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Arabic Simplified."

CONTENTS.
(Full Index will be found at end of Lessen 200).

PART
I.

I.

Introductoru.
12.

45.

The Arabic Verb, Past Singular. Interrogative and Negative,


Triliteralism (3 radicals).

14. 16.

Hamza, Madda, etc. ^^ Pronominal Affixes.


Non-joining
all

letters.

Revision of

^^

7-

Vowels, Figures,
Definite Article,

etc.

\^
17.
18.

characters, vowels,- signs

8.

t^

Ta Marbuta &
Verb, past du
1

Alif Maqsura.

i^^

9.

Letters of Prolongation and Diphthongs. ^-^

&
;

plural.

19.

Construct-State.
Transliteration

10.
II.

Solar and Lunar Letters.

Wasla,

etc.

^
PART

^^
11.

20.

Examination paper.

Tenses, "Moods,''
31. 32.

etc.

21. 22. 23.

Eye, Voice, and Ear Ex.

E.V.

&

E. Various.

24.

25.

Type-form J Nouns of Agent and of Object. Verb jlT Past Tense. Omision of copula. Personal Pronouns (for forming sentences) Exam, paper.
Singular of ^j\^\
(

^3jM

by J

and Negative by

{V
33.

of Prohibition. Comparative

.Table of j.^;5^i^
34.

^jvdlb i>J^*

Pronominal
Passive, Past

affixes.

26.

35.
36.

&

Present.

Present Future).
37.
38.

27.

Dual and Plural of the same.


Future Particles. Introduction to 3 Moods.
Subjunctive ^j^adl'

Verb TO BE

also

^>3

28. 29.
;

Other Tenses.
39.

The

Six Forms.

39*

40.

Conversation Exercise

and

Examination paper.

Examination Paper.

PART
41.

III

The Noun.
50.
51.

E. V.

&

E.

Selections

from

Commandments.
42.

Examination Paper. E. V. & E. God's Attributes.


Case.

44. 45.
46.

Gender. Regular Plural, Masc.


Ditto in Construction, etc.

52.

54.
55. 56.
57.

Regular Plural, Fem.


Dual.
,

Ancient Declension. Demonstrative. Relative Pronoun.

47.
48.

Agreement of

Adjs.

Dual

in Construction.

58. 59.

Assimilated Adjective.

49.
50.

Broken Plural J^i


Broken Plural JUI

Noun

of Superiority.

60.

Examination Paper.

PART
61.

IV.

Some Derived Nouns with Broken


66.

Plurals.

E. V,

&
of

E. Scripture.

62. 63.
64.

Noun Noun

Time and

Place.

67.
68.

Broken Plurals JTU and J^lj* Tri-syllabic Broken Plural.


Masdar;
its

of Instrument.

forms and

use.

Quadrisyllable Plural JpIa* etc.

69.

HOW TO

USE A LEXICON.

65

Broken

Reading Exercise.
Plural
J-,^^^"

etc.

70

Examination Paper.

PART
71. 72.
73-

V.

Derived Conjugal ions.


Conj. VII.

E. V.

&

E.
II.

Proverbs.
g;
}
^Jii

yi\
3*^1

Conj.

I
Conj.
III.

74-

75-

I
i

^.cU
J.i
\

t.
90. 91.

^^-^^ ^'"} Exam. Paper.


E. V.

&

E.

"Ten Commdts."

Conj. IV.

77-

92.
93-

Conj. IX.

\il
^i,i

78
79.
So.

Paradigm of I IV. Reading Exercise. Exam. Paper.


E. V.

Conj. X,

94. 95.
96.

I
1

Si.

&

E.

"Lord's Prayer."

Newspaper Exercise.
>

X
^-

'""''

} }

^-

'^^

Q98.

Quadriliteral Verbs.

Reading Exercise.
Popular Story.

Conj. VI.

>U-

99.

100.

Exam. Paper.

PART
lOI.
102.

VI.

"Weak'' Verbs.
117.

Intro, to "

Weak "

Verb.

Conj.

IV. (Hollow).

\
103.

Doubled Verb.

118.

Conjs. VII.

&

VIII.

(Hollow.)

119.
120.

Conj, X.( Hollow).

104
105-

Examination Paper,
E. V.
>

Hamzated.
Derived Conj. (Surd).
>

121.
122.
123. 124.

&

E.

Salutations.

106.
107. io8.
109.

Defective Verb.

Derived (Hamzated).

Defective (Subj. and Juss.)

110.
III. 112.
113.

Exam. Paper.
E. V.

125.

Doubly

Weak

fLafifJ

Proverbs. Simile Verb Ya. Simile Verb H'au.


&
E.

126.
127. 128.
129.

Doubly Weak (Hnmza).


Derived Conjs. (Defective).

Nun

of Corroboration.

114.

Derived Conjugations.
>

115. 116.

Hollow

Wau and

Ya.
130.

Verbs of Wonder; Ni^mn and lU'sa. Examination Paper

PART
31.

VIL

All Broken Plurals.


138.

E. V.
>

&

E.

More Proverbs.

^lU and

Irregulars.

132

136

All the plural forms.

139.
140.

Collectives.

Examination Paper.

PART
141.
142.

VIIL

Derived Nouns, Particles,


147.

etc.

E.

V.

&

E. Sfiras.

Numerals.

All Derived

Nouns

148.

Syntax of Numerals.
Preps. Conj. Interjections,

143. 144.
146.

Diminutive.
Relative Adjective.
Intensive Forms.

149 150

:}

PART
Lessons 151

IX.

Syntax.
in

200.

complete Syntax

Arab

style.

PART
Exercises

X.

Reading Book,
other end, Arabic style).

150 (paged from

NEW

ARABIC TEXTBOOK

(Extmcts from a Review by Professor R.S. McClena^han M.A., LL.D., Principal of College of Arts and Sciences, American University, Cairo).

This volume

is

one of the best,


officials,

if

not the best, published for

the use of missionaries,

and business men desiring a concise but sufficiently elaborated text, and thoroughly reliable for acquiring a knowledge of usable Arabic.

"The make-up of the book is such as to please the eye and not to leave with the student the sense of weariness which frequently results from the use of poor paper unsuitable type, or a complicated a rangement. The index is a valuable contribution.
,

*'The author has been for over 20 years a resident in Cairo.

He

ij
I

familiar with the Arabic of the

the

official,

Azhar University, and with that the man on the street, and the fellah,' and is
'

recognized as an authority on the subject".

^'ARABIC
A Review by
the Kev. Prof.

SIMPLIFIED"
D.D., LL.D.,

James Robertson,

Emeritus Professor of

Semitic Languages in the University of Glasgow.

"Mr. Upson has undertaken a difficult task, as anyone who has attempted to teach Arabic can testify, and he has succeeded. The task is to give the student not only a competent knowledge of the laws of the language, but also tLe power to use the language as a living tongue Avith a literature.

"ARABIC SIMPLIFIED
and
it

claims to be a 'practical'

grammar

makes good the claim. It is practicable, in the sense that it leads the student on by a smooth path, step by step, in a course of 200 lessons, till the Avhole ground is covered. There are exercises at every stage, with well selected vocabularies. The student is stimulated, by the question and ansAver form of the lessons, to solve difficulties, and he is made to feel sure of himself by revision of
work, test questions, and periodical Examination Papers

" The lessons are evidently drawn up by a practical educationist, keenly alive to the difficulties felt by the learner and skilful in overcoming them. They also show an accurate acquaintance Avith the Avhole extensive and somewhat perplexing field of Arabic Grammar. The introduction, from the very first, and constant explanation of the Syntax, and the presentation of the laAVS of the language from the point of vicAV of the native grammarian, are
features bej'ond
all

praise
Avith confidence

"And

it

may

be said that,

if

the student will

patiently go through this course, following the prescribed conditions,

and submitting

his Avork from time to time for examination by the Teacher, he will be no mean Arabic scholar, and fit to acquit himself successfully in any sphere in Avhicli he may be called to use the language."

MICROFORMED
SERVICES

BY

PRESERVATION

ARABIC SIMPLIFIED
A PRACTICAL

GRAMMAR

of

WRITTEN ARABIC
in

200

LESSONS

With Exercises, Test-Papers and Reading"-Book,

BY

ARTHUR
('Abdul-Fady
Author of

T.

UPSON

al-Qahirany)
Editor of

Literary Superintendent Nile Mission Press,

"ARABIC AMPLIFIED,"

etc.,

"AL-BAREED AL-MISRY,

and Publisher of over 350 Arabic Books and Pamphlets

upon the system of

THE REV.

J.

Wilcox,

iM.A.,

Author of "Hebrew Simplified."

Hill,

523168
2.

REVISKD EDITION.

S- S(

School of Simplified Study,


19-21

Ludg-ate

London, E.G.

4.

First Edition

1916
(of first nine lessons only)
-

Second Impression
Third Impression

1917

(five lessons only)

1919
1921

Second

Edition,, revised throughout

Printed at The

Nile Mission

Press,

ar Sharia Manakh, Cairo.

Foreword to First Edition.


During the year
1908, the author

had the good fortune

to

be

enrolled as a student of the Rev. John C. Wilcox's new and then comparatively unknown course of ''Hebrew Simplified," and the

thought passed through the minds of both that possibly sometime system might be found suitable for the teaching of Arabic. Nothing was, however, done at the time.
in the future this

Meantime the School of Simplified Study,


Simplified," "Latin Simplified," etc. For the

Ltd.,

had produced

similar courses in other subjects, e.g., "Greek Simplified," "Logic

Hebrew course alone

no

less

than a thousand students had been registered.

In

May

1915 the writer


to

and was glad

England on medical advice, occupy himself by writing a number of these


to

was sent

lessons, at the suggestion of the author of the original system.


It should be clearly understood that my collaborator, Mr. Wilcox only responsible for the Interrogative Method employed, as I take full responsibility for selecting the matter and writing the book.

is

Friendly critics of this new order of arrangement are invited examine the Table of Contents, also the Index. A certain amount of repetition will be found in the earlier lessons, for to a practical
to

educationist, as
virtues.

is

the author, recapitulation

is

the chief of the

Some

students

may

turn to the complete table of Alphabet,

Vowels, Figures etc, Lesson 16; others should content themselves with what is given out to them.

There are 200 Lessons in this course, which should cover the ground required by students for both Elementary and Advanced Exams, no other grammar being required.
are
It will be found that after the first few lessons the exercises more interesting and longer, and the subjects more varied while the Reader contains selections from books and newspapers.

of our

Since this course study being

is

intended to be a practical one, the subject

"Modern Written Arabic,"


those

we

leave

the

differing

colloquials to

who have made


:

a special study of

spoken dialects, but all words given in the text or in the exercises will be found to be in practical use to-day this is a strong point. Our aim is to teach the Student, whether missionary, military, educational, or commercial, to read, e.g., a daily newspaper.
for

This course is absolutely "COPYRIGHT," and may not be used any person other th^n the original, duly registered student. 'ABDUL-FADY,

FOREWORD
to

2nd

edition
which
I

Owing

to a combination of circumstances (partly political) over


I

have

had no control,
purpose,

have

now

entirely re-written Lessons

151-200 using, for the

many

of the illustrations and examples from


^r/:z&/c)

my "ARABIC AMPLIFIED"
The
order of Lessons 151-200

written in 1919-20 (in

but not yet published.

being similar to that followed in


to that work,

"A A,"
(in

the present will be a capital introduction

which should be studied

Arabic) after

"ARABIC SIMPLIFIED"
A, T, U.

good many other improvements have been introduced.

May,

1921.

ADVICE
To The Student
(1)
(2)
:

Answer

all

exercises in writing, even those intended for "self-correction".


:

Train "Eye, Voice and Ear" simultaneously


aloud in the open
if

this

can be

done by reading
a native sheikh,

air.

Get your pronunciation corrected by

possible.

Let him give

DICTATION
is

from the

exercises.

(3)

Imitate, to a certain extent, the Oriental


easiest

custom of memorising aloud.

The

way to master Arabic Syntax


!

to learn

many

illustrative sentences.

(4)

Revise back work, and re-revise

Most important.

Lesson

1.

^
is

1.

What
f

are these signs

They form
"he"
2.

the Arabic

word He-struck, which

pronounced

dha-ia-ba ^with the accent on the first syllable.


is
is

The pronoun

"understood," not written, in the Arabic verb.


this

How
Of

word

built

three

different

up ? consonants and
letter a.
it

one vowel.
is
....."T....

The vowel
is

corresponds to the

Its

sign

and

written

above
It
3.

its

consonant, which

always

/o//o?^;s in

pronunciation.

here occurs three times.

What

4.

is the name of this vowel ? Fatha (to be pronounced with a roughly aspirated h, which we have indicated by a dot under it, and which is somewhat It is also somewhat like a deep like hh or doubly strong h. sigh. Be sure you do not run the / and h together, making th: note Fat is the first syllable and ha the second. What is the power of this Fat-ha ? It is like a in bad, and is one of the three short vowels.

In

some countries

it

is

little

heavier, like a in father

in

India more like u in cut.


5.

How many

consonants are there

in thts

word

Three.

Name
jO

power
d

Dad

^
C^
6.

Ra
Ba

What
It is

is

the approximate sound of the

Dad
it

like the*

d in hand and good, only


d.

is

stronger,

and

this
o?,

we have
little

indicated bya dot under the


the
th in
thee,

It is

an aspirated

like

but

more strongly
It is
it

pronounced
it

by rolling the tongue against the palate.


affects the Fat-ha after
it,

so hard that

giving to
z,

almost the sound of

AW or O.
7.

(In India

it is

a hard

as in "Ramazan").

Do

these three
?

given

No.

consonants always preserve the forms here Arabic letters change their form with their

6
position in a word, because even printed books are, so to speak, in "script" character, and most of the letters joined

and "running on". But

Dad

is

always

<

when it begins a word; when it is an Initial letter.


when
it

that

is,

Ra
Ba

^
it

it

is

is

with in aword Medial lettet.

i.e.,

when
i.e.,

,.

e^

when it is separated from others; when it is an Isolated letter.


end of a word can be joined
the
final

N.B. When Ba
previous
letter

at the

to the
is

takes

form

L^-^ The ra
letter

of

such a shape that


it,

it

cannot ever join the

which follows

so that letter does not have a special final form.


is

8.

What

the order of the consonants in


:

v^^

Dad, Ra, Ba
is

because Arabic, like other Semitic languages


left.

read from right to

He-struck Da-ra ba
9.

w>^^
first

Why
What

have we put the


that
it

vowel

in Italic
is

.'*

To show
10.

has the accent, which

but very slight.


?

are the dots used for, one over

Dad and one under Ba


In

They are the distinguishing marks of these consonants, which


cannot, therefore, be read without them.
writing, the scribe,

Arabic

letter-

when

in

haste, often obscures the

shapes
be

of the

individual letters;

these
dots.

can,

however,

always

identified

by means of the

Vowels are hardly ever written, except in

the

two books,

Qur'an and Bible, but the dots are indispensable.

There are no
Self-Test Paper
1.

capitals in Arabic.
o-

1.

2.

What What

is

a Fat-ha

(l
?

3)
:

Where
4).

is it

placed

(l

2).

is its

power
it

(l

(Compare your written reply with


to be found.

the section in which the correct answer

is

Revise

and,

if

necessary, learn
replies

more thoroughly.
to Test Papers,

Do

not send

exercises for correction except the

which we have

marked "To be returned for correction". So in all future lessons.) N.B. Students must vowel their exercises for the first year.

7
Lesson
1.

2.
is

If

the verb-form for "He-struck"


into "She-struck"
?

v'p' how can

it

be

changed

By placing
He-struck
She-struck
2.

the letter

ta (t) after

it.

da-ra-ba
da-ra-bat

^j-^
^I^y^

But

why has

the ha been shortened form


ha

to

->

Because

is

when

isolated

and

-J is

ha in

its initial

form.

The
3.

isolated
is-fhe

and

final

forms are usually elongated ones.


....?.....

What
It is

new

sign
is

over the ta

?
....v.....

the Sukun, and


is

very occasionally written

4.

What
It

the use of su-kun (pronounced su-koon,


?

i.e

with

the Italian u

denotes that the

letter

over which

it is

placed has no vowel


adjacent letters

and therefore

closes that syllahle.


to

Two sukuvs on

I would not ordinarily he allowed


5.

occur in Arahic.

What
Its

is this

sign

i) ?
it
j

name

is

Kaf and
form
(in
is

represents our letter K, as in keep.

But
6.

its initial

We
ha
ta

have seen

item 2 above) that the separate form for

becomes

.>

as an initial letter.
->"

Can

the isolated form for

be shortened to

as an initial

Yes, certainly, and several others act similarly.

{He
In fh)
7.

wrote

Ka-ta-ba
Ka-ta-bat

^zS
^xI-S

{a)

She wrote

{hj

we have Ta

as a Final,

and also

as a Medial.
a

The

short connecting link

which unites

Medial form

to its

predecessor should be noticed.

We

may

represent

it

thus

^J^

X,

2,

8.

But are not medial ta and ba confusing


dots over
it

No

since ta has

two

and ha has one under

it.

9.

Is

there

any English word or name which

will give us the

pronunciation of Ka-ta-ba?

Yes
first

take the word Canada.


syllable, but not

There
to

is
ii

a slight stress upon the


.

enough

make

a long vowel.

We

do

not say Ca-nada,


10.

still less

Canada.

Simply Canada.

Are other

three-letter verbs stressed in the


is

same way
is,

.?

Yes

da-ra-ba

pronounced

liiie

Ca-na-da; there
it

however,

one point about the fat-ha, when


strong consonant
as

is

sounded with such a


that
it

the

dad

that

is,

the

fat-ha

is

sounded
is

like a short o (though


like doraba.

we

write

a)

and thus
d).

^^^
:

pronounced

(Do not mix d with

Exercise 2a.

Read aloud from the right, and turn into English


'

<.r ^^-

v^^
to

Exercise
(i)

2b.

Translate
(2)

Arabic (from memory)


(3)

He-struck.
2. is

She-struck.

He-wrote.

(4)

She-wrote.

Self Test
1.

2.
3.

What What

Sukun

And what
Sukun

does
?

it

denote

(2

4).

sign represents a

(2
:

3).

Write the names of these

letters

4.

What combinations

are these

(il
N.B.

j.^

<2S

L^- C-o
it

<^
be seen that one
is

After doing Exercise


corrects the other.

2a from memory, do 2b from memory


results,

and then, by comparing the

will

The
to

answers to Self -Test papers are in the


the section

text of the lesson, in

whose number

given.
will be

Exam, paper

is

be sent up for correction.

There

similar exam, papers at the end of Lessons 13, 20, 25, 30, 40, etc.


PAST SING
1.

3.
of
:

Lesson
How
did

VERB.
meaning

we
?

turn the form for he-struck into one

she-struck

By adding
2.

the letter ta

(2 :l)

How

can we readily turn he-struck into


didst strike

Thou (m) Thou (f)


I

>
)

By adding the same letter ta in each case and by changing the


vowels.

(m &

f)

struck)

^*-1
y

o^l

^o^'I

'/'^l

^^'^

da-rab-tu
I

da-rab-ti
Thoustrikedst.
(fern.)

struck.

da-rab-ta Thou strikedst.


left.

da-ra-bat
She struck.
essential.

da-raba

He

struck.

N.B. Read from


the

right to

This

is

Note that
in

Past Tense of the Arabic verb may often be represented


1

English by either the Past or the Perfect Tense. (Details in L.

53).

3.

Accent.

What

is

the Rule for Arabic

Accent

The following rules must be memorised just here (a) The Arabic accent falls principally upon the long voweL
:

of the word,

viz.,

the letter of prolongation (which will be exthe

plained later) thus ^u5 kitab has

accented

ta

shown
are

by

....."....

thus,

ta.

If^_more

than one long vowqU the la^cm^

receives the

greatest accent.

Thetwo_Diph thongs

(q

5)

accented like long vowels.


(b)

The

fact

of the

consonant under the sukun having no

vowel
is

causes

that

consonant

to

be accented;
student

e.g.,

C^jy^
say

pronounced

dara^tu,

and

the

must

necer

da.r^b-tu because,
(like a
(c)

when

the final vowel is omitted he will say

newspaper reader-aloud) darabt^


is

The Shadda
If all

also accented (8

4, 5).

(d)

the vowels are short, as in kntaba, the

first

one

is

slightly accented.
If

presented.

we examine forms 3, 4 and What are ihey


"i

we

shall find

two new features


1st.

10

shape) below the


in
line. line.

2nd.
5.

We We
is

see a
see

;
--

(a fat-ha in

(almost a

comma

shape) above the


}

What
It
it

this

Fat-ha shaped sign written below the line


i

is is

the short vowel

like

in tin.

Its
it

name

is

Kasra. Since

always placed

beloiv

the line

cannot be confused
line.

with Fat-ha (the short a) which always stands above the


6.

What
It is

is

the sign

.....^....

placed above the line

the short vowel u (00) called

Damma, and pronounced

as

in bush.
7.

After reminding ourselves that the Sukun

has no sound,
^

we can now
Regular Verb.

read the whole of the verb-forms which conVoice,

stitute the Active

Past Tense. Singular Number of the

(See item 2 above for the forms).

^
8.

N.B.
of

As

the vowels of each verb remain constant for each

its

persons (singular),

we must
proper

learn these five forms by

heart.

This

is a

very important as well as a very easy matter.


the

Take care

to

accent

syllable

by
;

noting

it

in

item 2 above.

Learn

FROM THE RIGHT


j

He-struck, etc.

What
It is

verb

is this

pronounced

rakiba,

and means "he


?

rode, or mounted."

9.

But

why

the kasra in the centre

Because this verb takes two

fathas and a kasra.

Some

verbs take a

damma

as the centre
first

vowel for the past tense.

Every past verb takes fat-ha as

and

last vowel,

_anyhp w.

10 Write out

all

the (singular) persons of

rakib-tu
I

rakib-ti

rakib-ta
r
:

rakibat
r
:

rakiba
he-rode

rode

thou (fem.) didst

thou didst

she-rode

II.

In

what order are the signs written in Exercise 3a ? then b, after that go back and The body of the K, then
t,"^

stroke the headpiece of the k, (downwards), then the dott,

then add

all

the voweZ-marks from right to

left,

li

(3b).

Exercise Sa, Read aloud, transliterate* and translate, covering


(J1a!L3

i^i^C^

(Jl^AlIJ;

O-X-J)

v_^--J

c^j
V-J

o-j

Li^j
C^l ^W

o53

r J

j^^
3b.

t^ y-^

Exercise
(l)
(4)

Translate to Arabic (covering 3a.)


wrote.
(fern.)
(2)

Then

correct.

He

She wrote.
written.
(fern),

(3)
(5)

Thou (m)
I

hast

written.

Thou

hast

have written (wrote).


(7)
I

(6)

(Second

line)

Thou

hast ridden.
(9)

rode, (or

have

ridden). (8)
ride). (10)

He

rode (has ridden).

Thou

hast ridden (didst

She rode (has ridden).


(12)
(15)

(ll)

(Third line)
(14)

didst strike.
didst strike.

He
She

struck.

(13) I struck.

Thou ffem). Thou (masr),

struck.

Self Test
1.

3.

What

letter

concludes

all

but one of the forms of the Past


}

Tense, Singular of the Active Voice


2.
3.

(3

2).

Write out the rules for Accent

(3
1

3).

What

is

the sign for a


}

Damma
(i.e.,

What

is

it }

How

is

it

pro-

nounced
*

(3

6).

Note on Transliteration,
racters).

writing Arabic in
transliterate

Roman
for

cha-

The student should only


really
it

a short

time

if

needed.

But in translating from English to


that he write
is

Arabic

is

essential

in

the

proper Arabic

character.

"Relief Nib"

the best for this purpose in

England, but an "Arabic nib" (not the native reed) should be used in the Orient. After a few more lessons he should
try
to

abstain
to

from

transliteration

altogether,

as

it

is

a
ac-

weak reed
customed
It

lean upon.

He

will very

soon

become

to the

Arabic character, and should use nothing

else.

is

difficult,

in

Egypt, where these lessons are printed, to


at all is to partially
If

obtain sufficient specially marked types with which to transliterate


;

the only reason for attempting

it

supply the place of the teacher of pronunciation.


get a sheikh with

you can

whom

to practise reading (and DICTATION)

never use anything but the Arabic character.

* 12

4.
etc.

Lesson
1.

IJSlTERROaATIVE,

What
The

is

the

first letter

of the Arabic Alphabet

^4/^/.
is its
is

(This generality will be modified in I2

3).

2.

What
This

form

its

form
letter,

in

all

cases save where

it

is

linked to a
In that
a.

preceding
case
3.
it

when

its

form

is

(see

below).

lengthens the preceding fat-ha to a long vowel,


special use has this Alif?

What
it

With

is

one of the signs for Interrogation


the sentence.
It

hamza and fat-ha and it then always


be explained fully
'

commences
in

The hamza

will

Lesson

13.
)

is

written over the


.
j

alif,

thus
1
J

did he strike a-da-ra-ba

he struck
da-ra-ba
it

".

^
initial

With the hamza of a word (see 10


4.

(not otherwise)

may

be the

letter

below).

