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Problem Set 30 Be able to define the following terms: hybrid atomic orbital orbital conservation hybridization name

For each of the following formulas: a) construct the electron dot diagram; b) tell what hybridization applies to central atom; c) give diagram and name of both the electron pair shape and the molecular shape; d) tell how many -bonds, if any, the actual molecule should contain. (Follow the procedures outlined in the examples. Mark electron dots clearly.) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) NF3 , nitrogen trifluoride VO2+ , vanadyl(V) ion IF4 , tetrafluoroiodate(III) ion SnCl62 , hexachlorostannate(IV) ion HgCl3 , trichloromercurate(II) ion TeCl4 , tellurium tetrachloride HOCl (O is central) , hypochlorous acid ClNO (N is central) , nitrosyl chloride H2CO (C is central) , formaldehyde

Do the same for these multi-centered species: 10) CH3CH2OH (bonding sequence is H3C

H C H OH ) , ethanol.

Determine the number of electrons in the electron pool of these molecules & complex ions: CO2 NH4+ HCN (C is central) PO43 SO32 XeF6 PCl4+ NO2 NO3 VOCl3 (V is central) BH4 N3

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Partial answers to P.S. 30: Check your accuracy against the following conclusions. Note: These are not complete answers; yours should also show your reasoning process e.g., the calculation of the electron pool, and accurate depictions of the dot-picture and the electron-pair arrangement (in appropriate geometric style) and the geometric rendition of the entire molecule's shape. The diagrams then serve as basis for deriving the conclusions below. Complete answers may be viewed on the posted answer key on the Chemistry 111 web page. 1) NF3 has total of 26 electrons in the valence pool, resulting in 1 lone pair on the N; electron-pair shape is tetrahedral (corresponding to sp3 hybridization); molecular shape is pyramidal; no -bonding in the final molecule (for the central N already has an octet). 2) VO2+ has a total of only 13 electrons in the valence pool, so no lone pairs can exist on the V; indeed, just to satisfy ligand octets, V must contribute three d electrons (from its inner shell) to the bonding pool; resulting electron-pair shape is linear (sp hybridization); molecular shape is linear; 2 -bonds are plausible (but of limited effectiveness, since vanadium isn't a "second row" element). 3) IF4 has a total of 36 electrons in the valence pool, thus 2 lone pairs remain on the I; electron-pair shape is octahedral (sp3d2 hybridization); molecular shape is square co-planar, with the lone pairs of iodine located opposite from each other; no -bonding in the final molecule (the central I already has more than an octet). 4) SnCl62 has 48 e; no lone pr on Sn; octahedral e-prs (sp3d2 hybridization); octahedral mol.shape; no -bonding. 5) HgCl3 has 24 e; no lone pr on Hg; trigonal co-planar e-prs (sp2); trigonal co-planar mol.shape; 1 -bond is plausible (but of limited effect, since neither element is on"second-row" of P.Table). 6) TeCl4 has 34 e; 1 lone pr on Te; trigonal bipyramidal e-prs (sp3d); teeter mol.shape; no -bonding; the lone pair on Te must be placed equatorially, not at a polar position. 7) HOCl has 14 e; 2 lone prs on O; tetrahedral e-prs (sp3); angular mol.shape; no -bonding. 8) ClNO has 18 e; 1 lone pr on N; trigonal co-planar e-prs (sp2); angular mol.shape; 1 -bond is necessary. 9) H2CO has 12 e; no lone pr on C; trigonal co-planar e-prs (sp2); trigonal co-planar mol.shape; no -bonding. 10) CH3CH2OH has three central atoms: C1(at left), C2(at center), O(at right). Around C1 , no lone pr on C1 ; tetrahedral e-prs (sp3); tetrahedral mol.shape; no -bonding. Around C2 , no lone pr on C2 ; tetrahedral e-prs (sp3); tetrahedral mol.shape; no -bonding. Around O , 2 lone prs on O; tetrahedral e-prs (sp3); angular mol.shape; no -bonding. (To design an overall molecular diagram, tilt the tetrahedral shapes so that C-C-O "backbone" lies flat.)

Electron pools of the molecules: Electron pools of complex ions:

16e; 10e; 50e; 17e(there is an unpaired e on N here); 32e. 8e; 32e; 26e; 32e; 24e; 16e; 8e.

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