bicycle.

fall down To drop onto the ground, e.g. All the onlookers were shocked to see a monkey fall down from a tree. (Plan, system, etc.) to fail to work or to become ineffective. fall for To feel strongly attracted to someone or something. To be deceived by someone, e.g. The seller claims it is a magic stone that can cure all illnesses, yet there are people who fall for it. fall in To drop within, e.g. part of the ceiling falls into the sitting room. (Soldiers) to form neat lines behind each other. fall in behind To form a line behind someone. fall into To belong to a part, section, etc. To move down somewhere, e.g. fall into the drain; To develop a particular feeling, e.g. fall

intodespair or holiday mood. fall in with To meet by chance and become involved with someone. To agree or accept someones suggestions, decisions, etc. fall off To drop to the ground from a higher place, e.g. He fell off his horse and landed in a ditch. To become detached or disconnected from the main body. fall on/upon (Demand, prices, quality, amount) to drop or become less.

To launch a sudden or unexpected attack on someone. fall out To delegate a duty or responsibility to someone. To have ones gaze directed towards someone or something.

(Hair, tooth, etc,) to drop out, e.g. Did your tooth fall out or you pull it out? To have a misunderstanding, disagreement or quarrel with someone, e.g. Jack fell out with his best friend as both have fallen in love with the same girl. (Soldiers) to leave ones place in a military formation. fall through (Someone) to fall onto the ground or (something) to fall from an upright position onto its side.

fall over

To not end or complete a plan, meeting, project, etc. successfully, e.g. The commercial venture fell through after one party decided to withdraw. To drop through something, e.g. A meteoritefell through the roof of a cottage and landed on the floor in the living room.

fall to

To be entrusted with a duty or responsibility. (Property) to revert to the ownership of someone. To walk forwards while spreading over a wide area. To subcontract work to others instead of doing it yourself. To waste time not doing very much or on trivial things. To secure the end of a thread with stitches or a knot. To quickly single out an idea, etc. as the best one and concentrate firmly on it. fasten onto 287. father on 288. fatten up 289. favour with 290. fawn on/over 291. feed off/on To follow and stay with someone. To assign paternity of a child to someone, or the source or originator of something to someone. To become fat or fatter, or make someone or an animal fat or fatter. To give someone something such as a smile, salute, reply, etc. To give an excessive display of exaggerated flattery or affection to someone. To eat a particular food, or obtain regular nourishment from a substance; to make a feeling stronger, e.g. jealousy feeds on insecurity. To have a sympathetic feeling towards someone. To ask someones opinions or feelings. To fondle someone for ones own sexual stimulation. To have the strength and confidence to do

283. fan out 284. farm out

285. fart around/about 286. fasten off fasten on/upon

292. feel for feel out feel up feel up to

293. fence in/off

something, e.g. I would like to go canoeing too, but I dont feel up to doing it. To enclose an area with a fence. To make someone feel restricted. To defend oneself from an attack or attacker. To avoid answering difficult questions directly, e.g. to fend off reporters provocative questions. To search out a desired piece of information. To confess to committing a minor wrong. To arrive at a place unintentionally, especially because of having fallen asleep in a public vehicle. To vomit. To waste time doing unimportant things. To keep playing around with something.

294. fend off

295. ferret out 296. fess up 297. fetch up

298. fiddle around

fiddle with 299. fight back

To play around with somebody elses thing in an annoying way. To struggle violently against an attacker, e.g. They chose to fight back until reinforcements arrive.. To wage a campaign against something such as unfair discrimination. To hide ones feelings, e.g. to fight back tears.

To defend oneself against an attack by someone or something fight ... off

fight ... out 300. figure on

To engage in violence until the dispute is resolved. To expect or plan for something, e.g. I didntfigure on such massive traffic jam; I would have stayed at home. To ponder over something until a solution is found or one has gained an understanding of it, e.g. He cant figure it out why his wife is behaving strangely.

figure out

4. Phrasal Verbs 301-400


fill in

To provide answers or information on an official document. To block up a hole, etc. with something. To do someone elses work for a specified reason.

fill out To write down all the required information on an official document, e.g. Many people hatefilling out forms, but most of the time they have to do it.

fill up To fill a place such as a cinema, church, container, etc. with people, things, etc., e.g. As soon as the doors are opened, the cinema quickly started to fill up. To write down required details on an official document, e.g. I had to fill up everything on the form before I could submit it for approval. To eat something in excess, e.g. He has a strong liking for cookies and when any are available he will fill up on them. To keep refilling a glass, etc., e.g. Do you have to keep filling up my glass? Im feeling a bit tipsy already. To pass liquid or gas through a device to remove impurities or other particles. (Court) to make a decision against/in favour of someone. To discover information or a fact about someone or something, e.g. They no longer remained friendly to him when they found outhe had been a prisoner. To improve something by making it thinner, smaller, more exact, etc. To kill someone or animal, or decisively defeat someone in a match, etc.

302. 303.

filter out find against/for find out

304. 305.

fine down finish off

To finish eating all of something; To do the final thing before breaking up or dispersing, e.g. finish off the evening by having a drink.

To end up at a particular place or doing one final thing. finish up To eat or drink all the rest of something.

To no longer need to use something. finish with 306. fire back To end a relationship with someone. To shoot back with gun, etc. To respond promptly and angrily to a question or remark. fire off To use a weapon to shoot. To send something quickly, e.g. a fax, letter. To make something such as an agreement, ideas, plan, arrangements, etc. more definite and explicit. To adapt to a group To find time to see someone or do something. To meet the requirements of someone. To make someone appear guilty of a crime or wrongdoing by falsifying evidence against them. To decide or settle on a suitable person, thing, etc. for a particular purpose. To provide someone with something, e.g. They fix us up for a nights stay at their place. To arrange a date for someone with a member of the opposite sex, e.g. Jack brought Jill along, hoping his friends will find someone tofix her up with.


firm up


fit in fit in fit out fit up


fix on

fix up

To improve on a place to make it more attractive or suitable, e.g. They intend to fix up their house to look more like a palace than a house. To enhance ones appearance, e.g. She hasfixed herself up gorgeously for its her birthday party tonight. To gradually end in a disappointing way. To wave or signal to a driver to stop. To fall asleep because of exhaustion. To suddenly say something angrily. To suddenly become angry or violent. To flaunt ones wealth in order to gain admiration. To add more details to something in order to improve it. To look quickly through a book, magazine, set of photographs, etc. To get wholeheartedly engaged in an activity or enterprise. To quickly remove something such as a piece of clothing, cover, etc.

310. 311. 312. 313.

fizzle out flag down flake out flare out flare up flash around flesh out flick through fling into fling off

314. 315. 316. 317.

fling out

To dispose of unwanted things. To suddenly make someone leave a place or organization. To rudely show your middle finger to someone. To suddenly become very angry or upset or start to behave in a crazy way, e.g. Jackflipped out when Jill called to say she couldnt turn up for the appointment as she was very tired. To turn something from one side onto the other.


flip off flip out

flip over flip through flirt with To look quickly through something such as a book, magazine, etc. To behave as though one is sexually attracted to someone but not in a very serious way. To willingly risk danger, death, etc. without worrying about it.



float around

(Something) to be somewhere, e.g. Everyone knows the spreadsheet file is floating aroundbut no one knows exactly where it is. (Rumour, information, etc.) to be circulated and talked about, e.g. The latest gossip about the managers private affair is floating aroundin the office building. To force someone to leave their home or to be evacuated because of floods. To be expelled from school or college for failing examinations. To attack verbally or physically. To suddenly go into a rage or other strong emotion. To satisfy someone by making excuses to deceive them or make them receive something of low quality.

321. 322. 323.

flood out flunk out fly at/into


fob off

fob off on 325. 326. 327.

To make someone accept something inferior by trickery. foist on/upon To force to accept someone or something that they do not want. fold in To mix an ingredient with another when preparing food. follow around To keep following someone everywhere they go. follow through To continue an action after the main task is completed in order to ensure a successful conclusion. To continue the arm movement of a stroke after the ball has been struck as in sport.

follow up

To conduct further investigation or probe, e.g. The police follow up the investigation with new information leading to the arrest of the wanted man. To put in additional efforts to attain a desired aim, e.g. He follows up his doctors diagnosis by seeing another specialist for a second opinion. To waste time behaving in a silly way, e.g. Hes fooling around in the library when he


fool about/around

should be reading or doing some writing. To act in an irresponsible way, e.g. Someone must have fooled around with this telephone, now the public cant make calls with it. To engage in a casual or extramarital sexual activity, e.g. A doctor is fooling around with one of his patients and nobody knows about it. To refrain from displaying ones emotions. To forcibly swallow something that one does not want. To impose something on someone. To force information out of someone by repeated questioning or threat, etc., To make progressive and successful headway. To unwillingly pay money for something. To spoil something or do something wrong by making mistakes. To become or cause someone to become very upset, angry or irrational, e.g. She freaked out when she was stopped by traffic policemen for speeding. To deliberately exclude someone by adopting a hostile or obstructive attitude.


force back force down force on/upon force out of

330. 331. 332. 333.

forge ahead fork out foul up freak out


freeze out

To turn the surface of pool, lake, etc. into ice. 335. 336. freeze over freshen up To wash oneself or changing ones clothes to feel clean and comfortable. frig about/around To waste time doing unnecessary or unimportant things. To treat someone badly or unfairly. frighten away To make an animal or someone go away by making them feel afraid.


To drive someone away by frightening them. 338. frighten off fritter away To waste time, money, or effort on something

339. 340. 341. 342.

front for frost up frown on/upon fuck around

unimportant or trivial. To act as the person or organization serving as a cover for illegal activities. To become covered in frost. To disapprove of something, especially someones behaviour. To behave in a silly way or waste time or other peoples time.

To go away. fuck off

To anger or annoy someone. fuck ... off

To treat someone very badly. fuck over To make someone confused or unhappy. fuck ... up To make a mistake or do something badly. 343. 344. 345. 346. 347. 348. 349. 350. 351. 352. fuck up function as fuss over To fulfil the purpose or task of something. To treat someone with excessive attention or affection. futz around To idle or occupy oneself without purpose. gad To go to different places in search of pleasure. gain on/upon To gradually get closer to a person or thing pursued. gallop through To proceed at great speed in doing something. gamble away To lose money or other things by gambling. gang up on To join together into a group to intimidate or attack someone. gas up To fill petrol in a car. gather in To collect things such as crop, clothes, etc. together. gather up To pick up lots of things from different places. gee up To encourage someone to work harder and quicker. gen up To learn a lot about something for a specific purpose. gen up

353. 354.


get across

To provide someone with information about something. To successfully convey a message, an idea, etc. to someone.

get ahead To have achieved success in ones life or career, e.g. He comes from a wealthy family and getting ahead seems easy to him.

get along

To manage to live or survive, or interact with people, e.g. He never seems to get along with anybody. To be able to do something, e.g. He is getting along fine in his new job.

get around to

To finally do something after some time, e.g. He didnt get around to preparing for his exam until the last moment.

get at

To be able to reach something. To criticize someone repeatedly.

get away

To succeed in leaving a place; escape, e.g. The robbers managed to get away through the back exit just before the police arrived. To have not been punished or criticized for a wrongful act, e.g. He has been shoplifting for a considerable time, and he always gets awaywith it. To take a holiday, e.g. I have been working very hard and long hours, but still have no plan to get away for a week or two.

To escape blame or punishment for a wrongful act. get away with

To return a place, e.g. I think we can get backin time for dinner. get back To have something returned to one, e.g. I lent him my umbrella two days ago and I haventgot it back. To move away from danger, etc., e.g. The onlookers were told to get back as the firemen battled the blaze. To move back to the real discussion, e.g. He was told to get back to the main point of the discussion as his comments seemed irrelevant.

get back at

To plan to retaliate, e.g. Jill cannot forget what Jack said about her and intends to get back at him. To take revenge on someone, e.g. He swears he would get back at his step-father who ill-treated him while they were living together.

To talk to someone later, e.g. He said he would get back to me, and after two days Im still waiting. get back to To have not done what one should have done earlier, e.g. He has gotten far behind with his work which should have been finished one week ago. get behind Manage to live but with difficulty or accomplish something.

get by To move from higher to lower level, e.g. I got down to the beach by walking down a flight of steps. To move someone or something from a higher to lower level, e.g. Some one called a fireman to get a cat down from a tree. To cause unhappiness, depression, etc. to someone, e.g. The prolonged illness of her mother is beginning to get her down.

get down

To start work on something.

get down to

To try to enter a place, e.g. It was very crowded at the stadium, and those without tickets also tried to get in. To engage someone to do something, e.g. We have to get the plumber in as the tap isnt working properly.

get in

To enter a place, e.g. We got into the stadium for the match as soon as we arrived there. To put something into something else, e.g. We tried quite unsuccessfully to get all the thingsinto the luggage. To come into an adverse situation, e.g. They had to sell off their house when they got intofinancial difficulty. To form a habit, routine, etc., e.g. She hasgotten into the habit of biting her nails.

get into

To escape punishment or be acquitted, e.g. The lucky murderer got off scot-free when the sole

witness suddenly passed away. get off To alight, e.g. When a train arrives at a station and stops, a lot of people get off it. To end a telephone conversation, e.g. She started a lengthy telephone conversation andgot off it only after being told to do so for the third time by her angry father. To leave ones workplace after a days work, e.g. Jill is always very punctual getting off the workplace after the days work. To have difficulty removing something, e.g. He has already spent hours trying to get the lid offa drum. To send something such as a letter, parcel, etc., e.g. The clerk has to get the parcels offby courier service before evening.

To find something enjoyable or be excited by something, e.g. He gets off on skydiving and has been doing it for many years.

get off on

To continue doing something, e.g. We had toget on with it until its completed because there isnt much time left. To have a friendly relationship with each other, e.g. Having known each other for only a short while we seem to get on very well.

get on

To make progress in ones activity, e.g. How are you getting on with writing the book? To climb on to an animal, bicycle, etc., e.g. They have to use a ladder to get on an elephant. To enter a vehicle, etc. e.g. As soon as the bus opened its door, people rushed to get onit. To put on something such as clothes, etc., e.g. Those shoes are sure too small for me, I

cant get them on. To leave or escape from a place, e.g. Visitors to the zoo rushed out for their life when they heard a tiger get out from its enclosure.

To help someone leave or escape from a place, e.g. Gang members helped a prisoner get outfrom the prison. To have a regular break from the same environment, e.g. Every weekend we get outof this city for an activity in the country. To run away from danger, etc. We managed toget out when a fire started to burn in the building. To get something from something else, e.g. He couldnt get any coin out of his piggy-bank no matter how he tried. To remove something from something else, e.g. What should I use to get this stubborn stain out of my shirt? To prevent secret information from being known, e.g. If this information gets out we will be directly implicated. To publish something, e.g. The first issue should get out at the end of this month.

get out

To escape from an unpleasant situation, e.g. He got out of visiting his mother-in-law with his wife by claiming falsely that he had to attend an important office meeting.

To succeed in dealing with an unpleasant or difficult situation, e.g. Many speakers prefer to be the first or among the earlier ones on the list to get it over with than to be nervous awaiting

get out of

their turns.

get over

To recover from something such as an illness, a bad experience, etc. Her husband passed away one month ago and she still hasnt gotten overit. To go or be asked to go to a place, e.g. I think Ill call and ask them to get over here for a drinking bout.

get ... over

To complete a task.

To resolve a problem; evade something such as a restriction, etc.

get round

To deal with a task in due course, e.g. After we get through painting the house, we can start on tiling the floor. To communicate successfully with someone, e.g. He has explained to his family again and again the need to move house, but he just cant get through. To fail in trying to speak to someone by telephone, e.g. He has tried numerous times to call his brother overseas but he has not been able to get through. To have undergone a bitter experience.

get round to

get through

To annoy or upset someone, e.g. Now he is looking for someone to blame, but dont let him get to you. To arrive at a place, e.g. We managed to get toour destination before it gets dark. To have to do something, e.g. I havent finished

my homework; Ill get to it later. To upset or annoy someone, e.g. The babys constant crying is beginning to get to its young mother.

get to

To meet or gather for a specific purpose, e.g. We have agreed to get together tomorrow night to do some crazy thing like looking for ghosts. To put things in the same place, e.g. We aregetting all the ingredients together to make some cakes.

To rise from bed when awake, e.g. I dont feel like getting up in this frosty morning. get together

To make someone wake up and get out of bed, e.g. I think Ill prepare the breakfast before Iget him up. To stand up from a sitting position, e.g. Everyone present got up when he entered.

get up

To be involved in something, especially something illicit, e.g. The neighbours all along didnt know what he got up to until the police arrived and arrested him.

get ... up


get up to ginger up

To make someone or something full of interest or excitement.


give away

To willingly transfer ones thing or things to someone, e.g. He has been giving money awayto the various charities. To unintentionally disclose evidence that implicates someone in a crime, e.g. He told his wife he would work late but instead went to a party after work, and his colleague gave itaway when the wife called the office. To hand over a bride to her bridegroom, e.g. The brides father was too sad to give heraway, and asked his eldest son to do it instead. To make a secret known, e.g. The culprit gavehimself away by feeling and appearing very nervous when questioned by the police.

give in

To stop fighting or arguing and concede to their demand.

give out To distribute something to many people, e.g. Campaign workers give out thousands of leaflets about the danger and prevention of AIDS to everyone on the street. To stop functioning properly, e.g. As we get older increasingly more parts of our body can easily give out. To have none left, e.g. Explorers ensure their provisions, especially food and drink, do notgive out in the midst of their exploration.

give over

To hand over for a particular purpose. To delegate the responsibility for someone or something to somebody else.

give up

To stop doing something before completing it, e.g. He gave up midway in a marathon race because he felt exhausted. To willingly admit defeat, e.g. When the soldiers realized they were completely outnumbered by the enemy, they gave upwithout fighting.

give ... up

To hand someone or something to someone else, e.g. give up ones seat in a bus to an old lady; the missing men were given up for dead.

To shop hoping that someone or something will change for the better, e.g. The parents have given up on their drug addict son. give up on glance at/through To look at or through quickly, e.g. glance through a photo album.


359. 360. 361. 362. 363.

glance off glass in glory in gloss over gnaw at go about

To strike a surface at an angle and bounce off in another direction. To cover something with glass or build a glass structure around something. To take great pride or pleasure in something, such as praise, peoples attention, etc. To prevent something from being known by avoiding talking about them. To make someone feel uneasy or distressed. To begin or continue doing something, e.g. I wish I knew how to go about starting a business. To do something that you usually do.

go after

To pursue someone, especially to apprehend them, e.g. Having arrested most of the gang members, the police are going after the leaders.

To oppose or resist something or someone; To have something such as a judgement, etc. that is unfavourable to you. go against

To go earlier than other members of the group; to proceed. go ahead To agree with someone or something, e.g. The majority of the members voted for him as theygo along with what he proposed.

go along with

(Illness, news, etc.) to pass from person to person, e.g. Theres a rumour going around in the workplace that the manager is keeping a secret lover. go around To be enough for everyone to have a share, e.g. There arent enough blankets to go around, and some of the evacuees may suffer the cold. To deliberately do something to offend people, e.g. The new manager goes aroundtelling everyone in sight to put in more effort in their work. To behave in an unacceptable way, e.g. The cleaner goes around chatting loudly with everyone in the office. To go from place to place looking for something, e.g. A bargain hunting housewifegoes around from store to store looking for the really cheap, discounted items on sale.