How

can

a verb in the

past tense
?

be negatived

How

can

she wrote

become

she -did -not -write

By putting
5.

the negative panicle


1

ma

before

it

U
joined to an

What
It is

is

this negative particle

composed

of

new

letter,

Mim (meem)
verb form
:

alif,

(without hamza) written from below (see 2 above).


is

This

negative

always placed before

its

it is

used with
also).

the Past Tense injvjilhig6.

(! coll.

with the Present

Give the Arabic


Ma-ka-ta-bat

for she-wrote
1

and she -did -not -write.


Ka~ta-bat l^-'j^^ She wrote / ^^'
1

'^\{<^^^
*^''"

She did not write


7.

We
Can

have seen that the Interrogative


be
placed
?

can be placed
its

before

a positive
it

sentence without disturbing the order of


before
Yes.
)

words.

also

a negative sentence without

causing any alteration


I

have not written


ka-tab-tu
I not written ka-tab-tu

Ma

'-V-^ *"
^^*
'

l"

Have

1
J

Ama
Did
I

''-VVf ^"^^

not4=td^ ^ ^ Kj(L\r^
.?

C^xI-^Cil

8.

13

an Alif
?

Wliat

letter looks

very

much

like

the Lam,
9.

or L.

Its

form when an
?

Initial letter, is ^)

How

do they

differ

The lam can be


preceding one
preceding.
thick
;

joined to

its

following letter as well as


alif

its
its

whereas

an

can only be joined

to

The lam is stroke; also, when a


in
:

alw^ays written
final letter,
\B
it

downwards with
its

lengthens
three

form.

Thus

this

combination

we

get

possible forms

of a lam

initial,medial and

final.

But this combination does

not occur in any actual word.


10.

Give a word containing an alif-hamza and a lam.

He
11.

ate (a-ka-la)
a

Jf

Now
not.

word containing
is

lam before the

alif.

3 la

= No,

or

This

the Negative

which

is

generally used with the


in the
first,

Present Tense though


etc.

is

sometimes so used
is

Qur'an

(The lam,

i.e.

the down-stroke,

written

then the

alif is

written athwart).

Exercise

4a.

Read aloud and


i

translate

then correct by

4b.

0.

^t

0^

u^l C\
\

J<ll

'^<\ C V
Exercise
(l)

ocfCV
into Arabic, correcting
(2)

c^rrJ
Hast thou
(f)

4b.

Turn

by

4a.
(3)

Has he
t

eaten.?
(4)

Has she
(f)

not eaten?
.?

(m) eaten
ride
?

Hast thou

not eaten

(5)

Didst thou
?

not

(6) I

did not ride.


(9)

(7)

Did she

strike

(8)

didst not strike.

Did she not


(f)

write.?
(12)

(lo)

Thou (m) No; she did


did not eat.

not write. (11) Didst thou


Self Test Paper
(1) (2)
(3)
4.

not

eat.?

No;

Give an Arabic Interrogative sign. What is its position?(4:I-3) What particles negative Arabic sentences? (4:46,11). How does an alif differ from a lam? (4: 8,9).

14

5.

Lesson
1.

TRILITERALISM.
What
is

one of the chief characteristics of the Semitic group

of languages

(Hebrew, Arabic,
letters

etc.)

Tri -literalism. This signifies that the words are built up around
three*

Root

or Radicals,

by prefixing, affixing and


arising out of the idea

inserting other letters,

and by changing the vowels so as


all

to express variations of meaning


*

conveyed by the Root

letters.

This we have seen in the Past


(3
:

Tense of a verb of Active Voice.


2.

2).

What

Past Tense

verb form

in

the

Active Voice always


?

contains these three Root letters and no other letters

The

form for the 3rd Person, Singular, Masculine.


Ka-ta-ba
1

Thus

He
He
3.

wrote, or, has written

J 1

^^/^
-^\

Aka-la
ate, or,

has eaten
also built

And

are the

Nouns

up from these three Root


This

letters?

Yes: by vowels alone, or by vowels and additional

letters (of

which

Alifis, a frequent one).

is

why we

teach the verb

before the noun.

S-lun
Battle, or fighting

y^
^j^^^

He

ate
^.,j^^
^

'^

qita-lun

^^
tt

y.
^^-<^
^.^-.J)

a book, a writing .^^ kita-bun


,
,

l^i:<^ s>U_b
r
J

He

wrote
this

a writer
(

^^rlS"*^

(For the lengthening of

a see Lesson
is

6).

katii-bun

We see
first
It is

here some
letter
}

new

signs and letters.

What

this

new

Root

Qdf and represents our Q. This guttural consonant is pronounced with a vowel by contracting the throat. Say Kaf first naturally, then with a short a sound and contracted throat, like the cawing of a crow. Qaf is pronounced Qof or Qawf because the letter Q is one of those strong letters which alter the sound of the fat-ha (Compare 2 lo).
the letter
:

Occasionally there are four


later.

root

letters

and the root-verb

is

tlien

called

a Quadriliteral one. See


What
It is

15

is

the

new

sign

or

the short vowel

Pamma
?

written double,

which can only

occur at the end of a noun.

How

is it

pronounced

Un, shorter than Oon.


But where does the

Like u

in

push.
?

N sound

come from

This practice of adding an


thus doubled
is

N
is

sound when the

last

vowel

is

called ISun-ation (noon-ation) from the Arabic

name
or in

for N,

Nun. Nun aiion


It is

confined to reading the Qur'an


in

and poetry.

never pronounced
(Practise

reading the newspaper


the

conversation.
is this

naming
1

word without

wn.'

What
It

double-u sign called

The Tanwin rjamma (meaning 'A Damma


is

with nun sound").

never used with the Definite Aiticle, and every word


it is

which has
the single

in the

Nominative Case (as also those having


:

damma). (See 6 6

for the other


alif

two cases with tanwin).

Give another verb containing


'

with hamza.

j5

10.

Write out the

Sao
Qara'a he read. (Here
five
it is

third radical).

person forms of

\j
Cj\ji

w.^.

Exercise 5a.

Read aloud and

translate to English

Exercise
(1) (4)
(7)

oh.

To Arabic
she

(afterwards correcting by
(2)
?

5a).
(3)

Hast thou (f) read?

ate

(have eaten).
I

Food.

Has

not killed
(8)

(5)

Did

kill

(6)

Fighting.

book.

She

read.

Self Test Paper


(i)
(2)

5.

What

is

the

Tanwin
is it

Pamma
when

(5
?

8).

How

and when
is

pronounced

(5

6).
?

(3)

What

ndn-ation and

is it

employed

(5

7).

i6

6.

Lesson
\l^_TransJJleraifiU:Jie^_r^^
2.

TANIVIN.
Ki-ta-bun tjiljT
?
I

Why
How

have we put a mark over the a here


it is

To show
3.

the long

a,

and not the short one


it

in kataha.
it is

are

we

to

know when
?

is

long and not short, since

fat-ha in each case

)CThe

"

when followed by
= hd-hun ^^{ but

"prolonging"

alif is a/w;a2/s /o/ig

Ex

gate

distinguish this from

^
Ihng

ra'sun,
alif.

head, in which alif carries hamza


4.

jukun and
,

is 7iot

What
It is

is

Tanwm Damma,
(or short

once more
vowel

Damma

u) written twice,

placed over

the last letter of a

5.

word (as in this word gate), and in hook l). The name means "A Damma with ^ nun sound." (5:3). Are there any other tanwins ? Yes the two other short vowels can be used in the same way, i.e., doubled over the last letter. Thus we get
:

Tan win Damma


Tan win Fat-ha

v>U-^ Ki-f^-bun
^'J^^-f

Ki-if^7-ban

(Note the added

alif here).

Tanwin Kasra
Have
Yes.

V^*-5^

Ki-^^-bin.
?

these three tanwins any practical use

The presence
is

of either of the tanwins denotes that the


e.g., a

noun

indefinite
i.e.

man, a book.

Also that

it [is

a de-

clinable noun,
(1)

capable of taking all three cases.


that a noun is the Subject of the sentence=^The Nominative Case.
I

The

"

denotes

(2)

The

"^

over an

for a Masculine noun)

denotes that a noun


Object of a verb

is

the Direct

= The

Accusative

Case.
(3)

(See 9 below).

The
single

denotes the Indirect

Object

(governed

by

Preposition, for example).

N.B. A

damma,

fat-ha or kasra indicates the

Nomi-

native, Accusative,

or Genitive,

case of the Definite Noun, as

the tanwin vowel does of the Indefinite Noun.

What
is

17

is

this sign
J,

77

It is

the letter Jim (jeem), which

the

English
of
y-> 8.

but pronounced hard


in

in

Egypt.

The

initial

form

it >. is

found

man, ra-ju-lun J>- j and

its final

form

is re

When When

will a
it

noun take the tanwin cjamma

is

the subject of a sentence, as


letter".

man

in the sentence
Its

"A man

wrote a

Man

is

in the

Nominative Case.

form therefore
9.

is "^^^-j

When
it

will a

noun take the tanwin fatha (over an

alif)

When
in the

is

the Direct Object of the action of a verb, that


as, for

is,

Accusative Case,
sentence,

example, "a book" in the following

"A man

wrote a book"

\XlS
ki-ta-ban (3)

^\>-j
ra-ju-lun (2)
first,

,^lS
kataba (1)

10.

N.B.

The order

is

usually that of the Verb

but the
is

Noun

may be placed first, for emphasis. (The Singular when it precedes its subject).
Exercise 6a.

verb

put in the

Read aloud and

translate

correct by 6b.

Exercise
(i)
I

6b.

To

Arabic, afterwards correcting by 6a.


(2)
(4)
?

wrote a book.

She wrote

book.

(3)
(5)

Has he written a book ? Did a man write a book


She did not read a book
6.

(6)

He has A man

not struck a man.

read a book.

(7)

(8)

Didst thou not strike a

man

Self Test
1.

2.

What

3.

can the Fat-ha become a long vowel } (6 3). is a Tanwin Fat-ha, and what letter always accompanies it with the Masculine noun (6: 6). In what case is a noun which has a Tanwin Fat-ha } (6 6),
:
.?

How


1.

i8

7.

Lesson
Power
Separate

Let us classify the characters met with, and a few others.


Final

Medial

Initial

Name
Alif

b
t

(^ C^

4^
L-^

<^

Ba

Ta
^^"^

C
C
CI

G^

""

C
r^

^ ^
^^

^
""

^^
^^^

kh

^
J
^
3

J
<J
q

J
(^_^

O^

J ^
^

^^
Pad
Qif
Kaf

^
tfj

(3 td
(JL
-

r
i
"^

r
J

tJ
(^

Lam
^^"^

m
Ha
2.

(^

(or

Hha)

is

a
it

heavy h from the back of the mouth.

Kh

is

the ch in loch\

may be

practised with an educated Scotchman.


.?

What
(a)
....r.....

vowels have we used

We have used
Fat-ha

the only three short vowels there are

";, Kasra
?

with a sound

i

as in patch

as in tin as in bush
viz,,

Damma

(b)

We have

only used one of the three long vowels,

the

fat-ha lengthened by an alif as in a book (kitdh)


3.

V^*4

We

have used the only three tanwins there are


the un sound

Tanwin pamma

Tanwin Fat-ha
TanwinKasra
4.
\

19

the an sound (Note the alif here).


;"" the in

sound.
I

The Arabic numerals (from

to 12)

may be

easily learnt

>T

u
7.

^-

^ A

V
is

r
left

>

Observe that the "tens" figure figure, as in English!


Vocabulary
(1)

placed to the

of the unit

qi-ta-lun battle, or fighting tJ^^

(2)

ki-ta-bun book ^^[iS hook (accus

:)\i[:>S

(3)

a-ka-la to eat (he-ate) ^^

'

ma-li-kun king dll^

(4)

uk-lun food
qa-ta-la to
ra-ju-lun a
da-ra-ba
ka-ta-ba
ra-ki-ba

^1
>

qa-la-mun pen

U
J*V
*^

(5)

kill

(he killed) ^jl5 ja-ma-lun camel


> ^

(6)

man

J>.j

man

(accus-.)

"^o^j

(7)

to strike (he struck) <^

(8)

to write (he wrote) y^tS


L*5^j

(9)

to ride (he rode)

(10)

qa-ra-a

to read (he read)

\j
:

Exercise 7
1.

2.

Test Paper to be returned. Translate He struck a camel. 7. Did she kill a man Did she read a book ? 8. Didst thou (m) ride

3
4.
5.

Hast thou (m) written a book

9.

Thou (f hast not written Have I not written


)
.?

a book.

10.

11. 12.

Thou (f) hast struck a man. Have I not eaten 1 Have you ridden a camel?
I

6.

A man read

a book.

have not ridden a camel.

-S. Practise writing, transliterate, and then translate:

^V

Jr'j

v> ^J

^^*

jr'j

3^'

20

8.

Lesson
1.

DEFIISITE ARTICLE.
Has Arabic an
Yes
:

Article

the Definite Article only,


itself,
It is

which has no number, gender

or case in
prefixed.
2.

because

it is

a part of the

noun

to

which
Jl

it is

a particle

composed of an

alif

and a lam

Give an example

ra-ju-lun, a
3.

man

ar-ra-ju-Iu, the

man
are they
?

But
1st.

the Article has introdaced three changes.

What

The Tanwin Damma


it

for

has disappeared. It cannot exist with the Article prefixed, since the tanwin
indefinite.

always does,

marks the
2nd.
3rd.

The lam has dropped its sound, but '"-. It has introduced a new sign
It is
?

not

its

form.

like a small

W only

written obliquely.

the sign of Tashdid called Shadda-

What
It is

is

Tashdid

the act of doubling the pronunciation of the letter over


this sign is placed,

which
act of
is

wheth er in_a verb or_a^ioun


is

The

doubling (or intensifying)

called tashdid, but the sign

called a shadda.

How

does this happen

In this

way

the shadda

a sukun

-J-

a vowel, that

is,

the

suktin of the first of the

two

letters

and the vowel of the second

coalesce together.
In
ra,

5>-^

the Zam of Jl

assimilates

itself, first
it

of

all,

to the
it

and

then, secondly
j'
finally the

we
two

think of
r's

and pronounce

as

I^J
1

coalesce and

we

write

it

^>- }^

leaving the lam standing in writing, but marking the pronunciation

by

--T.....

(Be sure to grasp this point).


take place

6.J

Do
2nd.
3rd.

these S changes always

when
;

the Article

is

prefixed, viz., 1st.

The dropping The dropping of the sound


}

of the tanwin
of the lam,

and

Writing of the shadda


No
:

21

letters.
?

only the

1st

always takes place, whilst the 2nd and 3rd

only occur before one-half of the Arabic


7^\

How many
It

letters

has the Arabic Alphabet

has

28,

so that the doubling shadda will be required over 14


Article.
I

of

them when prefixing the

The

other 14 have a

sukiin
8.

upon the /aw, thus ^llSJ


are the 14,
letters.

al-kitdp, the book.


suiiiin,

What
Solar

which receive a shadda but no

called

(The remaining 14 are called Lunar


later).

letters.

Their

names
9.

will

be given

What

Solar letters do

we

already

know ?

Lam
10.

Dad
is

Ra

Ta

What new word

this?

sham-sun
It is

^j**-i

the Arabic for sun,

and contains two new

letters

and three

new

forms.

It

gives

its

name
of

to the solar letters for the curious

reason that the


11.

first letter

shams happens

to
?

be of that

class.

What
Sh,

are the
S, of

first

and

last letters in
full

fj>>^ sun
:

and

which the

forms are
Medial

Power

Separate

Final

Initial

Name
Sin

S Sh
12.

i^^^

(_j-u

A4*

^Vi

(^^
is

(_^

^^

A "^

Shin

What

the middle letter in this

word sun ?
7).

Recapitulate the various forms of the * (Lesson

M
13.

Mim

Give examples of words containing the Mim. JJ


Qa-la-mun, a pen. 'i^l^* an
office,

study

Li^ camel.

22

14.

Learn the word for ''hea.d"ra'sun

(j- \j

The hamza

is

"silenced"
\j

by

sukftn but that does not

make

the vowel long as in

ra.

Also learn the verb "to break"


Exercise 8a.

'jS he

broke.

Read aloud and


I

translate, covering

up the English

o>

t^-:>)
(a)

(o) ^^1

{i)o'h

(r)

er*-^ (^) u-*^


'

(0

i,:4"l

U:

c:>y. C

(v)

Uj o^>l

(a)

SUj
Cr?

;i.;;.rc V

{\

Y^'i :i.y-ri (\ .) s^i jV: jH (^)

S^
Exercise
(l)

fe
sun

vir^ (^o

'H^TcSf (u) j<j\


:

8b.

Translate to Arabic
(2) the sun
(3) a

head
it

(4)

the head;

(5)

the sun
(7)

(femj struck
it

man.

(6)

Did
(8)

ffemj strike a head?


?

No

did not strike a head.


ate food, (or
(ll)

Hast thou broken a pen

(9)

man

the pen?

man

struck a
?

an eating, i. e. much) do) Have I broken No; thou hast not broken the pen. (12) The head. (13) Did the man break a pen at (in) the
;

office

(14)

No

he did not break the pen

(15)

A man

struck

a camel.
Self Test
(1)
8.

(2)

What is a Shadda ? (8:4). What change invariably accompanies


Article to

the prefixing of the

any noun

(8

3).

(3)

How

is

the Article prefixed to a

word begining with a Solar


what language
there

letter? (8: 6-8).


(4)

Where

is

the tens figure in Nt In


?

is

a similar practice

(7

4).

N.B.-^Please observe the following rules


Cl)

Answer

all

home
revise.

exercises in writing.

(2)

Constantly


How many How many
All of them

23

9.
Arabic Alphabet
is letters
?

Lesson
letters are there in the

28.

of them are Consonants (that


three of them, however,

which must
?

be accompanied by a vowel in order to be pronounced


:

are sometimes used as

"Letters of Prolongation".
3.

Which

are the three "Letters of Prolongation" (that

is,
?

which

prolong vowels, making a short vowel into a long one The first one and the last two of the Alphabet.
Separate

III)
Final

Medial

Initial

Mama

Wau
Ya
4.

Why
and

are these

two
?

letters

Wau and

Ya, easy ones to

remember

to distinguish

Because

the

wau has

practically

one form only


is
it.

it

is

like a large

damma

whilst the ya

the only letter with

two

diacritic points written


like

below

Pronounce the name

wau
5.

ou in house.

Are there only 3 vowels in Arabic ? There are also two diphthongs, one being ay, formed by fat-ha and ya, and the other au, formed by fat-ha and wau.

Thus

ay

like ai in

paid
a

and jl

au, like ou in house.


"letter of prolongation."

A
6.

diphthong requires

sukun over the

Give examples of these Diphthongs.


A> .*'

<uu^
<^>A

f \
I

sai-fun
a
J sword

\
J

f
)

since fC

follows the
,

heterogeneous

thau-run
a bull

^^*
7.

follows the ^ heterogeneous


possible
in

Which
Arabic
Fat-ha
?

are the only


letters

three short vowel sounds

What 1 may accompany alif to make long a Damma (u) may accompany wau to make long u and Kasra (i) may accompany ya to make long (= ee). Then there are the two
they accompany
(a)
; ;

may

diphthongs mentioned.


8.

24

sometimes
called
letters

Why

are these

three

letters

of

prolongation?

Because they are used to prolong the sound

of the vowel attached to the immediately preceding consonant.

9.

Examples

^-^

=
=

ba bu

while while

u
j

= = =

ba
bu
bi

^
v--

= =

bi; while
:

^j

and the two diphthongs


iai*

f^

bay

and

^>

bau

10.

Do

these three letters of prolongation lengthen any preceding


?

vowel

No

each prolongs (only) the vowel that


it.

is

homo-

geneous (akin) to
I

only lengthens

(is

homogeneous
>>

to)

.-'.

^
{S

>>

>)

".'

'

"

'

"

11.

Learn

these

words: uy*'j rasu-lun,

apostle or messenggr,
to,

^^y
->

mwrsa^/wTi missionary.
bi,

J
to

li

(joined to the next word)

U by,

(J

by me,

li,

me.

Exercise 9a.

To

English

li.

aisurjuui9b.

(1) '^;J)v^') i'.(o) 'j^s*'

-^j' (o

Exercise
(i)

To Arabic

A man

wrote to me.
(4)

(2)

An

apostle rode.

(3)

missionary
(5)

wrote a book.

Did the apostle (messenger)


(6)

ride.?

The
write

apostle (messenger) did not ride.

Didst thou

(fern.)

the bool^ with a pen

25

Leseon 10. SOLAR & LUNAR LETTERS.


1.

Into

what two equal classes are Arabic


Solars and the Lunars.
are they so

letters
:

divided

The
2.

(Revise 8
:

8 lo).
to

Why
solar

named

(see 8

10).

Only because
letter
(

the

first letter in

^^^

sun happens
falls

be

whilst in the other class

the

first

letter

for 7noon

Qamar-un
is
?

j^9

In

what way

the Article prefixed to words beginning with

a Solar letter

The sound
The sun

of the

Lam
:

of the al coalesces into the sound of

the solar letter (see 8


>

5).

''*^\\

sun

^ ^a
LT*'^

ash-sham-su
4.

^-^*
article

sham-sun
to

How

do we prefix the

words beginning with a


its

Lunar letter? By giving the lam takes a sukun).

article

full

value

(i.e.

the

The moon
al
5.

-'^

-11

moon

>>

\
of prefixing the

qa-ma-ru

qa-ma-run ^

Is

there any

reason for this different

way

article to the

Yes

the

Lunar letter ? Lunar letters are of such

lu/v4
a nature, that
is

to

say they

'/T
*

require

such a shaping of the channel of utterance, that the

t*^
.^A^i

enunciation of the

Lam

in the article is helpful in re-adjusting


^

the organs of utterance in preparation for the lunar letters.

'^

is

al-qa-ma-ru easy

>^
-^
>

/
1

But

3\-shani-s\i -o.-.. IS never found

I J | >

"-^
. .*^'^

While
6.

ash-sAam-su
is

easier to pronounce

^^

What

is

the

other reason for this difference in prefixing the

Article to Solars

and Lunars

i.e.

what about the (lingual)


it

solars?

The Lam
\t^

is

Lingual, and therefore


;

easily coalesces with

fellow tongue-forme(J letters

dad
(j^

26

{J^

ad

^
ta

shin

sin (j^

etc.,

and with

its allied

Dental (or teeth-formed) letters


JIj

tha
(Note that
this
///

O
s

(t,

th)

etc.

is

the sharp th of the


it

sometimes lisped making


ss
;

more
its

like

word "think", or "thousand", which is The sad is a very strong 5 almost like

it

gives a broad sound to

vowel, as

dM does).

On

the other

hand the lingual

Lam

cannot coalesce with

Lunars, for they consist of Gutturals, Labials and Palatals, and


the shaping of the channel of utterance by throat, lips and
palate forbids such coalescence.
7.

What
It is

is

the

new

letter in

<^^

saif

= sword

the

Fa and

corresponds to our F.

8.

What

letter is the

Fa

like in

form

Somewhat

like the Qaf,

which however,

is

more curved.

CJ

CJl

Fa

9.

In

how many ways can


As
a

the letter (^

be used

1st.

Letter of Prolongation following


bi

its

homogeneous

vowel kasra ^^
2nd.

= by me

(J

li

= to me.
a

To form
the
(^

Diphthong

after

heterogeneous

vowel

when

takes a Sukiin
saif-un

a sword
is

10.

What
3rd.

is

another

way

in

which a Ya
if it is

used

At the end of a word,

preceded by a fatha,
is

it is

without dots and, being pronounced exactly like an Alif,

called

Alifrhaqsura which means ''shortened


in

alif."

To be explained

Lesson

17,

ila

to, ui^tq

'

27

it

Learn the verb Jl*


Exercise 10a.

he-l

d and conjugate

like qlaraba.
:

Transliterate, translate
*

and read aloud

(I) (2) (3)


(4)

ash-sham-su
ar-ra-su-lu

The sun
The
apostle

u>-:ii

ar-ra-ju-lu

The man

L>u\

al-ba-bu

The

gate

(S) (6)

f:
o';,i
CH:;i'i

al-qa-la-mu

The pen The paper The


fighting

al-wa-ra-qu
al-qi-ta-lu

(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)

v>
'^\x\\

al-mur-sa-lu

The missionary The


trader,

at-ta-gi-ru

merchant

Li';ji

as-sai-fu

The sword
if

Note:

The accent

falls

upon the long vowel,

one

is

present.

Exercise 10b.
Self Test 10.
1.

Translate the English of Exercise lOa to Arabic.

(On papers 9 and

lo).

Which

are the letters of prolongation

(9:7,

8).

2.

Why

are they so

named

Give examples.
'

(9

8).

3.

What vowels

are Iwmogeneous to

to

and

to (S
(a)

(9

'

^o).

4.

Place the Article before a word beginning

with a Solar

and

(b)

with a Lunar

letter.

(10 3,4).


Lesson
1.

28

11.

wasla.

What What
It

is

the Arabic for a youth


^^^^

ghu-la-mun
2.

is

this

new

letter transliterated

by gh

is
it

Ghain, a letter
is

awkward

in

form and

in

pronunciation.
its

As

allied

to

another of
will give

the

same form (without

diacritic point),

we

them

together.

t
p'
3.

t
^
St
the sound of the

C-

*Ain

C^

Ghain

gh, or ghr

What
It

Ghain ? represents a gargling sound from the throat similar


is

to that
It

made by an
The %in can

r roughly

and well down


g,

in the throat.

must

not be connected with the English


really only

being just a "gargle."

be learnt from a Jew or Arab, but you

may

try to

emit a guttural a from the bottom of the throat,

while lightly holding the "apple" of the throat by the fingers.