To leave a place or person, e.g. Jack bade his friend farewell and went away leaving his friend alone on a park bench. To spend some time elsewhere, e.g. We aregoing

go away

away for a holiday next week. (Condition, difficulty, etc.) to gradually disappear, e.g. Shes on mediation for her backache and the pain is slowly going away.

To return to where you have come from, e.g. He has to go back for his wallet which he left behind. His smoking habit goes back to his early childhood. go back

To break a promise or an agreement, e.g. Hewent back on his promise to his wife that he would never to see his ex-lover again. go back on

To pass near something or place, e.g. Every day I go by his house on my way to work. (Time) to pass away, e.g. Five years have gone by since she passed away, and memory of her lives on. To strictly obey or refer to something, or use it as a guide, e.g. Deeply religious people go bytheir holy books. To have an opinion of someone or something, e.g. To choose an employee, would an employer go by looks?

go by

To get to a lower level e.g. When the doorbell rang, he went downstairs to answer it. To get down to another place, e.g. After breakfast we went down to the pool for a swim. To lose in a match, contest, etc., e.g. Theywent down 2 -1 in the final.

go down

To get an unfavourable reaction or perception, e.g. His critical attitude does not go down well with his friends and colleagues. (Something such as computer system, etc.) to stop working, e.g. Long queues formed in the bank as its computer system went down. To choose a course of action, e g. The captain chose to go down with the ship. To become lower, e.g. The price of tomatoes has gone down, attracting many buyers. To disappear from sight, e.g. We played football until the sun had gone down.

To try to get or gain something or get someone. To decide on achieving something, e.g. He intends, after completing his education, to go for professional sports. To have a preference, e.g. She goes for tall men.

go for

To enter a place such as a building, e.g. Wewent in as soon as they opened the doors of the cinema.

To attack someone physically or verbally. To enter a contest, etc. or take an examination, etc, e.g. She decided to go in forthe quiz show on television. To like or do something often, e.g. When he was young, he would go in for any kind of sea sports. go in for To enter a profession, business, e.g. I decided not to go into that commercial venture with him.

go in

To expend something on doing something, e.g. A great of time, money, and resources havegone into producing this scientific paper. To sort out details of something, e.g. They have been going into the details of the draft agreement to finalize it before the meeting. go into (Gun, bomb, etc.) to fire or explode, e.g. Someone planted a bomb in the police station but it didnt go off. (Alarm) to sound, e.g. .Every morning he can only wake up when the second alarm clockgoes off. (Machine, system, etc.) to stop operating, e.g. Every worker leaves the building before the central heating goes off at 8 oclock. To do something, e.g. to go off to sleep. go off To continue to do something, e.g. to go onworking on it; To take place, e.g. something goes on in that building. To talk for a long time. To go on with the speech after the break. To take medication, e.g. go on the pill.

go on

To leave the home for some place, e.g. Everyone goes out except me as I have a television program to watch. (Tide) to ebb, e.g. Tonight we sit at seaside to watch the tide going out to sea. (Fire) to stop burning, e.g. Firemen battled the forest fire for five straight days before itwent

out. To carry on a romantic relationship, e.g. Jack is the only one Jill goes out with, but one cannot be sure about Jack.

go out

To visit someone at their house, e.g. go overto uncles house. To move to another place, e.g. go over to the kitchen for a drink. To examine or check something, e.g. We go over the documents and discuss their contents. To explain something, e.g. Some students dont understand the passage, so the teachergoes over it. go over To change religion, etc, to go over from this religion to that one.

To be enough, e.g. not enough chairs to go round; To spread, e.g. a rumour goes round that .

To search through or examine carefully, e.g. togo through the files. To suffer from an ordeal, bitter experience, etc. go round To be officially approved, e.g. the bill has gone through parliament with majority approval. To look for something, e.g. have to go throughthis drawer to find it. go through To do something despite opposition, danger, difficulty, etc., e.g. The government decided to go through with its proposal to legalize

prostitution despite strong opposition from many quarters.

(Ship, etc.) To sink. (Business) to become bankrupt.

To burn or explode, e.g. to go up in flames. go through with To increase in price, quality, etc., e.g. The increase in demand for flour has caused its price to go up. To reach further up, e.g. He has gone up the hill twice. go under To move from lower to higher level, or from south to north, e.g. We seldom go up to his house as the weather there is so much colder.

go up

To confront another person, e.g. She wentstraight up to him and told him off.

To have a romantic relationship with someone. To accept an idea, etc., e.g. We all have decided to go with his proposal. To escort, e.g. mother goes with her young daughter to the shop. To match an item of clothing with another, e.g. She is searching her wardrobe for a skirt to go with her blouse.

go ... up

go with

To experience lack or deprivation, e.g. go without food for two days.


go without goof around

To waste time doing silly things, e.g. He goofs around maybe to prove something, but nobody knows what.

365. 366.

goof off gouge out grab at

To idle or avoid doing any work. To cut or force something out roughly or violently. To quickly seize something with the hand. To immediately seize an opportunity that is offered. To gain money or advantages by dishonest use of influence. To strive to cope with a difficult problem. To seize and hold firmly on to something. To accept an opportunity eagerly. To cover land with grass. To work or study hard. To overwhelm someone with long cruel treatment. To continue for an unpleasantly long time.

367. 368. 369.

graft off grapple with grasp at

370. 371.

grass over grind away grind down grind on grind out


gross out

To produce something laboriously. To make someone feel disgusted by something, e.g. The sight of natives eating cooked rats for a meal really grossed them out. To add deductions, etc. to a net amount. To learn the basics in order to do something.


ground in


grow apart grow into

(Relationship) to become less close. (Childs clothes) to become big enough to wear when the child grows into clothes. To develop into a particular kind of person or thing over time. To learn successfully to do a job or deal with a situation.

grow on

(Someone or something) to become more attractive or interesting.

grow out of

(Childs clothes) to become too big to wear when the child grows out of clothes, e.g. She has grown out of her clothes and is not sure to throw or give them away. To develop into something bigger or more serious. To no longer do the thing one does when small, e.g. He has grown out of climbing trees.

(Child) to develop to maturity or adulthood. 375. 376. 377. 378. 379. 380. 381. 382. 383. grow up grub up/out guard against gulp back gum up gun down gussy up gutter out hack into hail as To dig something out of the ground. To take precautions against something happening. To refrain from expressing ones feelings. To clog up something and prevent it from working properly. To shoot someone with a gun. To make someone or something more attractive To become gradually weaker and then stops completely. To use or change someones information on their computer system. To acclaim someone or something in

newspapers, magazines, etc.


hail from hammer in/into hammer out

To have been born in a particular place. To instill something into someone forcefully and repeatedly. To laboriously work out the details of an agreement, plan, etc. To distribute to all members of a group. To pass back or return something to someone, e.g. The traffic policeman handed my driving licence back to me after inspecting it.


hand around hand back

To leave something to a successor or those who come after oneself, such as a son, daughter, etc. hand down To pass or announce something such as a verdict, punishment, etc.

hand in

To give something to a person in authority, e.g. to hand in ones papers at the end of an examination, or to hand in a resignation letter.

To pass something to another person. hand ... on To distribute something among a group or publicly. To pass a verdict, punishment or penalty, etc. on someone.

hand ... out

hand over

To pass someone or something to someone else for a reason, e.g. He handed his ticketover to the ticket collector.


hang about hang around

To spend time at a place without a good purpose. To loiter or wait somewhere needlessly, e.g. They like to gather in a group and hang arounda shopping centre.

hang around with To spend a lot of time with someone.

hang back

To remain behind or unwilling to move around and mix with others.

hang in

To remain persistent and determined in difficult circumstances.

hang on

To hold tightly onto something, e.g. She hungtightly on to the rail to prevent herself from falling. To continue doing something in spite of difficulties, e.g. He has to hang on until the next shift worker arrives to take over. To rely on someone or something, e.g. Does the relay race hang largely on the ability of the last runner to run very fast? To ask someone to wait for a short while, e.g. Please hang on. Hell be taking over in a while.

To keep something and reluctant to let go.

hang on to To be at some place or with some people for some time, e.g. After he dropped out of school he can be seen very often hanging outwith a couple of friends at the shopping centre. To hang something such as clothes, etc. outside

hang out

to dry them, e.g. I hung out my shoes to dry this morning and now they have gone missing.

To cooperate and work towards the same goal.

To put the telephone down, e.g. We had tohang up as we had been talking for more than an hour. hang together To put something up on a hook, etc., e.g. She is always hanging up several clothes on one hook.

387. 388.

hang up hanker after/for happen by happen on happen to

To secretly harbour a strong feeling of wanting to have something. To find a place by chance. To come across something or meet someone by chance. To experience a misfortune. To wonder the whereabouts and wellbeing of someone after a long time, e.g. whateverhappened to my niece? To recall things that happened in the past. To talk or write continuously and tediously on a topic. To officially bring someone to a court of law to be judged. To be wearing something, e.g. He has on a hat imported from Mexico. To be using something, e.g. Each time he has the radio on it has to be extremely loud.

389. 390. 391. 392.

hark back harp on haul up have on

have on

To have something removed, e.g. to have the appendix out by medical operation. have out To bring someone to court to answer for an alleged offence. To become hazy.


haze over


head back

To return to a place where one was before, e.g. I had to head back when I realized I had left my wallet at home. To move toward ones destination, e.g. I am headed for Montreal and have to speed up in order to arrive there before it gets dark. To intercept and prevent something from happening. (Wound) to have new skins grown over it and become healthy again. To receive news from someone by letter, telephone call, etc.

head for

head off 395. 396. heal over hear from

hear of

To have knowledge of something or someones existence, e.g. I had never heard of Black Hole until recently.

To listen to all that someone wants to say. 397. hear ... out heat up To become or to make something warm or hot, e.g. By the time I arrived home with the pizza, it had cooled down so I had to heat it up. (Situation) to become unstable or dangerous. (Ship) to turn across the wind in order to stop moving. To be enclosed by something, e.g. a parkhedged in with trees. To feel restricted.

398. 399.

heave to hedge in


hedge against heel over

To protect against possible problems, especially financial loss. To lean to one side as if going to fall, e.g. shipheels over in the storm.

5. Phrasal Verbs 401-500


help out

To assist someone in their work, e.g. On weekends, the husband helps out in the kitchen. To support someone who has problems, e.g. Jack is an tiger trainer and he needs an assistance, but nobody dares to help out. To surround and restrict the space or movement of someone or something. To pull or lift up clothing, e.g. She hiked up her skirt to climb the ladder. To depend entirely on someone or something. To allow the temporary use of something in exchange for payment. To retaliate in kind. To think of a good idea. To discover something by chance.

help out 402. 403. 404. 405. 406. hem in hike up hinge on/upon hire out hit back hit on

hit out

To strike at someone. To express strong disapproval of something or someone. To lift or roll up ones clothing, e.g. to hitch up ones trousers. To harness a draught animal. To separate something from a large group, such as to sell a company in a conglomerate. To continue to blame and dislike someone, e.g. Despite the years that have passed, Jack still holds it against Jill for something she did that caused him embarrassment.


hitch up

408. 409.

hive off hold against

hold back

To stop oneself from doing something or expressing an emotion.

hold ... down

To succeed in retaining ones job. To keep prices from rising.

hold forth

To talk at length on a subject.

hold off

To postpone doing something, e.g. They hold off renovating the house until next year when they can better afford to pay for it.

(Bad weather) to fail to occur. hold ... off To ward off someone or something from harming or affecting one, e.g. They are planning a way to hold the enemy off while looking for an escape route.

hold on

To wait for a short time, e.g. Would you like tohold on or call back? Shes in the toilet.

hold on to

To persist in doing something despite the difficulty encountered, e.g. They managed tohold on to a piece of debris until help arrived. To grasp something firmly, e.g. She held tightlyon to the rail as she climbed the stairs.

hold out

To extend ones hand, e.g. We have not met for a long time and when I hold out my hand, he grabs it tight. To make something such as money, etc. last, e.g. Im spending less, so it holds out until my next payday. To resist something such as attack, pressure, temptation, etc., e.g. They were under siege but managed to hold out until reinforcements arrived.

To be not prepared to receive less than what is demanded. hold out for

hold out on

To refuse to provide someone with information, an answer, etc. that is needed.

To continue to remain strong, valid, etc. hold up To delay the progress of someone or something, e.g. work is held up by workers strike. hold ... up To commit a robbery, e.g. A couple of men succeeded in holding a bank up by using toy guns.

To adopt someone or something as a role model or example. hold with To approve or agree with something, e.g. Most parents do not hold with using the cane in school. To hide oneself, especially from the law. To remove the inside part of something. To aim at something and move directly towards it with a purpose, e.g. to identify a problem and home in to resolving it. To connect an electronic equipment to an electricity supply. To get acquainted with someone and become friendly with them. To interrupt without invitation or necessity. To fool around or about. To wash something or someone using a hose. To become more active, exciting, or dangerous. To prevent someone or something from being

410. 411. 412.

hole up hollow out home in on


hook up hook up with

414. 415. 416. 417. 418.

horn in horse around/about hose down hot up howl down

419. 420.

hunt down Hurry up/hurry up

heard by shouting loudly and angrily. To search diligently for and capture or kill someone or an animal To make someone or something move, act, finish or happen more quickly, e.g. If we dont hurry up, we are going to be the last ones in the long queue. / We hurried the waiter up as we had waited almost half an hour. To prevent something from being expressed publicly, especially about something dishonest or immoral. To promote or publicize someone or something in a exaggerated way. To cover injury with ice to prevent swelling.


hush up

422. 423.

hype up ice down ice over/up identify with


425. 426. 427. 428. 429. 430. 431. 432. 433.

434. 435.

To become covered or blocked with ice. To feel oneself as having the same characteristics, thinking or feelings as someone else. idle away To spend time doing nothing. imbue with To make someone fill with an emotion or quality. impinge on/upon To have an effect on someone or something. improve on/upon To make or do something better than before. impute to To regard something, especially something bad, as being caused by someone else. inform To give vital information about someone to the against/on police, enemy, etc. infringe on/upon To intrude on someones freedom or rights. ink in To write or mark something with ink. inquire after To ask someone about their health, well-being, etc. inquire into To investigate about something or someone. inquire of To ask someone about someone else or something. insist on To firmly continue doing something. interfere with To prevent something from succeeding or continuing in the way that was planned. To sexually molest, especially a child. To make someone accustomed to something, especially something unpleasant so that they are used to it.


inure to


invalid out

438. 439. 440.

inveigh against inveigle into invest in

To leave the armed services or to remove someone from active military service because of injury or illness. To speak or write about someone or something with great hostility or criticism. To persuade someone to do something, especially by deceit or flattery. To buy a financial product with a view of making a profit. To buy something useful, e.g. a grey winter suit.

invest with To endow someone with power or authority to perform a duty or with a particular quality or character. To ask someone to come along to some place such as a cinema, etc.


invite along

To ask someone to come to ones house, etc. invite ... back invite ... in invite ... over 442. iron out To ask someone to come into ones house, office, etc. To ask someone to come over to ones house, for dinner, etc. To resolve a problem. To remove folds from clothes by ironing them. (Sound, etc.) to emanate or come out from something or a place.


issue forth


issue from jack around

(Smoke, etc.) to emit or come out from somewhere. To waste someones time by causing inconvenience or problems.

To stop doing something. jack ... in To masturbate. jack off To inject oneself with a narcotic drug.

jack up

To refuse to participate. To raise something, e.g. to jack a car up in order to change its wheels.

jack ... up To increase something considerably such as prices, sales, etc. To make something more interesting or exciting. To deal with someone dishonestly or unfairly. To masturbate. To utter something in a quick and unsteady manner. To become unwilling to do or accept something. To make an insulting or mocking remark. To continue in the same steady way. To take part in an activity. To become a member of the armed services. To form a group with other people in order to do something. To do or say something together, e.g. to join with fellow church members say prayers. To encourage someone to do something faster. To make someone or something more lively and cheerful. To write something quickly. To have a feeling of great pleasure and happiness. To make something more interesting or exciting. To eagerly accept the chance to do something. To join a conversation suddenly by interrupting. To criticize or attack someone, usually unfairly. (Boat, ship) to turn over on its side; to fall over sideways. To continue a course of action, e.g. We kept at it until we completely fitted together all the pieces of a jigsaw.

445. 446.

jazz up jerk around jerk off jerk out

447. 448. 449. 450.

jib at jibe at jog along join in join up join up with join with


jolly along jolly up

452. 453. 454. 455.

jot down joy in juice up jump at jump in jump on keel over keep at

456. 457.

keep at keep away

To force someone to continue a course of action. To make someone or something avoid going somewhere or seeing someone else, e.g. Wekeep away from this guy who often gets drunk and swears. To keep someone or something away from someone or something else, e.g. Gun owners should ensure they keep away their guns beyond the reach of their children.

keep back

To refrain from telling someone what you know, e.g. He keeps back when asked how he sustained a black eye.

keep ... back

To withhold paying or giving something to someone.

keep ... down To stop something from increasing, e.g. The producer is increasing the supply of its products in order to keep their prices down.

keep from To refrain from sharing information with someone, e.g. He knows he cannot keep the incident from his family for very long.

keep ... from

To prevent someone from doing something or something from happening, e.g. We just could not keep ourselves from buying those big, juicy looking apples. To protect someone from possible danger or a mishap.

keep ... in To make someone stay indoors, e.g. His parents keep him in most of the time to prevent

him from mixing with those bad neighbours kids..

keep in with

To remain on friendly terms with someone, especially because this is very advantageous.

keep off

To protect something from some other things, e.g. putting things in container to keep verminoff. To make someone stay away from something or someone else, e.g. The doctor advised the parents to keep her off sugary stuff.

To continue doing something, e.g. He keeps on complaining about his parents to me. keep on To retain someone in employment, e.g. He has attained retirement age but the companykeeps him on because of his immense experience.

To talk constantly about something, especially about ones personal problems. keep on about To bother someone with repeated requests.

keep on at To retain someone or something such as to continue to employ someone, etc., e.g. He is still kept on the company payroll despite having reached retirement age.

keep ... on

To usually appear on signboard warning people to stay away from a place, e.g. A signboard warns passersby to keep out as construction

keep out

work is still in progress.

To refrain from getting involved in something, e.g. We often discuss current issues but keep out of sensitive ones. keep out of To keep to a particular place, e.g. If motoristskeep to their lanes as much as possible when driving, the number of accidents might be reduced. keep to To observe an agreement and do what one promises to do, e.g. I have not been keeping to my work schedule and now my work is piling up . To keep something secret, especially something that has been confided in one, e.g. No matter how hard she tries, she just cannotkeep anything to herself. To keep to the topic one is talking, writing or discussing about which one is supposed to. To confine or restrict oneself to a particular place, e.g. The nurses tell him to keep to his ward where he is a patient instead of wandering into other wards to chat. To maintain something at a certain level, e.g. They have been reminded again to keep their spending to within the amount allowed in the budget.

To continue to maintain ones good performance, e.g. to keep up the good work. To keep abreast of current affairs by reading and learning, e.g. to keep up with the development in the field of medicine. To move or progress at about the same rate as someone or something else, e.g. Some of them

keep up

were not able to keep up with others in their class in school that led to their dropout. To acquire about the same possessions as those of friends and neighbours, e.g. She tries to keep up her extravagant lifestyle by incurring huge debts through heavy use of her credit cards. To prevent someone from going to bed, e.g. to drink strong coffee to keep one up the whole night. To maintain something at a high level, e.g. The suppliers of a product conspire to manipulate its supply in order to keep up the price. To enter or work on data by using a computer keyboard. To express disagreement or frustration with someone or react strongly against something; To travel from place to place wander with no explicit aim, e.g. He has been kicking aroundthe coastal area for the past year. (Place or thing) awaits exploration and exploitation, e.g. Some of the things we need for this project could be kicking around in the attic.

458. 459.

key in kick against

kick around/about

To treat someone badly, unfairly and without respect, e.g. He never seems to kick his workers around. kick ... around To discuss an idea with other people casually, e.g. We could kick around the possibility of migrating.

To be at leisure or relaxing, e.g. He decides tokick back the whole day and call in sick. kick back To have an effect, e.g. to begin to feel the pain of the wound kicking in.

kick in To injure someone, e.g. He was sent off for deliberately kicking the other players ankle in. To gain access, e.g. The neighbours had tokick the door in to rescue a child from the fire. To contribute money, help, etc., e.g. The villagers are all willing to kick in and help with the building of a new bridge.

kick ... in

To start off a football match, e.g. They decide that the match should not kick off this afternoon due to adverse weather conditions. kick off To remove ones shoes by shaking the feet, e.g. He habitually kicks off his shoes on arriving home.

To expel or dismiss someone, e.g. got kicked out of the house or kicked out of the club.

460. 461.

kick ... out kid around kill off

462. 463. 464.

kiss up to kit out knock around/about

To behave in a silly way. To kill a lot of lives, e.g. the discharge of chemicals into the river has killed off a variety of fish species. To be excessively obedient or attentive to someone for a selfish reason. To provide someone with the appropriate clothing and equipment for an activity. To travel, especially without a specific purpose, e.g. He intends to knock around a few countries before he gets married. To hit someone, e.g. He used to get knocked around when he was staying with his drinking father. To be present at a particular place, e.g. There is a hammer knocking about in the attic but I just

couldnt find it.

knock ... back

To drink heavily and quickly, He can easilyknock back five bottles when he has the mood. To spend on costly things, e.g. The air fare hasknocked her back by some four hundred pounds, but it was worth it.

knock ... down

To hurt or kill someone by hitting them accidentally with a car, e.g. He was knockeddown by a car as he was dashing across a road. To reduce substantially the price of something, e.g. Sale has been poor so the seller knocks down some of the prices by as much as half. To destroy something and replace it with something better, e.g. They knock down the garage to build a bigger one.

knock off

To finish the days work, e.g. He does notknock off at the same time every day.

knock ... off

To kill someone, e.g. Pictures of him with a reward for information leading to his capture are all over the country after he knocked offthe police chief. To have sex with someone. To deduct points from the total, e.g. Each contestant will have one point knocked off for each wrong answer. To reduce prices. To accidentally or deliberately strike something onto the ground from a surface, e.g. My

armknocked a glass ashtray off the table and broke it into pieces. To tell someone to stop bothering one, e.g. He yelled out, Knock it off at someone in a crowded place. To produce something quickly, e.g. Sheknocked off a couple of poems for the school magazine.

knock ... out

To eliminate contestants, e.g. He was knocked out early in the contest. To lose a boxing match, e.g. He was knocked out by the opponents left hook. To make someone unconscious, e.g. A brick fell on the head of a passerby and knocked himout. To destroy something, e.g. Aerial attacks haveknock out their ammunition factory.

To hit someone or something with a car, e.g. The dog was knocked over when it was running across the street. knock over To combine or assemble something from whatever one has, e.g. He knocked together a dinner from last nights leftovers. knock ... together To awaken someone by knocking at their door, e.g. Every morning she has to knock him up for work. knock ... up To make something hurriedly, e.g. They got together and knocked up a big kite for a kite flying contest the next day. To be aware of, e.g. There are still many things in this world we dont really know much about, such as whether or not Nessie exists, the Bermuda Triangle, UFOs, etc.


know about

know of 466. knuckle down knuckle under 467. 468. ladle out land in land on land up

To be aware of something but lack knowledge concerning it. To devote oneself diligently to a task. To unwillingly submit to someones authority or orders. To distribute something in large amounts such as advice, praise, compliments, etc. To cause someone to be in a difficult situation; To speak angrily to someone To finally reach ones desired place, position, destination, etc. despite the difficulties. To end up with an unpleasant or unwelcome situation. To assign someone with an unpleasant task. To accept something with considerable pleasure and enjoyment To pass gradually into a different, often worse, state or condition. To have fun by behaving in a playful way. To attack someone verbally, e.g. He lashed outat his critics for their derogatory remarks. (Animals) to react violently using, typically their paws, or other parts of its body such as their mouths, tails, etc. To understand the meaning of something, e.g. It wasnt easy for him but finally he managed to latch on. To have full affection for someone and aim to be their steady companion, e.g. He has been looking for a long time for an attractive lady whom he can latch onto. To develop a keen interest in something. To ridicule someone or something. To treat something as unworthy of serious consideration, e.g. All his friends have been

land up with land with lap up lapse into lark about/around lash out

469. 470. 471. 472.


latch on

latch onto


laugh at laugh off


launch into

trying to convince him that he is putting on a lot of weight, but he just laughs it off. To start something with great energy and interest, or criticism of someone or something. To undertake something new and risky on ones own such as a business enterprise. To attack someone violently. To put something away for future use, e.g. He has been laying a small sum of money aside in his savings account to meet future needs. To defer doing something, e.g. The developer has decided to lay aside a major construction project until the economy improves.


launch out lay about lay aside

lay ... down

To put down weapons, tools, etc., e.g. The gang members were ordered to lay down their weapons and surrender to the police. To introduce a regulation, law, etc., e.g. The local authority laid down a by-law against owners letting their dogs loose in the streets.

To store a large supply of something for future use.

lay ... in To attack someone physically or verbally, e.g. She would lay into her partner whenever she feels she is provoked. lay into To discharge workers from employment, either for a temporary period or permanently due to shortage of work, e.g. My brother was one of those who were laid off during the recent recession. To give up something, e.g. He just couldnt lay off betting no matter how hard he tries.

lay off

To stop doing, having, or using something, e.g. I advised her to lay off eating excessively as she is putting on weight by the minute. To stop bothering someone, e.g. You have been annoying me and if you dont lay off, Im going to thump you hard on the head.

To provide service such as food, entertainment, etc. To entrust someone with a responsibility to tackle a problem, task, etc., e.g. They think he was the best man to lay the responsibility onto organize the weekend jumble sale.

lay ... on

To spread something out such as a map, carpet, etc. To arrange or plan the construction of something such as a building, garden, town, etc. lay ... out To spend a large sum of money for a particular purpose, e.g. Together, they laid out a vast sum for interior decoration of their house. To prepare a dead body for burial. To knock someone unconscious.

To sojourn somewhere before resuming ones journey.

(Ship) to stop moving. lay over To be unable to do anything due to illness or injury. To take a ship, vehicle, etc. out of service.

lay to


lay ... up lead into

(Something) to happen and then followed by another as there is a close connection between them. To connect directly to another place, e.g. The corridor leads off to the backyard. To be a route or means of access to a particular place, e.g. This road leads to the park. To be the result of an action, e.g. The Police offer a reward for any information leading tothe arrest of the wanted man.

lead off

lead to

lead up to

(Events, etc.) to lead to a final outcome, e.g. No one knows what were the preceding events that led up to the managers dismissal. To say or write something that supports your intention which is not mentioned, e.g. Jack didnt directly say he wanted to be captain of the team, however he led up to it by talking about his ability to lead. To turn the pages of a book, magazine, etc. casually. To intentionally make secret information known to people. To rely on someone or something for support, encouragement, etc. To influence someone to act in a certain way.

478. 479. 480.

leaf through leak out lean on

lean towards To have a tendency to support a view, belief, idea, opinion, etc. To forget to bring someone or something along, e.g. He left his cell phone behind in his car. To move faster than someone else, e.g. He is certain to win the gold medal as he leaves the other marathon runners far behind. To go away from someone or something, e.g. He left his wife and kids behind and sought


leave behind

employment overseas. To be slow and make less progress than others, e.g. I watch television more than I work hard; not surprisingly, Im left behind by others.

To omit to add or put on something. To discontinue doing something, e.g. I use a bookmark to help me remember where I leave off when I stop reading.

leave ... off

To deliberately or accidentally overlook the inclusion of someone or something, e.g. They have to leave him out from participating in any of the athletic events because he is far too fat. leave ... out To exceed a desired amount, e.g. Ill leave the remaining food over for tomorrow.

482. 483.

leave over lech after/over let down

To show excessive or offensive sexual desire for a woman. To disappoint someone by not meeting their expectations, e.g. He assured me that he would come in first in the race, but he let medown by not turning up for the race.

let ... in/let ... into

To open the door of a building, house, etc. for someone to enter, e.g. She was still angry with me and would not let me in when I arrived. (Light, air, etc.) to enter a place, e.g. Whenever it rained a crack on the roof letwater seep in. To share a secret with someone, e.g. Is it wise to let him into our secret plan to smuggle cigarettes?

To reveal a secret to someone with the understanding that they keep it to themselves, e.g. He let me in on how he acquired his wealth. let ... in on To fire a gun or make bomb, firework, etc. explode, e.g. Despite the official ban on firecrackers, people nationwide are lettingthem off to usher in the new year. let off To decide not to punish someone, e.g. The victims family was furious when the judge letthe offender off with only a warning. To release someone from public transport, etc., e.g. The bus driver let the elderly passenger off in front of her house.

To make known secret information to someone.

let on

To make a sound such as a scream, cry, etc., e.g. Her nightmare caused her to let out a scream of terror.

let out To allow someone or something to leave a confined area, building, etc., e.g. The zoo attendant opened a cage door and let some monkeys out to roam freely. let ... out To make an item of clothing larger or looser as its owner has put on weight, e.g. This is the second time she is letting her dress out as she has put on more weight. To allow someone else occupy a room, building, etc, in return for periodic payments.

(Storm, high winds, etc.) to become less intense,

e.g. It looks like the rain is not going to let up any time soon. To do something continuously, e.g. to grumble without letting up. let up level at


To publicly accuse or criticize someone, e.g. level an accusation at. To aim a weapon at someone. To become level, e.g. the steep road begins to level off.

level off/out

485. 486.

To have a frank talk or discussion with someone. level with lick up To drink or eat something by licking it. lie about/around To leave something untidily somewhere, e.g. She can really tolerate the sight of old newspapers, magazines, books, etc. lying around her. To lie down and not doing anything, e.g. He islying around watching television. To be the real reason for a change of behaviour, e.g. something lies behind his sudden heavy drinking. To accept unfair treatment without complaining, e.g. how long is he going to take this lying down? To put oneself in a sleeping position.

lie behind

lie down

To remain in bed longer than usual. lie in

lie with

To have power, authority, etc., e.g. the responsibility to deal with the problem lies with the local authority. To have sex with someone. (Aircraft, spacecraft, etc.) to rise into the air. To raise something from a surface, e.g. I lifted


lift off lift up


light up

up an overturned can and a big insect hopped away. To provide light to a place or shine light on something, e.g. They light up trees in the city with multi-coloured light bulbs for the festive season. (Face or eyes) to show pride, liveliness or joy; To light something such as a cigarette, cigar, etc., e.g. He has no lighter or matches and so goes around borrowing them to light up his cigarettes. To treat someone in a particular way, e.g. You have been grumbling at me for hours, arent you going to lighten up soon? To be or to tell someone to be less serious about something, e.g. If she had realized it was just a joke, it would have lightened herup.

lighten up

489. 490. 491.

lighten ... up liken to limber up line up line up

To resemble someone else or something. To warm up in preparation for an exercise or activity. To form a queue with others. To form a line of people or things, e.g. Theyline up for inspection. To have someone or something prepared for a specific purpose, e.g. to line up a number of speakers for the rally. To form a link between or connection with something or someone. To pay ones attention to a sound; To listen to a radio broadcast. To eavesdrop.

492. 493.

link up listen for listen in


listen out live in live off

To listen carefully for something. To reside at the place where one works or studies. To depend on a source of income or support from another person, e.g. to live off the interest from ones investment or live off the money regularly

given by a relative such as a son or daughter. live on To remember someone after they have died, e.g. the memory of their parents still lives on. To live away from the place where one works or studies. To continue to live ones life in a particular place until one dies. To fulfil ones dreams or wishes, e.g. eventually they were able to live out their dreams.

live out

To feel a horrific experience, e.g. the ordeal she had lived through. live through

To fulfil their obligation as a trustworthy financial, etc. institution, e.g. a bank has tolive up to its reputation. live up to To make ones home with someone, e.g. Despite my age, Im still living with my parents. live with Endure someone or something that is disagreeable, e.g. I was born with a face marred by a big aquiline nose, sunken cheeks and sleepy eyes, and I have to learn to live with it. To become or make something more lively or interesting, e.g. the place livens up when more guests arrive. To entrust someone with excess authority.


liven up


load down

497. 498.

To make someone or something carry or hold a large amount of heavy things, e.g. she struggles to push her trolley loaded down with a great deal of purchases. lobby through To seek to influence a legislator. lock away To put someone in prison. To keep something in a safe place and fasten its door with a lock, e.g. she places her valuables in

a safe and locks it away. To ensure no one leaves by locking the door, e.g. Closing the car door automatically locksthe driver in.

lock ... in

lock onto

When a missile locks onto a target, it heads for the target.

lock ... out

To keep someone out of a place by locking the door, e.g. My God, Ive locked myself out but luckily Im a locksmith, so I have ways to unlock the door without the key.

lock up

To make all the doors of the building locked when the days work ends. To imprison a criminal after he was officially found guilty. To keep something in a safe place such as a safe, etc. and lock its door. To take the required actions to begin the use of a computer system. To take the required actions to conclude the use of a computer system. To take care of someone or something; To plan for the future. To try to find something or someone by looking, e.g. We heard a sound, and we looked around but there was nothing and nobody, and we started running through the dimly lit alley.


log in/on


log off/out look after look ahead look around/round

look at

To focus ones eyes on someone or something, e.g. We look at each other when we talk to each other. To examine something and consider what action

to take.

To recall something that occurred in the past. look back To view others with a feeling of superiority, e.g. She looks down on me just because Im jobless. look down on

To find something, or something that has been lost or someone who is missing. look for To wait eagerly for something that is going to happen, e.g. He looks forward to playing in the next game. look forward to To make a short visit to someone. look in To try to find out what happened and take the necessary actions, e.g. Police, investigating a bank robbery, are looking into the possibility of an inside job.

look into

To watch something without getting involved in it. look on To keep a close watch on and be aware of someone or something. look out To search for and find a particular thing.

look ... out

To keep careful watch for possible danger or difficulties, e.g. Look out for snakes when you take that path, or you may step on one like I did.

look out for To examine something quickly, without paying much attention to detail, e.g. We looked overthe inside of a newly-opened store and left. look ... over To look for one person or thing among many.

look through

To rely on something or someone to do something.

look to (Situation) to improve, e.g. Now that oil has been discovered off the coast of the country, things are looking up.

look up To try to find a piece of information in a dictionary, reference book, etc, e.g. Every time he comes across an unknown word, he looks it up in a dictionary. look ... up To renew contact with someone, e.g. My bother always looks me up whenever he is in town on business.

To have a great deal of respect for someone.

look up to

6. Phrasal Verbs 501-600

501. 502. 503.

loose on/upon To allow something dangerous and destructive to begin to affect a situation or other people. loosen up To warm up the body, especially the muscles and joints, in preparation for a physical activity. lop off To cut off, especially a branch or limb, from a tree or body. To make a slight reduction in a price or charge. lose out To fail to get something, e.g. to lose out on a job, business contract, etc. which go to a rival. louse up To spoil, or to do something badly, or to make something worse. luck out To succeed due to good luck, e.g. We both bought lottery tickets and he, not me, lucked out when he discovered he hit the jackpot. lump together To combine into an indiscriminate mass or group. lust after To feel strong sexual desire for someone or something. luxuriate in To relax and consciously enjoy something. magic away To use magic to make someone or something disappear. magic up To make something appear suddenly and unexpectedly. make after To pursue someone or something. make away with To steal something, e.g. The thieves made away with a safe. To kill someone or something.

504. 505. 506.

507. 508. 509. 510.


make for

To move towards someone or something, e.g. We made for the railway station as quickly as we could. To have a particular result or make something possible, e.g. Proper training makes forsmooth operation of the machinery.

To change the form or purpose of something,

make ... into

e.g. Jack planned to make the attic into a study. To change someones character, etc., e.g. A road accident has made him into a careful driver.

To express an opinion of something, e.g. We do not know what to make of the ultimate consequences of climate warming. make ... of To use opportunities to achieve an outcome, e.g. I want to make use of whatever money I have for my higher education. To give someone a new job or position in a group, organization, etc., e.g. He was madecaptain of the team.

To leave hurriedly.

make off To take something away illegally, e.g. he made off with my bicycle while I was not looking. make off with To manage with difficulty to see, etc., e.g. On that foggy night the driver could barely make out what was in front of him until his car rammed into it. make out To issue payment by means of a cheque, e.g. He makes a cheque out in favour of one of his creditors. To have sufficient evidence to effect a conviction, e.g. The police feel they havemade out a case to charge the culprit. To have individual opinions on something or someone, e.g. The horror movie is not as scary as you made it out to be.

make ... out

To survive a difficult situation, e.g. His wife has run away, he will make out somehow. To find good reasons to prove or explain something, e.g. The police believe they havemade out a strong case against the accused.

To give money or legally transfer ownership of property to someone else, e.g. His fathermade over the whole factory to his son. To change ones own appearance with cosmetics, hairstyling, new clothes, etc.

make ... over

To be reconciled after a quarrel, etc., e.g. They make up every now and then after an angry argument or disagreement. To make a choice, e.g. I havent made up my mind to give up smoking or lose weight, or do both at the same time. make up To improve ones appearance, e.g. The regular use of cosmetics has made her up much younger than her actual age. To invent a story, etc. in order to deceive someone, e.g. He made a fictional happeningup to escape punishment. make ... up To add an amount that is enough for a particular purpose, e.g. I dont have enough money to buy her a birthday present, so I borrowed to make up the difference. To plan a course of action carefully. To write something down in order to keep a record. To reduce the indicated price of an item. To judge someone to be a potential leader, etc. To reduce the marks awarded to a candidate or

512. 513.

map out mark down

for their work, e.g. He was marked down as his work has missed the point by not understanding the main meaning of the questions.

mark ... off

To isolate an area such as a building, road, etc. by putting a rope, tape, cones, etc. around it, e.g. the murder scene has been marked offwith police tape. To tick off items on a list for a purpose, e.g. She has marked off the items that she has already bought. To distinguish someone from others, e.g. Her ability to debate in class has marked her off as a potential representative debater of her school.


mark ... up marry into

To increase the profit margin, e.g. Cell phones may be marked up by as much as 60%. To become a member of a family by marriage, e.g. She married into a very wealthy family. To look for a spouse for someone, e.g. They married her off to the first young man who came along. To match a report, piece of information, etc. with another to see of they are the same. To find something that is similar to or suitable for something else. To do something with as much effort and determination as one can. To judge someone or something by comparing them with another person or thing. To measure the required amount of material and cut it off a larger piece.

marry off 515. match up

516. 517.

match up max out measure against

measure off

To take out a certain amount of liquid, powder, etc. from a larger quantity. measure ... out

measure up


meet up

To determine whether one is good enough for a particular job, position, etc., e.g.The new manager has not measured up to his responsibilities. To come and do something together, e.g. We used to meet up on weekend to go fishing.

meet with

To mutually agree to come face to face for a purpose. To have a particular reaction to something, e.g. The stars emergence from a car was met with a loud cheer. To heat metal until it becomes liquefied and reuse it, e.g. His hobbies include melting down unwanted metal objects to make souvenirs for sale. To behave in a silly way that lacks purpose. To cause problems for someone.


melt down


mess around/about

To have an affair with someone that one should mess around with not have. mess up/mess To make something dirty or untidy, e.g. The up puppies have really messed up the sitting room. To interfere with something and turn it into a confused state, e.g. Ive arranged my CDs in alphabetical order, but someone has messed itup. To handle a situation wrongly or ineffectively, or to spoil something. To ruin ones own personal life, e.g. She feels she has messed up her whole life by running up massive credit card debts.