Students within reach of the Orient must diligently practise


phonetics, with the assistance of an educated native friend.
4.

Write

in

Arabic "A

man

struck a youth."

ghu-la-man,
5.

ra-ju-lun

da-ra-ba

Why

has
it

i*%
is

become

U>1^

Because

the Direct Object of the verb, and so


a tanwin fat-ha.

its

sign

is

'

(See Lesson 6

5, 6).

6.

Before
before
that J
^ '

we can we prefix
is

write

"The man struck the youth,"


Article to a word,

that

is,

the Arabic
i-

we must

note

a Solar and
t * ^

a Lunar.

We

then write the sentence

'* *

>^

A^n

J^j*'

V^^
^^
>

darab

ar-raj-ul ul-ghu-lima.

7.

Why

has

U^p>

(youth) in 4 above lost


?

its

tanwin fatha,

and become

^^il'


it

29

Article, sine

Because the tanwin cannot exist with the Definite


denotes the indefinite.
is

What
It is

the sign

...'....over

the alif (in 6 above)

the

Wala

that

is

a sign written

above an

alif

(when

the alif the alif


tion
it

commences

word only)
its

to

show

that in that place


its

has no vowel of

own, and that for

pronuncia-

takes the last vowel of the preceding word, as in the


If

transliteration of the following Exercise iia.

the

commen-

cing al begins a sentence,


it,

it

is

obvious that nothing precedes

then

it

has no wala, but a simple fat-ha only.


? A>.

9.

What

does the word wala mean


is

Wala

colloquial for Ai.^^^ a


it

word meaning a

link, for

it

links
in

the vowel preceding the exercise.

to the letter following.


it

This

is

seen

(We avoided

in Ex.9a).

Exercise Ita.

To

English:
J>-j
ra-ju-lun

l*^^

ghu-la-man

V^^

da-ra-ba

(i)

}V;ii
ul-ghu-lama

SL
ar-rajul

(2)

da-ra-b

V>i'

(3)

J''

(4)

%^
Exercise lib.
(l)

'^1^
3V-;i

(5)

3:;t.

(6)

To Arabic
kill a

A man
the bull

struck a youth.

(2)

The man The man

struck the youth.

(3)

Did

man

(4)
(6)

Did the

bull kill the

man

(5)

The

man
(1)

killed

a camel.

did not

kill

the camel.

Self Test 11.

What
Give

is

a wasla

(ll

8).

(2)

all

the four forms of the letters

Ain and Ghain,

(it

i3^

30

Lresson 12,
1.

hamza.

What
What
It

is

the Arabic for earth


is

Ardun

2.
3.

But what
is

the

new

sign

.....t

The Hamza
?

the use of the


first

Hamza

is

really the
is

letter of the

Alphabet, for when


alif

we say

that Alif

the

first letter
it

we mean an

bearing a hamza.

Needless to say,

is

a consonant, for Arabic

vowel-marks

are not reckoned as letters.


4.

When When

have we seen that the


it

alif

can be used as a vowel


of

is

simply a

Letter

Prolongation

and stands

without a hamza.
5.

Thus:

book, ki-tabun
is

v^r
attached to the
?

But does not the very fact that a vowel


letter
alif
is

show

that the

alif there is

used as a Consonant
?

And

not the
is

hamza

superfluous in that case


object
is

Yes

the

hamza

superfluous

if its

merely to show that the

alif is a

consonant.

Thus

the Article

'

is

the

same
:

as

'

and the hamza, though not


customary not
6.

written, is to be understood
sentence.

it is

to write

it,

when beginning a

What

does this signify


\

That every
is
I,

with a vowel (with

,....r.....

or

...'...

or

"";;""

an alif-hamza whether the hamza

is

given or no.

Is the

No

it

hamza found only with an alif ? can accompany the three letters which
viz., Alif,

the

Arabs

call

*'Wcak",

Wau, Xz.

'

But these

letters
alif,

must be usually within a word, except


it

in the

case of an
8.

which can receive


that the

when

beginning a word.

Can we then say


letters
?

Hamza

supports these three weak

No
9.

it is

better to say that the three

weak
?

letters are

used to

support the strong


In
It

Hamza
hamza

what way

is

the

consonant

can take a vowel, and can play the part of a consonant in

shaping, by a

movement within

the throat, the channel of

utterance for the flow of the vowel sound.

We may
10.

31

have
the

Where

is

hamza placed

Usually

6^^1^6671

the vowel-sign

and

its

letter:

but sometimes

when used with


11.

a kasra,

it

can stand over the

letter.
?

How can we
By

understand the use of the hamza

writing "a nice house" phonetically as "a-nais-haus" and

then "an ice house'* as "an'ais-haus" noticing the hiatus (or


breathing) between an and
ice.

This "breath"

is

the consonant

"hamza." C.F. the bad pronunciation of "Mr.


cated

Owen" by unedu-

people; they say Miste-rowen, whereas the educated


a breathing pause

make
12.

and say

" Mister its

Owen'

Since the verb generally precedes

subject,

ana the feminine

singular ends in sukun, what happens before the sukun of the

noun, seeing that two sukuns cannot occur together.?

The

sukfin is replaced

by kasra

in

most

cases.

Thus "she
is

struck the book" C-illSsH

Z^ /a ^.j^"

not w>u^' C^\

/a This

dis-

tinguishable from 2nd fem., sing., by the sukOn v-^u^H

J-'

The preposition
fat-ha but this
is

^j*

in

such a case replaces


>

its

sukun by

* ,

exceptional.
:

Thus J^J^

(j^

(from the man).

Exercise 12a.

To English

cXf\ o;

::^V'-^ (r)

yy

j:

>> ^-/ll

(r) >:,!!

^i>

u:ifi\ siTxiri; (y)


Exercise 12b,
(i)
(2)

^(.Suii

ju>>

r/i

{^)

To Arabic

She struck the man.

The sun
I

(fem.) struck the

man.

(3)
(4)

wrote from the house.

(5)
(6)

The sun struck the book {verb first). Did the sun strike the youth ? Did she (it) not strike the youth >
She did not write
tl^e bpojc,

(7)

Lesson
Commence by
Where
is it,

32

13.

is
it,

hamza.
Hamza.

revising Lesson 12 on the

and where only

that the

Hamza sometimes
?

stands quite alone without any support from a vowel-letter

When

it is

last in the

word, and then


:

it

is

written in the line

of letters.

Examples
maji-*un
juz-'un

advent
a part
a thing

'^
^>
''^
^^X

the

coming

v^'>
-J^^

the part
the thing

shay-'un
bad-'un

CJ^S
*jUI

beginning

the beginning

3.

Can

the hamza,

then, take the tanwin


?

when

it

is

thus found

at the

end of a word

Yes

as in the

above four examples


If

(to

the left) where

it

has

the tanwin

damma.

these words are used in the Accusative

Case,

they

take tanwin fat-ha

over

the

alif,

and, in

the

Genitive Case, tanwin kasra.

On

prefixing the Definite Article Jl this tanwin


like

is

replaced

by the single short vowel,


examples on the
4.

any other noun, as

in the four

right.

Can
:

the

hamza take any one


get various results
alif as a
:

of the three short vowels

Yes we
1st.

using the

prop

^^-sound;

a-sound and t^e-sound.

2nd. with J or (^ as a prop, j w-sound, ^ /-sound.


3rd. after

an Alif in certain words, such as

t:i^>^

Sah-ra-a.

(desert) the plural of

which
this

is

the
:

word Sahara
it is

(Deserts).

Note the
after
it,

method of writing mid-way up, because

hamza

not written above the Alif but

this alif is lo)uj (a long vowel).


:

at h.

Alone, at end of a

word i u-sound ^ i-sound (no fat-ha here).

33

Give other examples of the use of the hamza.

ba-'u-sa

ba-'i-sa

sa-'a-la

bi'-sa

ra'-siin

(head)

akha-dha (he took)

Pronounce these aloud, learning the meanings of two only.


6.

But

why has
it

the medial ya in 4 (2nd)


its

and
it

no points?
a prop for
call
it

Because
the

always drops
to sit

dots

when

becomes

hamza

upon;

in fact, the A^rabic

grammarians

the "seat" (kursy) for the hamza.

May
(a)

the

hamza and
?

its
;

vowel be followed by a

letter of pro-

longation
After

Certainly

here are two examples


:

hamza with damma, take wau


or

mas-*ul (responsible) J^**-.^


(b)
It

Jj^--*

After hamza with kasra, take ya, la'im, base, (adj.)

^p

may

be noted here that adjectives are reckoned as nouns

and given tanwin.


8

Why did we omit hamza with fat-ha.? We will show this separately. Hamza
written over an
letter of
alif.
}

with fat-ha

is

of course

Then what
It

will
Alif.
?

be the homogeneous

prolongation
I

will

be

But can
such

write

two

alifs

together

Yes

very

occasionally

may

be found in special words


is

but the only thing

we

are

concerned with just now


the

that we usually write one alif over


sign, or, in a

other without the


after this

hamza
alif.

few

cases, with the

hamza
9.

double

How
It is It is

is it

written and what

is it

called

called a "Madda", a

word which means "prolongation".


'^

written with a slightly curved slope; thus,


:
'

Examples al-Qur'an (Koran) j' y^


it

(Be careful to pronounce

thus
the
:

al-Qur-an); he believed, a-ma-na


in

^a\
}

10.

Is

hamza ever marked


in

English books

Yes sometimes
words

Great Britain by a short hyphen, as in the

re-in force, re-appear,

and

in

America by the use of

the diaeresis

j_l thus, reinforce,

reappear,

Exercise 13a.

34

To English

>

w)
I)

<5 1

01^1

3* (^)
(
\

^.^'J

I.

jic

V
I-

(a) /ju!

(v)

^^"J

o:.4l ^ jJI ^^^


-i

t) ^^ii^

0:^1

\\) jl

^I ^^
jU
j'i:
I

Note that

means

62/

or in.

In English

we say

"believe m".

Faith in (by)

God

iman

billahi

4A) l>

Faith in Christ (the Messiah) bil-Masih


Exercise 13b,
I.

^-s^'Jb

To Arabic
^ of Christ.

He

believed in the Qur'an.


(3)

(2)

He

did not believe in the


(4)

Advent
in the
(6)

He
(5)

believed in God.

She believed
in Christ
?

Coming of Christ. From the beginning.


(9)

Hast thou not believed


believed in

(7) In the beginning.

(8)

Faith in

Christ.
(juz')
I

Hast thou

(fern.)

God ?
the

(lo)

A section
(lit.

of the Qur'an.

(li)

believe
(12)

(believed) in

nothing

did not believe in a thing).

From

beginning,

she

believed in Christ. *(Note that Maji' (here) equals the-coming-^?/,


the absence of the article will be explained in Lesson
19.)

EXAM. PAPER
(Send for correction, with

13.

full address).

A. To English

S-')\l

oXJ
L.df:;r

(0)

O^VjfjL^
'^'ife

(y)

{-<)

(r)

B. To Arabic
I.

The sun

struck the man.


the camel

2.

3. I
5.

did not believe in anything.


kill
?

4.
6.

Did you not

She did not write the book. [man. She took the sword from the Faith in God.

Lesson
1.

35

14.

pron. affixes.

How

some Personal Pronouns


pronouns may be and Verbs.
2.

does Arabic differ from English in the use of forms for (You, me, us, etc.) ?
to affix to

Arabic has Pronominal Affixes,


united

words

to

such

as

Prepositions,

which the Nouns,

Give the

five singular

Pronominal
'J

Affixes, for Obj. case, etc.

i)

^
ha
her 3rd person.
left.

i=ee
me
1st

ki

ka
(f.)

hu
him

(m.

&

f.)

thee

thee (m.)

person

2nd person

N.B.
3.

These Affixes must be read from right to


letter is this
?

What new

The Ha, which has


aspirate H.

the

sound
Medial

of

the

ordinary English

Separate
yi

Final

Initial

^4

ha

4.

Give examples of the Affixes when joined


to:

to the preposition

li

la-ki
to thee (f)

la-ka
to thee (m)
?

la-ha
to her

la-hu
to

to
5.

me

him

What

strikes

one as curious here


only once keeps

That the

its

kasra
(N.B.

(in

to-me) and in the

'

other four forms takes a fatha.

Read the forms in 4

from right
6.

to left,

commencing with
}

3rd. masc.)

How

are these forms used

To supply
in

the lack of the verb To Have, in Arabic.

J used

as

the following

examples
it

signifies

permanent
in
^

possession.

There being no verb,


(a).

cannot govern
1

Accus
^
<!

!!

La-hu'akh-un To him [there

= He has

is]

a brother

r"'

(\)

a brother

36
(h).

La-hd ukht-un

To

her [there

is]

a sister

:-l

(r)

(c).

She has a

sister

Li umm-un

To me

=
(d).

is] a mother mother have a

[there

A -It- shay

'un

Have 1 a thing ? = Have 1 anything


N.B. The
square

^^
?

Jl

(t)

brackets denote that

the

words within them

are

not

expressed in English.
7.

So

in other lessons.

Can

the

of possession be prefixed to nouns with

Jl

Yes:

but the
8.

alif is lost.

-^>*.^l

^^^ prince has


.?

a mother.

Alj^J*
It is

^it^^
:

What

case

is

madina

Nom

not Accus.

Why

is this

9.

What

will turn these sentences into an interrogative


'

form

.?

Either of the Interrogative Particles


10.

or

J*

(hal).
:

Mention one particle for making sentences negative


^A

ma

(c. /.

Lesson 4
is
v->l)

4).

11.

'i^l.

AljJ^iJ Ja

What

case

.?

Why?

^^trd}\\

What

case

is

shay-un?
-

Why?

Exercise 14a.

To English

Ol:pl cJcj Ja
^
re
A

(a)

>^

dil

(r)

V"^

01

(i)

ExercisQ

14b.

Translate your English back to Arabic.

37

15.
(contd.)
jvki..^

Lesson AFFIXES
I.

Transliterate the Arabic


Its

word

Sultan,

meaning

is

Emperor, or King.
letters are here introduced
?

2.

What two new


The Ta,
is

a strong

T; and

ISIuii

which has an

sound.

The

ta

allied to za-b, a strong Z.

(hard)

z (strong)

1 1

J.

].

ta

^
L>
-^

za

J^

"""
tawny and
zhd.
It
-i^

N.B.
is

makes

the fat-ha sound like

aw

in

an

explosive

sound sometimes transliterated

is

niTAch

heavier than the simple z (zain).

Will not two of the forms of the


Medial) be confused with the
Initial

Nun

(the Initial
?

and the

and Medial Ba

No

the diacritic point


in the

is

above

in the case of the


->

Nun, and

beneath

case of the Ba) --- and

We

will

now

give the plural forms of the Pronominal Affixes

beneath the corresponding singular forms.


istPerson

2nd Person

3rd Person.

Sing

'cf
Plural

na
us

kun-na

kum
you

r
(m.)

you

(f.)

hun-na hum them (f.) them (m.)

N.B.

Read from right to left and


letter is

learn by heart. the 3rd Person

What

always found

in

Pronominal

Affixes, both in the singular

and

in the plural ?

The Ha

(See 14

2) hu,

hi hum, hun-na.
;

-386.

And what
The Kaf

letter is

inseparable from the second person Prono?

minal Affixes, both Singular and Plural


:

ka, ki

kum, kunna.
?

7.

What
They
to a

is

the case of these affixes


if

are accusative

joined to a verb and genitive

if

affixed

noun or preposition.

Exs. of a ecus,
Exs. of gen.
8.

l^ ^^ she

struck her

<i^S
llJlLl-*/

broke

it

S^*^ with 3^ou


genitive in
vJjlLl**'

our sultan

But

how

is

vJ

Our
<il

sultan

The

>\>
sultan of us;
c. f-

<^j**'j

his apostle,

and
the

CJ/-^j the apostle of

God = God's

apostle. ^ililH
y.
'

^^J
of

name

of the king
father.

= the

king's name.

the father
19).

him

= his
9.

(Explained in detail in Lesson


?

But where are the nominative pronouns

These

are, in
etc.,

Arabic, the real pronouns, being subjects of


*i

sentences,

they are given detached, separate words, as


Details in Lesson 25.
at the
to

^J^

we,
10.

^'

I,

etc.

N.B.

The following words take alif-kasra

commencea,

ment of a sentence, but wasla when linked on


word.

preceding
is to

That wala indicates that the preceding vowel


<^>

be

linked in pronunciation.

daughter

AliJ

name

^*J

son

J* J
(m.)

or 'wff"e I'^^'A^

two(fem.) jlVin

two

jlj^J

N.B. In our vocabularies and in many places (but not in full reading exercises) shall also, as soon as we may drop the grammatical tanwin un.

We

possible, dispense loith transliteration,

II.

Note that

<w>l

father has not a wala.

missing
'

is

supplied

before the pron-affix. U^>

'

her father, ^y,

thy father.

12.

39

Ahmad
5*1

J'}

when accurring
its

in

genealogies, as
thus
j*.^ u*.

son of Zaid, son


"''^^

of

Omar, omits

alif,

(j*.

Exercise 15a.

To English

^J^dAi^y,!

(v)

^ of ^; ^

. ^

SiU'^W

(a)

i^J^J

(r)

t;;r^oKt

(w)

Y>C\{i
41.
Exercise 15b.
(1)
(2)

(0)

'kl

>
?

(^)

To Arabic
not
a

Have they

son (whether not to them a son


(To-us [there
is]

We

have a son.

a son).

(3)
(4)

Have you (f.) a


Have
I

sister
?

.?

a sister

(To me

[is

there] a sister)

(5) (6)
(7)

She has (To-her

[there is] a father

and mother,

Have you

(m.)

king?

They

(m.)

have a king and a prince.


an
emperor.

(8)

We
She

have

(9)

The King's name.


ate

(10) (it)

with her mother.

He

took her with him.


(f.) ?

(12) Is

your son with you


15.

Self Test
(1)
(2)

Write out the Singular and Plural Pronominal

Affixes. (15:4)

What

is

the difference between the

first letters

of v' and j\


Lesson
I.

40

m order.
Also vowels, signs,
Initial

16.

revision of characters.
etc.

Let us learn the whole Alphabet


Translit:

Detached

Final

Medial
^ t

It
'

Name
^"f-

1
'

Hamza
Ba

{^^

C.^
C-v
(J^

^ *

^
*

O
ttj
(or g)

J
*

Ta

th

Tha
''"^

^ ^ ^
7-

"^'

Ij

(or hh)

rc rc tX

^C
:7C

>-

Ha
Kha
Dal

kh d

r(>

>iX

t>

^ ^
u sh

J J

J
''^^^

J J
^^^

Ra
Zain

L^ L^ L^ LJ^
(_jO

AAA
(^^

Sin

ohin

^,

(orss)

^'

^
i>
]?

1^^'^)

d(ordd)
t(ortt)

i_>
J?

(^
Ja

^
la li

gaj^

Taw
Zhaw

z(or2;h)

J?

Ji

j?

41

5t
St

^
ghr)

P
*

Ain
Ghaiii

g\i (or

P
Li
l3
Ci)

^
C-i

X
A
A

C*

Fa
Qof
Kaf

q k

^3

td
(Jl

C
i

r
]

lJ

Lam
Mim
^""

m
n

^
-^

^
^

O O
l^

VA

Ha

^
^)

Ai

^^

^
^
u a
j
'

Wau

^l

^l
Long

^?r Alif

2.

Give

^/ze

vowels and diphthongs.

Tanwin Damma Tanwin Fat-ha


I

Damma
Fat-ha
..,.1...

Long

Tanwin Kasra
Diphthongs
3.
:

""^'""Kasra
ai (5

'y
j

LQ^g

^
*"

ao

0^/ier

82(7715.

Hamza

(full

powers of consonant)

Madda
Wala
Sukun

(one

alif written across)

(for linking

words)

Siiadda (for doubling or strengthening)


(rest or silence) also called

Jasfma


4.

42

The Figures

r
>

M
>^r
:

sr
)

\\

>>

n u
;

>v

Note the curious fact that numbers run from

left to right as in

Enghsh c.f. 1917, > ^ \ V N ^ Y S. 1921, The mwi erica! order and values of the alphabet
our course.
It

(i.e.

the use of

the Arabic consonants as figures) will be found at the end of


is

withheld from the student at


But those
Bible) with

this

stage to

avoid distracting attention.


the the

who wish may compare


this order
^

Hebrew names
119^^

of the letters forming the sub-headings of


of

Psalm (English
(S

Arabic

characters
7-

^ T

J 3

^ ^

77

Which

are the six letters which cannot be joined to the letters


Medial,
Final.

following them.?
Initial,

Medial,
Final.

Initial,

Separate.

Separate.

J
To
these

we may add

the double letter lam-alif, which always


51

has the

alif

written athwart the lam.


16.

Vocabulary

Memorise
^^>

carefully.

Day
abode
religion
or,

iyaum)
(ddr)

Peace
Vizier,
i.e.,

(sa-ldm)

^^^

Minister

(loazir)
(

judgment
I

Egypt
(din)
'

Misr )

j-AA
<\^^j
<j.

Islam

al- Islam) ^5^-*)^

letter, epistle

(risnfa)

>.

gold

(dha-hah)

w^*^

bread

ikhubz)

43

Lesson 17. TA MARBUTA & ALIF MAQSURA.


1.

Does

this

conclude

all

forms of the

letters
letters.

No
in

there are special forms of


final

two

One

is

the
is

which

its

form

is

written

Now

this

letter

generally

the sign

of the

Feminine Gender and can be


nouns (not quite
all,

affixed to very

many

of the masculine
is mr//z,

because while

J^j
2.

a separate

word
<
is

o l^'

is

used for woman).


?

How
It

is it

shown

that this

the Feminine ending


I

takes the two dots of the

taO. Thus Cj Ibna-tun

(daughter).

But, in speaking or in newspaper reading this tanwin is always

dybpped as
/ibna.

it is

only a case-ending, and the word


Ao-X*

is

pronounced
(city

Similarly

madina
buried).

(a city)

e.g. al-medina
also <l.^5

where
tribe).

Mohammed was
Note
. :

Compare

Qabila (a

The common word

for ''girl" (also, daughter) is


**

hint 0>.)
3.

a corruption of the above

AI>J
}

But

is

not the t-sound sometimes heard


is

Yes, when. the word

the antecedent of the Construct State


in 19
:

then the

is

sounded (Explained
of the judge

lO).

The daughter

Ibnat-ul-Qadi

^'A/i\

h}}

The
The

prophet's city
tribe of Coreish

Madinatun-Nabiyi
Qabilatu-

Quraish

The
The

prophet's word prophet's letter

Kalimat-unNabiyi
'

Risalat-

(epistle,

message)
of

un-Nabiyi

'JiaLj
ta

The chapter
4.

"The Cow"

Surat-ul-Baqara ^jV^ ^J^*"


?

How do we distinguish this use of the t from the ordinary We call this o ta marbuta (which means tied-up ta).

'

5.

44

under a

What
special

is

the other letter that has a distinct form

name ?
written without
its

The (5 which when

dots does not

make

/
/
^
6.

the long
but, to

(in other

words

is

not homogeneous to the kasra)

our surprise, acts as "prolongation" to the fat-ha.


not that the work of Alif
is
?

But

is

Exactly, so this
'^

a second

alif.

The

first alif

can be called

Alif mamduda = extended alif (this comes from a root meaning


"to stretch out"

compare "madda" from the same


dots
is

root, 15

il).

The ya without
alif),
,,0^

then called "Alif maqura" (shortened

and

is

only used at the end of nouns.

7,

Give examples of Alif maqura.

to.

Guidance
the guidance
fever

hudan
al-huda
L^:^|1

al-humma
fatan

j.s;i
^-\

a youth, lad,

^
il

when
to,

.?

(interrog)

mata
iia

towards

upon, on

%la
is

j^
and

What

characteristic

common

to I

Both are used


Is

at the

ends of words and both are invariably

9.

preceded by a fat-ha. the fat-ha sometimes written "upright".? Yes this is the mark which shows that an
;

alif of

prolongation

It is quite common in is to hQ pronounced, though not written. Al-Qur'an which had not, originally, the vowels written, to fix

the pronunciation.

the "upright fat-ha"

pronounced
used.

in the

The vowel-marks were added later, and showed where the long fat-ha was to be It is not now much absence of the alif
!

The following

are

its

chief examples

The Compassionate One


the heavens

ar-Rah-man
as-sama-wat

0^^ J
v-ji^MJ

that, those

45
dl;ljiidiii

(demonst

dha-lika, ulaika

this,

these (demonst

hadha ha-ulai
lakin,

*S

but

but he
(Quran spelling)

lakinnahu

'ki-

life

hayatun

life

(modern spelling)

hayatun
alatun

prayer (Quran spelling)

prayer (modern spelling)


Exercise
J 7 a.

salatun

jjft

^ Jilt

o:;ji-

'i

Exercise 17 b.
I.

Did you see the lad on the mountain

2 Yes,

saw him.

3.