To get involved in or interfere with something or someone.

521. 522. 523. 524. 525. 526. 527.

mess with mete out

To dispense justice, punishment, etc. to someone. mike up To equip someone with a microphone so that his voice can be made louder. militate against To stop something from happening or stop someone from doing something mill around/about (A lot of people) to move around a place in different directions. minister to To attend to the needs of someone. minor in To study a subsidiary subject in addition to the main one. miss out To fail to use an opportunity to do something enjoyable. To fail to include someone or something, e.g. to miss out some punctuation marks in ones essay. (Eyes) to become filled with tears. To become covered with tiny water droplets or condensed vapour, e.g. ones glasses havemisted up. To wrongly identify someone or something as someone or something else, e.g. mistook a cheetah for a leopard. To confuse someone or something with someone or something else, e.g. The teacher often mixes him up with his twin brother. To combine two or more things together, e.g. A good way to mix the ingredients upthoroughly is to use an electric mixer. To disrupt the order or arrangement of something, e.g. He unknowingly mixed upthose arranged papers which are not numbered, and now they have to sort and rearrange them. To become confused or make someone feel confused, e.g. They really mixed me up, telling me different stories about the same person. To replicate or imitate something. To behave in a silly, careless or playful way, e.g. The children monkey around in the park and cause damage to some of the exotic plants.


mist over mist up


mistake for


mix up

531. 532.

mock up monkey around

To tamper with something without authority or the required skill, e.g. My kid monkeyed around with my cell phone and now it cant make any call. To interfere with something so as to cause damage. To move around without any apparent purpose. To spend time in a relaxed, lazy manner. To miss and long for someone. 535. moon over mop up To wipe or soak up liquid with a mop, cloth, etc. from a surface. To complete or put an end to something by dealing with the remaining parts. To feel sad or dispirited. To gradually increase in size or amount. To talk in a conceited way. To go further to the front or back of something. To change ones place of residence.

533. 534.

monkey with mooch around/about moon about/around

536. 537. 538. 539.

mope around/about mount up mouth off move along move away

move in

To start living with someone, e.g. Jill moved inwith her boyfriend despite her parents' objection.

move into

To start living in a place, e.g. Jack and Jill are planning to move into a rural area of the country for some peace and quiet.

(Vehicle or crowd) to start to move away. move off To carry on with ones journey. move on To start talking a new part of the subject under

discussion or start talking a new subject.

move out

To stop living in a place in order to live somewhere else, e.g. We are looking for a house somewhere and move out of our apartment.

To shift someone or something out of a place, e.g. The villagers move their belongings tohigher ground in anticipation of a flood. move to

To shift position and so create more space for others. move over To get a promotion in the place where one works. 540. move up mow down To kill a large group of people at one time by shooting them. To recklessly knock someone down with a car. To behave in a silly way without purpose. To spoil something by interfering with it. muck around with muck in To share accommodation or tasks with others in order to complete a job


muck about/around

To clean a place, especially where an animal lives, e.g. to muck a stable. muck ... out

To spoil a plan. To fail to achieve something. muck ... up To dirty a place or something such as ones clothes, etc.


muddle along muddle through

To engage aimlessly in an activity. To cope satisfactorily with something despite not having the know-how. To confuse two or more things with each other.

543. 544. 545. 546.

muddle up mug up mull over muscle in nail down

To study intensively in preparation for an examination. To think and consider about something at length. To force ones way into anothers affairs to gain control. To elicit a firm commitment from someone. To decide or identify something precisely. To reduce, e.g. In the second round, the number of finalists will be narrowed down to five. To keep taking small amounts out of a large amount. To remove something by pinching or squeezing tightly between finger and thumb. To begin to fall asleep. To discover something after a long search. To achieve something such as a victory, total, score, etc. (Soldiers) to call out their number when their turn comes. (Thought, idea, etc) to come into the mind. (Crack, hole, etc.) to appear and become wider. To begin shooting with a weapon, e.g. The gangsters opened up with small arms, but all of them were soon shot dead by the police. (Land) to make it available for development, e.g. The developer is opening up a jungle area for a housing project. (Office, shop, cinema, etc.) to begin operation, e.g. The new cinema is expected toopen up soon. (Box, container, etc.) to remove or unfasten the cover, e.g. She opened up her jewellery box

547. 548. 549. 550. 551. 552. 553. 554. 555.

narrow down nibble away at nip off nod off nose out notch up number off occur to open up

and showed us the contents. (Door, window, etc.) to make them open, e.g. The supermarket here opens up at 10:00 every day. To decide not to participate in a group, activities, etc. To avoid performing a duty. To use ones power or authority to tell someone to do something.


opt out


order about

order ... out 558. 559. own up pack away pack in

To deploy soldiers, police, etc. for a particular action such as crowd control, dealing with natural disaster, etc. To admit to having done something wrong or embarrassing. To put something back in its box, case, container, etc. To cram a lot of things into a space, place, period of time, etc.

pack ... off

To send someone away.

560. 561. 562.

pack up pad out page through paint in paint out paint over

To stop working or close early in business. To lengthen a speech or piece of writing with unnecessary material. To turn over the pages of a book, magazine, etc. and read them quickly or casually. To make additional painting to a picture. To erase something with paint so that it is no longer visible. To cover something with new paint. To become or form a couple. To form a couple to work together or start a relationship.


pair off pair up


pal around

To go around or do things together with a friend or with someone as a friend.

To form a friendship with someone. 565. 566. 567. 568. 569. pal up palm off pan out pander to pant for parcel out parcel off To separate something into parts for sale. parcel up 570. 571. 572. 573. pare down part with partake of partition off To make something into a parcel by wrapping it. To make or become less, or reduce gradually. To unwillingly hand over possession of something to someone else. To have certain characteristic. To divide or separate a room, floor, etc. into parts by erecting a structure such as a light interior wall, etc. To become or make people become partners. To offer something to each member of a group. To hand something over from one person to the next in a group. To sell someone something by deceiving them. To end up in a particular way. To give or allow oneself to enjoy the desired pleasure of an immoral habit. To long for or to do something. To separate something into parts and hand them out.

574. 575.

partner up/off pass around

To die. pass away

To go past someone or something. pass by

pass ... down

To hand over something such as knowledge, traditions, etc. to people who are younger, those who live after one, to the next generation, etc.

To be mistaken as someone else, e.g. with her dressing she could have passed for a wealthy woman. pass for To try to deceive someone that someone else or something is much better, e.g. trying topass these fake watches off as genuine.

pass off

To give something such as information, message, disease, etc. to someone else. To make consumers bear higher costs. pass on

To faint. To distribute.

pass out To select someone instead of the expected person for a promotion, etc.

pass over

To fail to make use of something such as an opportunity, etc.


pass up patch together To make something hastily from different components. patch up To restore friendly relations after a quarrel or dispute. To repair damage to something. To treat someones injuries. To settle ones debt with someone, e.g. He is always slow in paying back the money he owes. To pay back with something bad, e.g. Jack


pay back

swore he would pay Jill back for what she did to him.

pay for

To give someone money in exchange for something, e.g. He paid for his new car in cash.

pay ... for

To suffer the consequences of ones actions or be punished for them, e.g. Hell pay the pricefor habitually drinking excessively someday.

To put money in ones bank account. pay in/into

pay off

To settle the outstanding balance for something, e.g. pay off the balance owing for purchase of a car. To produce good results. To give someone money to keep quiet about something such as an illegal act. To dismiss someone with a final payment.

pay out

To hand over money, especially a large sum, for something such as compensation, etc.

pay up 578. 579. peck at peel off

To settle or be forced to settle ones debts, e.g. I have already received their third legal letter demanding that I pay up. To eat food slowly due to lack of hunger. To remove a thin outer layer of something. To take ones clothes off. To leave a moving group such as a convoy, etc. by changing direction.


peg away peg out

To work hard over a long period. To use pegs to fix wet clothes to a washing line to dry. To mark a piece of ground with wooden sticks. To die. To keep an animal or animals in an enclosed area or confine someone in a restricted space. To temporarily compile a list of something that is subject to change later. To terminate someones employment, usually because they are officially considered too old to continue working, and pay them a pension. To dispose of something that is not useful any more or outdated. To make someone or something more active, energetic or exciting. To make or become more cheerful or lively. To be directly related or applicable to something. To diminish or come to an end gradually. To introduce something such as a law, rule, etc. in gradual stages.

581. 582. 583.

pen up/in pencil in pension off

584. 585. 586. 587. 588.

pep up perk up pertain to peter out phase in

To gradually withdraw something from use. 589. phase ... out phone in To telephone someone or a place such as ones workplace, a radio or television station, police station, etc. To criticize someone in a petty way. To pull something slightly and repeatedly with ones fingers. To eat something taking small bites due to lack of appetite. pick ... off To shoot people or animals one by one from a distance.


pick at

pick on To repeatedly single out someone for unfair criticism or treatment, e.g. It does appear my teachers hobby is picking only on me.

pick ... out

To choose someone or something from a group, e.g. Despite the vast array of dresses on sale, she couldnt pick out any one she liked.

pick over

To examine a number of items and carefully choose some.

pick through To look carefully through a number of items and select one. pick up To take something from a surface or floor, e.g. to pick up something one has dropped. To go somewhere and fetch someone; e.g. Im now on my way to pick up my child from school. To find something by accident, e.g. to pick upa purse, dropped by someone, from a pavement. To learn a skill while working, e.g. pick up the skill of baking while working at the bakery. To collect something form somewhere, e.g. Remind me to pick up my clothes from the laundry on our way home. To go and buy something, e.g. I just remember Ive to pick up a magazine at the newsagent. To acquire a skill, manner, etc., e.g. Since when have you picked up the disgusting habit of picking your nose? To make an arrest, e.g. He was picked up by

the police for attempting to make an illegal entry into a building. To pay for something, e.g. His girlfriends father picked up the tab for the sumptuous dinner. To improve something, e.g. With an improvement in the economy, sale of consumer goods is expected to pick up. To try to get someone of the opposite sex, e.g. Jack attended the party hoping to pick upa girl, but ended with none. piddle around To spend time doing unnecessary thing. piece together To assemble all the facts or information about a situation in order to form a suitable conclusion. pig out To eat a large amount of food greedily. pile in/into To get into a place, vehicle, etc. in a disorganized manner. pile on To exaggerate something pile out To leave a place, vehicle, etc. in a disorderly manner. pile up To make or become increasingly larger in quantity or amount. pin down To make someone specific about their aim or plan. pine for To miss and long for someone or something. pipe up To say something suddenly, especially after having been quiet all along. piss about/around To spend time doing things aimlessly. piss away piss off piss off To waste something very stupidly. To tell someone to go away. To annoy someone very much, e.g. He really pisses me off when he blows that flute out of tune for hours on end. To set something or someone in competition with something or someone else. To sweat profusely. pit out

591. 592. 593. 594.

595. 596. 597. 598.


pit away


pitch in pitch into pitch up

To work enthusiastically within a group To attack someone physically or verbally. To arrive at a particular place.

7. Phrasal Verbs 601-700

601. 602.

pivot on plan ahead

To depend on something such as an event, idea, etc. To decide on or arrange something in advance, e.g. She has planned ahead so that if she falls ill, therell be someone to do her work.

plan for

To make preparation for something, e.g. Heplanned for a big turnout at the evenings outdoor performance but it was a total disaster due to heavy rain.

plan on

To expect something as planned, e.g. Sheplans on achieving grade A in all her subjects in the final examination. To intend to do something as planned, e.g. Weplan on going to Niagara Falls this Summer and take at least one hundred photographs there.

603. 604. 605.

plan ... out plant out plaster over play about/around

To make a careful plan after considering all relevant factors. To place a young plant to grow outdoors. To apply plaster to a hole, an old surface, etc. To behave in an irresponsible manner; to have a casual relationship with someone.

To pretend to cooperate for a selfish reason. play along

To deceive or mislead someone in order to gain an advantage. play along

To assume a role playfully. play at To listen to ones own recording of something. play ... back

To make something appear less important or serious than it really is. play ... down To compete between two rivals in an extra match to determine their final positioning or decide an outcome.

play off

To involve another person in a dispute for a selfish purpose. play ... off To exploit someones weak and vulnerable point so as to gain selfishly.

play on

To fail to work or operate properly or to cause problems. play up To devote all of ones physical and mental powers in a particular activity.

play ... up

To exaggerate the importance of someone or something.

play up to To behave in a way that brings benefit to

oneself. play with To tamper with something. To treat someone inconsiderately for ones own amusement. To use profit made in a business for business purposes, usually to expand it.


plough back

plough into

(Vehicle, etc) to be driven violently into something or someone such as a crowd, etc., especially by a driver who loses control of the vehicle.

plough on

To continue doing something that requires considerable time and effort.

plough through

To persist in something such as studying a textbook, etc. despite the considerable time and effort required.

607. 608.

plough ... up pluck at plug away plug in/into

To break up the surface of the ground by repeated walking on it. To pull something quickly and repeatedly with the fingers. To keep working hard at something. To connect a piece of electrical equipment to another or into a socket, e.g. Why do you turn on the new television? I havent plugged itinto the socket.

plug up

To block or become blocked with something, e.g. Someone threw potato peelings down the drain, and they plugged up the pipe.


plump for plump up

To make a selection after proper consideration. To make something such as pillows, cushions, etc. bigger and softer by shaking them. To act quickly and rashly on a course of action. To act suddenly without a careful thought. To push something forcibly and deeply into something else, e.g. plunging a dagger into the victims chest. To experience an unpleasant situation, e.g. the whole building was plunged into darkness. To keep providing someone food and drink. To direct numerous questions at someone. To make someone aware of a fact, e.g. A witness pointed out to the police the scene where the incident took place. To indicate to someone a particular direction, e.g. Someone in response pointed out to me the road that leads to the hotel. To draw ones attention to something, e.g. He pointed out a spelling mistake on the signboard to me.


plunge in plunge into


ply with


point out

point to

To use a finger, usually the forefinger, to indicate a particular direction, e.g. The childpointed to the woman on the photo as her mother. To cite something as evidence, e.g. All the evidence pointed to him as the culprit.

point ... up


poke around/about

To make known the truth or importance of something, e.g. the high drug abuse figurespoint up the need for more vigorous enforcement of the existing laws on drugs. To look or search around a place for something or information about someones life, etc., e.g.poking about in the warehouse looking for

something to steal. To jab repeatedly with something sharp or pointed, e.g. to poke at a fire with a poker to make it burn better. To finish something such as food, work, etc. quickly. To kill or defeat someone. polish up 615. 616. ponce about/around poop out To improve a skill or an ability by practising it. To move or behave in an idle, weak or effeminate manner. To stop functioning. To discontinue or not participate in an activity. To die suddenly. To come/go briefly without advance warning. To quickly put on a piece of clothing. To appear suddenly and unexpectedly. To be absorbed in the reading or study of something. To divide something into parts for distribution. To transplant a growing plant from a small pot to a large one. To transplant a seedling into a flowerpot. To spring or seize something suddenly. To notice a mistake and take swift advantage of it by expressing a critical assessment of it. To express ones feelings to someone in an unrestrained way. To be in charge of a situation. To persist in asking for something. To strive hard to achieve something. press on/ahead press on/upon 625. To insist on someone accepting an offer or gift. presume on/upon To unjustifiably regard something such as a good relationship with someone, etc. as entitling To continue doing something in a determined way.


poke at polish off


pop off pop in/out pop on pop up pore over portion out pot on pot up

618. 619. 620.


pounce on

622. 623. 624.

pour out preside over press for

626. 627.

prevail on/upon prey on

one to privileges, e.g. presuming on the relationship to borrow a large sum of money. To persuade someone to do something. (Animals and birds) to hunt and kill other animals and birds for food. To exploit, influence or deceive weaker people. To cause constant worry or distress to someone, e.g. the problem has been preying on my mind. To place a young plant in a specially prepared hole in the earth. To produce a printed paper copy of information or document stored on a computer, e.g. I cant print this document out now because my printer has no ink. To get or by using force to get information from someone. To take legal action against someone. To originate from something. To learn from something that happens or to benefit from a situation. To support or assist someone or something that would otherwise fail or decline. To lean against something. To make plans in order to forestall a bad situation happening. To prepare or arrange for the needs of someone. To intimidate an opponent by appearing overly confident or say things that will make him feel worried, nervous and less confident.

628. 629.

prick out print out

630. 631.

prize out proceed against proceed from profit by/from prop up

632. 633.


provide against provide for


psych out

psych ... up 636. puff out

To get mentally prepared in order to build up ones confidence for something challenging. To make something such as ones cheeks, etc. swollen by filling them with air. (Arm, leg, etc.) to swell due to injury or infection. To make something swell by filling them with air.

puff up


pull ahead

(Vehicle) to get in front of another, especially by moving faster.

pull apart

To separate people or animals when they are fighting, e.g. Their argument suddenly developed into a fight and the others had topull them apart.

pull at

To hold something and pull more than once; e.g. The wife pulled at the husbands shirt as he was walking faster. To draw in smoke while smoking by inhaling deeply.

pull away To start a car, etc. and drive away; e.g. I waved to the driver as the car was pulling away. To overtake another vehicle and leave it behind by driving faster, e.g. the ambulance ispulling away from the other vehicles on the highway.

pull back

To withdraw from an undertaking, e.g. to pull back from a joint venture due to an unsettled dispute.

pull ... down

To demolish a building, e.g. had to pull that prewar building down as it had fallen into disuse.

pull ... in

(Vehicle) to stop at the side of the road, e.g. The driver pulled in as directed by a traffic policeman (Train) to arrive at a station, e.g. As the trainpulled in, more people move onto the platform.

(Show) attracts a lot of people, e.g. the circus has been pulling in big audiences daily. To earn money, e.g. His new business has beenpulling in a lot of money.

pull ... off

To succeed in doing something or winning something difficult, e.g. his sculpture pulled off the highest bid in the auction. To drive to the side of the road or a side road, e.g. We pulled off the road for a bite before resuming our journey.

pull ... out

(Train) to depart from a station, e.g. There was much waving among the people as the train started to pull out of the station. To retreat from an area, e.g. Most of the troops have been pulled out as the situation has improved considerably. To withdraw from an undertaking, e.g. One of the partners has decided to pull out of the venture as it is no longer profitable to carry on.