Did he take his book with him


Yes, he took
it

4.
5.

and rode (mounted) a camel.

What
Has

is

that lad's
is

name

6.
7.
8.

His name
this

Zaid the son of

Mohammed Ahmed.
sister.

young man a father and mother.?

Yes, he has a father, mother, brother and

46

Lesson

18.

DUAL & PLURAL.


Return to the verb forms of the Past Tense, and learn the Dual and Plural.
Plural

Dual
\)

Singular

'JM^^

J^a

j^!^^
i":,

^
here in these Plural and Dual forms
that
:

\j"
?

What have we

Eight

new Person-forms,

is,

endings

to distinguish the persons

included in the verb

viz,

&
they
(f)

they (m)

they

two

a
you
(f)
c-

r
you you
two

we

(m.

&

f.)
:

observe here that Arabic has three numbers Singular for Note that One, Dual for Two, and Plural for More than Two. there is no dual for the first person, the plural being used.

We

Write (and memorise) ^-5

to break.

Ox
^\

,^-

i'lS

J.

Is

the Alif at the


it is

end of

'j*

j'^ pronounced

No,

not pronounced

the absence of any affixed pronoun


''her" is

only function seems_ta_b-tO-show E. g., when the pronoun affixed, as in "they struck her", the alif is omitted
;

its

47

.. -

Exercise 18a.
^

o^r-

.-

^oJ^\^^
Exercise 18b.
1.

d^JL:J-l ?

*|^

l>:J" IjJl^I

^^

{\

Did you
Did they
it

(pi.)

take your sword with you

Yes;
;

we took

it.

2.

strike the
it.

camel with the sword

Yes they struck

and killed

3.

And
to

did your son go with them

Yes; he went with them

my

town.
?

4.
5.

To your town

Yes
?

to

my

town.

What

is

his

name

My

son's

name
?

is

Ahmad.
it,

6.

Did they take bread with them

They took

and

ate

it.

TO STUDENTS.
(I.)

It

has come to

my

knowledge that one or two students have misunderstood the


''From Arabic to English" only.

instructions

and are translating


i.

This

is

very serious error,

e.

to discard
let it

one-half oi every exercise and that the

most important

half.

Please

be understood that every ExercUe mvst be


:

answered in full, both


(2.)

Ex

and Ex
as

B.
it

N.B.

Thoroughly master Lesson 19

deals with a characteristic Arabic

idiom, of fundamental importance.

A.T

NOUJS/S
1.

48

19.

Lesson
IJSl

CONSTRUCTION.
in

What

is

one of the chief peculiarities of Arabic


?

common

with other Semitic languages

The way

in

which

it

places two nouns side by side in order to


effect, etc.

express such ideas as possession, material, cause,


2.

Give an example of
possession.
to the
is

this simple juxta-position so as to express

How

will the single idea of possession in reference


in

two nouns, sword and man, be formed


the

Arabic

How
?

"The sword of

man"
>

written, for instance, in

Arabic

saif-ur-ra-ju-li

the-sword-of the man.


3.

'

-)

(J^y*
*

^^-^^"^

The man's sword.


Sword
(alone)

What have we
is

here

Let us examine carefully.


first

<^^
is

saif-un; but the


it is

word has
i. e.

lost its

tanwindamma;

therefore, here
4.

not mdefinite,

it

has become defined.

What
It is

said to have

happened

to this first noun,


it is

sword

said to be "annexed", since


is

joined to the second noun,


It

which

called
;

the
it

"One-annexed-to."

cannot

stand
It

independently

alone

expresses nothing completely.

can

only be explained as generally requiring, as in this case, our

English word "of".


"the-sword-of".

So the

first

noun can be translated by


article.

But

we do
cJu-

not write the


is

Why

not

Because the
defined by

first

noun

considered to be

sufficiently

its

juxtaposition to J>-J^

which

is

then put in the

genitive as governed
5.

by

"of."
to express the dependent state of the

What

term

is

employed

^rs^ of two nouns thus linked together, a state which requires


the English

word "of"

to

be supplied to convey the sense of


first

incompleteness entailed by the form of the

noun

The

first

noun

is

said to be in the "Construct State (form)" or


it is

in a State of Construction, as

"built into" its

second noun.

6.

49

Why
not
a

has J>-^ in

Jj^J^t***
?

tanwin kasra
it

(ra-julin)

and

tanwin

damma

Because

is
it

in

the

Genitive

Case

(governed by "of" understood) Or


Possessive Case
7.

may be

said to be in

"a

man's sword".

"A

book's

name"

^V.jT 'L\
give the

"Everything"

s^^ ^^

8.

Some Arabic Grammarians

name

Oblique Case to every

noun not directly Nominative or Accusative.

So

thai

^1;

they call ^^^


9.

the Genitive Case the Dative Case the Ablative Case


shall

>

Oblique Cases.

Then how many cases


_,

we say

there are in Arabic

Three cases

Nominative = Subject of the Verb Accusative = Direct Object of Transitive Verb Genitive or Oblique = Governed by of", or
,,

other Preposition, etc, or "Possessive"


10.

How
The
N.B.

do we^peak of the two nouns in construction


one
is

first

the Antecedent and the second the Consequent.


in ordinary cases,

The Antecedent,
!

does not need the

Definite Article
11.

See

4.

Does the Consequent more often than


Article
It
}

not,

have the Definite

may do

so,

but only if

it

is

already definite before being put

into the Construct

State.

In the

phrase <b^JI

J*kl

the^

people-of-the-Book, al-kitdb was originally definite, therefore


its

only change, as a consequent,

is

that

it

replaces
>

Nom>
%

inative Case
12.

by Oblique Case, as shewn by the kasra.


^

Exs.

The-people-of-the-house.
family.

^-^r'' J'^'

The man's
The The

J'^J' J*'

king's children.
origin of the universe.

p^\
^'

SS/ j
*

>
^

OJ^^ J^

-sols.

Suppose the consequent


It

is

a Proper
it

Noun
e

will

take no article unless

be one of those few names


as
^^r**

already

possessing

the

article

Real Arabic names


)

^ V,

3re often nunated as

^^

(then
8)

^
j-aa

wuS
\

foreign

names not
of

so

^^j} c-jCj

(Lesson 52

J* The people

Egypt

For a Celtic example see Bedd Gelert


14.

Gelert's grave.
?

Does the Antecedent always take damma


of course,

Its

vowel depends,

upon

its

case,

i.e.

upon

its

place in the sentence.

They broke

the man's pen.

J^J
J^j"
c/*^

f^

^3jr^

The sun
I

struck the man's head

J^^*-^-'
'^^*\\ "C''
'

^i^^
''^

have seen Mt. Hermon.


with your pen.
^
J.

?^^' Jf^

^w^jla^

t**

We wrote

(wUXaj Ilxl-S
A

'

Did the sun

strike his

head

<-*

'

j ^j^^Js\ Z^^j^a J*
V->-^ r^^^"^"

"King-of-the-kings, and Lord-of-the-lords." V^*.*J**^^


15.

^^^

May

the consequent of one


?

noun be
:

(at

the

same

time) the

antecedent of another

Certainly

here are four examples.

One
I

of the king's children.

diUi ^Vjl-i^i
^

struck one of the king's children.


wrote to one of the king's children.

^*'J'
^ >j

^3
1

-So.
-^^
'

'

^\ x^
^JiI^S

wil,*)!

J>-

'

We went to the house of the tribe's chie^


16.

4l-.*A)i

^^.JJ^Jlj

'

u-.^.>

What common

error

must the student avoid


;

That of "thinking English" resulting


article to the antecedent of a

in the prefixing of the

Noun

in Construction.

Think not

of "the

name

of a

man"

but of "a man's

name"

U-j

^\

I/.

51

Wales, Pennines,
etc.

Note the names of mts

etc. in

In

Welsh
etc.

y=

Jl c.f.

Bettws-y-Coed, Bwlch-y-Deufan, Pen-y-Gant;

Exercise 19a.

To English
9m

^^

CX 1^

jj')V\aCj-^\\ (v

}o^

"i

^ ^

dlufiCj

(s.

Exercise 19h.
1.

To Arabic

The-day-of-judgment.

2.

The-abode-of-peace

Dar-es-Salam

(E. Africa).

3. 4.
5.

The Emperor's

son.

The-Sultan-of-Egypt.
The-gold-of-the-Vizier (the Vizier's gold).
The-religion-of-Islam (Mohammedanism).

6.
7.

Hast thou (m) taken the

vizier's

pen

8. 9.

Hast thou (m) eaten the king's bread

No

have not eaten


letter.

it.

10.
11. 12. jSI.B.

The King's
Did you go
I

to

Dar-es-Salam

.?

went

to the

Sheikh's mountain (Hermon).


in this lesson if possible.
1:5) is to
It is

Memorise the examples found


to

Arabic what the pons asinorum (Euclid

Geometry.

52

Lesson 20.

EXERCISE IN TRANSLITERATION.
A. Arabic to
B.

Roman

characters.

(Transliterate Ex. i8. A.)

Roman
To

characters back to Arabic.

Correct by
20.

A.

EXAMINATION PAPER

be answered without assistance, and sent up for correction. (Give student's name, address and number.)
:

A.

Translate to English

?o-'

cUll

(v)

ys^p-j^!

(a)

^I^IaIIaij^ju

^11

41)

(r)

jlkl'^

'^

(r)

'(.SU!l3jVjfp>-|
%

(e)

>i:l

oi<n

LI (a)

B.

Translate to Arabic
(1)
(2)
(3)

He

believed in the Quran.

The-people-of-the-scripture [are] in Dar-es-Salam.

Has

the prince a city

(4)

Didst thou write the book with the man's pen

(5)
(6)

The sun

struck a youth.
ride
t

Did she not

(7)
(8)

Did she believe

in a

book

.''

Have you
Did she

(PI.)

[any] food
?

(9)

write the letter

(10)
(11)
(t2)

The-day-of-[the]-judgment.
I
I

believed in God's book from the beginning.


struck
is

[off]

the youth's

head with the swora.


is

C.

What

madda and what

a wasla


EYE, VOICE &
1.

53

21.

Lesson
How
It is

EAR EXERCISE.
?

is

the

word

a)

pronounced
il

ildhun in reading or

ah

in

speaking, and means a god or


'a-li-hatun (deities).
'

deity. It lias a plural


2.

form <^\
-^

How
<l^
still
I

do we write

" the god, or the deity

"
?

al-ila-hu, but in

speaking, omit the final vowel

u,

and

pronounce the h by aspirating after the upright fatha,


English word ah
!

like the
3.

when

correctly
?

pronounced;

i.e.,

ahh.
?

How
Allah

do Moslems write the word Allah


is

what does
a)*^

it

mean
It

written

4Jiii

which

is

a contraction of
it

has a

wala here, but


After the

it

takes a simple fatha when

begins a sentence.
-

alif the

two lams coalesce, as shown by the shadda


the
?

The word means GOD,


4.

Only Deity.

How

is

Allah pronounced
fat-ha
is

The middle

very broad and

is

pronounced

like

aw

in

awful, and this re-acts

upon the

first

fatha also, so
transliterate
as, for

we must
it

practise saying Ol-lawh though

we

still

allah.

But

when

the

word

is

preceded by a kasra,

example,

from a prefixed preposition, then (and only then) the word


is

much

lighter,
1

and
5 3
1

is

sounded almost

like the short fatha.

Example:
preposition

ji

a.i-'

al-Hamdu
^'to" is

lillahi (Praise to

God).

The J
in the

meaning

prefixed

and joined on

place of the alif-wala, but not separatel}'


for the Arabic never writes three
falls

shown

in writing,

lams together. The accent

upon Inh but

lightly so.

N. B.

We

omit the

last vowel

of

the sentence, to

make

the

PAUSE

(like Quran-readers).

Exercise 21 A.
(a)
I

"Eye, Voice and


is,

Ear" Exercise:
"Verb before
the Subject,"

he Arabic Order

usually,

but occasionally the subject precedes, for EMPHASIS.


(b)
(c)

Prepositions govern nouns in the oblique case (with kasra).

Now

read aloud (with careful enunciation) and memorise.

f ^ V

(e)

54

Keep on day

after day for 15 minutes at a time, long after you have passed on to lessons 22-30. Memorise, memorise The secret is BEAD ALOUD. You 77iust do that.
!

I.

Bismillahi

wal-hamdu

lillah.

4j(^

J^iTI 3 &\

Ls
iufr

2.

*Abd-ullahi

wa

ra-sul-ullah.

4jil

Jj**. j j

4jii

3.

Kataba Kataba

rasul-ullahi risala.

ilUj^il J^^j1^I_j

4.

rasul-ullahi risalatan ila *abd-il-malik.

5.

Ba'atha rasul-ullahi risalatan ila-1-maliki wa wazirih.

6.

Kataba
il-wazir.

rasul-ullahi

risalatan

ila-bn-il-maliki

bi-qalam-

^j'^l

JIaj

dlljl ^"1 Jl

ilUj

4Jjl

Jj-*'^

L^I-f

7.

Ba*^atha rasul-ullahi kitaban ila-bn^l-malika.

''

8.

Ba-'a-that il-malikalu kitaban ila rasul-illah.

9.

Qata'al-waziru ra*sa rasul-il-malik.

10.

Yadullahi ma*al-Jama^a.

ic-Li-l

V^

jil

J)

Exercise 2lB. Re-translate to the Arabic of 21 A.

name of God and Praise to God 2. The servant (slave) of God (Abdallah) and God's Apostle. 3. The Apostle of God (i.e. Mohammed) wrote a letter. 4. God's Apostle wrote a letter to the king's servant (slave). 5. The Apostle of God sent a letter to the king and his vizier (minister). 6. The Apostle of God wrote a letter to the king's son with the Vizier's pen. 7. The Apostle of God sent a book (or a writing) to the queen's son. 8. The queen sent a book to the Apostle of God. 9. The
I.

In the

wazir cut off the head of the king's messenger.


is

10.

God's hand

with the company. (A tradition commending unity of action).

55

Lesson 22.

THE MODEL FORM.


For what technical purpose
This root
is

the form Ji used

in the order of its letters

supplies "model"

names

for the 1st, 2nd,

and 3rd

letter of

any root so that we

can speak of them technically.

Thus the

1st root letter of

any verb

is

named

its

l-5

(Fa)

And

2nd

f-

(Ain)

And
2.

3rd
its

,,

,,

This root in

Past Tense, Singular and Plural,

J (Lam) must now


farther.
Singular

be

memorised perfectly before the student proceeds


Plural

Dual

1:L's

%a

rii

Give the Transliteration. Sing Dual


Plur
:

fa-'a-la

fa- a-lat
fa-*a-la-ta

fa-'al-ta

fa-'al-ti

fa-'al-tu

fa*a-la
fa-'a-lu

fa-'al-tuma
fa-*al-tum

fa-*al-na

fa-*al-tunna

fa-*al-na
\

Explain the constructive use made of the three radicals

They form a basal

" Type-root " (or

Model) for
:

all verbs,
it,

etc.

We may
upon
this

add some of the

servile letters (49


call in

2) to

and thus

get a ''form" (which

we should

Algebra a formula) and

form we build our derived words. Thus, for example,


Alif to the fa of the root and get a
form'll'lfrli

we add an
which

"one doing" (doer).


this

We
to

can then make hundreds of


23).

words on
J)l5 a

form.

(See Lesson

w>0

a clerk,

and

murderer are both said

be upon the form (or measure)


alif after

"^U

because each one inserts an


)

the ^i

or

first

radical

of

its

verb.

- 565.

Is the "
It

Model form

"

used for verbs,

etc.

can be used for

all

parts of speech, thus


J*:il

we say

that

^l\\

to think is Conj.VlII

on form
J^>

and we say that J**>-hand-

some,

is

on the form

Vocabulary 22.

The man
"man"

(masc.) ar-rajulu

J^J^
(jl**i*j
I

what

mddhd
limddhd

liU

(the race), al-insdnu

why
there

'iU

the girls, al-bandtu the lesson, ad-darsu

Ol-J
{j^J^^

is

not

IrV
"Ij

but (rather), hal

Exercise 22a.

To English

I^^O

Ci;

-0

(t)

SrAJ^V-.VfSl'All

(r)

'o=:'i

ri;pt J;

(o)

^_}^\':;'\\^f3'>%\'S^

(v)

fdUiljuliU

(a)


Exercise 22b.
1.

57

To Arabic

Has

the Prince a daughter

2.

Yes, he has a daughter.

3.

Has he

a son

No

he has no son.
?

4.

Did the Prince's daughter open the door


No, but the

5.

woman opened
it ?

it.

6.

Did they open

Yes; they opened


kill

it.

7. 8.

Did the Sheikh's children

the Prince's son

Why

did they do that


[is]

9.
10.

Where

the prince's daughter


[is]

His daughter

with her mother.

SOME Useful Adverbs, Etc.


here
there

d
i]i>
?

when
when

(interr:)

S*

(conj:)

6
r
iS.

where
where

(interrog:)

a'

then {conj:)
very, (much)

(relative)

how

.?

(interr

:)

'^

also,

again

^e//
1.

T'^sf

Paper

22.
is

What
to

special use
(22
:

made

of the

radicals of the root

\m\

do

4).

2.

Write

out,

from memoiy ^ni Singular and Plural.


l)

(22:3)

3.

Similarly L>^i? (18:

58

Lesson 23.

NOUNS OF AGENT AND OBJECT.


I.

How many

Parts of Speech are there in Arabic


o

Three.

The Verb
The Noun

J->ll

al-fil

IS

al-ism
al-harf
?

The
2.

Particle
/*^i

sp

What
It

can

(ism) the Arabic Noun, include

Substantive, Adjective, Numeral, Personal, Demonstrative and Relative Pronoun, and Participle.
the

includes

3.

How many
1st.

Classes of Participles are there

Two.
\^V\\
^
I

The Noun

of Agent, or Ac|i.Ye Participle,)


is-mul-fa*il
J

pronounced
2n.

k
\^''
\\

f^^
^ ^
'*'

The Noun

of Object, or Passive PaxticijileJ


ul
J

pronounced is-mul-maf
4.

-^

(^^

Give examples of
one-whc-strikes
i.e.
:

this

Active Participle or

Noun

of Agent.

^
da-rib
fa-'il

r.

a striker

to strike

one-who-does:
a doer, labourer

>u
51;

to

do

one-who-kills
a murderer

qa-til
:

to kill
to write

one-who-writes
a writer, clerk

ka-tib
\

tjir
D^i'-

one-who-d wells an inhabitant

sa-kin ha-dir
si-kit

to dwell to

$.^

one-who-is present
"Present!'* (roll-call)
one-silent silent {Adj.)
5.

\
j
1

come, be present
to

be

silent

-:<-

Let us analyse the above words.

What do we
is

observe?

We observe
an

that each

Noun

of

Agent

formed from the three


3 s.m.)

Radicals of the simple verb (Past Tense,


alif after the fa

by adding
'ain
its

and placing a kasra under the

of the

word. Using the form J*>


Participle

we say

The verb forms

Active

(Noun of Agent) upon the form UU. This


(

last is the

Tyord used above

in Ism-ul-fa'il

::

'

59
6.

Give examples of the Passive Participle or Noun of Object.


one-killed a victim

maq-tul
1
}
f>

to kill
"

3^
w':-^

written a scripture
:

mak-tub
:

to write

mentioned above-mentioned
a-thing-chanted a psalm

madh-kur
maz-m<ir
mau-jiid

kl

to

mention

P
V.
/
rrj*

to chant Or pipe

found
present here

to find

a-thing-hated
distasteful

mak-ruh
^
to:
>

to dislike
6^

one shown mercy


"late

Mr

"

marhum
)
)

to

show mercy

a-thing-understood:

>

understood
that-is-known "of course"

maf-hum
JO

to understand

r*'
to

")

ma*-lum
)
=

know

'&
3*r

which-is-unknown

to be ig]

unknown
thing-notorious

maj-hul
e

norant of
^

one famous
7t

mashhur

to divulge, make public

Analyse the above Arabic v^ords


rule for

(in col. 3)*


i.e.,

and deduce our

forming the Passive Participle,


ul).

the

Noun

of Object

(ism ul-maf-

To form
triliteral

this participle,

which shows the

sufferer of the action,

place the letter

mim

with fatha before the radicals of the


a

verb (3rd masc past) and

sukun over the

first

radical

(the

Fa

of the root) and a

wau

of prolongation after the second

radical.

The end

of the

fatha,

etc., just like

any other noun,

word takes the tanwin damma or for all participles and all
above
rule

adjectives are nouns in Arabic.


8.

Why
book.

are these Participles given

in a tabular form.?

In order that the student

may

them thus
viz.,

into his

note"that-

But the form of rendering,


etc.,

"one-killed",
:

which-is-known"
to
N.B.

need not be copied out


is

it is

only given

show how the meaning


to a

reached from the Participle-form.


Fill

One form

page or

2 pages.

up with other examples as you come

across them.

Exercise 23a.

60

0^ ^o
:

^ >.

}^ r-.f

I:*

--'0

'^^^

Exercise 2Sb.
1.

Have

the girls understood their lesson


is

2.

Yes; the lesson


Is

very well understood.


?

3.

the judge's clerk present here


;

4.
5.

Yes

he

is

present with us here. (See 24


?

6).

Is the

writer of that book famous

6.

Not
him.

at all (or, No).

We know
What

(have known) nothing about


a mystery).

His

life is
is

unknown (=He's
fine.
is

7.

His book

very

its

name

Its

name

is

"The Origin of
8.

the Universe".
.?

What did he write about He wrote about everything.


Is

{lit.

What
10.

he wrote about

it })

9.

the book printed on paper

.''

Of

course.

6i

Lesson 24. "VERB TO BE".


1.

Is

there a "Verb to Be" in Arabic


it is

Yes;

called the verb


their

jO
:

he was, (since

all

verbs

are

called
2.

by

masc

sing

past tense and classified thus).


.?

Does the
It

alif of

prolongation cause any difficulty

causes certain permutations or changes.

Remember
v^rau
!

this

point:

The

alif of

jo

is

in

the place of

In

some

"persons'* the
it

wau

disappears, in others a
it

damma shows where

has been, while in the present tense

re-appears, an example

of
3.

what

scientists call

"Reversion to Type."

Now

for the Past


Plural

Tense of

jo
Dual
Singular

^
kunna
kuntunna

\)\<
kanu

{^."^

C-l?

Jr
kanat

6^
kana

kanata

kana

kuntum

kuntuma

kunti

kunta

l^'
kunna

'0:^
kuntu
etc.

4.

How
This

do we explain the second person


is

w^'S

explained (and easily memorised) by remembering 2


It is

above.
alif, in

only in the third person that the

wau

is

replaced by

the others

we assume

the

wau

to

be present and reason


J^>

Add
words,

the pronoun
is

Z^ and we get

i.e.,

two

sukuns together, which

not pronounced in Arabic.


a

In other

Arabic

does

not allow

long vowel
get the

before

two

consonants.

Take

out the

wau and we
it

same sound,

but shortened, and


is

we write
wau.

sZ^lS remembering that


this later

damma
get to

homogeneous

to

(More of
I15).

when we

the

Hollow Verb, Lesson

5-

62

But

is

the Arabic

Verb jo
place

used as in the English


its

Not exactly; we do not generally use


6.

present tense.

What
In

often takes

its

Semitic languages the Subject and Predicate are written


is

but the Copula "is"

not written.

This makes no

difficulty,

for the student very quickly uses the^oriental

form of speech.

Example:"! [am] writing


"I" (see

v--^rlj

l>

I- U

'

is

the separate pronoun


it

Lesson

25),

and katib

is

the-one-who-is-writing, but
"writer'',

can also be read simply "writing" or

while the copula

"am"
I

is

not written at
;

all.

[am] killing
[art]

or, I

[am] a murderer
:

J>

\3

III

Thou

dwelling
nice

or,

thou

[art]

a dweller

^-*

C^>

'

The man

[is]

(i.e.,

"bonhomme")

w^^U ^>-J

The Pasha

[is]

a good (pious)
in

man

H^^^ J^J^T

(Words not expressed

Arabic are put into square brackets; those in round

brackets are explanatory words.)


7.

What
The

of the adjective in the last example

rule of Syntax concerning Adjectives is


its

The Adjective

follows

Substantive

and
J^

is

of the
its

same gender, number and


substantive
is,

case, being defined

by

when

or receiving

tanwin
8.

if it

does.
?

Does

this

omission of the Copula apply to the Past Tense


Present only.
In the past

No;
9

(in Arabic) to the

we

use

jO
one
is

Important Rule of Syntax:

When any

part of the verb


(if

jo

is

used

in

a sentence,

it

causes the predicate


its

expressed) to take fat-ha, while the subject retains

cjamma

Examples:

The man was honourable

^^^j^

j^ j ^^
JU'O
^

The woman was honourable

^^i^r* *'^*''

Thou wast near


I

to the village

^ ^ ^Ul ^y \{j
^

^.

Z^'^S

was

far (off)
to

'-^-i

Z^S
>\

They had bread ( = there was bread


N.B. "Bread"
is

them)

->.

^
.

Subject here, not Predicate.

^t

O^
'.

-63
10.

The word

^X^

when

it

literally

means
it

"a word," takes a

feminine form of the verb, but when

means LOGOS ("THE


take the Masculine,

Word") which
as in

is

Masculine, then
c,

it

may

Home

Exercise 25

on page

65.