To be ordered to drive a vehicle to the side of the road, e.g. The policeman waved to the driver to pull over. pull over To drive a vehicle to the side of the road, e.g. I pulled over and waited for them in the car.

To get through an illness or a difficult situation, e.g. He has managed to pull throughfrom a recent bout of depression.

pull through To work hard together in a task or undertaking, e.g. If they all pull together, they could easily

finish the work ahead of schedule. pull together To bring a vehicle to a halt, e.g. The driverpulled up when signaled to do so by the policeman.


pull up pump into

To shoot someone several times, e.g. A motorcyclist rode aside his car, pumped bulletsinto the driver and sped off. To produce or emit something in large quantities or amounts, e.g. In a supermarket, prices after prices of the products on sale arepumped out of a speaker for the benefit of shoppers. To fill something with air, liquid, gas, etc.

pump out

pump up To play a piece of music louder. To increase someones enthusiasm or excitement. To record the time of arrival at the workplace on a card by making use of a special machine, e.g. As Im late most of the time, I asked my closest trustworthy mate to punch in for me without anyone noticing it. To record the time of departure from the workplace on a card, e.g. Some of my colleagues leave early and when the days work ends I punch out for them carefully without anyone noticing it. To strike someone so hard with the fist that they fall over. To carry on persistently with what one is doing. To go from a place. To order someone around without due respect for his feeling.


punch in

punch out


push ahead push along push around/about

To cease thinking about an upsetting event. push aside To insist on making a request for something, or for something to be done which is felt to be necessary.

push for

To advance or make progress constantly despite difficulties. push forward

push in

To dispense unasked for advice or join in a conversation, etc. which does not concern one. To jump queue.

push off

To leave or to tell someone rudely to leave.

push on

To carry on with what one is doing.

To cause someone or something to fall to the ground by pushing them. push ... over

push ... through

To get a bill accepted for discussion in parliament by an opposition member.

To cause an increase in something such as demand, prices, investment. 641. push ... up put about put aside To save money regularly for a future purpose. put away To keep someone in a prison or mental hospital, To spread false information or unfounded rumours.

e.g. He was put away for good for a series of murders he committed. To eat or drink large quantities of food or drink, e.g. Every day the child puts away twice the amount of his father. To save money, e.g. Every month he puts awaya moderate sum of money as saving for the future. To return things to their storage space, e.g. The father nearly fell when he stepped on a toy that should have been put away.

put back

To return something to its original place, e.g. The children have been taught to put backtheir toys when they have finished playing with them. To postpone something, e.g. The football matches have to be put back due to adverse weather conditions. To delay something, e.g. Heavy rains and flooding for the past weeks have put the construction work back by at least a month.

To lay something or someone on a surface, e.g. She put the baby gently down in the cot. put ... down To criticize or belittle someone, e.g. Nobody wants to be around him as all he does isputting others down. To put an end to an insurgency, revolt, etc., e.g. Reinforcements were called in to put down a regional rebellion. To kill an animal in order to end its suffering, e.g. His dads job is to put down severely diseased animals. To pay a specified sum as a deposit, e.g. The sales agent asked if I could put $10,000 downon the house.

To reason out, e.g. Her friends put her sudden depression down to the passing of her husband. To stop doing something, e.g. Her father interrupted Jill by asking when she would putthe phone down after she had talked for nearly an hour. To find something interesting and absorbing, e.g. What a book it was; once I started reading it I couldnt put it down until I completed it.

To put something in something else, e.g. Dontput all your eggs in one basket. To put someone somewhere, e.g. The children decided to put their old mother in an old folks home. To invest time, money, effort, etc. into something, e.g. To date we have put $100,000in the business. To add permanent equipment to something such as a home, e.g. They are putting in an additional bedroom. To request for something, e.g. The stolen wallet was handed over to the police, but the owner has not put in a claim for it.

put in

To postpone something, e.g. They intend toput off having a baby until they can afford it. To delay meeting someone, e.g. Hes been calling me day and night to meet him over a matter, but I keep putting it off. To lose interest in doing something, e.g. The new assignment is challenging, but the distance he has to travel every day really putshim off. To make someone feel offended, e.g. Everyone who knows her is put off by her excessively

put ... off

critical point of view.

To become fatter and heavier. To wear a piece of clothing. To press the brake when the driver wants the vehicle to stop. put ... on To apply make-up, creams, etc. To pretend to have a particular way of speaking.

To extinguish a fire, cigarette, etc., e.g. One of the men helping to put out the forest fire could be the arsonist responsible for it. To agree to have sex with someone. To upset or annoy someone, e.g. Jack borrowed put out/put ... out my car and promised to return it the next day, but now three days later Im reallyput out by not having got my car back. To make extra work for or cause problems to someone, e.g. My neighbour really put me outwhen he called in the middle of the night to help push his car as it couldnt start. To put something outside the house, e.g. Every night before the elderly lady goes to bed, she puts her cat out. To extend one arm, hand, leg or foot, e.g. Heput out his arms and legs when he lay down; I tripped over one of his limbs and landed on top of him. To produce something, e.g. The publisher isputting out a paperback edition of the book at the end of the month.

To connect someone by telephone to another; to

finance ones childs education; to be made to undergo a bad experience.

To ask at a discussion, etc., e.g. Members of the audience were allowed to put questions tothe individual panelists. put ... through To affix ones signature to a document, letter, etc. To cause difficulty, inconvenience, etc, to someone, e.g. I would like to ask my friends to help me paint my house but hesitate to putthem to such trouble.

put ... to

To fit together the component parts of something, e.g. Putting the jigsaw puzzle pieces together is going to take a long time.

put ... together

To provide accommodation temporarily to someone, e.g. While I was in the city for a week, I put up with my cousin. To suggest a topic for discussion, etc. To offer something for sale or auction, e.g. He is putting up his set of antique furniture for auction.

put ... up To finance an enterprise, etc., e.g. An unknown donor put up most of the money to build a public library. To put something, e.g. Huge tents were put up to house the evacuees. He intends to put up a real fight all the way despite being regarded as the underdog in the match.

To incite someone to do something stupid,

illegal or dangerous, e.g. When Jack was arrested for injuring Jills ex-husband, he accused Jill of putting him up to it by threatening to leave him for good.

put ... up to

To endure an unpleasant situation or tolerate a nasty person, e.g. Shes been thinking how long she is going to put up with her husband coming home blind drunk.

642. 643. 644. 645. 646.

put up with puzzle out quarrel with rack up rain down rake in rake up

To consider a difficult problem carefully with a view to solving it. To disagree with someone or complain about something. To accumulate or increase something. To fall in large quantities. To make a lot of money. To recall a past event that is best forgotten. To gather someone or something together for a purpose such as forming a sport team, volunteering for a campaign, etc. To bring or come together for a worthy cause. To forcibly inculcate through the process of study and comprehension. To talk or write at length in a tedious manner. To distribute something in small controlled amounts. To be in a space that is in excess of what is needed. To say or produce something quickly and easily.

647. 648. 649. 650. 651.

rally round ram home ramble on ration out rattle around rattle off rattle on

To talk quickly and at length. rattle through 652. react against To do something very quickly. To respond with an extremely unfriendly attitude or a contrary course of action.


read into

To regard something as having a meaning or importance when this is not the case. To say out what is written on something such as a list, etc. for people to hear.

read out

To check for mistakes by careful reading of the whole thing. read ... through


read ... up reason out

To acquire information or knowledge by reading a lot about a subject. To find a solution to a problem by considering all the possibilities.

655. 656.

To persuade someone to be more sensible with rational argument. reason with rebound on/upon To have an unexpected bad effect on someone. reckon in To include all relevant data in ones calculation. reckon on To expect anything unforeseen to happen while plans are being made.

To take into account all that may happen 657. 658. reckon with reconcile to reduce to To make someone able to accept an unpleasant or disagreeable thing or situation. To change something into a shorter simpler form, e.g. the passage can be reduced to four paragraphs. To lower the ranks of an army officer, e.g. to reduce an officers ranks to an ordinary soldier. To destroy a building by burning or demolition, e.g. to reduce to ashes or rubble. To degrade someones existence, e.g. to reduce one to squat on public land. To turn the reel of a fishing rod to draw in the


reel in

line, e.g. to reel in a fish.

reel ... off 660. refer to

To say something quickly and easily, e.g. to reel off lists of team members. To arrange someone to see a medical specialist, e.g. His doctor refers him to an ophthalmologist. To mention or allude to someone, e.g. She was warned not to refer to him again. To consult a source of information, e.g. He often refers to an encyclopedia for factual information. To think deeply or carefully about, e.g. Sooner or later, one has to reflect on ones future wellbeing. To expose the good or bad side of someone, e.g. His behaviour reflects on his level of education. To entertain someone with conversation or storytelling, e.g. He often regales his friendswith stories of his romantic involvements. To have strict control of something, or keep it within limits. To control the movement of a horse by pulling on its reins. To feel great joy, e.g. he rejoices in his examination success. To have an extraordinary or strange-sounding name. To show a direct connection between two things, e.g. Low wages are directly related tolow level of education. To be able to have a good relationship with others, e.g. He has difficulty relating to older people. To feel sympathy for or identify with someone or something. To be concerned with someone or something, e.g. It does not relate to what we are talking about. To remove the post, duties, responsibility,


reflect on/upon


regale with


rein in


rejoice in


relate to


relieve of


rely on/upon

command, etc. of someone. To trust someone or something fully to do what they have to do. To be dependent on something to survive, e.g. They have to rely on the handicraft for their income. To pass comment on someone or something. To make someone remember about something because of a resemblance, e.g. the areareminds her of her early childhood days. To purify fat by melting down. To hand something to someone such as a ruler, enemy, etc. To go to a place, e.g. to repair to the sitting room. To send or bring something back to someone, e.g. to investigate an incident and report backto ones superiors. (Power, right, etc.) to be present in someone or something. To become or make something into separate parts. To be full of something such as meaning, feeling, sound, etc., e.g. a householdresonating with incessant shouting. To choose and use a, especially bad, course of action to succeed in something or resolve a problem. To depend or be based on something, e.g. the success of the club rests on the number of members it has. To direct ones look on someone or something, e.g. to rest ones eyes on the scenery. To be answerable for something, e.g. the responsibility for day-to-day operation rests with the manager. To have a specified end or outcome, e.g. the accident resulted in the death of some passengers. To take great pleasure in something, such as attention, praise, etc. To return to a former state, condition, etc.

668. 669.

remark on/upon remind of


render down render up

671. 672.

repair to report back

673. 674. 675.

reside in resolve into resonate with


resort to


rest on/upon

rest with 678. result in

679. 680.

revel in revert to


revolve around

To treat something as the most important purpose, e.g. her life revolves around her children. To move in a circular orbit around something. To remove someone or something bad from a place such as ones body, working place, etc. To knock someone down when riding a horse. To travel in or on a vehicle or horse. To depend on someone or something.

682. 683.

rid of ride down ride on

ride out ride up 684. rig out rig up 685. ring back ring in ring off

To come safely through, especially a bad situation. (Skirt, etc.) to move upwards exposing the body. To provide someone with special clothes to wear. To make something in a makeshift way. To make a return call by telephone. To telephone a place, especially ones working place. To end a telephone call.

ring out To have something loud and clear come from something else.

ring round

To make telephone calls to a group of people for a specific purpose.

ring ... up 686. 687. rinse out rip off To make a telephone call to someone. To wash something, especially to get rid of soap from it. To overcharge, cheat, or steal from someone, e.g. The souvenir shopkeeper really ripped us off. To move somewhere at high speed and in a really violent way.

rip through

rip ... up


rise above

To tear something into pieces, e.g. Jill ripped up Jacks photos when she found out he is dating other girls. To deal with any unpleasant situations without being adversely affected by it. To be sensible and refrain from immoral acts.


To attempt to seize power and replace the government. rise against roll around/round (Something that happens regularly) to happen again. roll away To stretch up to the horizon, e.g. green pastures rolling away into the distance.

roll ... back

To reduce the influence, importance, etc. of something. To reverse the progress of something.

roll down To open in specific cases, e.g. to roll down cars window to open it.

roll in

To come in large numbers or quantities; To arrive later than usual or expected without being concerned.

roll ... out To lay out something flat and thin, e.g. to roll out the red carpet. To officially launch a new product.

roll over

To change bodily position while lying down, e.g. to roll over to the left.

To arrive, e.g. to roll up late or unexpectedly. roll up To fold or shorten something, e.g. to roll ones sleeves up. roll ... up To close a cars window, e.g. to roll the window up. To succeed in doing or finishing something quickly and easily. To put a roof over something, e.g. to roof in an area. To support a sport team by shouting and cheering. To find and get rid of someone and something. root up To dig and pull something such as weeds, etc. up with its roots. To persuade someone despite their reluctance to participate in something, e.g. to rope in the neighbours to be vigilantes. To isolate an area with ropes to prevent access, e.g. police roped off the area where the dead body was found. To decay or cause something to decay completely, or break into pieces. To live in discomfort with only basic necessities. To draw out a preliminary sketch without the details. To attack someone and beat them up. To reduce an exact figure to the nearest whole number. To end something such as an entertainment, discussion, etc. in a satisfying or suitable way. To smoothen the edges of something. To reduce an exact figure to the nearest whole number. round up

690. 691. 692.

romp through roof in/over root for root out


rope in

rope off

694. 695.

rot away rough in rough out rough up


round down round off


rub along

To gather up a group of people or things for a specific purpose, e.g. to round up the illegal immigrants for detention. To cope or get along with a situation or someone without difficulty.

rub down

To make something dry, smooth, or clean by rubbing with something else such as a cloth, sandpaper, etc.

rub off

To remove something such as rust, impurities, etc. from a surface by rubbing. To transfer a feeling, quality, or habit onto someone else, e.g. ones cheerfulness, enthusiasm, etc. seem to rub off on everyone else.

rub ... out 698. ruck up


rule out


run across

To erase something such as writing, stain, mark, etc. from a surface by rubbing it with something else such as eraser, cloth, sandpaper, etc. To make or form folds, creases, etc. on something such as cloth, coat, etc., e.g. shirt is all rucked up after washing. To conclude that something is not possible, e.g. The unstable political situation rules out any increase in foreign investments. To meet or find someone or something by chance, e.g. I ran across my former classmate this morning. To chase someone or something, e.g. His dog is very fond of running after cats.

run after

run along

To leave some place, e.g. He has to run alongfor an appointment.

To run within a particular area, e.g. He likes

run around

torun around in the park. To spend considerable amount of time with someone whom one likes, e.g. Jack has beenrunning around with his neighbours daughter.

To leave or escape from a place, e.g. the childran away from home because of the abusive parents. run away To avoid facing a problem or difficult situation, e.g. He has now learned to face his problem instead of running away from it.

To go away secretly or illegally with someone, e.g. He ran away with his neighbours daughter. run away with To win something such as a competition, match, etc. easily, e.g. Liverpool ran away with the European soccer championship again. To steal something, e.g. the cashier has run away with the whole weeks takings.

To get knocked, and injured or killed by a vehicle, e.g. His dog was run down by a speeding car. To reduce or become reduced, e.g. Our joint savings is running down.

run down

To criticize or belittle someone or something, e.g. He has a habit of running others down. To find someone or something after a long search, e.g. He finally ran me down at my new house in the same neighbourhood. To lose or cause to lose power and stops or cause to stop functioning, e.g. The clock has stopped

run ... down

functioning as its batteries have run down. To kill someone or something with a vehicle, e.g. He was run down by a speeding motorcycle while crossing a street. To move quickly to another area for something, e.g. Ill run down to the store for a couple of bottles of beer.

To knock someone or something with a vehicle, e.g. The brake of his car failed and the car ran into the van in front. To meet someone by chance, e.g. I ran into my former classmate at the library yesterday. To encounter problem, etc., e.g. They ran intodifficulties midway in their climb up the mountain.

run into

To leave hurriedly and secretly, e.g. He ran offfrom the detention centre without anyones notice. To produce copies of something, e.g. We have to run off some more of this copy to meet additional demand. run off To write something such as speech, poem, piece of music, etc. quickly and easily, e.g. He could run off a long speech in a couple of hours.

To go away with someone for a specific reason, e.g. He runs off with his girlfriends sister. To steal, e.g. The villagers know he ran offwith one of the horses.

run off with To carry on longer than is expected, e.g. The

meeting ran on well past midnight.

To cause none left, e.g. A sudden blackout has caused all shops in the area to run out of candles. run on To become no longer valid, e.g. The agreementran out last month. To use up or be used up, e.g. The bakery sometimes runs out of sugar before new supply arrives. To quickly leave a place, building, etc., e.g. He opened the door of the house and ran out

run out

To knock and drive over someone or something with a vehicle, e.g. Our cat was run over by a car and died instantly. To overflow, e.g. Someone fills a tank with so much oil that some runs over. To exceed the expected time, e.g. The showran over, and I missed the last bus. To move from where one is to where someone is, e.g. When I saw my mother-in-law, I decided instantly not to run over to greet her.

run over

To revise ones lessons, e.g. The students run through the question-andanswer part again. To push something through someone, e.g. It is not easy to run a sword completely throughsomeone. To go over something quickly, e.g. The shopkeeper runs through the list of items with the customer.

run through

To cost a certain amount, e.g. The cost of the damage is estimated to run to five million pounds.

To make something quickly, e.g. They ran this project up well ahead of schedule. To accumulate something such as bill, etc., e.g. Her parents bar her from using the telephone as she habitually ran up an enormous phone bill. run to To move quickly to a higher level, e.g. They had a fun race to see who would be the first one to run up and reach the peak of the hill. To move quickly to someone or something, e.g. When Santa Claus arrived, all the childrenran up to him. To raise a flag.

run ... up

run up against To experience or meet an unexpected problem, e.g. We ran up against some unforeseen difficulties when we built that patio.

8. Phrasal Verbs 701-800


rush about/around To do something with urgent haste, e.g. Her family members were rushing around, making preparations on the day of her wedding.

rush into

To get hastily involved in something without sufficient consideration, e.g. He was invited to be the manager of a football team, but he does not want to rush into it before careful consideration.

To produce and distribute something very quickly.

rush ... out To deal with something hurriedly. rush ... through rust away rustle up sack out saddle up saddle with sail through sally forth salt away save on savour of saw at saw off saw up scale down scare into scare away/off To make or keep someone or something away by frightening them.

702. 703. 704. 705.

To be gradually destroyed by rust. To make something quickly. To go to sleep or bed. To put a saddle on a horse. To give someone a difficult or boring task. To succeed easily at something, especially a test or examination. To set out to perform a challenging task. To secretly store something, especially money, for the future. To prevent wastage of something by minimizing the use of it. To have a slight trace or indication of something. To use a saw to cut something. To remove something with a saw. To use a saw to cut something into pieces. To reduce the size of operations of an organization, plan, etc. To frighten or threaten someone into doing something.

706. 707. 708. 709. 710. 711.

712. 713.