Self Test 24.


1.

Write out (from memory) the Past Tense of

o^
(24
:

(24
6).

3).

2.

What happens
24.

to the

copula "is"

in

Arabic?

Vocabulary

Jesus, Yasuhi

9'

j^i

generous

glory,

majd

J^
J^^

owner, sahib
Exercise 24a.

^p-i^

O men.
:

thanks, shukr

To English

J^VjT^'^
4A)I

c>I

(v) (a)
(
'\

Jj^j
4S

^ ll5^
Jikj
I

^^^^^jA)l

(r)

>.?A!'kjl
Exercise 24b.
( I
)

is.)

J^^^>

,'c>:.!fLX>

(e)

To Arabic
[is]

The queen

good

(or, a

good

one).

2
3

God
The

[is]

generous.
[is]

lesson
writer

understood.

(4)
(

The
[Is]

is

[well]

known.
?

The-owner-of'the-book famous
is

6
7

Jesus

the

Son

of

God.

Where have you

been,

O men

(3)

We were
Glory

(or,

have-been) with God's Apostle (messenger).

(9)
(10)

[be] to

God.

Thanks

to the prince.

What
>)>J?

64

Lesson 25. personal pronouns.


1.

is

the Arabic

word

for a Personal
its

Pronoun

Dainir which forms

plural

j\c^

Remember

that all

Pronouns and Adjectives are treated as Nouns


2.

in Arabic.

What
They

is

the case of the Personal Pronouns

are generally called "Separate" or ''separable" Pronouns,

because they stand

alone

as

separate

words.

These

are

Nominative Case, being Subject of the sentence.


3.

Give the Separate Pronouns.

a'
r'
'c/4.

Ci

Memorise, reading the


right
Singula?'

Roman

transliteration
ana).

from

left

to

(Ana is pronounced ana, not huwa, hiya Pronouns


:

anta, anti ana.

5.

huma, antuma. Dual Pronoutis Plural Pronouns hum, hunna antum, antunna nahnu. How do we express the Accusative and Genitive Cases ? By the use of the Pronominal affix (See Lesson 14 and 18
: :
:

5)

6.

Two

Interrogative
i^.

Pronouns may well be learned here these are


:

^^ and

Each

is

usually followed by a personal pronoun

of suitable number.

(Revise here 24

6)

Exs:

Who
is

art

thou?

.#

Who
What
What

the writer?

is

thy

name

is

the chief purpose of

man

^.
?

What
7.

is

the origin of the universe


j'^^i

The word

(fem.

-^J^^J)

is

used as the equivalent of our


Adj.

expression "so-and-so".

As an

^^

may be

used.

65

25.

EXAM. PAPER
A. To English

(To be sent up for correction).

j9.

To ^m6/r.
1.

She
I

is

good

(pious)

woman.

2.
3.

was near my
village
is

village.

My
You

near the town.

4.
5.

are a nice ("hail-fellow-well-met")

man.
?

Did you know the murderer and the victim

6.

Where

is

my

book

C.

Explain the difference between

*i^*

J*"

J'

O^

and
-^

v^j;^

(J^J^'^*'* O''^

Why

the difference in the case of <-i>^^

Exercise 25c.

(Correct at home).

Exercise 25d.

Translate to Arabic

St.

John

I, 2.

1.

66 --

Lesson 26, pjlkH


What
are the

two chief divisions of tense-forms


the

in

Arabic

The Past and

Present-future.

And

whilst Past tense-

forms can be used for any past action, whether represented in


English by Simple Past (Preterite) Tense or by "Perfect" Tense,
the Future tense-forms
to

can be used both for an action


(i.e.,

still

be performed

in the future

our English Future Tense);

and for an action already in progress and continuing into the


future (that
is

to say our

English Preseiif Tense).

And

so the Arabic Future forms

we

will designate as "Present-

Future." As a rule the Arabic "Present- Future" form expresses


a Present

Tense, and

we

shall see,

later,

that an additional

prefix will be
call this the

employed

to represent a

Future Tense.

Imperfect Tense.

But the absolutely sure

Some name

for
2.

it is its

original Arabic one,

Al-MuMri'u

f*

jV^^I

Give the Present- Future Forms (Singular) of the Model-form.

He
She

will

do
do

yaf-*a-lu

0-i
'y^

m
f.

will

taf-'a-lu

Thou Thou
I
3.

(m.) wilt

do
do

taf-'a-lu
^

2 m.
^

(f.)

wilt

taf-*a-li-na

f.

will

do
notice here
}

af-'a-lu

3^1

What do we

That whilst the person-forms


Tense, they come before
is
it

follow

the verb root

in

Past

in the
is
its

Present-Future forms.
finished

That

to

say,

the action

which

and p
:

ist

places the

formative person-mark after


that
is

verb form

whilst the action

not in the past but in the future (or continuing from


its

present into future) places


form.
atives";

person-mark before the

full

verb

Past Tense person-marks

may thus be called "AfformFuture (and Present-Future) may be called "Preform(It

atives."

should be noted, however, that

in taf^alina there is

an

affix

as well as a prefix).

4.

67

of ^^
to

Give the Singular of

^Ull

hinder or prohibit.

We
He
She

follow the Model-form J.i, J> precisely.


(does or) will prohibit

yam-na- u
tam-na- u
tam-na-*u
tam-na-'ina
*:U

m.
f.

>

Thou
Thou
I

(m.) dost or wilt prohibit

2 2

m.
f.

(f.)

>

>>

t^uJLi:

(do) or will prohibit

am-na- u

r
model.

5.

Mention a few verbs for conjugating on


to gather

this exact

;*k

> j

to

open
go
'jjii

to raise

* j*

to

to praise

r^^

r^

to appoint

J*>.

6.

Why

the past

and present-future side by side

That
is

is

the

plan followed in the dictionary, and the student

from now

henceforth to take a separate page in his vocabulary note-

book for every variation of the type-root


as a

J*ii^

J*i that

we

give
:

new

"form", and every

new

root

must be entered thus

Meaning
to raise

$J^^'
^"'

t^>\p:.'.Ai

C'
^ t

to

open
}

^' "

e
?

to ask

\^\

JL
U (Intern)

7.

What

is

the difference between iST^


1^1"^

and

U is

used (intern) before a noun,


is

before a verb. Examples

What

his

name

<i^^i

What

hinders

^ ^iU

68

The

SOME ADVERBIAL PREPOSITIONS.


N.B.

These are really (Antecedent) Construct Nouns in Accusative Cose.


consequent
is,

of course, in the Genitive.

after...

J>

behind...

above...

^y

between.,
with,
at...

behind...
before...

beneath..
in front of...

Jls-

\Ka

But when they are used as Adverbs, not Prepositions, and stand alone, then
the final vowel of most of

them

is

damma
(adv.)

where

(reL adv.)

j^*>

below

J^V

above

(adv.)

,Jy

Exercise 26a.

To English

Of.

t^.Jl^i'
cib.,

(v)

;oji'^y
y:::.3>t0l
'di^i'JiC

(r)

jt ;>;*Jir

(a)

(r)

(t)

o>:)Vl 'oi"
Exercise 26b,
1.

(w)
:

To Arabic

He opens
The queen
Entrance

the door (gate) in front of the house.


raises the sword.

2.
3.

[is]

forbidden.

4.
5.

What What

hinders you?
[is]

the hindrance
[is]

.-'

6
7.

The boy
I

(youth)
(or,
I

praised (commended).

am

going
(f.)

go) to

my

house.

8.

Thou

goest to thy house.


(f.s.)

9.

Why

do you

not open the door

10.

Under

the earth.

09

Lesson 27,

DVAL AND PLURAL.


Give the
rest of

^ jl^ll

of J^Aj^

JaJ
Singular

Plural

Dual

Ox"

'>i

2.

Give the transliteration of the Dual


S.m.

yaf-'a-ldmj

S.f.

taf-'a-ldny

2.m.

i:

f.

taf-'a-ldny.

Note

the resemblance between 3rd Feminine, and 2nd person.

The

2nd Dual

like 1st Singular

and Plural

is

Common

to both

Masc. and Fem.


3.

Transliterate the Plural


2.m. taf-'a-luna
2.f.

S.m. yaf-'a-liina
1.

S.f.

yaf-'al-na

taf-'al-na

naf-'a-lu.
:

4.

Note the similarity of the three following


yaf-'a-lu
af-'a-lu
: :

he will do.
I

shall do.

naf-'a-lu
.>

we

shall do.

5.

Note

(l)
(2)

the third person uses

(with two exceptions),

the second person uses J throughout,


the difference between m.
its

(3)
6.

&
it

f.

pi.

(both in 3rd

&

2nd).
}

If

the verb precedes


;

subject does

take the plural,

etc.

No

in

Arabic there
its

is

an important

RULE OF SYNTAX: A
(if

verb preceding
subject
is

subject

may
it)

be inflected for gender

the

quite near to

but takes Singular number only.

Learn these examples by heart

The women went

out

-ll^lll

Z^of^

The The

pupils study
girl-pupils study

The
girls

70

> ^

attend (go to) the school

Do

they

(f)

understand the meaning


?

of their lessons

They do not understand


meaning.
7.

their (its)

Write out ^>-

to collect, in full

.-.^

Ov^-*^
^

*^^

^e

cr'
.9e//

Tes^ 27.
(1)
(2)

Write out the Plural of

V-J^^

(27

7).

Write some examples

of the Rule of
-

Syntax
_-^
;

{ij

6).

Exercise 27a.
0^

dU^ji
r*l:.;

V,, dll

(^)
( ^

bljf '^Vrl

at"
Exercise 27h.
(l).

(2).
(3).
(4). (5).

When they see us, we will go to them. They (f.) write a book and are ignorant Then they (f.) praise their work
!

of

its

meaning.

We will
How
I I

prevent them

(f.)

from [doing]
(f.) }

that.

wilt thou prevent

them

(6).
(7).
(8).

will collect their books, all of them.

know

all

my

lessons.
(f.)

We
Do
The

will ask thee

about thy lessons.


object)

(9).

(Sing.

the girls understand their (its) meaning.? Fern, pronoun to represent the Broken Plural of inanimate
girls [do]

(10).

understand their meaning.


1.

71

Time
?

Lesson 28, future.


How may we
To
distinguish Future

the ordinary Present-Future


:

Tense

al-mudari*

we

prefix
is

one of two prefixes

either the letter

(j*-

with fatha, which


;

a prefix only and forms a part of the verb

or the separate

word
2.

cJ>^**

saufa.

What do (^ and

L>j-*

mean

^
It

denotes "in the future," and


is

may

be paraphrased as "soon."

probably abbreviated from the old word <^^^ which


*'in

now denotes
3.

the distant future."

Give the tense with future meaning, "He will swim."

^^

\^

Give similarly, the Quranic phrase

concerning unbelievers

who

stop their ears


is

now ("They

shall

know

later," etc.)

This

word

seldom met with outside the Qu'ran.

^J.A>^ c-3^^

j^^Xa^ \^j.^

Aa) (w5^-w

.1a

<^
I

c
^

..

/ lO'

.^

5.

What

are

AA or fatha

fatha verbs

.?

Give a few.

These are verbs on the form

\\ A*>

which do not take

damma

or kasra

with the
in

'^ain

of the Present-Future tense.

Enter up the following


given in Lesson 26:
to

your vocabulary-book under those

sow

JJ ty^-6
>^

to fascinate, charm, bewitch


to transcribe (a Ms.)
or, to

abrogate (supersede a law)

72

c^.
cr-

to
to
to

make (manufacture)
pardon (forgive)

overcome

to intercede

to

be useful to
to these verbs.

6.

Apply the Forms of Lesson 23


This
is

quite

feasible to the student, but


"artificial,"

some words thus


:

formed may be
therefore,

and not heard


several

in actual use

we

propose

to

indicate

most

useful

actual

expressions in quite

common
it

use.

We

give the etymological

meaning

to

show how

was derived, but also the technical


Noun
of

modern use of

the word.
Etymologically

Modern meaning

A. or Obj.

Verb
^

a victor
(the word "the corrupted to CAIRO)

an-overcomer

',*(;

Z^

victorious city "

the-one-over-

coming

(f)

a chapter or verse which super

sedes (a former one)


a verse
4>T

abrogating
A>

abrogated (by a

later

abrogated

one)
a maker, manufacturer

c.-'
^^

one-making
thing-made
things-made
a-charmer
Olc^l^>

e
C"

manufactured
manufactures

(artificial)

(reg. fern, plu.)

a magician, a sorcerer
a person

>"f^
-^

bewitched

one-charmed
benefitting

useful, beneficial

thing-sown, crop

sown

t/yy

V'


Vocabulary 28.

73

.
. ^

an hour
P/. of
Juc-

A^U-

to hear

/^^^L
(fern.)

A^^
i-ii

:>C^
Lesson
(r)
48.)

coming

Exercise 28a.
ears," will

(Look

at 2bb. for in

any unknown word, but

"

thy two

come

SiftU Ju.

dlJt yJ.>Sj,

^|.:!

^^.j^Air

Li^-^*:^^

( \)

U r^,^ J

li

VJJ

''^ J
I

1^"!)^,^ is

(r)

i' VI j/dl;j
<^l*
(

LV.
)

(^)

dXA''i.4j^j^^^^^^^

(0)
(v)

(^SCli

^A ^^

SlJii ;^Al2ll oU/::^''^

<^j.J<^

\ VI c
^lill

c>"

(a)

^Jl CjS

"/UI

llA

^^

(a^^

Exercise 28b.
1.

Their gods (deities) will not benefit them


I

[later on].

2.
3.

will

come

to

you

after

an hour.

God

forbids (prevents) their prayer to their gods.


listens to the prayer of

4.
5.

God
Thy

His servants.
thee.
idols).

ears hear a
will

word behind

6.

They

ask thee about the gods (deities, or


articles)

7.

The manufactures (manuf:


they are useful.
(

of Cairo are few,

but

Put

"

few "

in fern. sing,

i.e.,

because inanimate things

Neuter

Gender) are thought of SiS fern.


8. 9.

sing,

and thus

tlie

predicate

is

fem. sing.)

The

verse

was abrogated.
in front of the prophet's house.

The judge resided here


The crops (sown)
in

10.

Egypt are very good,

74

Lesson 2^Q."M00Dsr
In

what "Mood"

is

the verb already studied?


is

The verb
the

studied in Lessons 26-28

in the Indicative

Mood, or

"Mood

of Simple Assertion" (as in English).


;

Nothing has

been conditioned
2.

a simple direct assertion has been are there


?

made.

What
(a)
(b)

other

Moods

Subjunctive, ex.
Jussive

"In-order-to go"

"that

he

may

go."

(Command) "Let him go!"


"Go."
"Verily he will (surely) go."

(Imperative formed from the Jussive).


(c)

Energetic (or Emphatic).


the last-mentioned
is

As
it

of

little

importance

to us at this stage,

will

be postponed until Lesson


are these

I28(i.e. after the


1

Weak

Verb).

3.

What
a

Moods

called in Arabic

"States."

Each

of the Indicative, Subjunctive

and Jussive has

distinctive vowel-mark, wiiich


in

vowel used
is

each of the three cases of the Noun.


its

may be compared with the The kasra


Verb and
for

not used with the Verb,

place being taken by the sukun

the

damma and

the fatha, however, are used in both

Noun, and

the very Arabic

word for Nominative Case

is that

Indicative Mood, similarly, the term for Objective Case is that for

Subjunctive Mood.

Learn the following table


English

Name

Vowel

Arabic
>

Name

English

Name

Vowel

Arabic

Name

Indicative

9J> J'
..'...

Nominative
Accusative

>

Subjunctive
Jussive
5.

>

{ij^

Genitive

<'

We

said in Lesson 26 that the

Proper Arabic name for the


is

Present-Future (Imperfect) Tense

9-^

^''
see

Now
how
it

this

word

means "that-which-resembles," and here we


viz.,

resembles,

while the Past Tense


i.e.,
it

is

Indeclinable, this Present

Tense

is

declinable,

can

be declined by the use of the casedeclined by


-'...

vowels

/..''.....*..

as

the
;

Noun can be

so

it

resembles the

Noun

but Past Tense always ends in fatha,

-" 75
6.

How
By

can

P-j ^^^

Tense be negated
>

the simple negative particle

which has no

effect

what-

ever upon the case-vowel.

Ex.

"He

will (does) not ask."

'jUv
7.

What
which

is
is

the Past

Tense called?

It is

called

^^Ul

(al-Madi)

an Active Participle meaning *'that-which-passes".


.

Self -Test 29.


(l) (i)

Give

a list of

Arabic Moods, or States (29


illustrate the

i, 2).

Explain and

statement that "The imperfect


declension" (29
:

Tense resembles the noun


>

in its

5).

X
^

to

inform (Conj. IV) jy^^ j^>-

to

reap
^

Exercise 29a.
;t

arj/>4^

(r)

UO ^r ^/j1
jiV^
Exercise 29h.
(1)

(a)

'^;iJtoii;:.v

(r)

vsji'pj'i

(w)

ci^:>i

(0)

(2)
(3)

do they not ask him? They do not look at me. They (two) do not know
[the teacher,

Why

[prayer.

(6)1 was dwelling (f) in Cairo. 7 ) Is the man pious (good) ? (8 ) Tiie man was good. (9) They (two) hear and do
(

(4)
(5)

The pious woman offers Where hast thou (f)been

nothing (not a thing).


?

(10) They sow and

(but) do not reap.

"

-76Lesson 30.
SUBJUNCTIVE.
I.

c-)^^:ll
in

Revise the Introduction

to the

Moods

Lesson

28.

How may
?

we know when

to write the

verb as "Maniib" (Subjunctive)

There are certain particles which affect the verb in this particular manner. A very full list of particles with their governing
actions will be studied later on.

The following nine SubMeaning


Particle
(

junctive particles are to be memorised now.


Action

Present-Future, takes subjunctive after

it

to (that)
in

ji

>

>

>

order to
M
l>

'S J
v^^
b'

>

'

>

>

>>

f'

>

>>

>>

>

t>

Subjunctive but distinctly future negative

not
in

(in future)

Subjunctive but with negative force

order not

i'Si

Subjunctive

*^

jl J
d\
"

lest

Answers the
Subjunctive
2.

particle

What

if

in that case

6i>

^^ = j i^J^?-

until

Give particular examples of their use.


(a)

ji

is
It

the

word which can be paraphrased "that"


(or,

or simply

"to".

has the meaning of desire to do

doing) an action.
i.e.

Learn

this

phrase ^^-^J. u'


-X;jl "I
I

-^^J^

(he wishes to go,

that he

may go)L^*il jl
to visit
(b)

wish to go"; ^j^j^

J^\j^

"I

wish

you" (= that

visit you).

Note the paraphrase.

^1

means

"not," but in the future.

The

present "not"

is

which has no influence upon the Present Future.


^-^>^j'^ w^*-^> >'

He

does

not,

and he

will not

go

in the future".

^Jj^

J'

>

j' 0^^

it

will

not

happen

that...

77

will never

Another example Jt^*^ ^3^- o' ^^ miser


^

be

liberal.

(c)

J and

^J

are both parts of ^^^j

and

affect the verb alike.

(Palmer gives ^^

^1

yi-l "that

God may pardon

thee": but this

must be distinguished from lam-ul-amr, the lam of command


See Less: 32
:

4 which

apocopates the verb thus

<wl

dll

yiJ

Let

God pardon

thee)i3;^jl

^1 w^ r^*'

<w>

or -^J*yj\

came

order to visit you.


(d) ^1^ (lest) is

When

these particlesare used


of

'

is

not used^

compounded

'

J and

so the O' places


it.

the verb in the Subjunctive, while the


(e)

> negates

The

first

six or seven only


l>^

are important (at this stage).

3,

Conjugate j-S

that he

may

eat (as in

^3

S^^y )

yi-jija-ji
.y\^
ir

jl

I^K

irjl

^KlTjIjrirjl

4.

Compare the Indicative in Lesson 26. What do we observe (a) Change of (Jamma case-vowel to fatha, in all the singulars but one, and in the first person plural, (b) The rejection of the
.''

U and j
genders
(c)

in

2nd Sing. Fem. and


Plural.
It

in all the duals,

and the 2nd


numbers,

and 3rd Masc.


etc.

will

be found that

the

are

sufficiently

indicated without the nun.

The

retention of the

in 3rd

and 2nd Fem.

PI.,

as being

absolutely necessary to distinguish the gender.


5.

For further
^
9 %

practice, he wishes that he

may do

J^J^^o'
t %

;^o^ol

^e^

ot^^o^o^
^ ^i y

^ , 9 ^

-^X ^o^of

^2^Uir jl I^Uir jl
^

%ir

of jl

^*ir
.

jt J*ir jl
^0 J
^

of J*A* jl
X-

e^

6.

78

j
I

Examples of
It is

the paraphrase of

^^^ij jl '^1
is

'^j\.^

good
'

for

you that we go (= Our going


It is

good

for you).

s-^*->

j:^>-

good

for

me
e

to go.

(for

me

to

go

that

go

= my

going).

This word

^^>\^ is the
"

word used

in the

equivalent for "thank you"

^ j\J>^^jS
'

May [God]

increase

thy good").
7.

Always use J
order to"

or

^^J

as in "Vf

G^

Ssj

^i*-

to

express " in
(See
i^:*-^'

(eat), or

"for the purpose of " (eating).


the difference between

2.c.)

Self Test 30.


l^^Air

(f)

What

is

jl

and

(30

6, 7).

Exercise 30a.

^^

-^'

'J-^^ $;i

^;!

(n)

J<iji'-^J (0

l/ji=='^_

VI (a)

^)

^^

l^^j.*-a.^

jl

(t)

Exercise 30h.
I.
I

wish to

eat.

2.

"
"

Lest ye enter into temptation".

3.
5.

have food

to eat.
[in order] to

4.

To

fast is

good

for you".

Jesus

came

save man.
(Proverb).

6.
7. 8.
9.

"The

miser will ne^^er be generous".


to (that

We

do not wish

we)

visit

you to-day.

"That they should not worship

(lit.

bow down
you always.
the

to} God."

They have gone

to (in-order-to) visit her.

10.

He
B,

wishes to

(=

that he

may)

visit

Before answering Exam. Paper 30


of page 81.

learn

phrases

at

the

head


To English
:

79

30.

EXAMINATION PAPER

4^

^^\^]| j^'^*J^

(r)

^r^jfjJ'o't^iliC

(o)

dU> V/;^_

(a)

jT>!l

^ 'oiJ

(V)

B.

ro AraUc
(1) (2)

[In

order] that the writer

(f)

may

write her name.

The charmer (magician)


of Egypt.

will fascinate

(charm) the queen

(3)

wish to know the name of a hook, please.


of the Scripture" are in Egypt.

(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)

The "People

Do your
I

(fern, pi.)

children go to school
(sing:) continually.

wish to
is

visit

you

This

from the favour of

my

Lord.

(8)
(9)

The miser

will never be liberal.


to (in order to) eat.

They have gone

(10)

Thou

art

from Egypt, we are from the tribe of Quraish,


(India).

and they are from Al-Hind


C.

Answer
(1)
(2)

these questions

^^^-^^

State the rule for formin g the

Noun

of Object (Pass. Part).

-y

Form

botti

Active and Passive Participles (giving) their


;*^
7^->

meaning) from the verbs

*'Eyc, Voice,

80

31.
Exercise.

Lesson
Rules as before (see Lesson
a time, day by day
;

Ear"

Memorise one or two sentences at then keep up the whole. Sentences I 4 are the opening ones of the Quran, 5 and 6 the **Creed".
2l).

4JOI

J^-J A*^^

Exercise Sib.
1.

In the

To Arabic name of God,


:

the Compassionate, the Merciful


:

2.
3.

Praise [be] to God, the Lord of the Worlds

4.
5.

The Compassionate, the Merciful The Owner (Ruler) of the Day of Judgment.
I

bear witness that [there


[is]

is]

no Deity but God.

6.
7.

And Mohammed
I I

the Apostle of God.

believe (have believed) in


believe (have believed) in

8.

God alone. God and His

Apostles, and His

Scriptures.
9.

10.

Is

Hast thou read Chapter "The Opening One" 1 Yes, I have. there found in Chapter "The Cow" an abrogater and an abrogated [verse].? God knows {lit. God is more-knowing).

8l

ADVERBIAL PHRASES.
Had
it

been

jcT

^1

Of thy favour (plr^ase) cUU^ki


Of
his favour

Except for (had not)


For ever (after neg. never)
Continually

S*^
^^i
i

J)

Instead

of...

In spite of
Sfc>

...

Immediately

For example
Exactly

Sometimes

v5j

ill

/Ja)

Lesson 32.
1.

/^j^l

Revise the Introduction to Moods in Lesson


"

29.

What
let

is

the

Mood

of

Command "
It

or Jussive

It is

that

which expresses the idea


go!.''
it.

" Let him go


J

her go

let

them

generally has the particle

of the Jussive
is

prefixed to

This lam takes kasra, and the verb


the

then

apocopated,

(i.e.

nun rejected)

in the

2nd Sing.

Fern., all the

Duals, and the 2nd and 3rd Masc. Plural.


2.

Why

is

the
.?

nun not cut

off

from the 3rd and 2nd Feminine

Plural also

Because
3.

its

retention
if

is

necessary to show the gender.


is

What happens
The vowel
is
is

there

no nun, as

in 3rd

masc. sing.

.'*

then replaced by sukun, or jazma, and the verb

said to be

majzum

or

marked by jazma

(29

4).

4.

Give the 3rd Person Sing, Dual and Plural of

this Jussive or

Mood

of

Command.
I

{J^AX^
Let them
(f)

.."ifciJ

LauJ
!

(^Jifci:!

v^JLI
!

go

let

them go

let

them

(2)

go

let

her go

let

him go

N.B.
they
(f)

"let," in this case,

has almost the meaning of "must",


!

must go

they must go

they

(2)

must go

she must go

he must go

82
5-

This lam, called in Arabic "lam-ul-amr"

i.e.

the lam of

com-

mand, usually takes kasra (we


But suppose
It
it is

said)

and apocopates the verb.


1 ?
a ^

preceded by Li (then or ther efore)


sukun, thus
it
:

may then be marked by

then

let

him go ^^* J-wU

A'oife. Carefully distinguish

from the other lam, meaning


in
?

"in order to",


6.

which we learned

Lesson 30 7 and
:

2c.

May
Yes,

the Jussive take all persons


all.

(We have used

the

word "Jussive"

to

accustom the

student to this old-fashioned Latinised word in case he should


ever be asked to define
it.

Better to call

it

J^O.

When we
we

use a conditional sentence, (especially in condensed


for

epigrammatic wisdom
write this form.

which Arabic proverbs are famous)

"Knock, and-it-shall-be-opened to-you"


J>^J

takes three words in Arabic


passive), 'j-^^

^*j>

J^j^J (second verb

is

'^r^^ seek, ye

shall find.

7.

Are there any other


Yes,

particles causing the verb to be

^^'j^

many

but they will receive detailed attention in

SYNTAX,

Lesson
8.

193.

really

common
Txliij^

every-day one

is

J (not)

Give

all

the persons of

(he did not open

a*-^- ^

9b^A\

ev
9.

Surely

it

cannot mean "he did not open"


!

But

it

does mean that

Learn

this curious rule

The

particle

J not only negates the action of the verb but also converts
the present to past time.
(In

Hebrew

c.f.

vav conversive).
'

they did not go


r
(J
l
^**>"

J***^
>%-

^*

J ye did not ask

me

ci^**' ^^

^^

(c./

34

6).

83

"let

10.

Give

all

the persons of

Tj^'

him go out"

>.

u'^j^^ ^j^y-

^^j ^^:
^

^\"

t>v
II.

Can

the Imperative be formed from the 2nd Person Jussive


is

Certainly, that

how

it is
1

derived.

Remove any
an
alif

particle

and
as

also the preformative

and supply

vowelled

needed (but with a wala when preceded by other words in a


sentence).

We

then get the Imperative thus

"

. ^

c-^
^.,,
12.

^.

Why

the

damma

over the

alif in

?-j>
in
P-

Because verbs having a


for the alif of

damma

;l^Jl

take a

damma

the Imperative.

All others take kasra.

Exercise 32

a.

oCufjI 5/io 'jp\ ^'>_

-^

liQ

>
I

0^
I

^$
' ^i
I

A.

;LVi

%^ XC jl 3^.V
next page.

N.B.

For the sequence of tenses

in (2) see

Exercise 32h.
1.

84

Why

did the vizier (minister) not go out to visit the Saltan

2.

Because

(see Lesson 34, page 89)

they did not inform

him that the Sultan v^as wishing it (that). Did he not ask them? No: he did not ask them anything because he did not know that the Sultan was there
(present).

4.

What

did the Sultan say


to visit

when he found
find

that his minister

5.

him ? did not come He said "Seek me and you


'I

me"

his

meaning was

am

always

here'.

6.

Did the two princes understand


never understood
it.

his

meaning? No; they


it

(or,

they did not understand

at

all).

A SIMPLE 8T0EY
Exercise 32c.
Translate to English, then back to Arabic.

jl

^1313 ^^^'^ A^J^

by

^'**"''

0^*"*

^^l ^-^*\ i^} ^r^ Cr*


^}6 ^
5f

jT U3 J\{^ j>.3

1;

3 15

[>0 :j^YcJ\
oVi

^"-*

'>;

<)

lift

J C 3u S^".

d\i ^'^^vi .v3i5

'l\

'^1

d(!i3^.ii*

(I)

he wished

(3) for laisa see

(2) who. Lesson 36).

/jjt ;> '^ 3


^
-

els' IjCi

Sequence of Tenses.

Carefully note the Sequence here.


was wishing

He

did not

know

that the Sultan

^,J

(jlUi*-)! (j

'

A)^

One

past verb followed by a present


(or,

"past continuous"
for the

conveys the idea of past imperfect), and there is no need

double past.

-85Lesson 33 THE PROHIBITIVE V


I

What
The
verb,

is

the negative form


particle

which

/or6^(is the action

prohibitive

la

"

do

not,"

must precede the

which

is

then put in the jussive, ormajzmn.


"^
:

Thus: "He
This particle
it

must not go" l^^ij,


is

"Go not

(f.)"

^'-^> >

called the "la of prohibition".


la

Distinguish

carefully

from the

of simple Negation, which, as

we have shown,

does not affect the case-vowel of the verb.


2.

Give the prohibitive of

f"

"to knock".

iV
they
(f.)

they must not knock

let

not knock

let

not knock

'c-V
do not knock
(f.Pl)

^'-.^
do not knock
(PI.)

V
(f.)

knock not

don't knock (m).

let us

not knock

(hardly necessary)

3.

The most frequently used


plural of the
first

are the

second persons, and the

person.
Id yet to

Let no-one

know

u^

4-

Is

there

any other

be learned

Yes, one more

particle

which

is

used with a noun to deny

its existence in totality.

There There

is is

no deity but God.

\\h\i\'^
^^>
^

no strength and no power but in God.

There's no harm to you.


5.

In
(a)

what case

is

the

noun negated by
Accusative
;

Id

Always

in the

(b)

generally without tanwin,


at the beginning.

a solitary exception to the rule


6.

we learned

We

will now show moods by means of

the similarity

and contrast of the three


(In

a comparative table.

order to get the

three side

by side we have

to alter the usual native

method

of tabulating the tense; so read

down the column).

86

tf^
Jussive (he did not eat) Subjunctive (that he eat)
Indicative (he eats)
y'""-

'^^)

'^^
oA5
3^1 ji
'

y'

"'

1- 'jr ir

>

- >

i.

'^i^iv;
'>^^'.v

^5-

1.--)

i^rir"!

<

3
P.

Exercise S3a.
/

^
3':j.JLjf

jl l_^l!
I

(^)

J)\ V!

sS'j

V3 'J> V
VI
4)J

(a)

j^

A^I3

V L*X V

(r)

ill

V
V

(v)
a,

- ^

'Sl^ 'Ji
Exercise 33b.
1.

(a)

V(i)

Let them ^w^ go

to the city.
!

2.
3.

Let not go except one only

==

Let only one go

4.
5.

Do Do

not knock on the door

not open the door,


not

O my

mother!

They do
There
is is

know

everything.
in

6.
7. 8.

no power and no strength except no deity but God.


to

God.

There

No harm

you

Cheer up

).

1.

87

14-15).

Lesson 34.
Revise the Pronominal Affixes already studied (Lessons
2.

To what are these Pronoun-marks


(1)
(2)

affixed

To To

prepositions

then they are "governed by the Prep."


his.
i.e.

To'rSSsf then they are genitive (construct) "of him"^.e.


verbs; then they are in the direct Accusative case,

(3)

the object to the verb, as


3.

y^^

he struck her.
(or,

Show how
S
>
^

the preposition

^ from

some

of) is united to

these affixed

Pronoun forms.
o >
^

r:
from them two
>
o

from them

(f.)

from them (m.)


>

from her
e

from him
^

O^-t'
from thee
(f.)

from thee (m.)

from you two

from thee (f.) from thee(m.)

from us

from me
?

What
The
and
^1

is

noticeable here
^J^

preposition
the
first

requires, like the verb, a

nun between

it

person sing, affixed pronoun, thus, he struck me,

j-'a

and, from

me

^5-^.

This nun, which in this case

is

rep-

resented by the shadda,


5.

is

called the "nun of precaution.'*


}

Is this true

of any other prepositions

Yes

if

they end in

as for

example
or, off

j-^l

in the presence of,

or before,
6.

and

^ft

(away from,

from).

Does

either of the verb-forms alter its vowelling


?

on becoming

united to an annexed pronoun

Yes

the

2nd

per.

pi.

past adds a

wau and

homogeneous

damma:
7.

thus (J^*.I)^^

ye struck me).
to the affixed

efix the preposition


Plural

pronoun s.
Singular

Dual

7}

r*

/
>

-r

i^

Us;,

^\

J.

88
8.

In

which person
etc. to

is

a change

made
we

In the third person; for a prefixed kasra or ya causes the hu,

hum
9.

take a kasra, so

get bihi, bihim,

etc.,

but

it

does

not change the

kum

etc,

Prefix (J (in or within) in the

same way.

,V
\^<^
L
lu.
!

dl.i-r

Where does
It

the shadda

come from

(in the 1st Sing.)

represents the pronoun (^ which coalesces with the


fatha, being a consonant

of tJ

and takes

and not merely


is

a letter of

prolongation.

Another example; the word j^*X^

the plural

of mu^allim (teacher) in the

Nom. and

j>*>*>* in the
(

Accusative.
or

When we
Accusative
the

wish
)

to

say

**

my

teachers "

whether Nom.

we

find the construct state causes the

removal of

nun of

(j\^^

or J^*!*^

and the vowelling of the second


to

ya with fatha after placing shadda


of the two ya's
II.

denote the coalescence

^A**

Mu^allimiya.

Give other examples of the pronoun

written as

my two hands
beside
12.
(s)

1^^-J>,

(jl-^J.

-^i)

but (accus. or obi.) iS^i

me ^^^*- (l^V)

"^^ ^^"^ ^<^\!^^ (^i^^"*")


(J
'^

How
^^

do we prefix

^^

and

*^ala

means

on, or

upon and

(J'

means

to,

unto, or "in the

Both stand as separate words before nouns but both may be prefixed to the Annexed Pronouns which are then of course in the oblique case (Indirect Object). The ya
direction of".
is

then dotted, making the diphthong

ai.

S>1
-

r;ji

Lw

a'l

89

INJS/A.

EXAMPLES OF AKHA WAT

N.B. Certain particles (called "Sisters of Inna") have, upon the

Subject and Predicate, an effect exactly the opposite of kana

and

its sisters;

i.e.

they

place the Subject in the Accusative


(j^j^

^j^aL*
in

and leave the Predicate


is

Learn these examples,

which the manub (accus:)


he, you...

the affixed pronoun.

^.

As though
But
I,

J^v5

*>

Verily he, thou

...

thou

...

cUjlS;!

J.<J

That

he,

she

...

"^r

In

Perhaps he, I ... hope that he,

\
J

\^\W\ CT* ^^
clearer.

Because

he, they.
" thinking orientally "

After studying
the above wil!

Lessons

on Syntax 151 200 (and

become

The words that, because etc. are

useful

for our exercises now.

Exercise 34a.
ii' ,1*

V^UU
^

^:^lf (^)

cS-'^

dV>

(y)

^'^i'tilj^'^U (r)
"5CI.. iJfcill.

r
1

15"

(r)

J^>j|i

^>i j^^lJL>i li

(t)

:;5l>r'^i;n;^, (o)
Exercise 34b.
I.

My

sins were

heavy upon me.


?

2.

Have you

got nothing
I

(lit.

Is-there-not with thee a thing.)


;

3.

As though

were (am) about to go with you

4.
5.

Why

did you prevent

me from

entering

Because you did not see

my

hands.

6. 7.

They did not come


They
I

to

me.

(f.)
it

went-away from me.


from them (m.)

8.
9.

took

They took her from me.


Truly she
is

10.

a pious

woman.

1.

90

Lesson 35. the passive.


What
verbs use the Passive
?

The Passive can only be formed from


can only form the Passive

Transitive verbs,
is

We
tran-

wO

if
,

we
^

are sure that U*

sitive
2.

e.g., I4A.I5

He

killed her,

JiXli

she was killed.

How is the Passive formed from the usual Triliteral Verb ? For the Passive of the Past Tense (or Preterite) give to the
radical before the last a kasra, and to the
first

radical a

damma

instead of fatha
3.

thus JlJ he

was
?

killed.

How

from the Quadriliteral Verb

The same way.

The

first

of the four radicals takes

damma

instead of fat-ha, and the penultimate takes kasra. Thus^^^-j-

he translated
if

it.

j^j

"it

was

translated".

^j)l\ ^^'Jj
the

^'^[

the earth

is

shaken.

In both the tnTiteral

and quadriliteral
Active
etc.,

verbs,
in

the

distinction

of
(In

the Passive from

lies

the vowelling only.


tell

unvowelled newspapers,

the

reader can generally


!

by the context. The Passive, however,


it

is

not so

much used

as in English, for

is

more usual
72)

to

employ one of the derived covjugdtions (Lesson


passive signification).
4.

with a

Give the Sing, Dual and Plural of J^>


^
/

-s
^il5
1

l:JL-5

^19
>

Q:
Form

CJ^9

the Passive of the Present-Future.


(
>,

We
.0

give to the Servile letter

St

etc.

damma and

to

the penultimate radical a fat-ha, thus


>

J*ji>

he will be killed;

.^*^

it

will

be

or, is

written.

Of course many verbs


the

already have a fat-ha over the penultimate radical, then no

change.

In

apy c^se, the distinguishing feature

is

damm^

91

initial

over the

ya.

Native printers, when printing an unvowelled

book, can sometimes insert just this

damma

if

the

sentence
6.

is really

ambiguous.
^ ^Z

Give the
.4)

full

Pres-Future Passive.

1:

7.

Can

a Passive Jussive be

formed
!

.?

Yes;

J*y

let

him be

killed

'j**^

etc.

This

is

quite usual

Also with

we say

J*<^

J he was not killed.

Self -Test 35.


(i)
(2)

Give the Past Passive of v^IJ^

to write (35

4).

The Present Passive

of the

same

(35

6).

Exercise S5a.

&

b.

CaJi 4^>.Uol55'
'

(v)

c4V^ '*^C IJ^ 3^

(r)

oJl^i
'

"^"^

(A)
(i.e.

(1)

They

will

be-shown-mercy

forgiven).

(2)

In order that I

may

serve, not be-served


?

(ministered

to;.

(3)

Was

the

owner of

the house murdered

(4) (5)
(6) (7)

The book was


The door
His blood
is

written in Arabic.

open.

will be shed.

Was

the

owner ( f )

of the house killed

.?

(8)

Yes, she

was

killed.

92

Lesson 36.

NEGATIVE OF
1.

"TO BE".
?

Is there a

verb meaning "he-is-not"


^^Jj.'

Yes, the verb

laisa,

means

"it-is-not," or **he-is-not," or

"there-is-not," or even simply "not," according to the context.


2.

Can

it

be declined
Its

Yes, in Past Tense only, though strange to say,


the Present!

it is

used for

formation would be better understood after

learning the changes of the Hollow verb, but

we

introduce

it

here because
particle

its meaning is akin to the verb negatived by a which we learned in Lesson 32. Write it in full.

'^
LJ

'j^

r
Note that while ^J-' may mean
the other persons the
negative. are not.
4.

>>44fcJ

i^0yJ
}

"it-is-not" or "there-is-not," in
is

meaning

limited to a

more personal

Lasta, thou art not; laisu, they are not; lasnd

we

(Note disappearance of the ya before sukun).

How
By

could

we express

"he-z/;as-not," etc.

prefixing

J to the pres-fut. of the

verb

To

Be.

Remember
J

this strange fact, already leaint, that the particle

always

gives a negative past


or
5.

meaning

to the

Imperfect Tense of this


not eat.
is

any other verb.

Example jT u J he did
i.e.,

Give the ordinary Pres-Fut. of "To Be,"


^ > -

he

or will be, etc.

^.

ju^^r

j^j^i

;$:r J>
;

0&

l[ij$fr

Oj-

Before memorising this verb, compare what we have said in

Lesson 24
Notice the

4,

as to the past tense

J^O

and the

letter

wau.

wau and

the

damma

in the

above

pres-fut. tense.

93

J (he

6.

Give the same apocopated by


>
>
'^

was

not, etc)

^^

Note that

this

will

be fully studied when we come


115).

to the

Hollow Verb (Lesson

Suffice

it

to say, here, that

when

the sukun of jaztn (apocopation) falls upon


(

the final radical


its

nun

in

this case

then

the

wau disappears, leaving


to

homogeneous representative (damma)


7.

mark

its

place.

Students more advanced, or with more time to spare,


write out Jy^ J^5 (to say) exactly like U^^J. 6^'

may

8.

But

is it

not possible to express the


?

same idea with md and

the Past Tense


9.
'

Yes, that

is

an alternative way.
}

What

is

the special effect of laisa upon the Predicate


of laisa
is

The Predicate

always manub.
not the Subject
}

10.

Why

is

the Predicate
laisa
is

mansub and

Because

one of several verbs called akhawdt kdna

(Sisters of

Verb To Be) which have the same action as kdna.


:

Here revise 24

9 very carefully and contrast akhawdt inna


86).

(Lesson 34--page

Examples: Akhawdt kdna


is

Thy brother

not sick

j
]

^^i J' 4f^

Akhawdt inna
Truly thy brother
is

sick

Akhawdt inna
But he
is

sick

.J, \'S}

Akhawdt inna As though she [were] Akhawdt kana She is not sick
Akhawdt inna + akhawdt
But he
is

sick
A^Ai

ft

(..^rfAtAl

kd?ial

not sick

AJ
j

-;

uT^

ll

<^

Self Test 36.


2.
I.

94
laisa in full (36
:

Write out the verb

3).

Write out the verb kana apocopated by


:

and give the

English meanings (36


Exercise 36a.

6).

(after learning phrases

on

p. 97).

Exercise 36b.
1.

Was. your boy

at the

mosque-school *to-day

2. 3.

No, he did not go to-day to the mosque-school. Why was he not there to-day ?

4
5.

Because his mother was ill. Was she not ill yesterday ?
Yes, and the boy did not attend {or, was not present) yesterday, and will not attend tomorrow.

6.

7.

Where

is

his brother
is

Is

he sick also

.?

8.

No, his brother

not sick, but has gone with

some of the

children (boys) to the city. To distinguish this word kuttab from the word kitab, note the shadda.

9.

They have not been

in the

kuttab this afternoon.

10.

And

they will not be there tomorrow.


95

Lesson 37. OTHER TENSES.


1.

Are there any other tenses


in
(a)

(or states)?

Yes; Arahic gives facility

combining

tenses, similarly to English.

Thus we say

w^i
s^^y

he went.
^

(b)

he has gone. he had gone (before

(c)

v-^-^ -^ jv5

(d)
.

w^^-^i
.

O^
'>

he was going, he used he will have gone.

to go.

\ ''.\

(e)
2.

w**^ ^^

0^1
s

Let us tackle the second of these.

The

particle

-^>

placed before the past

tense gives

it

the
it

English "perfect" meaning, though


often not found.
i^^.> Ji
3.

in the older
-A?
.

Arabic

is

She has gone

yZ^*^>

They have gone


itself).

(Do not attempt

to translate
?

-^ by

How
By

is

the pluperfect formed

prefixing

jO

to the verb plus

-^*

and the meaning

is

that

the action had taken place (before something happened).


the principal verb the Past Tense.

Both

and the auxiliary

O^

are fully declined in

They had gone They

'^f*^

-^^

^^^

He

had gone

w**i>

-^*

Jo
I)

(f.)

She had gone

Jl^->*.5 -A> J^>

You
You

(m.)

Thou hadst gone


Thou(f.)

Jl^-.^^

-^^

^_x"-'

(f.)

>

We
4.

0'

>>

had gone

Could we say "He was in the habit of going " 1 Yes this is one of the meanings covered by (d) above. In the Moslem Ahadith (Table-talk of Mohammed) there is a large section of the traditions devoted to "What the Apostle
of

God used

to

do".

J^i

96

jO
he used
to do.

he used to say

Jaj^

Let us learn the last-mentioned, conjugating the Past Tense


of the auxiliary kana, but the Mufjari^ of the Principal Verb.

They used They used

to

do

He

used to do

to

do

She used

to

do

You

used to do

Thou
Thou

usedst to do

You used

to

do

usedst to do

We used to do
5-

used to do

Write out *'He will have gone". "He will have gone" (before you get there, e.g.,) is expressed by the Present-Future tense of kana (see Lesson 36 5) with the past tense of the required verb and the particle qad.
:

>

>

Ther

will

have

|^>S

IaJ

0^^.

He
She

will

have gone

s-*.5
a
'I

y> Uj^J,
.'- ^

They (f) will have


gone

>^

>

"

^;/s 1,^/sC,

will

have gone

C^**3 Sb J^J^i

You (m)
gone

will

have' " \l\Z . <^-.^-X>(J^j:K)

Thou
Thou

wilt

have

gone
(f) wilt

You

(f) will

have

;^.

gone

;/^

^
*X)

=^3;^^;

have

^^^^j; ^^ ^^J
sZ^^^
:

We
It

will

have gone U-.*.>

jj^J

shall

have gone

-X>

jjp

may

be construed and explained

in this w^ay

"He

will be

in the state of
6.

having gone."
so
J^Ji;^**

As, J^^i^O^^

means "he was doing,"

J^
to

is

nowadays

used
7.

to

mean "he was going


v^rriting

(about) to do".
(b),

Before
Jii^

out Exercise 37 (a) and


keep,
preserve) also

note that the verb

)a.k>-

(to

means

memorise,

i.e.,

preserve in mind.
a place,

The verb

^^^

j^>-

to attend, or arrive at

forms

its

verbal noun jjja^- attendance (arrival).

Self -Test 37.


1.

2.
3.

Similarly

Write out the Compound Tense "He had eaten". "He will have eaten". (37 5).
:

(37

3).

What do you

observe

is

common

to both.

{c.f.

and

5).

Vocabulary
37.

97

USEFUL ADVERBIAL PHRASES.


yesterday
ij^*^
^\

or (j^

'

in the

morning
evening

Ci>

from to-day

^^Ji ^>
JLL^

in the

since the beginning ^Jull

by daylight

from the

first

Jj*^i ^>

by night
tomorrow
after

fore-noon
after- noon

j|ia)l

mi -f"
J**
Jui

Jj,Iall

tomorrow

Exercise 37a.

Oj^ l-Jj^ cJai^ A5


<*! aJLc* ^5^1 :)U

j^'5't

A^

(t)

4^jj^

Jiifti'i-M,

jif

j/ JuH

Ju*bii

(o)

Exercise 37b.
1.

The pupil had memorised


All
the

his lesson before the teacher's arrival.


their lessons

2.

pupils

had

memorised

before

their

teachers' arrival.
3.

They
(lit.

will learn

their lessons

by heart to-morrow afternoon

after-the-noon).
I

4.
5.

[By] to-morrow

shall

have learnt many lessons.


(or, student referred to)

The above-mentioned student

was

going to do his lessons by night, but his teacher forbade him.


6.

From

the

beginning (the

first)

the students used

to

learq

their lessons accurately (exactly),

98 --

Lesson 38. THE SIX FORMS


1.

Is

al-Mudari* of the verb always vowelled with fat-ha like

No:

neither does the past always take three fat-has.

As

early as Lesson 3

we introduced

^J

with a middle kasra,


will

(See also 23:6).

There are

six actual

forms; we

learn

some
2.

of

them now.

What
for

are the six actual?

Since there are three vowels and the past


its

may

take either one

middle vowel (the

first

and

last not

being changed), while


its

the present-future

may

take any one of the three for

middle

vowel,
sible.

it

would seem that there are


these, however,

3x3=9

theoretically pos-

Three of

do not actually occur.


:

The

six actual are

shown below, with examples

to

open

>

to succour

to serve

>
a-.
Non-existent
^rn-*iricf^nf iNUn-CAlalCIll

to

be generous

'y^.

3;

3^
3^.

y*

Non-existent
0^
y

to

understand
^

'y

to consider

U^/^J>
which of the
six
first,

y-.

y
?

3.

How
This

can one
is

tell

forms will be taken

little

perplexing at

but the dictionaries supply

this information

about every verb.

Some

lexicons print

it

in

full,

99

jcZi

thus

to

open
open

^r
rtl>

(Others, this

way)

to

(Others, again)

to

open

a
is

7^*
given in
is

The

point

is,

whether Al-Mudari*
a,

full,

as in

some

lexicons, or a fatha, or an
viz.,

the

meaning

exactly the same,


is

that the verb ^* takes fat-ha in the Past, (that


in full),

always

shown

and also a fat-ha

in al-Mudari'.

Take another
see at a

example.

^*:^s^

^iJ

(the girl is pretty).


triliteral
it

You can
is

glance that the probable

root of jamila

a verb

formed from
that
it

J^.^-

You

find

marked J*^J*f" which shows


in

belongs to the class of

Damma Damma verbs, damma


}

the Past

and damma

in the Present.