714. 715. 716. 717.

scare up schlep around scope out score out/through scrape by/along scrape in/into

To make or do something from a limited source. To spend ones time idling or lazing. To take a look at someone or something to understand their true nature. To delete something by drawing a ling through it. To manage to survive on the bare minimum. To just manage to succeed in getting something, e.g. just scraped into a position or college.

To only just succeed in something such as passing an examination, etc. scrape through

To manage to accumulate, collect or get something with difficulty. scrape together/up

718. 719. 720.

scratch out scream at screen out

To cancel or strike out something by drawing a line through it. To become blatantly obvious or conspicuous. To protect from something dangerous or harmful entering or passing through. To investigate someone or something to ascertain their suitability for a job, position, etc. To fool about. To have sex with different partners.


screw around

screw out of

To act dishonestly or unfairly in order to deprive someone of money or something valuable, e.g. The man was finally arrested after screwing many people out of their savings.

screw ... over To cheat or treat someone unfairly.

screw up

To manage or handle a situation badly, wrongly or ineffectively, e.g. He volunteered to help me in my work but instead screwed it up.

screw ... up


scrub out scrub up

To cause someone to be emotionally or mentally disturbed, e.g. It really screwed her up when her flight was seriously delayed by a bomb hoax. To thoroughly clean something such as a place, objects, etc. To thoroughly clean ones hands and arms

723. 724. 725.

scrum down scrunch up seal in

before doing a surgery. To form a scrum during a game of rugby. To crush or squeeze something into a round, compressed mass. To close something securely to prevent what it contains from getting out.

726. 727. 728.

seal ... off search out section off see about

To cut off an area and deny access to and from it. To try to find something by looking. To divide an area into distinct parts by marking border lines between them. To attend to someone or deal with something, e.g. I would see about the food and drinks for the guests. To inform or consult someone about a matter, e.g. I think I had better see someone in the government department about the potholes on the road leading to my house.

see around/round To visit a place and move about looking at it, e.g. They would like to see around the cave.

see in

To notice a particular quality in someone or something, e.g. They see in him a young player with great potential. To show the visitor the way in, e.g. He was told to see in only the members when they arrive. To celebrate the new year, e.g. Each year millions of people throughout the world see in the new year.

see ... off

To send someone off at the place of departure such as airport, railway station, etc. To evict an intruder from a property, e.g. Security guards were notified to see him off the


To accompany a guest to the door when he or she leaves. see ... out To continue with something until it completes, not necessarily with enthusiasm, e.g. He is not enthusiastic but promised to see out the twoweek campaign against smoking.

see over

To examine something with a view to acquiring it, e.g. He is seeing over the antique furniture on behalf of a potential buyer.

To discover the truth about someone e.g. She could see through his deviant behaviour that he is not a suitable partner. see through To provide help and care to someone who is in need, e.g. A home was set up in the area for the physically handicapped that should see them through the rest of their life. To persist with something until it is completed, e.g. He allocates time from his busy schedule to see the project through.

To deal with something or do something for someone, e.g. see to the needs of the poor. see to seek out seize on/upon

729. 730.

To look for and find someone or something. To grasp eagerly and take advantage of something such as an opportunity, idea, excuse, etc. (Machine parts) to become jammed due to lack of oil, etc. To get rid of unwanted things at cheap prices,

seize up 731. sell off

especially when one needs the money. sell on To make someone enthusiastic about something such as an idea, new products, novelties, etc.

To offer sex in return for money. sell oneself

sell out

To sell all of a particular product with none left, e.g. The latest model of dishwasher was sold out in the first week.

sell ... out To desert ones beliefs, principles, etc. for personal gains. sell up To betray someone for ones own financial or material benefit. To sell ones assets and other possessions such as house, business, yacht, car, etc. To cause to go or be delivered to another place, e.g. He was sent away to live with his grandmother when he was little. His duties include sending away numerous brochures. send back To return something to where it came from, e.g. The letter was wrongly delivered so I sent it back to the post office.


send away

send ... down To make something decreased in value, e.g. The companys recent performance has sent its rating down. To send someone to prison, e.g. He was sent down even for a minor offence. To expel from a university, especially for

send for

immoral conduct.

To summon someone to appear before one or order something to be sent to one. send ... off

To order a player to leave the field by showing him a red card, as in a football game, and be excluded from further participation in the match. To cause to be delivered by post, e.g. He sent off the parcel yesterday. To arrange someone to go to another place, e.g. They sent the children off to their grandparents for the weekend. To order something to be delivered to one, e.g. We have sent off an order for some pizza. send ... on To pass on something that has been received to anther place, e.g. The processed food is then sent on to the packing department. send out To emit something, e.g. Stars send out gamma rays, radio waves, etc. To arrange for something to go or be taken to another place, e.g. Most of the invitation cards have been sent out.

send ..,. up To cause something to increase in value, .e.g. Allowing greater foreign participation in the property sector has sent property prices up. To make or become apart or detached. To continue with something until it is complete, e.g. He has served out nearly half of his prison sentence.

733. 734.

separate out serve out

To place food onto plates for handing over to someone such as customers, guests, etc.

serve ... up To place food onto plates for people to eat. 735. set about Start doing something that requires lots of efforts and time. To attack someone with fists and legs. set against To cause someone to fight or quarrel against another. To offset something against, especially amount spent against tax in order to reduce the amount of tax payable. To distinguish someone or something that are more superior compared to others, e.g. the Nobel Prize awards set the laureates apart from other people.

set apart

set ... aside To keep something for a special purpose, e.g. a room in a library is set aside for only reading newspapers. To annul a legal decision or order, e.g. A verdict of a lower court was set aside by a judge of a higher court. set ... back To hinder the development of someone or something. set ... down To cost someone a lot of money.

To write about something for the record. set forth To stop a vehicle for someone to get out.

set ... forth

To start a journey, etc.

set in

To explain or describe something in writing or speech.

set off

(Something unpleasant) to begin and seem to continue for a long time.

set ... off

To go or embark on a journey.

To cause something such as a bomb, alarm, etc, to go off. set on/upon To make something such as a piece of clothing, etc. more attractive.

set out

To attack someone violently.

To start a journey. set ... out To begin to do or plan a course of action towards achieving a goal.

set to

To lay something out so that they can be arranged in a particular order.

set ... up

To start doing something eagerly and seriously.

To deliberately make an innocent person appear guilty or have done something wrong.

To make someone feel healthy and energetic. To start a company, organization, etc. To place or erect something such as a signboard, road block, statue, etc. To make or become calmer or quieter, e.g. She should settle down as the driving test is not going to cost her life. To go for a more secure lifestyle, especially in having a permanent job and own house, e.g. He hasnt decided to settle down and raise a family despite having a house and a secure job. To accept or agree to something, usually less than satisfactory to either side, e.g. She had stated a sum for her starting salary, but had to settle for a slightly less amount.


settle down

settle for

To adapt to a new surrounding. settle in/into To decide or agree on something, e.g. They havent settled yet on the paint colour for the kitchen wall.

settle on/upon

settle up

To agree on the final settlement on something such as sharing property, etc. To pay for something such as a bill, account, etc. To remedy a fault by sewing it, e.g. sewing up a tear in a shirt. To conclude a business transaction in a favourable way. To have gained overall control over something. To move in or start living with someone as a partner. To be unable to distinguish where something ends and another begins.


sew up

738. 739.

shack up shade into


shake down

To adapt to a new place. To extort money from someone. To sleep on the floor, on a seat, etc. instead of in a proper bed. To search someone or something thoroughly.

shake ... off

To get rid of something such as an illness, problem, etc. that is bothering one, e.g. unable to shake off this gambling habit. To escape from ones pursuer.

shake on

To conclude something such as an agreement, etc. by shaking hands.

shake ... out

To shake something such as a shirt, cloth, etc. in order to remove any pieces of dirt, dust, etc. from it.

shake ... up

To make someone feel more enthusiastic, energetic and eager. To make an organization, system, etc. more effective by introducing changes. To develop or improve ones behaviour, performance, physical fitness, etc. to the required standard. To improve something to the required standard, quality, etc. To remove hair off part of someones body by using a shaver or razor. To reduce by a very slight amount, e.g. to shave half a second off the world record. To pay a seemingly excessive amount of money for something. (Personal quality or skill) to be plainly obvious.


shape up

742. 743.

sharpen up shave off

744. 745.

shell out shine through


shoot for/at

To try to achieve a particular aim, e.g. to shoot for a five percent growth rate for this year. To bring someone, an aircraft, etc. down by shooting. To have to leave quickly or suddenly, e.g. He has to shoot off after receiving a telephone call.

shoot down shoot off

shoot through To depart hurriedly.

shoot up

To injure or damage someone or something by shooting them with bullets. To increase rapidly in prices, number, etc., e.g. The prices of many food items have shot up; tall buildings are shooting up in many major cities across the world. To inject oneself with a narcotic drug. To look for the best price for the available quality goods. To help or support something that is likely to fail or is not working well. To prevent someone from speaking or being heard by shouting.

747. 748. 749.

shop around shore up shout down

To say something suddenly in a loud voice. shout out 750. shove off To go away or to tell someone to go away. To push a boat away from the shore. shove up 751. show around To shift oneself to make space for someone else. To take and guide someone round a place and point out the interesting features, especially when he is new. To display ones abilities, accomplishments, or possessions in a boastful manner, especially to

show off

impress people and gain their admiration, e.g. He shows off his new car by sounding the horn unnecessarily. To display something to others because one is very proud of it, e.g. His father bought Jack a large flashy car, and he is busy showing it offby driving all over town.

show off

show up

To turn up at a place where one is expected to, e.g. He finally showed up at the restaurant where others are waiting for him.

To expose someone as being bad or faulty. show ... up 752. shrink from To embarrass or humiliate someone. To avoid doing something difficult or unpleasant, e.g. shrink from making tough decisions. To dismiss something as unimportant and without caring about it. To take off a piece of garment, e.g. He shucks off his jacket and plays a game of snooker. To think something is inappropriate or disagreeable, e.g. He shudders at what his parents would say when he tells them hes dropped out of college. To isolate someone or something from being seen. To put oneself in a place in order to be alone, e.g. He shut himself away in his room to continue with his work.

753. 754. 755.

shrug off shuck off shudder at


shut away

shut down To cease or cause to cease business operation

shut ... in To keep someone indoors or in a room.

shut off

To make something such as a machine, etc., stop operating, e.g. Someone accidentally pressed the wrong button on the remote control and shut off the television while everyone was watching it. To stop or cut off supply, e.g. shutting off a tap, or a strike that closes a coal mine andshuts off coal supplies.

shut ... out

To deliberately prevent someone from participating in an activity, e.g. he felt he was being shut out when he was not invited to the party. To prevent someone or something from entering a place, e.g. double-glazed windowsshut out the cold and noise. To prevent an opposing team from gaining points by scoring.

shut up To make someone stop talking, e.g. They tried a few times to shut her up but failed. To tell someone to stop talking, e.g. Wherever she is she tends to dominate the conversation, talking endlessly but no one would dare to tell her to shut up. To keep someone from other people, e.g. Heshut himself up in his room to prevent his cold from spreading to others. To cease business activities for the day or permanently. To avoid doing something because of nervousness or lack of confidence, e.g. Heshied away from an offer to speak at the club meeting. To vomit. To lose ones desire for or interest in something. To separate solid from liquid or small objects from large ones by using a sieve.


shy away from

758. 759. 760.

sick up sicken of sieve out


sift out


sign away

To separate something from other things, e.g. Its not always easy to sift out genuine products from fake ones. To sign a document giving ones property or legal right to someone else. To sign a document acknowledging receipt of something. To sign as a player, especially for a football team.

sign for

sign in To write ones name in a book, sign a book on arrival at, or enter a place such as hotel, office, club, etc. sign off To end a letter, broadcast, etc. by writing ones name, bidding farewell, etc. sign on To sign a document agreeing to work for an employer. To sign officially that one is unemployed. sign ... on To recruit someone into ones employment. sign out To write ones name in or sign a book when leaving a hotel, office, club, etc. sign over To sign an official document conveying ones property or rights to someone else.

sign up To sign a document committing oneself to something such as a course of study, employment, specific petition, etc.

sign with To enter legal agreement to play for a particular sports team. To become filled with sand, mud, soil or other material. To join in singing with someone who is already singing. To sing loudly. sing up 765. single out To request someone to sing more loudly. To choose someone or something from a group of like people or things for favourable or adverse comment, or unfair treatment. (Information, facts, ideas, words, etc.) to gradually become fully understood, e.g. His remark did not sink in immediatetly. To sit down idling. To be in a sitting and relaxing position in a comfortable chair. To be in or get into a sitting position, e.g. Im so busy I havent sat down since I got up from bed this morning. To try to resolve a problem, e.g. They mutually agreed to sit down for a drink and sort out their disagreement over a certain matter.

763. 764.

silt up sing along sing out


sink in


sit around/about sit back sit down

sit in To be at but not actively involved in a meeting. To be temporarily doing something on behalf of someone. To engage in a silent demonstration of protest. sit on To delay or fail to deal with something. sit ... out To not participate in an event, activity, etc.

To wait without taking action until an unpleasant or unwelcome situation is over.

sit through To stay on until a meeting, talk, speech, performance, etc. ends, even if it is very long and boring.

sit up To get into a sitting position from a lying position. To stop oneself from going to bed and stay up very late. To consider and judge about a person or situation.


size up

769. 770. 771.

To estimate or measure somethings dimensions. skate over/around To avoid addressing an issue or problem, or not according it the attention it deserves. skin up To make a cannabis cigarette. skip out/off To leave quickly and secretly in order to evade something such as paying bill, etc. A person who defaults or absconds. To strongly criticize someone, especially behind their back. To crash hard into something, e.g. The car slammed into a tree. To unjustifiably criticize someone. To apply something hastily or carelessly on something else. To show excessive admiration for something in a silly way. To have sex with numerous people. To wake up much later than usual in the morning. To recover from something by sleeping, e.g. to sleep off the effects of drinking too much alcohol.

772. 773. 774.

slag off slam into slap down slap on

775. 776.

slaver over sleep around sleep in sleep off

sleep through

To sleep continuously without being awakened by anything that happens. To sleep continuously at length.

sleep together To have sex.

777. 778.

sleep with slice off slick down/back

To have sex with someone, especially someone whom one is not married to. To separate something from another by cutting easily with a sharp knife or edge. To make ones hair flat, smooth, and glossy by using oil, or cream, etc.

To make someone or something smart, tidy, or stylish. 779. slick ... up slip into To put clothes on quickly. To pass gradually to a worse condition, e.g. slip into unconsciousness or a coma.

To take clothes off quickly. slip ... off

To put clothes on quickly. slip ... on

To move away quickly, or secretly. slip out To say something without thinking or real intention to say it.

slip out of

To accidentally slide or move out of position or from someones grasp.

To quickly get out of ones clothes.

780. 781. 782.

slip up slob around

To make a careless mistake. To idle and behave in a lazy, relaxed and unconcerned manner. slobber over To show ones excessive interest in someone in an annoying way. slop about/around To wander in an aimless or slovenly manner; mess about. slop out (Prisoners) to empty out the contents of their chamber-pots. slop through To wade through a wet or muddy area. To leave a place quietly, and inconspicuously in order to avoid work or duty. To fit someone or something into something else such as a plan, organization, a new role, situation, etc. To get rid of something such as the outer layer of old skin, etc.. To banish ones feelings, belief, etc., e.g. He was to slough off all feelings of guilt. To become or make something such as a vehicle, etc. slower, e.g. Many a time his girlfriend asked him to slow down or she would get out of the car. To have a flavour, smell, or suggestion of something, e.g. a piece of writing that smacks of hypocrisy. To make someone or something look neat, tidy and stylish. To knock something down violently. To hit or collide with something violently or forcefully. To deliberately damage or destroy something, e.g. smash the place up. To find something by smelling. To detect or suspect by means of instinct or intuition. To force someone or something out of a place

783. 784.

slope off slot in/into


slough off


slow down


smack of

788. 789.

smarten up smash down smash in smash up


smell out


smoke out


smooth away smooth over

by filling it with smoke. To dispose of something such as problems, difficulties, etc. To make a situation or the effects of something less unpleasant, harmful, or serious. To turn a light on/off To get out of a bad or sad state to a better one. To get or buy something quickly, especially because it is in short supply or very cheap. To seize something quickly. To enter a place unnoticed, e.g. The boys managed to sneak past the ticket collector into the circus tent. To officially inform someone or provide them with information about something or someone elses misdeeds. To exit a place unnoticed, e.g. The kids sneaked out of the church by crawling between the empty pews.


snap on/off snap out of snap up

794. 795.

snatch at sneak in/into

sneak on

sneak out

sneak up To creep stealthily up to someone. To investigate something in a covert manner. To find out something by investigation. 797. 798. sniff out snuff out soak up To extinguish or put an abrupt end to something. To use something such as a sponge, cloth, towel, etc. to absorb a liquid. To learn something quickly and easily. To become or make someone become less drunk. To be engulfed by adverse weather conditions, reducing visibility.


sniff around/round

799. 800.

sober up sock in

9. Phrasal Verbs 801-900


soften up

To become or make someone soft or softer. To make someone less powerful or effective, especially in a gradual or insidious way so that they will be vulnerable or more vulnerable. To soak up liquid by using something such as a cloth, sponge, etc. To deal with someone who causes difficulty or annoyance, e.g. We sorted out a misunderstanding over the terms of an agreement by discussing in great detail. To deal with something such as a problem, difficulty, etc., e.g. The staff stayed on late to sort the pile of printed documents out into individual reports.

802. 803.

sop up sort out

sort through 804. sound off sound out

To classify or categorize or arrange things into an order. To express ones opinions in a loud or forceful way. To seek the opinions of others before undertaking something. To improve something by making it more interesting or impressive. To feel disorientated or confused, e.g. He doesnt seem to concentrate on what he is saying; hes spaced out because it doesnt make sense. To express ones opinions, thoughts, feelings, position, beliefs, etc.

805. 806.

soup up space out


speak for

speak of

To be a clear indication of the existence of an incident or event, e.g. the large presence of policemen spoke of trouble.

speak out

To publicly protest by expressing ones opinions frankly, especially when this could be a risk to oneself.

To talk to someone in order to advise, inform about something, etc. speak to To express ones views publicly or speak in favour of someone or something. speak up speed by To ask someone to speak loudly or more loudly. To pass very quickly, e.g. The months and years speed by and soon we are not young any more. To move or work, or make something move or work faster, e.g. They have to speed up to meet the deadline. To say or write the letters that made up a word. To explain something clearly and in detail. (Conflict, etc.) to spread and affect other places or people. (A parent company) to turn a subsidiary into a new and separate company. (Vehicles) to be out of control, e.g. fast-moving car spins out of control on the wet road.


speed up 809. spell out

810. 811.

spill over spin off

spin out


spin ... out splash down splash out on

To make something such as money, food, etc. last as long as one possibly can, especially because one has limited amount of it. (Spacecraft) to return to Earth by landing in the sea. To spend vast sum of money on something, e.g. They splash out on more decoration of their house. To separate or break away from someone or something. To commit betrayal by informing on someone.


split off split on split up

To end a marriage or a relationship. To divide into groups, parts, sections, etc. (People) to move apart from each other so as to


spread out

occupy a bigger area. To open out something on a flat surface such as a table. To originate or come from somewhere. To present or give something such as information, etc. to someone suddenly or unexpectedly that causes surprise or shock.


spring from spring on

816. 817. 818.

spring up spruce up spy out square away square off square off square up to square with

To suddenly appear or start to exist. To make someone or something neater, tidier or smarter. To seek out secret information on someone or something. To finish something in a satisfactory way. To assume an aggressive attitude. To calm or pacify someone. To face and deal with a difficult situation or person. To reconcile two ideas, situations, facts, etc. to show that they can exist together. To measure up or compare. To keep someone or some place under close observation, especially because of suspected criminal activities. To forcibly put an end to something. To contest against another candidate in an election. To be unequalled.