What
None

kind of verbs take

Damma Damma
I

but those expressing qualities


It

(Learn this important

distinction at once).
>

is

quite possible there

may be

a verb
else,

with same radicals (but with fatha) meaning something


but
J*>"

(with

damma) must

take

damma

in the Pres,-Fut.
;

and

therefore, necessarily, expresses a quality


pretty".

in this

case "to be

(Now

enter up a page or two pages of your vocabulary


all

for this

one form, recording


:

new

verbs

as

shown
of

in

Lesson 26

6 for Fat-ha Fat-ha.


/zot^

The importance

clear
^

classification

of all

new words, according


More examples
to
:

to "forms", can

hardly be over-emphasized).
>

to

be easy
>

J^.
>^ ^
^

J^
>

be generous

to be difficult

^^-^j

to

be rough
?

O^^

What
It

kinds of verbs take Fat-ha Fat-ha


to lesson 26
:

Turn back
will

and analyse those examples given.


is,

be seen that the second or third radical

in

each case, a

guttural or ha ^

In other words, such a throaty consonant

almost always takes fat-ha.


learn the past

Enter up

all

your examples and

and the present with the English meaning.

100

6.

Note on

d[

and

'i[

The

particle

6'

{in not an)

is

used

with the Past to


of doubt),
is

mean
is

if in the Present-Future (but with a

shade

b'^

used similarly but implies probability, and so

often best translated by "when."

Recapitulation.

Continue revision
with more grammar

of

previous lessons.

From

Lesson

42,

rules, the

student will feel the

need of constant revision of vocabularies.


Self -Test 38.
1.

What vowel

in

the Imperfect
?

(Muddri)

is

taken by verbs

expressing qualities
2.

(38
?

4).
:

What

verbs take fat-ha

(26

and 38

5).

Exercise 38a.

\j^ Ji^\

'^l '^, (1)


(v) (a)

'yi\ ij^dJiAp i;.Ui

(n)

V^O^'JiVf jli
ly>'H S-}V-:>\

^yjjr^:^^i;^"ii:^^^^

(r)
i

^
Exercise 38.
1.

jjJI

'i.) 'Ai::i'

Vi J J (1)

Is this

matter
is

difficult for

you (hard on you)

2.
3. 4.
5.

The matter
[It is]

easy for him (upon him).


to attend before the lesson.

on the pupil

And
The

to gather [up] his

books

after the lesson.

The student did not succeed


price of

yesterday.
a

6.
7. 8. 9.

books has been (was) raised

good

deal.

Man was created weak (Qui'an). When the earth is shaken (Qur^an)
God
is

i.e.

by earthquake-

not an oppressor (Qur'an).

10.

We

will gather our disciples

bv night.

lOl

Lesson 39. THE SIX CLASSES (Contd).


I.

What
Verbs

verbs take Ji>3**


like

^A*i. j-^*

are a very large class.

They

consist

partly of (a) transitive verbs such as

^^*> ^^

to succour, or enter.

aid (with victory),


Examples of
to create

and

(b)

"verbs of motion"
Examples of
to enter,

\^\^^:>\o

(a) Transitive

(b) Verbs of Motion

o^ip^i--

go

in

J^-^ j^'^

to kill to write
to see

j-i.P
w^-.-j
.

to

go out
run

^*^i

to
to

^> 0^ ^^

bow down
worship)

j^^ j'
-**

(in

to serve (as a slave)

-^^

to sit

down
(fatha in past, kasra in
classified,

2.

Give

examples

of

verbs

present).

These are not quite so easily

but the
:

student can learn them as he comes across them.


to serve (as a servant)

Examples

a^

^A
Ir^'

to bear, carry

y-^.'J-

to

sit,

or

sit

down

iA^.
^^

to

know

^ J*i ^j^
7
.'
'

to strike

f^Oj (w) 0>^

to take captive

Give examples of

- verbs (fat-ha

in the present).

As

in 2, learn

the past and present-future together,

when you

have ascertained both.


to

Examples
to

shew mercy
understand

to

hear

to

to bear witness,
testify

to

know

to

keep

102

is

4.

Are there Only a few.


';:

::"

verbs

The

first

mentioned

the only
>

example from

sound verbs.

To

''

consider, or estimate

w**^ ^^^>-

The student

will gather

examples

of this

form when he studies

"Assimilated Verbs" (Lesson II3) the wau of which disappears


in the present tense.
5.

To

inherit <^ J ^ <^JJ


?

Does the vowel taken by the Mudari' influence the Imperative


Yes, in one case.
kasra,

Four out of these

six

forms have fat-ha or


to

and

in all these cases the


is

vowel supplied

pronounce

the

Imperative

with a

The Imperative should be written wala when preceded by other words, but when standing
kasra.
is

alone, a kasra

written,

open

7cI*J

listen

^-*J
it

The

fifth

case

is

|j^

^y

to be generous,
is

and as

expresses

the existence of inherent qualities there


(

no imperative needed.
forms,
e.g.

There

are,

of

course,

from

its

derived

" act

generously").

The

last

one

is

^a*>. j^^

and

it

will be seen

that in

every
is

part of the

Present-Future or the Jussive the middle vowel


to

damma.
worship
!

The vowel used


(serve)

pronounce the Imperative


'

is

'

-^

thou wilt serve (worship)


thou wilt enter

X>

come

in

>zf
Arabic verbs

J^"^*
> >
'.

get out

thou wilt go out


?

(Tj^

Are there any Prepositional Verbs


Yes,
certain

take special

prepositions
-^s*-*

after

them
"to
to

to represent certain significations.

Thus,
to "

means
i.e.,
^

bow down"
:

but
'

J
''

-^?**'

" to

bow down

anyone,

worship

thus^^
...

^>^**'

He worshipped God.
he
'

Similarly j^
(^)

t-

he went out from

i.e.,

left.

<*- he heard him


{lit.

Ol ^^^

he listened to him.

If;

he brought

came with)

her.


/.

103

transitive

NOTh
also

to

Vocah.

39

The
r
'T;

verb made

by

preposition

may

become
brought

Passive by
(//7. )

means of the sd^mt" retained''


?! C^
'

preposition.

He
He

came with

her)

She was brought

decided
}

upon a matter

J*

L>

rJ^

^^

^^^ decided upon

> \\\ l'" ."He arrested) the thieves ) l/'-?'^*'' l>

U^

rZ/^^*

were arrested

Clrt

L/*.**

Vocabulary
to

39.

SOME PREPOSITIONAL VERBS.


J
^>-^

worship

to bring (a thing)
to bring

<--

^J

to prohibit a thing

'c>

(^.e.,

come

with)

V*
v-j

to listen to

Ji'c:-

to fulfil (duties, etc.)

^li

to grant to

>^
>'r5=

to

doubt concerning
be able

(J

dii
jjJ
IL'**

to trust in

to

Jp
Jp

to decide

upon

to attack

Exercise 39a.

'^'C)f'4.;:^(^)
d Ji>.3"4jil

jiuV

;>L)I
V^t:^

*y.

l^

(t)

40*4

/ (r)

j-JflAJljl
Exercise 39b.
1.

(0)

We testify
Who
He
is

to you.
?

6.

"The world knew him


Serve

not".

2.
3.

the sorceress

7.
8.

God
is

alone

did not listen to their speech.


listened
to.

"God

a spirit,
at

and they-

who worship
9.

Him...."
!

4.

Their speech was not

Get out

once

10.

God

preserve you

5.

The camel was brought

to

him.

(salutation).

(^)
Conversation
Exercise.
I.

104

Lesson 40.
colloquial dialogue.

Follow these rules with the following short literal meanings of words and phrases, with the helps given, reading from right to left. (2) Gradually learn by heart the
Study the
idiomatic meaning of single phrases, rather than single words and then, as soon

as possible, drop the use of transliteration and also of the literal word-by-word

rendering (which

is

really neither English nor Arabic).

(3)

Read

aloud.

(4)

The

last line gives the

proper idiomatic English.

N.B, Sounding the final

case-vowels, this becomes a written exercise; dropping them, a colloquial one.


r

-Jju^ Aau^ -^jV*

blessed,

mubarak, sa'id, Naharuk happy [be]. Thy -day

Good morning,
4JO

ya shaikh, sa'id, Naharuk sheikh, happy {be\ Thy -day Good morning Sheikh
'

JUJ-I

ail
thy
state ?

r
Bow
[is]
?

J^i
bni

al-hamdu-lillah. Taiyib,
praise -be -to- God. Well

haluk? Kaifa

ya

0- my -son
boy.

Well, thank God.


Jbl
'alaik

How

are you

V
la

al-haqq

abadan

baqaratak
thy

li

tabi'a

an turid Hal
Dost thou wish

against thee. The right

No, never
No, never.

cow

to

me, that thou

sell,

You

are wrong.

Do you

wish to

sell

me

your cow

C as-salima ma*
with safety
!
!

Lie
alaina

C
ma
'1-an 'alaiya

Nothing against us

The

right's against

Al-Haqq me
time

Sahih
True,

Goodbye
Passive Pres.
>

Never mind
Passive Past
>

now I'm wrong

this

True,
Perfect
"

Revision of the Six Classes, Lessons 38, 39.


Imperative
^0
.
\

Imperfect
-

&
>
.
-'

.^

o>.
.

y^

>

>

cr
>

&'
>
.

c^1

>

> >

"-^

&
''

-^

^'^'-i
J

V'

^^.1
a

^^.
>
1

.r*'

"

.>

^J-^l

v>
'

>

^
-^

^
.

V^-*-*; ^ ^

V/^^.
^^ "

V^-'
^^
^ ^

>i
^0

J^l
^

J^

>~r
*

>
r.

"Ul
r

%'.

'
1

r
>

>
f'

/ , .'

^>i
"

s^*^^

"

^^^
:;

(^

^w>^ ^

105
(B).

EXAMINATION PAPER

N.B.

Copy

number your answers, write clearly, and send up for cori^eclion, with full name and address.
the questions,
J.
::.

I.

Give examples of

verbs.

What

is

the Imperative Masc. Sing, of "to

come

in"

Give

other examples of similar vowelling.

Write three or four lines


either (a) ta
II.

tellingj

what you know about

marbuta or

(b) alif maqsilra.

Translate to Arabic:

Why
They

did you not prevent them from entering


will

have

left
(f)

before the teacher comes.


not present yesterday
to say
.?

Why
In the

wast thou
of

The Apostle

God used

"Praise be to GOD."

name

of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.


;

Good morning, sheikh


I

good morning, boy (my

son).

am wrong
is

this time (now).


in

There
III

nothing

my
:

hands.

Translate to English

^)
c

(^)
(r)

4A)

'jjrLf'jr(i)fj;:Vj
,0/'

(v)

iU.U
N.B.

(a)

Please space out your lesson hours to as to allow for Revision of earlier lessons.

io6

41.

Lesson
*'Eyc, Voice

and Ear."

"i

<r

.7

^ ^

The Rules
1.

for this exercise are given in Exs. 2i and 31.

Ana-rrabbu ilahuka... La yakun laka alihatun ukhra amami.

2.

La

tana* laka timthalan

manhutan wa

la

uratan-ma (pron.

tamma) mimma fissamai min fauqu wa ma

fil-'ardi

min tahtu wa

ma
3.

fil-mai

min

tahti-l-'ardi.

La

tasjud

lahunna

wa

la

ta'bud-hunna lianni ana-rrabba ilahaka ilahun ghaiyur...

La

tantiq bismirrabbi ilahika batilan liannarrabba la yubri-u

6.

man nataqa bismihi batilan. La taqtul. 7. La tazni. 8. La

tasriq.

The English of above,


1.

verif literally translated.

[am] the Lord thy God... there shall not be to thee other gods

in front of
2.

Me.
to thee

Do
of

not

make
[is]

any carved image nor any picture whatever


sky from above and what
[is]
!

what

in the

[is]

in the earth

from below and what

in the water

from under the earth.


!

Bow not down to them Serve them thy God am a jealous God--3.

not

because

the

Lord

Pronounce not the name of the Lord thy God, vainly

for the

Lord does not acquit whomsoever has pronounced His Name


vainly.
6.

Kill not

7.

Conimit not adultery

8.

Steal not

107

Lesson 4:2. gender.


1.

The Gender, Number and Case

of the Arabic

Noun

(incl.

Rel.

Pron. and Adj.) will occupy Lessons 4260.


2.

Remember

that the

noun includes

(a)

Substantive, (b) Pronoun,


;

(Personal, Rel., Demonst., Interrog, etc.)


3.

(c)

Adjective,

etc.

How many

Genders are there


:

Really only two

there

is

no Neuter Gender

in Arabic, its place


:

being practically taken by the Feminine (Ex. 28b 7 note). There


are,

however, a few words (including certain Dual Pronouns


1st

and

Person Singular and Plural) which


either Masculine or Feminine,
i.e.,

may be looked
Gender.

upon as
4.

Common

How
'^'^

are the genders specially denoted


is

The Masculine

called

<y<*

Mudhakkar ;
marked
it is

the Feminine

is

J>^

iliz^W^a^/?, occasionally

in the dictionary

by ^

separate
this
5.

mim
is

the

word following

the Feminine form, but

form

not always shown.


are Feminine
?

What words

The Arab grammarians


-iaAi

divide the Feminine into


(ii)

(i)

Fem. by
{i.e.

(i.e.

by form or sound) and


Let us take the

Fem.

by ^^^

by

meaning).

latter first.
:

Words feminine by

signification are of four classes


(a)

Names of women
A>

Exs.

^ZAC'

'A'isha (or Ayesha,


^

M's
etc.

favourite

wife)

A4.UU (his daughter) ^-^j,j

/Cj*

-^^
Exs.

(b)

Wo7'ds which can only he female appellatives


A

sZ^p^

'

Sister,

mother,

Z^{

daughter, jAi>- pregnant;


:

etc.

(c)

Names of countries and towns

^y/j^

J"^

(Dear) Egypt; A^^S^Ji


>Lil

aS^>

Mecca

(the honoured).

(j^y Tunis; J^jr^ Algiers;

'

(Damascus, or Syria).

(d)

io8

Double members of the body


,,

Exs.

C)^
^^^

eye

(or,

spring of
leg

shoulder; 0^' ^^ 0>^ ear;

hand; ^^^J

(or,
6.

foot)

f^jS arm;

pi5 foot.
?

Are any other words regarded as feminines


(a)

Yes, three classes

"Broken Plurals" being treated as feminine singular

(i.e.

neuter),

we speak

of

o-AJ^=*"

l/^' immortal

souls,

and give the

adjective a feminine singular termination to agree with "souls".


(b)

The names
)

of the letters of the /Alphabet (such as fa, 'ain,

etc
(c)

are treated as feminine.

There

is

also a

list

of about thirty

words said

to

be

"Feminine by common
house (or residence)
the present
;

usage.''
(j^A)

The most
j^\

useful of these are

jb
{cf.

soul;

well;

^ j>ju
fire.

war;

war ^^^^>-'

Vj^O

U^->

earth; j*>- wine;

sun (but J**


7.

moon

is

Masculine)

j wind;
?

Which
(a)

are "Feminine
all

by Termination"
o

Almost
a

words ending in

Exs.

Aj

j>-

vowel
A*^

^o

word;

ojj^

a chapter;

^^^^
A>*--^

a picture;

a garden;

Aj^^ a (female) striker;

a (female) sheikh. oi

But just one or two proper names, or

titles,

men happen

to

end

in

as

<>^

Talha ^^^>' successor,

i.e.,

Khalif (Caliph).

The word
(b)

must, in that case, be masculine.


s ervile
*^i

Those ending in a
-ii^'*^

as

^^

j*>-

red;

^\j^

grandeur;
(c)

desert;
(J'
^^^-^-J*-

*ij-X^ a virgin

^^^\

(adj.) white.

Those ending in
(^*"^

Exs.

Salma;

most
(J J
I

beautiful
(adj.) first

(female); {Sj^?
;

remembrance; ^^> fever;

c^^A^ greater

(f).


8.

log

What
It

is

the feminine of ^>-^


it

(some one).
it is

needs no feminine, as
J^?-l

stands, for

a vague expression
:

but
of

(in

Construction) one

of... (c.f.

19

15) takes the place

J>^_5 (one, adj.)


-X>

which cannot be used


thus:

in construction.

The

feminine of

is ci-^^^^
>
o

One
One

of the girls OllJi ^^J?-^


of

One
One
z**.^''

of the ladies,
of

0^-^-**i

iS-^^^

them (masc.)

J'->^>'

them
)

(fern.) (^*'-^'^],

Exercise 42a.

(About Damascus

^^

u>Cil^jV>,l

(r)

^1^1)1

J, 'J\) ii(L

Lf L Coy/, V.II
'(.111
I

jyj)
!

'^'-^i^''

3^

(V)
(a)

G. j^ J iV
Exercise 42b.
1.

'oV dj'i

dlli

Si's-

Ci/

My

little

daughter wishes
its

to visit

Damascus, because she


Country of Syria).

has seen
2.
3.

picture.
?

Where
Is
it

is

Damascus
?

It is in

Syria

(lit.

like Cairo

45.

It is

a garden in the desert.


is

But the sun


Is

intense there.
}

6.
7.

the desert red or white

The

desert

is

yellow.
there,
i.e.

The Khalifa
in

(Prince of Believers)

was dwelling

Damascus.

8.

How

was

that

That [was] because Damascus was

his city,

''

1.

no

it ?

Lesson 43.
Given the Masculine, how do we form a Feminine from

The commonest way


remember our
rule

is

to

add

i to

it,

but of course

we must
(S are

(given in Lesson 17) that the

and

each preceded by fatha.

So from
prophetess

vilL*

we

get 4Ss-U queen

from

we

get

i-.x

from

^^
and

wise

(or, col-

loquially,

doctor)

^^-^^

lady-doctor;
aL"IJ

and from
A^^li*

x.-l:>

physician, doctor
2.

'^^*' Note also

Can

this rule
;

be applied to (what we

call)

Adjectives

Certainly
as

we have already
big
(f.)
;

learnt
(f.)
;

few examples, such


noble,
or,

S^JT
(f.);

A-11^

good

<'*Ij-^

honour-

able
3.

^*^>j*

sick

(f.)

Is

there
:

Feminine of
^^^*i

'

greater,

^S\

the greatest?
(S

Yes

it is

on the form
(f.)

thus

iSjy

greater and

J^^^

the greatest
the smallest
first

So yJ)l\
and

the smallest, (m)


the
first

makes iSj^*^^
j'

(f.)

oyi^

(m.)

makes (Jj

the
59.

(f.)and j' another (m.) iSj*^^ another


is

(f.)

See Lesson

4.

What

common
that

to the

examples given
are
all

in 3

Firstly,

the

Masculines

upon the form


that
is

ji

(Comparison of Adjectives, Lesson


radical
is

59)

to say, the first

preceded by

alif,

even though the form

may
all

not at

once be recognized.
the form
^l-**
,

Secondly, the Feminines are


is,

upon

that

that the first radical takes (Jamma,


is affixed.

and, after the final radical, alif maqura


a
I-

5.

Is there

not another

Ji

'

with a quite different meaning

Yes, this word always represents one of two things, a colour


or a physical defect.

Thus

j*^

'

red,

l?J J

'

blue,

^^^

Ill
blind.

The feminine

is

on the form

^"^^i that

is,

after the last


-^i

of the three radicals

is

affixed the servile termination

Thus

we

get the feminines

-^'j^^*

red;
is

^^JJ

blue: '^^^^ blind etc.

(Lesson 58 :4b.)
6.

The madda

not always shown.


?

Are there any

Common Gender nouns


we say they

There are over a score of words with masculine or feminine


adjectives,

so that

are "either Mas. or

Fem."

way (Quranic word)


heaven
peace (after war)
Exercise 43a.

i'^^
Vl*l*

state,

condition

O^ y>'^ "^ J^s

finger

tcI

road,

way

l5j^

^ 0\J^

i\^\

^ij Jul)

c>}^**

3*

*-^33

z^)^^

^^ (^Ir^l

jjli^ll c-^UT^I

Exercise 43h.
1.

Do you
:

(f.)

know
is

the blind virgin t

2. 3.

Yes her name


Fatima
is

Mariam and she


but 'A'isha

is

the most beautiful


girl.

girl.

little girl

is

the smallest

4.

The owners

of the largest

stores

(grands magasins) are

Mohammed Aly and


5.

Son.

Write [down] the major premise and the minor premise.


Will there be peace after this war
?

6.

If

God

will.

stores

OJ V^
more beautiful
^^**>
'

owners
introduction (to a book)

better^

premise

(in logic)


Lesson
1.

112

4:4:, number.
?

How many
Three:
for things

numbers has the Arabic noun

Singular, used for one only; Dual, for two, usually

which are

in pairs; Plural for three or more.


?

2.

How

is

the Plural formed

There are two principal ways; either


suffix to the singular, or (b)

introducing one or
'

(a) by adding a special by breaking up the word and more servile (i.e. weak or "servant") letters

among
The

its

radicals.

(Compare,
(b)

in English, (a)

adding

s to

boy,

making boys; and


first
is

changing man

to men).

called the Regular Plural


;

and

is

mostly used for

animate beings

the second

is

called the Broken Plural

and

is

generally (though not always) used for inanimate things.

The Regular
and
is

Plural

is

extremely simple because so invariable


in

the Broken Plural

may be "broken"

many

different ways,

one of the

difficult sections of

Arabic study.

We

shall

give a few examples and illustrate the use of servile letters in

Lesson
3.

49.

Plurals of Derived

Nouns

in

Lessons 62

67.

State the rule for Regular Masculine Plural.

THE RULE.

From
etc.

the singular

noun remove special casefor

endings, tanwin,

and add j^ una,

the

Nominative

Case, or Oi ina, for either of the (Accusative or Oblique Cases.


as

'

'

Example

peasant
s ^

is

'ry^^

and peasants (nom)


*
>

is

U^*"^* and
its

accusative
plural

o):^^^ Similarly

^f*

(evangelist) forms

nom.
(mis-

U^^-^y and

the other cases (jt^j^*^*

also

J-^j*

sionary, or "one-sent") gives Oji^^

and

^v-x-*- j

Similarly
4.

^t-^ many, takes j^

)^^^

and

^y jy-i

Is this distinction of

cases always observed in the formation

of the Plural

.?

In the written language

it

is,

but the colloquial uses the Ac-

cusative for all cases,


-

and drops the fat-ha of the nun, so we


*

get Cx^y^*

(^.yrf*

0>^** J*

Uiv-"^^^

uy*^^


5.

113

But

thought there were three cases


in ''Fully

There are three cases

Declined Nouns", but only


(see 52
:

two special forms

for those "Imperfectly Declined"

7).

The Regular Masc.


6.

Plural
r-

is

an example of the

latter.

What
It

is

this sign

is

an

abbreviation of the word

^^

which here means

"Plural"; just as in English

we
a

represent the
single-?is

word "Plural"

by PL, so
plural
to
is

in

Arabic we use

(Note that when the


it

given, only the nominative


to the

quoted;

is

quite easy
it).

change
all

accusative

when

the sentence requires


-r

In

Arabic dictionaries the word following the

is

the

plural of the
7.

word preceding

it.

Enter these additional examples in the Note Book.

Use two

or

three pages for "Regular Masculine Plural", and give the three

columns.
Meaning
Plural

Singular

An

aviator

ojjLU
i

peddlar

oy-C)
^
J
">

A pickpocket
A
teacher
inspector

tlL^i

'^'
'J^-

An

worker

>r
j^JU
^

Absent
Entering
\

^^^
>^\.

'('

>

r.

Leaving
\
>

h^
'C>

v.-

Defeated
Useful

winner

^;ju


-- 114

Exercise 44a.

>

'

'

'*".>.-'

pUjVl
^

<^. ^AA^I Jli,

-J

(r)


L<ji^l

(j^Vi

(Jrvf-!>yi

jj>-'^^

(o)

JUjrjp^.^lU
Exercise 44b.
1.

>^ T^ ^

-^

(s)

Aviators are very useful in the present war.

2.

But

many

of

them were

killed.
is killed.

3.
4.

Yes, sometimes one of them

Some
Not

of the workers are absent in spite of the presence of

the inspectors.
5.

all

the fellaheen are entering the war.


is

("Entering"

governed

in

Accusative Case by

laisa,

but,

as a

Participle, itself governs /tarb in the Accusative Case)


6.
7.

Many

of them are quiet and doing their work.


is

One

of the ladies

living

among them

for she

is

a doctor

and came there


8.
I

in order to visit the sick

woman.

heard that she was a princess, or an "honourable.'*


is

9.

Her work
9on<Jition),

honourable, in

any case

{lit.

upon every

"

Lesson 45.
1.

115

(Constr).
in

MASC, PL.

How

do we place the Regular Masc. Plural


this,

Construction

To do

we

first

apocopate the Plural of the antecedent by


in

removing the nun, leaving the word ending


the consequent
is,

wau

or ya, while

of course,

in the Genitive.

This applies
a proi.

equally whether the consequent be a substantive or

nominal

affix.

Examples

the prince's murderers

j\^^
jU*jAJl

jl)lj

the school teachers

^^
C*

with the town inspectors

i'^t'i^

(ji*^^*

your teachers are good [fellows] (nice men)


they took their victims
our teachers are going inside (entering)
2.

O^.^t**

-^^y^

r^fr^'^-* -5"^

Ojr^^
?