819. 820.

stack up stake out

821. 822.

stamp out stand against stand alone stand around

To stand somewhere and not do anything, e.g. He grumbles that the supervisor has nothing to do but stands around watching him every minute.

stand by

To look on without getting involved.

To stay loyal and support someone, e.g. will always stand by him. To maintain the validity of ones words or action, e.g. He stands by what he said earlier. To be ready to do what is required, e.g. A lifeguard always stands by at the swimming pool.

stand down

To leave ones position or office. To leave the witness box in court after giving evidence.

stand for To represent something in the form of abbreviation, symbol, etc., e.g. I think most people know what UN stands for. To not tolerate or endure something, e.g. More and more people the world over will not stand for racism. To support a particular set of ideas, values, or principles, e.g. Voters should demand that candidates state what they stand for so that they (voters) know what they are voting for. stand in To temporarily take over the work of someone who is away. stand off To move or keep away. stand out To be conspicuous or clearly noticeable. To be clearly better than someone else. stand out against

To be strongly opposed to an idea, plan, etc. stand over To watch someone closely to ensure they work properly. stand to

To move to a position, ready for action. stand up

To be in a standing position, e.g. As soon as she finished singing, everyone stood up to give her a standing ovation. To be able to withstand close scrutiny, test, etc. stand ... up

To fail to keep an appointment, etc., e.g. I was supposed to go fishing with Jack today, but he stood me up stand up for

stand up to

To speak or act in support or defence of someone or something.

823. 824.

To defend oneself against or refuse to be unfairly treated by someone. stare out/down To look at someone at length until they feel forced to look elsewhere. start in To begin doing something. start in on To begin to do or deal with something. To attack someone or something verbally. start off To begin in a certain way, e.g. The event started off in fine weather but midway through it began to rain. To begin a journey, e.g. We will start off as soon as they arrive.

start on

To begin doing some of the things, e.g. We will start on the mowing first before we proceed to the planting.

start on at

To start to talk by criticizing someone and their behaviour, e.g. She started on at him for always returning home late from work.

To begin a business enterprise or undertaking. start out/up To restart doing something in order to do it better. start over

start up

To begin operation, e.g. I usually start up the cars engine to warm it up before driving it. To begin something, e.g. He started up a restaurant in the neighbourhood, but closed down after six months. To force someone to do something by denying them food. To force someone out of a place by denying them food. To break something inwards or be broken inwards by something.


starve into starve out


stave in


stave ... off stay off

To avert something bad or dangerous happening to one. To keep away from, e.g. Visitors to the temple were advised to stay off the grass whenever or wherever they walk. To continue doing something such as working, studying, etc. after the usual time or the others have left, e.g. He decides to stay on in the

stay on

library while the others leave for home. stay out To decide to return home late, e.g. On weekend, Jack stays out late boozing with his mates. To not get involved in a situation, especially a bad one, e.g. The neighbours wife and mine have been quarrelling for the past days, I choose to stay out of it.


To go to bed later than normal, e.g. He is a night owl who enjoys staying up late. steam open/off To make use of steam to do something such as opening and removing a stamp from an envelope, etc. stay up

steam up

To cover or become covered with steam. To be or become extremely agitated or angry. To originate in or be caused by something. To resign from ones official position. To volunteer ones services. To get involved in a difficult situation in order to help. To act or serve in place of someone.

829. 830.

stem from step down step forward step in

step on To place ones foot on something, e.g. My big fat auntie accidentally stepped on my toe; its terribly painful that tears roll down my cheeks.

step out

To go out of a room or building, etc., usually for a short time, e.g. He steps out for a smoke.

step ... up

To increase something such as amount, speed, etc. of something.


stick around

To stay for a while longer, e.g. We were asked to stick around for a while so as to have a drink together, but weve already waited for half an hour.

stick at

To continue to do what one is doing with the same determination.

stick by

To continue to support someone.

stick ... on

To blame someone for a mistake or wrongdoing.

stick out

To be particularly noticeable, e.g. His two oversized ears stick out more than usual. To extend from a surface, e.g. Be careful when you handle that plant, it has sharp thorns sticking out. To extend a part of one outward, e.g. This dog certainly looks rather tired, with its tongue sticking out dripping with saliva and body shaking. To tolerate an unpleasant or difficult situation, e.g. I found the roller coaster ride more scary than exciting, but I stuck it out.

To refuse to accept less than what one wants stick out for To continue to do what one thinks or believes is proper, e.g. He always considers very carefully before making a decision, and once a decision is made he sticks to it. To talk or write relevantly, e.g. A speaker or writer should stick to the subject in question,

stick to

and not wander off to something else.

To cooperate or remain united for mutual benefit.

stick together To rob someone at gunpoint, e.g. No one was aware that a couple of men were sticking up a store until police arrived. stick ... .up To put up something such as a sign, notice, etc., e.g. Someone stuck a picture of Popeye up on the public toilet wall. (Something) to point out from a surface.

To defend oneself or someone else when others will not. stick up for To stay close to someone physically or romantically. stick with To do something as planned despite the difficulty. (Something) to remain in ones memory, e.g. The nightmare I had has stuck with me since. To overcharge someone for something, e.g. The mechanic stung him for a big amount for a minor repair to his car. To fill a place with a particularly unpleasant smell, e.g. The new coat of paint is stinking out the whole office. To deliberately cause conflict between people by spreading rumours or gossip, etc. To cause something to rise, e.g. The strong wind stirs up a lot of dust. To apply stitches to cloth or wound in order to fasten or cure.


sting for


stink out


stir up


stitch up

To satisfactorily finalize a deal or agreement. stitch ... up 836. stock up To handle a situation in such a way as to disadvantage someone. To accumulate a supply of something, e.g. They stock up on whisky for the forthcoming celebration. To add coal or wood to a fire. To stir up strong emotions among people To eat a large amount of food to get the energy required for sustained activity. To stock something such as clothing, etc. for ones needs. To lower ones dignity so far as to commit a morally wrongful act. To return to a place one has previously been. To visit a place or person briefly when on ones way to somewhere else. To reduce the lens aperture in a camera to allow less light in when one is photographing.


stoke up

838. 839.

stoop to stop back stop by

stop down

To visit a place or person briefly when on ones way to somewhere else. stop in

stop off

To make a brief visit to a place, especially to rest or visit someone, en route to ones destination, e.g. We stopped off at our parents house for a day on our way to the island.

To stay out later than usual. stop out To make a short stay somewhere before resuming ones journey, e.g. We stopped over at

stop over

our grandparents house for a drink on our way home.

To stay up late. 840. 841. stop up stow away To hide oneself on a ship, aircraft, etc. in order to travel secretly or without paying. straighten out To make something straight, e.g. The workers are working to straighten out the winding road. To deal with the causes of a difficult problem with a view to resolving it, e.g. They meet for discussion to straighten out the remaining issues. To help someone overcome their bad behaviour or personal problems, e.g. We dont condemn the kids behaviour or punish them, instead we try to understand them and help them to straighten out.

To decide to change ones way of behaving and become a better person. straighten up stretch out strike back strike down

842. 843.

To lie down in order to rest or sleep. To retaliate. To cause someone to fall by hitting them very hard. (Disease) to make someone die or seriously ill.

strike off To stop doctors, lawyers, etc. from practising their profession by removing their names from the official list of those who are allowed to practise.

strike on/upon

To discover something such as a good idea, etc.

To remove an item from a list by drawing a line

strike out

through it. To do something new on ones own such as living alone, starting a business, etc.

To begin to play a piece of music. strike up To start a friendship or conversation with someone. To deceive someone over a length of time. To prolong something. To be anxious or tense over something. To be joined or spread in a straight line, e.g. pearls, islands. string together To be able to put two things such as words, sentences, etc. together to make sense to other people, e.g. Can a drunk string two words together to make sense?


string along string out

string ... up


strip away

To put someone to death by hanging, e.g. He was finally strung up for the multiple murders he committed. To gradually get rid of something such as habits, customs, etc.

846. 847. 848. 849. 850.

To deprive someone of something such as rank, power, property, citizenship, etc. strip ... of struggle on To continue obstinately a course of action in spite of difficulty or opposition. stub out To snuff out a cigarette butt by pressing the lighted end against something. stumble on/across To find something or meet someone by chance and unexpectedly. stump up To pay a sum of money. subject to To cause or force someone to undergo something unpleasant or difficult.


subscribe for subscribe to

To accept to hold shares in a company. To agree to receive something, especially a periodical, regularly by paying in advance. To believe and support an idea, view, belief, etc. To be completely obedient and attentive to the comfort or wishes of others in order to gain a personal advantage. To fool or trick someone into doing something. To be affected by an illness, especially one that lasts a long time. To have a problem that hinders success. To make something appropriate for someone. To summarize something briefly such as a report, speech, etc. To understand or realize the true character or nature of something. To take in and cause to disappear, e.g. rise in earning being swallowed up by increases in food and other prices. To be crowded or overrun with people, animals, etc., e.g. the beach is swarmed with people. To have great confidence in something, e.g. He swears by the quality of the new model of a product. To admit someone to a position or office by having them take an oath, e.g. the person elected as president having to take the presidential oath on assuming office.


suck up

853. 854.

sucker into suffer from

855. 856. 857. 858.

suit to sum up suss out swallow up

859. 860.

swarm with swear by

swear in

swear off To promise to refrain or abstain from doing something. swear to To make a formal declaration that something is true. To continue doing something difficult until completion. To do strenuous physical exercise. sweat off


sweat out


sweep aside

To get rid of something such as bodily fat, illness, etc. by sweating through doing something such as aerobic exercises, etc. To remove someone or something quickly. To ignore what someone says.

sweep away

To cause the death of someone and/or completely destroy something, e.g. floods sweep people and houses away. To clean a place by using a brush, broom, etc. To turn or make something turn around quickly. To make a short visit to a place or someone for a particular purpose. To use a switch to turn off something such as television, etc., e.g. It often happens here that no one switches off the television when no one is watching it.


sweep up swing around/round swing by switch off


switch on

To cease paying attention or listening to someone. To turn on something such as electric light, television, machine, etc. by using a switch.

switch over To change from something such as a system, dress, television station, etc. to another. To study intensively and with perseverance, e.g. Students just have to swot up in order to pass their examinations. To add something to something else later when needed. To accompany someone uninvited. To add something thought of later to something else. To gradually become less and less in amount, intensity, etc. (Traffic) to become more and more congested until it forms a long queue that is very slow in


swot up

866. 867.

tack on tag along tag on


tail away tail back

tail off

moving or not moving at all. To become less, smaller, weaker, etc. To be very surprised about something, e.g. She was really taken aback by what he had just said. To bear a close resemblance to an older relative such as a parent, etc.


take aback

take after

take against

To begin to develop a feeling of dislike of someone.

To dismantle something. take ... apart To easily defeat an opponent in something, such as a game, sport, etc.

take away from

To reduce the worth or belittle the quality of something.

take back

To withdraw what one has said or written, e.g. If it is not true, Im sorry and I take back what Ive said. To return something that is unsatisfactory back to a shop for exchange or refund, e g. The sales assistant said I could take it back within a week if there is any problem with it. To bring back what one owns, e.g. Visitors are advised to take back their umbrellas when they leave the premises.

take ... down To jot or write down something spoken.

take in

To include something, e.g. The bill has not yet

taken in the additional charges of transporting it. To be cheated or deceived by someone, e.g. Many were taken in by the vendors claim that the craft products were handmade.

take ... in

To let someone stay in ones house, e.g. Our cousin has no place to stay, so we take him in. To understand and retain something such as facts, ideas, etc.

take off

(Aircraft, etc.) To leave the ground for the air. (Business) to become more and more successful.

take ... off

To remove a piece of or all of ones clothing. To make a deduction of an amount. To be absent from work, e.g. Ill take the whole of next week off. To leave hastily without informing anyone.

take on

To assume a quality or appearance without any specific reason, e.g. to take on a very upset, worried, etc. look.

To engage new workers. take ... on To be ready or willing to meet an opponent in a contest, competition, etc. To undertake a task or responsibility.

To remove something from a container, etc., e.g.

He took out a hundred dollar bill from his wallet and gave it to the cashier. take ... out To bring someone with one to some place such as a restaurant, beach, cinema, etc. Every weekend my dad takes me out to the park or some other place. To vent ones feelings on others, e.g. He takes it out on his children wherever he gets angry. To kill someone, or destroy something, e.g. The police sharpshooter took out the hostage-taker with a single shot. To get an official service, e.g. taking out an insurance policy.

take over

To take responsibility for something, usually from someone, e.g. Jack takes over the running of the company while his father is away. To bring something from one place to another, e.g. I help my colleague take some office files over to his house. To gain control of a place, country, town, etc., e.g. The invading army took over the city after the defending troops abandoned it.

To begin to develop a liking for someone, e.g. He began to take to her after working for six months together. take to To acquire a habit, e.g. He took to drink after his wife left him.

To start a new job or have a new responsibility, e.g. He took up the supervisory post when the former supervisor left. take up To accept a challenge from someone, e.g. He took up the challenge of not smoking for a

whole week. To do selected subjects in school, e.g. She took up history as it is one of her favourite subjects. To fight using weapons, e.g. Many villagers took up arms and join the rebel group. To pursue a course of action, e.g. They are taking up this matter with the local authority. To occupy ones time, attention, etc., e.g. Building the kennel may take up two weekends.

To accept an offer, e.g. Jack was disappointed that Jill refused to take him up on his offer of a dinner.


take up on talk around

To convince someone to change their opinion and accept a specific point of view.

To reply defiantly, rudely or disrespectfully. talk back

talk ... down

To belittle or dismiss the good quality or worth of something, e.g. The opposition leader was booed in parliament when he talked down the governments economic management of the country.

talk down to

To speak condescendingly to someone, e.g. His habit of talking down to others has alienated them.

talk ... into

To persuade someone to do or not to do something, e.g. If you had not talked me intosmoking, I wouldnt be such

a heavy smoker today.

talk ... out

To discuss an issue or problem and how to tackle it.

talk out of To persuade someone not to do certain things, e.g. They talked her out of taking her own life.

talk ... over

To have a thorough discussion about something before adopting a decision, e.g. They talk it over many times before deciding to migrate.

talk ... through

To discuss something completely with regard to every detail in order to gain a better or complete comprehension of it.

talk to To converse with someone, e.g. He loves talking to people and can talk at length on any subject. To interfere with something without authority in order to cause damage to it. To get involved in an argument or fight with someone. To fill the tank of a vehicle with fuel. To press buttons or keys on telephone, computer, etc, to begin operating it. To gradually become less, smaller or fewer in size, amount, intensity, or degree. To improve something but only on the surface of it. To make oneself look attractive by wearing makeup, jewellery, or through better dressing. To blame someone for or accuse them of a fault or wrongdoing. To work jointly with someone on an activity or project.

871. 872. 873. 874. 875. 876.

tamper with tangle with tank up tap in taper off tart up

877. 878.

tax with team up


tear apart

To be violently broken into pieces, e.g. vultures tearing a carcass apart. To cause serious conflict between people within a family, group, organization, etc., e.g. Dispute over family property is tearing the siblings apart.

To pull violently at someone or something. tear at

To leave suddenly, quickly and in an uncontrolled manner, e.g. The car tore away noisily attracting much attention. tear away To leave a person or place despite a strong feeling of wanting to stay.

tear ... down

To pull or knock down something, e.g. Some of the buildings will be torn down as the area is earmarked for redevelopment.

To launch a strong verbal attack against someone. tear into To attack someone or something fiercely, e.g. two wolves tearing into each other.

tear off

To leave suddenly and quickly, e.g. He tore off when he realized he was almost late for a meeting.

tear ... up

To pull or rip apart or to pieces, e.g. He angrily tore up the letter from a companys lawyer demanding payment from him. To damage something, e.g. They tore up the seats in the stadium when their team lost the match.

880. 881. 882. 883.

tease out tee off teem with tell against

To extract, obtain or ascertain information from a large amount of material by painstaking effort. To hit the ball off the tee to begin a game of golf. To be full of or swarming with people, fish, animals, etc. To make one unsuccessful in ones endeavour to achieve, e.g. He wants to be a basketball player but his height tells against him.

tell ... apart

To be able to identify someone or something separately despite their close similarity or resemblance, e.g. The only way to tell twins apart is to call their names, which are the only thing that makes identical twins different.

tell of

To give a detailed account of someone or something, e.g. The novel tells of a mothers heroic efforts to save her family.

To express ones strong disapproval to someone of what they have or have not done. tell ... off To inform someone in authority of someone elses wrongdoing, e.g. He smoked in the school toilet which is forbidden, and he is furious that someone has told on him. To make or become less thick, e.g. As soon as the warehouse fire was put out, the crowd of onlookers began to thin out. To consider the possibility or advantages of something, e.g. I have been thinking about migrating for the past ten years, and Im still thinking.

tell on


thin out


think about

think ahead

To plan for ones future, e.g. When I think ahead I decide not to get married.

think back

To think of past events, e.g. She couldnt help thinking back to the day she almost lost her life in a road accident.

thank of

To have an opinion of something, e.g. Many of them think highly of the new President. To remember things, e.g. Some of them cant think of the name of the countrys first President. To have fond memory of someone, e.g. He often thinks of her whenever they are not together.

think ... out

To think of all the relevant things before making a decision.

think ... over To consider carefully all factors before committing oneself, e.g. He prefers to think it over before he decides to join them in that commercial venture.

think ... through

To consider carefully the possible consequences of getting involved in an activity.

think up 886. 887. 888. thrash out throttle back throw away

To think of new ideas, plans, etc., e.g. He has to think up a way to be a famous magician in order to fulfill his ambition. To discuss something thoroughly in order to reach a decision. To control the flow of fuel or power to an engine. To dispose of unwanted or useless things, e.g. Please threw away the old newspapers including todays which I havent read. To waste or fail to seize an opportunity or

advantage, e.g. I threw away an opportunity to befriend her and know her better when I was too shy to approach her at the party.

throw ... in

To include something extra, such as free gifts, with things which are being sold without an increase in their prices. To inject a remark in a conversation without forethought. To start to do something with enthusiasm.

throw ... off

To escape from someone or something that is pursuing one.

throw ... open

To allow people access to a place that is usually not open to them.

throw ... out

To expel someone from a place such as a school, organization, etc., e.g. A member of the club was thrown out for misbehaviour. To dispose of unwanted things, e.g. The old newspapers and magazines are piling up and nobody cares to throw them out. To terminate a romantic relationship with someone.

To make something quickly without any planning. throw ... over To cause people to meet and know each other. throw ... together

To vomit, e.g. Whenever she is in a moving bus, she feels like shes going to throw up. throw up To give up something such as home, job, etc. completely, e.g. He threw up everything and sought employment overseas. To refuse to consider about something, e.g. Our petition was thrust aside and we have never heard from the authority since. To look through something such as a book, magazine, etc. quickly, e.g. thumbing through a photo album. (Time) to pass away. To express ones disapproval to someone, e.g. They were ticked off for misbehaviour. To mark the items on a list to indicate that they have been dealt with.


thrust aside


thumb through


tick away/by tick off

tick over 892. 893. tide over tidy away


tie down

(Engine of vehicle) to run slowly without moving the vehicle. To help someone through a difficult period, especially with financial assistance. To maintain tidiness by not allowing things to lie around but returning them to the places where they are kept. To restrict someone or something, e.g. Now tied down with a wife and kids, he finds it hard to socialize.

tie in

To be or cause to be in harmony with something.

tie up

To restrict someones movement by binding their arms and legs. To keep someone so busy that they are unavailable to do something else, e.g. He is going to be tied up the whole of next week because of the new project. To invest in something so that the money is not

895. 896.

tilt at tip off

897. 898. 899.

tire out tog up/out tone down tone up

immediately available for use, e.g. All his money is tied up in shares. To attack someone by what one says or writes. To inform, especially the police, by passing them a piece of information about illegal activities. To make someone very tired. To put on clothes for a particular occasion or activity. To reduce the effect of a speech or piece of writing. To give greater strength or firmness to the body or a muscle. To be or become armed.


tool up

10. Phrasal Verbs 901-974


top off

To complete something with one last act, e.g. They decide to top off the days session with a meal at a restaurant. To fill up a partly full tank with fuel.

top out

To reach an upper limit, e.g. No one knows if oil price has topped out.

To add more drink to ones glass or mug. top ... up To add to an amount, etc. to bring it up to a required level. To fill up a partly full container. To produce something quickly and effortlessly, e.g. He can toss off a simple meal within minutes. To drink something rapidly or all at once. To masturbate. To total up amounts, numbers, etc, e.g.


toss off

toss off


tot up


total up


touch at touch down touch for

Shetotted up the bill with the use of a calculator. To find the total of something such as amounts, numbers, etc. by adding, e.g. Hetotaled up the bill without using a calculator. (Ship) to call briefly at a port. (Aircraft, etc.) to land on the ground. To ask someone to lend or give one something, especially money.

touch ... off

To cause something to happen suddenly, e.g. A cut in personal income tax touched off rumours of an impending general election.

touch on/upon

To mention or refer briefly to a subject when talking, writing, etc.

To improve something by doing something to it. touch ... up 906. toy with To stroke someone gently without their consent for sexual pleasure. To think of something for a short while and not seriously, e.g. He has been toying with the idea of working overseas. To find someone or something that one has been searching very hard for, e.g. The police finally managed to track down the vandal. To use a used article, especially a car, as part payment for another, e.g. He traded his car infor a newer one.


track down


trade in

trade ... off

To counterbalance an action against another in order to produce a satisfactory result, e.g. They have to trade off the cost of new machinery to step up production against the possibility of production not being able to meet the demand.

909. 910.

trade on/upon traffic in treat of treat with

To take advantage of someone or something. To deal in illegal goods, especially drugs. (Book, article, etc.) to be about a particular subject. To negotiate an official agreement with someone. To take advantage of someone or something. To deceive someone into doing something, e.g. I was tricked into parting with one hundred pounds by a so-called friend. To cut small irregular or unwanted parts or edges off something to make it neater. To make or cause one to make a mistake, e.g. The questions are designed to trip you up. To cause someone to fall by blocking his foot with yours while he is walking. To use same excuses, reasons, etc. repeatedly, e.g. He trots out the same excuses whenever he is late. To be or behave excessively obedient to someone. To falsely accuse someone of something. To have faith in someone or something. To commit someone or something to the protective care or guardianship of someone or something else. To have faith in someone to do something. To attempt to achieve or get what one desires. To put on something to see if it fits or suits one, e.g. Have you counted how many dresses she has tried on? So many and yet she hasnt decided on any.

911. 912.

trespass on trick into

913. 914.

trim off trip up


trot out

916. 917. 918.

truckle to trump up trust in trust to


trust with try for try on

try ... out

To test the suitability or effectiveness of something or someone by using or testing them, e.g. He tried out the new car to experience its performance before deciding whether or not to buy it. / They tried him outto see if he could do the job.

try out for 920. tuck away

To put oneself forward for selection for a particular role. To put someone or something in a quiet, concealed or secure place. To eat a lot quickly and in an enjoyable way.

To eat in an enjoyable manner. tuck in To conceal the edge of a piece of clothing in something, e.g. tuck in ones shirt.

tuck into

To eat something eagerly.

To arrange bedclothes around someone, especially a child, in bed. 921. 922. tuck ... up tucker out tune in tune out To ignore or stop listening or paying attention to someone or something. tune up 923. 924. turf out turn against turn against To bring something to the most efficient condition. To get rid of someone or something. To oppose someone or disagree with something. To incite someone to oppose someone else or to disagree with something. To revive something, especially a company, e.g. The new manager was able to turn the company around in less than two years. To make to face opposite direction, e.g. I thought someone was following me, and Iturned around to see who it was. To become or make someone very tired. To watch or listen to a television or radio broadcast.

turn around

To refuse someone entry to a place such as a stadium, etc. because it is full. turn away To return, e.g. We had to turn back halfway through the journey because of extreme heavy rain and flooding. turn back

To reduce the level of what something is producing or doing, e.g. Every day he has to be told to turn the television down. turn down To reject someones proposal, suggestion, offer, etc., e.g. She has turned down his marriage proposal for the tenth time.

To go to bed, e.g. We have to turn in now in order to wake up early. To inform the police the whereabouts of a criminal, e.g. His guilty conscience has certainly played the chief part in making the murdererturn himself in. To return something, stolen or missing, etc., to the police or its owner. To give something, especially a completed piece of work, to someone who requested it, e.g. At the end of an examination, we have toturn in our exam papers to the person in charge.

turn in

To change someone into someone else, e.g. The parents tried unsuccessfully to turn their son into a teacher like them as the son believed he was not made for it. To change something into something else, e.g. The freezer has turned water into ice. turn into To do something repulsive or boring, e.g. His

frequent picking of the nose turn his friendsoff. To end the supply or operation of something such as water, television, etc. by turning the tap, switch, etc., e.g. The tap is dripping, can you turn it off tight? turn off To leave one road and drive into another, e.g. We have to turn off at the next exit to reach our destination.

To start the supply or operation of something such as water, television, etc. by turning the tap, switch, etc., e.g. Someone turned the television on and nobody is watching it. To suddenly attack or vent ones anger on someone, e.g. Im not responsible for the rumour about her, so why is she turning on me? To excite or stimulate someone, especially sexually, e.g. Some guys are easily turned on by a woman who is busty. To make someone interested in something, e.g. He was the one who turned me on to that excellent documentary.

turn on

To produce an unexpected result, e.g. Itturned out that he was my classmate at college. To go somewhere to do something, e.g. Manyturn out to cast their votes because of the fine weather. To expel someone from a place, e.g. Theyturned him out of the lecture hall for his disruptive behaviour. turn out To put out an electric light by pushing a switch etc., e.g. He turns out the light and closes his eyes to sleep. To produce something, e.g. The new machineturns out twice as many units as the

previous one.

To turn upside down, e.g. The car swung around the bend at a great speed and turned over.

To hand someone to the police, e.g. The villagers turn the wanted man over to the police. To hand something to the police or its rightful owner, e.g. We found a wallet and turned itover to the police. To give someone the ownership of or responsibility for something, e.g. He is slowlyturning the business over to his son as he anticipates his retirement. turn ... over To do an amount of business in a particular period, e.g. That company has been turning over $4 million a year for the past five years. To change television channels, e.g. Can youturn over to the other channels and see what they have?

turn over

To get help, advice, etc. from someone, e.g. He turned to a consultant for advice on management of his business. To go to a particular page in a book, e.g. The students are asked to turn to page 13.

turn to

To suddenly appear after having been lost or searched unsuccessfully for, e.g. The villagers were shocked to suddenly see the long missing man turn up at the market. To arrive somewhere, e.g. The politicianturned up at a public rally late as usual. To search thoroughly for something, e. g. They

searched every inch of the area for the murder weapon and more evidence, but nothing newturned up. To increase the volume, heat, power, etc. of television, oven, air-conditioner, etc., e.g. This is the third time you turn up the television, can you see that Im reading? urge on To encourage someone or something to continue to do something. use up To consume or expend the whole of something, e.g. I bought a bottle of brake oil and someoneused it up. vamp up To improve something such as making a story more exciting by modifying it. venture on/upon To do something that involves risks. verge on/upon To be very close or similar to, e.g. His behaviour sometimes verges on madness. vest with To give someone the legal right to power, property, etc. visit on To punish someone. wad up To compress soft material such as paper, cloth, etc. into a small lump. wade in To intervene or become involved in something. turn up wade through 934. wait around To read or deal laboriously with a lot of boring papers or written work. To stay where one is and do nothing until an expected event occurs, such as the person one waits for arrives, etc.

925. 926.

927. 928. 929. 930. 931. 932. 933.

wait behind

To stay back until all the others have left.

wait on

To attend to or serve food to someone, especially customers in a restaurant.

wait ... out

To wait for something to end, e.g. We had to stay back in college where we waited out the heavy rain.

wait up To await the return of someone, e.g. Shewaited up for her husbands return so they could go to the cinema together. To come out or be caused to come out of a sleep, e.g. He uses two alarm clocks to wakehim up every morning. To become aware or alert to what goes on, e.g. More and more people are waking up to the reality of climate warming. To treat someone thoughtlessly and unfairly. To move from and not get involved in a dispute, bad situation, etc.


wake up

wake up to


walk all over walk away

To win something, e.g. She walks away withthe walk away with first prize in tonights contest.

To enter a place such as a building, etc., especially unexpectedly or uninvited. walk in

walk into

To move into something quickly and hard, e.g. He walked into a glass door and slightly hurt himself.

To leave someone by moving away from them. walk off To take along ones winning, e.g. She walks offhappily with the first prize money.

walk off with

To steal something secretly and quietly, e.g. Someone walked away with the marble statue at walk away with the party without anyone noticing it.

walk over

To take advantage of or treat someone badly, e.g. He allows others to walk all over him by not defending his rights.

To go outside. walk out To leave a place suddenly or angrily, especially because one is unhappy over something. To go on strike.

To leave ones spouse, e.g. She walked out on her husband after discovering he has a lover. walk out on wall in wall off wall up To turn a window, doorway, etc. into a wall by filling it with bricks, cement, etc. To take something deliberately without permission or unintentionally, e.g. He waltzed off with the receptionists pen after using it.


To enclose an area with walls. To separate an area from another by building a wall.


waltz off with

939. 940.

waltz through want for ward off


warm to

To do something such as an exam, test, etc. very well and with ease, e.g. She waltzed through her final examination with flying colours. To not have something desirable or essential. To prevent someone or something from harming one, e.g. He warded off every blow from his opponent in a martial art contest. To become more interested in or enthusiastic about someone or something, especially someone whom one has just met.

(Food, house, etc) to make warm or warmer by

reheating it. warm up To make engine, etc. reach a required temperature for it to be operational, e.g. I usually warm up the car before I drive it. To prepare ones body for a physical activity, e.g. warming up before a race by doing light stretching exercises.


warm up to warn against

To become more interested in or enthusiastic about someone or something, especially someone whom one has just met. To advise someone against doing something because it may have bad or dangerous consequences. To advise or use threats to tell or order someone to stay away or refrain from doing something. To clean something large with plenty of water, e.g. spent the whole afternoon washing down the garage. To drink something to facilitate swallowing, e.g. medicine, or food such as steak and chips, washed down with plain water or red wine.

warn off 943. wash down

wash ... off

To clean something such as dirt, dust, stain, etc. from a surface with water, e.g. Jack washed the dirt off his face and hair after he fell headlong into a muddy drain.

wash ... out

To cause the postponement or cancellation of something, especially a sport event, because of heavy rain, e.g. The outdoor jumble sale was washed out by a sudden downpour.

To do the dishes after a meal, e.g. Now whose turn is it to wash up? wash up To clean ones hands and face, e.g. She

habitually washes up before she says her prayers. To bring something up to the shore, e.g. The waves washed up the dead body of an unknown creature on the beach. To become progressively and abnormally weaker and thinner. To look out for something. To be careful or to tell someone to be careful, e.g. She ought to be careful when passing comments, which are always highly critical of other people

944. 945.

waste away watch for watch out

watch out for

To keep looking and waiting for someone or something. To be alert, e.g. watch out for strangers loitering close to ones house.

watch over 946. water down To guard or protect someone or something. To make something less assertive or controversial by modifying certain details, especially to achieve an agreement. To disregard someones opinion, idea, etc. To hail the driver of a vehicle to stop. To move ones hand to signal goodbye to someone as they leave. To make someone give up a habit or addiction, e.g. Some infants are weaned off their mothers milk as early as at four months.


wave aside wave down wave off


wean off

To be strongly influenced by something from a very early age. 949. wean .... on wear away wear down To erode something. To gradually worsen the condition of something or someone, e.g. The stair carpet has worn down

in places. To overcome someone or something by persistence, e.g. He is very secretive about his earnings, but gradually his siblings wear him down.

wear off To gradually lose the effectiveness or intensity of something, e.g. pain, anaesthesia, the effects of drugs or alcohol, novelty of a product, emotional feelings, etc. gradually wears off.

wear on

(Time) to pass very slowly.

wear out

To tire someone out completely, e.g. Chasing and catching butterflies the whole afternoon has worn me out. To become damaged by constant use, e.g. My right shoe wears out faster then my left shoe. To get rid of someone or something that is longer effective. (Load, feelings, etc.) to weigh heavily on someone, e.g. an employed person weighed down with frustration.

950. 951.

weed out weigh down

weigh in

(Boxer or jockey) to be officially weighed before or after a contest.

weigh on

To be depressing or burdensome to someone, e.g. Her incurable illness is beginning to weigh on her.

weigh ... out To measure an amount of something by weight, e.g. The seller weighed out a kilogram of sugar and handed it over to a customer.

To consider carefully the qualities, importance, etc. of something before making a decision. 952. weigh ... up wheel out To publicly introduce or display someone or something for a specific purpose, e.g. A politician is very fond of having famous personalities accompanying him in his election campaign. To finish a job very quickly, e.g. He whipped through the work faster than all the other workers combined. To deliberately excite, stimulate a particular feeling or provoke a reaction in someone, e.g. to whip up support for someone. To make something very quickly, especially a meal. To take or remove something or someone quickly from a place, e.g. On arrival at the airport, the foreign head of state was whisked away. To gradually make or become smaller or less in amount, degree, value, size, or weight, e.g. to whittle away the powers or list of someone or something. To cowardly refrain from doing something. To gain someones attention, support, or love. To regain what one had before, e.g. to win back her love To manage to succeed or achieve something by effort. To gain someones support, attention or favour To relax after working very hard. To slowly lessen the activities of a business or organization prior to its closure.


whip through

whip up


whisk away/off


whittle away/off

956. 957.

wimp out win around win back win out/through win over


wind down

To close down a company or organization. wind up To end something such as a meeting, activity,

etc. To deliberately annoy or tease someone. To be in a bad situation one created, e.g. to wind up in court over something one has committed. To pretend not to notice something bad or illegal, especially something one tacitly approves. To obtain something from someone, e.g. winkled secret information out of someone. To completely clean or dry a surface by rubbing with a cloth. To subtract an amount from a value or debt. To clean or dry by rubbing with a cloth, e.g. He wiped droppings of birds off the windscreen of his car with a damp cloth.

959. 960. 961.

wink at winkle out wipe down wipe off

wipe out

To completely destroy or eliminate something, e.g. A gigantic swarm of locusts wiped out a huge area of crops within hours. To ruin someone financially, e.g. His compulsive gambling over the years has wiped out his vast fortune. To clean or dry something, e.g. He wiped out the sweat on his forehead with a cloth.

962. 963.

wipe up wise up wish away wish for

To dry or remove moisture, dirt, etc. from the surface of something, e.g. My sick dog vomited on the floor and I had to wipe it all up. To become or make someone become alert or aware of the unpleasant truth about a situation. To desire something unpleasant will not happen. To secretly want or desire something and hope it will be realized. To state that something is true or that one actually sees something happened, e.g. to be a witness to a persons good character or witnessed the accused loitering near the scene of the murder.


witness to


work in

To try to include something, e.g. to put washing his car in his list of things to do. To reduce ones frustration by venting it on others. To discharge a debt by working.

work off

work on

To be engaged in doing something, e.g. He spent the whole night working on his research paper.

work out

To calculate something, e.g. have to work out how much they can afford for a new house. To think about something and solve it, e.g. He managed to work it out without help from anyone. To understand someones character, e.g. No one seems able to work out why he behaves this way every time he gets back from work. To plan carefully about doing something, e.g. I have worked out who is going to do what in this project. To develop in a positive way, e.g. Things begin to work out for them and they find they are happier together. To engage oneself in a programme of regular exercises, e.g. He works out twice a week in a gymnasium.

work ... over

To beat someone up repeatedly.

work up

To develop a state of excitement, anxiety, etc. over something, e.g. He works himself up into a state of anxiety about his forthcoming first job interview. To develop or improve something by putting in hard effort, e.g. He intends to work up some

findings to support a ban on animal research. To develop a feeling, e.g. Whenever she thinks of him, it really works up her anger and hatred.

To proceed gradually towards doing something, e.g. I dont want to do it but I am still working up to it because it has to be done. 966. 967. work up to worry at/out wrap up To think at length about a possible solution to a problem. To completely cover up something with wrapping paper, cloth, etc., e.g. to wrap up a birthday present. To put on warm clothes, e.g. If we know its freezing in here, we would have wrapped up warm. To be engrossed in something, e.g. Work wraps up all his attention that he hardly has time to socialize. To complete or finish something, e.g. They wrapped up their week-long piece of research work with a leisurely drink. To avoid doing something by devious means. To reply to someones letter, e.g. My grandpa is always prompt in writing back.

968. 969.

wriggle out of write back

write ... down

To jot something down on a piece of paper for later use, e.g. I wrote down her telephone number on my business card.

write in

To write to an organization, etc. for a purpose, e.g. to write in asking for more information, to complain, to give ones view or to comment as requested, etc.

To include someones name in the list of

candidates in order to vote for them. write into To include something in something else such as a document, agreement, etc., e.g. I requested him to have my occupation written into the document.

write off

To dismiss someone or something as a failure, unnecessary, unimportant, etc., e.g. Some observers have written it off as another white elephant. To decide an asset no longer has any value, e.g. The management agreed the machines that were badly damaged in the fire should be written off. To cancel bad debts or possible bad debts, e.g. Some of the poor nations debts were written off as apparently they were unable to settle them. To mark out a mistake in a piece of writing. To gradually give out more information, e.g. The ocean depths yield up more and more information as exploration is stepped up. To focus all of ones attention on someone or something. To aim a gun towards someone or something. To fasten a piece of clothing with a zip, e.g. I have to change my trousers as I cannot zip up; the zipper jammed. (Camera) to change from a picture that is close to one that is distant or vice versa.

970. 971.

x out yield up


zero in on


zip up


zoom in/out