\JjJ^m

What happens
The
the

in the case of

"my teachers
is

accusative of the antecedent


^

always used

(for
is

euphony);

two ya's accordingly coalesce and a shadda


(J

as in
3.

and -A^ and we get

placed over,

I''

*"

1 '' -^ ^^a**^

(c.f.

carefully 34:10-12).
?

When
(a)

should the student use Regular Masculine Plural

For vroper names of men. This only applies to Arabic names such as Muhammad, Aly, etc. and
speaking of three or more persons thus named

real, original
is

used when

(i.e.

namesakes)

jjJ*>JI the Mohammeds.


If,

(Not often found).


title,

however, the proper name, or


o

ends

in

the feminine

ending
be used
(b)

(as

few

do),

then the Reg. Masc. Plu. cannot


lil>' (br. pi.)

c.f.

^'^::^>-

Khalifa (Caliph), which takes 4

Participles derived
in

from

the verbs, -

if

they can

make

their

feminine

and

if

they denote rational beings.

Examples
>

^j^^^a
^-

from
^j

Js.^^
it

'^a

Moslem;
^'
^
-

j>Jlk from
'
it.

lit.

^n\>
*

an oppressor;

y^ y
^

^^

^believers;

(J^*'J^ ^sinners.
in

These words are

participles of the

Fourth Conjugation, to come

Lesson

76'


(c)

116

Relative Adjectives ending in {S (this will be explained

in detail in L: 144, sufficient to

say here that from

j^a.A

Egypt

we form ^^^/ Misriy an Egyptian, by adding


shadda, which ya
is

a ya and a
:

preceded by a kasra).

Other examples

Syrians

A A
A

Syrian

j'.:h:f

Chinese

Chinese

Japanese
Christians

Jap
Christian

%S'S'.

tr-r
the Messiah. In

The

last

word

is

directly derived from 7x**-.J'

Writing the Accusative Case of the above four examples note


that 3 ya's are pronounced,
(d)

and two

written,
:

with one shadda.

Some Comparatives and

Superlatives
T-

>

'

^
".
'

more excellent
the greatest

j^>
J^S J
J

<r<i\

i;^^
Forms
''

r-

(e)

Certain Intensive
to

(L: 146), such as

J^**

and

J**^^

These are used

denote

very-much-so" of any quality or

"always-at-it" of a person's occupation.

See 44:7 for the


i.e.

word

j\.*

used of one
" ^^ c-Lj

who

is

always-flying
is

professional

aviator, then
i.e.

for one

who

always-hawking-for-sale,

a peddlar, and similarly Jl-i5 one whoisalways-snatching,


a pickpocket.
is

i.e.

These take
^-.51

their Plural in

j^
-A'

and

^js,^

LiiJ

very similar.

-kj

saint, takes j^***^


.''

and (jw)

-W

4.

Are there any special instances

Yes; the following special


to

words take the regular masculine plural apparently subject

no

rule. (But, as a

matter of

fact,

everyone of them has another

plural form sometimes used with a different meaning, so that


this use of the regular plural is to

show

special meaning).


worlds
(in

117

universe
JviC'

Quran)

J_y*^^^

sons, children

Oy^\
>

^
r-

son
year

ijf^

years
N.B.

Oy-^

AI-*

The word

*^
pi.

is

a feminine

noun

(in

form), so

often

takes the fem.

(46:3).

O'jl--'

Exercise 45a.

'j^-Jp\'j,Jy^M

{))

j<Jlli L.J jS Juki

(r)

.^^

.^

"

" > f ,

"^

">

>

>

^.^

it '

*^

J-fn^'^r**'*

(*t^*l^ J^-V*-*-* l/L-^j-^^' l^*'.

V'^;

Exercise 45h.
1.

The Prince (or Commander)


Khalifa) has gone out.

of

the Believers

(i.e.

the

2.
3.

The
Are

(true) believers in

Egypt
?

are

many.
I
:

Praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds (Sura


all

l).

4.
5.

Christians saints

The Japs dwell near

to the Chinese.

6.

Do
of

not insult the fellaheen

(peasants)

for the

fellahin

Egypt

are

my

teachers.

7.
8.

Go out in Some of

the path of God, the

Muslims

Syrians are Muslims,

Christians.
9.

"Holy War"). some of them [command of Moses.


!

(viz.,

and

The children

of Israel dwelt in Egypt,then

went out of it

at the

1.

ii8

fem. pl.
?

Lesson 46.
How
The
is

the Regular

Feminine Plural formed


plural
substitutes

regular
if

feminine

Ol

dt for the

or adds sZy

no

ex.

C>\S j>-

^ ^ J^-

a vowel,
for

but

it

is

O^
two

a^w7i for the

Nominative Case and

CS\ dtin

the other

cases, the Accusative


pl.

and the Oblique.


article or

Fem.

nouns defined (by the


:

by construction) of

course lose the tanwin. C^LJ'


2.

CuJi
.?

Which words
(a)

will take this

Regular Feminine Plural


in
o

Almost

all

words ending

(Revise 42

7).

Note.U

a masculine, forming
its

its

fem: by adding

takes
Pl.

the Reg, Masc. PL, then

fem

will take the Reg.

Fem.

Teachers

i->lU.>

^ AU*^ ^ "^f^-^
^
:

0^*i* r-

J^^

Many
Believers

'^^ J^^-"^

'

O^j^-^ ry^^
*

^u^

'^t-**-^

^J^^ ^0^^
v^VI>.
^>

Other examples from Fem. Nouns

Garden (Paradise)
Verse
(of

^
r-

a!?-

Quran)

OU
OUl
^ u^^

^<^^ ^.L
Ail

Language
(b)

7^

4il

Some words
alif

ending in iS ^^^t*^
is

fever.

The
(c)

maqsOra

written as a ya, forming yat-un.

Proper names

of

women

(if

real Arabic)
c.->Uajj tw^-^J^j

Zeinab

^ J

"-;

4
7-

*-

Fatima
(d)

OLi>li

i^UU

A few foreign Masculine words! (This appears strange, but the Reg. Fem. Pl. is available for miscellaneous words)
gentleman; Mr.
<^\9^\ ^^^
7-

^?"'j^
7-

pasha (Turkish)
stable

O^^C
O^l-wU,^^
7-

l^Cj

J^Lju^^

(e)

119
;

A few

other items, not yet studied

e.

cj.

verbal_ nouns, the


etc.

names
3.

of the letters, the

names

of the
?

months

Are there any special exceptions

Yes

the following

make

slight alterations before

adding O^

heaven

mother
sister
is it

C
If

year
altered

the second radical bears a sukun,


in
o

Words endin g

and having a sukun over the

m iddle

radical replace this sukun by a suitable vowel


the reg. plural ending.
A>

when taking

K>

>

.^ >

J^'^^J^

chamber
blow
in construction
t

darkness
a village

oC\j^?r ^\j*^
Can
Yes
a fem. plu.
:

noun be placed
is

when

it

the antecedent the only change

made

is

to

remove the tanwin.

Thus the Prophet's wives were


O'^J'^y^^

called

Mothers of the Faithful"


" with
(

Oy

'

or,

in

the

company
dlluil

of

the

king's

sisters,"

is

dlU'v:^
6.

Xft

or

Cj\

c
sisters, of the

Give an example of a feminine plural as Consequent.

:y^4")^
Vocabulary
46.

si
r

lie

mother of the
all

Enter up and learn

words given

in this

and

previous lessons.

Note that the Singular, Plural and English


;

meaning must

he learned together

with verbs, the Past, Present

and English must be learned together.

Note the Masc. numeral


'JU

in

CL

>

(Explanation

later).

Principal
Self-Test 45.

^-i-O

(*

(^i-O

director

IjJ^

j^Ja
pi.

(l) State the rule for

placing a reg. mas.


:

noun as

the antecedent of the construct state (45


(2)

l).

Write
masc.

out,
pi.

from memory, the classes of nouns using the


:

reg.

(45

3)

Also the exceptions

(45

4),

120
Self-Test 46.
If

~
(46
:

fern.

plu.

noun become the antecedent (in


to
it ?

construction)

what happens

5).

Exercise 46a.

'^'V/

^''

^''

*'*'.

l'*

*!..

*^^^

^-.^

**

^<c

Exercise 46h.
1.

Where can my daughter study


*'

the languages of the world


girls'
II,

2.

Languages are studied at the (The verb taught", being Conj.

school.

is

avoided here).
little girls.

3.

The

mistress (teacher) of .the school has four


all

4.
5.

And
The

of

them are pupils

in her school.

[absent.
(f.)

All the mistresses are present to day, and the clerks

are

6.

pupils

know

(lit.

are-keeping-in-meniory

well the

verses of the chapter.


7. 8.

(Word used

for

Chapter of Qui 'an).

9.

10.

The pupils (f) entered the school four years ago. [the Believers ". The Muslim girls are believers in God. The wives of the Prophet Muhammad are the Mothers of The wicked servant (slave) will be beaten with many blows
**

and the

faithful servant with

few blow.


What
It is

121

dual.

Lesson 47.
is

the Dual

Number
The Dual

a special form used to represent two of a kind, such as a


is

pair, or a couple.

common
?

to all Semitic

languages

and
2.

to
is

Greek.
the Dual formed in Arabic

How

General Rule didd j' to the Singular for the Nominative Case.

Since most feminine nouns end in

it

is

easy to see that the

Dual of the Fem,


jlli)
1

will

end

in jll

For example

a daughter,

two daughters.
is

Needless to say, the tanwin must be


in the Dual.
?

dropped, as there
3.

no tanwin whatever
is in

What

happens

if

the noun

the other cases

Bide for

the other two

cases add J;v

to the Singular to

form

the Dual of either of the Accusative or the Oblique Cases.

Note the diphthong ai of aim.


4.

Give examples of
M. Nominative
Nominative

all

these in tabular form.


one

two men

man

F.

two women
Iwo men
two women
with two
\^
^J'

one

woman
man

M. Accusative

one

F.

Accusative

^, "

one

woman
man

hi

M. Oblique

men

^X?/ j V.
>'^

^
^

with one

F.

Oblique

with two

women

yj"

1^"^

with one

woman

>

Memorise the following short vocabu ary


^
a

t
\

two ears two eyes


two masters
two days

^jIjS

two nations

two languages
two mistresses (teachers)
jll*l>i

two nights

(jULI

two months

two years

olli^


6.

122

Is there

Yes

any similarity between the Dual of the Noun and Verb ? compare the Past with the separate and affixed Pronouns
the

and Al-Mudari*^ with


Affixed Pronoun

Nominative

(see

Lesson
Verb

29).

Separate Pronoun

(Al-Madi)

1-'-'

'-^'
.

C::lr^

Al-Mudari' of Verb.

Nom

of

Noun

of Agent.

good deal of similarity


(Past)

will

be found between the dual


(Personal)

verb

and the dual separable

pronoun

especially in the second person.


alif

Notice the special use of


difference

throughout,

and also

that the

between

the

Dual and the Plural Masc. Prons. consists


to the separate

in the extra alif

possessed by the former: this interesting point applies equally

pronouns and

to the

pronominal

affixes.

Revise

Lessons giving the Dual of the Pronoun and Verb.


7.

What
This
lated.

is

the use of the particle


a conjunctive particle
ay

in our exeicise

.''

is

and sometimes cannot be

trans-

**^x.U means "then,


\a
'

let

him hear"

(See 32

4).

^
^

is

frequently preceded by

which means "as for" or "in the

matter

of..."

Example

(^>V1>

OUi
to a

(j^l/J

'

-"^'^^^

"As

for the sick child, [well] he died yesterday".


is

Whaf
It is

the

word S^ii> prefixed


literally

noun in construction
it is

word which
in the

means "Presence"; but

always

used
titles.

East as a polite prefix to people's names and


"h--^^-^
o

Thus we say (abruptly)


0*;.,,

but

if

we wish

to

speak
to a

^^

of

him

politely

we say
'

/^-.-i^'

o^^>- Similarly we never say

gentleman Z^
to

thou, but dX^^a.>- thy

presence. In translation
"

English we had
it)

pronunciation of

Hadratak by "thou" or "you".


better

render

"

(colloquial

6.

123

Why

is

shaikh in the Oblique Case


titles

Because such Arabic


while the
State.

as o^a>- are vowelled as antecedents

name

(or ofifice) is the

consequent of the Construct


is

His Greatness the Sultan of Egypt

rendered The*'

greatness-of the-Sultan-of

Egypt ^^4

jlk\.^i^laP. The-Majesty-

of-the-King d\ij\ i)^^ means, His Majesty the King.


10.

A more

formal style of address

is

formed by placing s,^>\^


<i.lli'

in construction with 43M>- etc.

and releasing
I

as:

'^. oCkL
Exercise 47a.

CiiJi L.>-^^

A-Is^ I'^t.
r
'

'h.):\

L^(^
'{^
{

^^\''\

:s\\

''

""

".^K

''

y\

(j^v_:l^ i:*

l'^:.

-rj^

'J

^JS ^Jj

*">

(t)

oLlk

oljr_^ii

Ui

Ijis-

4^.

jJ'jl^

*.

(o)

uUL^
Exercise 47b.
I. I.

jli,

'a1

jS^Vl

ln

;>'^

(v)

3.

4.

5.

Did you leave your town [on] two nights ? Yes and previous to that I had not been out of it for two years. Whoever has two eyes, let him see. Whoever has two ears, let him hear. The mother of the two children is very ill, as for the two
:

children [they are] well.


6.

7. 8.

of the two nations, Egyptian and Syrian, one (i.e., the same). Sheikh So-and-so has two pretty daughters. (See 25 7). His Highness (or Greatness) the Sultan received (i.e.,
:

The language

is

in

audience) the two great

(i.e.

high) Ministers.

1.

124

in construction
?

Lesson 48. dual.


How
To
is

noun

in the

Dual placed
o^lxH^

place a Dual

Noun
as

in construction as antecedent
is

we remove
'jllj

the 7iun,
is

Example

"two parents", ai^M

"the child's two parents"; di>ali%

.^rJT

write to

your parents.
2.

What are the two alifs in the first example ? The first one is all that is left of the mark
removing the
nuriy

of the

Dual

after

while the second one

is

part of the

^'

marking the

definite.

This needs careful pronunciation:


accusative
or

walida-1-walad.
walidai-1-walad.
3.

The

oblique

would

be :

Give an example of the Dual Feminine Construct

"The governess went


of "Sultan"
is

out of the

Har^m (women's
word and not

quarter) with

H. H. the Sultan's two daughters." (Caution


part of the normal

the nun at the end


to

be confused

with the dual)


3a.

Why

is

there a kasra at the end of

^\
to

in this

sentence

Because before wala the sukun has


(here kasra) to
4.

be replaced by a vowel
(Revise 12:
I2J.

make pronunciation

possible.
difficult
is

But suppose the singular noun has a


In that

ending

like -iIj^a

and similar cases


virgins

the

hamza

changed

into wau.

Thus:Two
(j'^jljip5.

(nom.) J^j^ji^ and (Ace. or Oblique)


u'^'j***^ and

Two
done

deserts

^^y j9t,^

What
alif

is

in the

case of alif maqsura, or in the case of long


1

which was originally wau


original

The
thus

radical must

be restored

in

forming the dual


its

^'

a youth, restores the ya, and forms

dual

0^^*i

Similarly
writes
writes

l^c a

stick, or
staffs.

stafi",

restores

its

original wau,
its

and

o^^Jl^

two

^>-

a fever, restores

ya and

OLv>-

two fevers

(c.f.

the Reg. Fem. Plural 46:2b.)

125

and
r\

6.

What happens
wau,

^
to

t:

a father,

a brother

These two words are actually


a final
(

defective,

having originally had


(c.f.

>.

^>
\

*)

which has

to be restored,

54:2).

Two

fathers

(jVJt

abawani (which can be sometimes be

used like
brothers,
7.

u^^^j
c.f.

to

mean

"

two parents"), and jij*-^

two

46

3 for plural of "sister".

Is

there a Dual Personal

Pronoun

.?

Certainly; since pronouns arejiouns in Arabic.


is Uifc

"They two"

and "you two"

is

UZ

>

At

this

point turn back to

Lesson 25:3 and revise the table


Plural.
8.

in full:

Singular,
?

Dual,

Note that the dual pronouns are

Common
Gender.
^

Gender.

What

are the affixed dual pronoun-terminations

These are
Exercise 48a.

C*

and

l^^

both

Common

J.iii

'^ W'^j'

^''

'-^^

u^-^:y O^Sj^
u^Si-^Vi
l^

(r)
(r)

;>_;;^i^'>^ljtjUC;rjUi

>iV ^'^i J j;r*

c.:^ li /saJf Cr

if,

(t)

Exercise 48b.
1.

aVj^^K C^'^J^iL}
sick; their disease
is

(v)

2.
3.

You two [are] good men. The two women are very As for the two princesses,
the other wicked.

fever.

one of them
one
I

is

virtuous,

and
intel-

4.

About
I

the

ligent
5.

two sons of the queen, and the other ignorant.


that,

of

them

is

know everything about

because

sat with the king's

6.
7.

two ministers. Has His Highness the Sultan a son The two sons of the Sultan are big.

He

has two sons.


Lesson 49.
I.

126

broken plural.
".

Nouns not taking

Regular Masc. or Regular Fern. Plural are

said to have a "Broken Plural


'

Why

this

name

"Broken Plural" means a


it"

plural

formed out of the singular


servile letters.

by "breaking into

and inserting one or more


?

2.^What

are servile letters

They

are those that serve a root


in

by forming derived words

and are collected together

one Arabic word

l^Jj^xlU

me.

"

you asked me for her' ; ^jS,

being the 2nd Person Plur.

Past with the nihi of precaution and the ya showing the object

Not

all

these letters will be used in Broken Plurals, others


62, 63)

will be

used to form Derived Nouns (Lessons


72-95).

and also

Derived Conjugations (Lessons


3.

How many
Over
thirty,

different forms of

Broken Plural are there few


at a time. in

but

we

shall

do

Two

will suffice

for this
4.

double lesson.

More

will

come
?

Lessons 64

67.
;

May any

Singular take any Plural

No; most forms of singular are restricted to one or two plurals and note that it often happens that the existence of a second
plural
5.

form indicates an additional meaning.


:

Note the forms

J,il

<i*i

Juil

<l.Ail
i.e.,

These four are called "Plurals of Paucity"


This special

ihey

may

he

used of persons and things not exceeding ten in number

(3-10).

meaning

(of "a

feu^) only holds provided the


nuuiy,

word has two or more plural -forms, one for


6.

one for few.


1

How

does

^jS

(a lesson) take

^jj.^ for Plural

The word
on
its

^jS
letters

being a

triliteral

noun and having a sukun


the

middle

letter takes a

first

two

with the
this

wdu in the plural and vowels homogeneous damma. Using


:

the

formula we lay down

Approximate Rule

"Nouns

of the singular form '^*i generally form their plural

either on the form Jj*i or else on the

form

jUi

This

is
it.

approximate, not absolute; but some hundreds of words follow


/.

127
1

Give examples on the Form


Meaning
lessons

Plural

Singular

Meaning
sins

Plural

Singular

hearts

tji

^0 ^
plates

houses

stars

money

letters

months

wars

souls

kings

breasts

i^
To
jj*i

robbers

u
note-book the

N. B.

get this table into the vocabulary

Large-Hand Form

may go

at the top of the

page while

any remarks may go


8.

at the foot or

be omitted.

What do we
That not
Jj,
all

learn from the

lJjL

7-

diU
in jji

words with plural


it

have singular

in

and conversely
>
.

is

true that not all singulars in

J.i

%
I

take a plural in tl^ai

Many

take

tJl".!

Lesson 50.
(In continuation of the subject).
1.

Of what nouns

is

JIV)

the plural-form
(
)

The

singular three-letter form


its first letter

J*>

takes an alif-hamza

before
its

and

inserts

an

alif of

prolongation after
o

t
^

second

letter.

This produces a word on the form


I

t)^*

2.

Give examples of j^*

cO
thoughts

I2H

rivers

works

verses of poetry

^
tribes (Israel)

J^

forms, diagrams

tjCsCil

J<'-'e

burdens,

times
loads
verbs,

}
flowers

deeds
pens

0^
papers,

>3

leaves (of tree)

children

wealth

acts

tjc^i

>
-1^
?

gates
conditions
states
1

friends

l^w^l 1.>G
ti>l

it

nobles

days

3.

Why

two separate columns

Because the words


plural in

in the first

one (right-hand) forming

their

Juil have
column

their singular actually

on the model Ji^


"

the second
etc.,

(left-side)

has words such as

thought s"

which duly form

their plural

on the same form, but whose

singulars are of various forms.

Keep

the two separate, but

boldly label each with the model form.

The memorising
others.

of

all

the words given will

take time, and

the student must expect

some lessons
of

to require longer at

than
rules,

Also,

some students are stronger


list

grammar

while others memorise a


4.

words quickly.
?

Why
The
was

are four

words marked with an asterisk


little
c-;lj

Because they are a


three

difficult

to follow

at

first

glance.

words

Jl']*

and

Jti-

have each an

alif

which

originally a wau.
to

In the plural they

show

a curious ten-

dency

what

scientists call ^'reversion to type",

and the wau

re-appears, followed by a new servile alif. To recapitulate, the singular J j ^ takes a new alif before mim and one after
r


wau, and thus we get
In the
^}^^A^

129

Similarly the others.


!

amwdU

case of

^ y^

the

wau

reverts to ya

Thus we have
alif

Put the new

first

alif

and the new intermediate

and you
\

have
5. It

j.L_>

I.

But the two ya's coalesce and so we get"^U


the student to

days.

will interest

know

that he has
"

now made
plurals,"

considerable

progress

towards grasping

broken

supposed
"

to

be one of the most

difficult parts of

i^j" ^Jl

q\J^

The-tongue-of-the-angels."

Learn a few words


bit)
is

at

a time

iliL^i iiicJi

shay'an fashay'an (bit by

but always Singular,

Plural and Meaning together.


Exercise 50a.

This

most important.

iJ^Jl :>*yV

(Royal Children).
> . * .^

Ui;r^

'j^iU Vj

I;

jlVi'i

^V iJ/jr ^Hy

jl'^lVl

j*

.(i)

^'^w^i
Exercise 50.
1.

/;Yr:*^

(rA=*''^'

^^-^u^i

^^

(o)

Do

royal children study in their houses, or do they go to


?

their teachers
2.

They

live (dwell) in castles (palaces), not in houses.

3.

And
their

the castles [have] gardens in

which are
;

rivers,

and on
(i.e.

two banks

(sides) are

many

trees

their leaves

the

leaves of which) and their blossoms are of pretty forms.


4.

Are kings' children's thoughts


actions like our actions
children.
?

like

our thoughts and their

They

are just (exactly) like our

5.

Who

are their friends

Their friends are

all

from [among]

the nobles.

130

50.

EXAMINATION PAPER

Carefully copy the questions, answer fully, allowing sufficient time, but without external help, write clearly ; then send up with name and address.
I.

(l)

Give the Plurals of aviator, more excellent, a month, a


language, a pupil, darkness, " this one," "that one", a burden, a thought, work, a star.
plate, a year, a

II.

Give the third Commandment. Write out the Alphabet in its regular order. (3) To English
(2)
:

dj^^i x>\

j^a{\ irl^J oLi-s

t)

Oi^ ^A53

<ij,^

^\
V) A)

^u:< err
III.

(l)

(2)
(3)

(4)
(5) (6)

Our teachers were going out. The two evangelists are not very intelligent. The believers (m) and believing-women shall enter the Garden (Paradise). They did not strike her with many blows. That Moslem gentleman has two wives (women). Many Moslem women are ignorant but the two mentioned
(f)

are not ignorant.


to see

(7)

Your two brothers have come


your parents.

you

they are with

(8)

The two sons

of our prince are well-known.


be/ore

N. B.

A.

good percentage of marks should be obtained,


51,

going on

to Papers

etc.

The

translation

*''

fo

Arabic"

is,

in

every Exercise, the


clearly.

most important part and must never be omitted.

Write

131

51.

Lesson

"Eye, Voice and Ear."

'*'-'

""^^^ '^^

-^

* > >

e^

1.

2.
3.

Name is King of kings and Lord of lords. And all His works (actions) are noble and generous. God begat not and was not begotten.
His

4.
5.

As

for

His children, they are those-who-believe


is]

in

Him.

And

as for His days (age) [there

no limit

to them.
it

6.

Heaven and

earth pass away, as for His

word

shall not

pass away.
7. 8.

His great throne

is in

heaven.

And
:

the earth

is

the-footstool-of-His-feet.

NOTES
2,
3.

adjs. are fern, (neuter)

The

because of the ''broken plural."


tl3).

5.

The verb ?i;a/a(i(:/ loses its wau, but not in passive(Lesson Had-dun means " a limit " (See 33 4).
:
:

6.
8.

Zdla

is a "

hollow verb

" like

kdna (Lesson 36

5).

" Footstool " is a "

Noun

of Place " (Lesson 62).

"His two feet"

is

dual in construction (Lesson 48).

Rules

of this Exercise

See

21, 31

and

41.

132

Lesson 52 and 53.


CASE.
1.

How many
Three
:

cases are there in Arabic


(

Nominative

the subject

),

Accusative

the direct

object),

and Genitive (the indirect


are "declined"

object).

Some

authorities,
etc.

however, call the third case Oblique, to cover Dative,


2.

What words
Nouns
etc.
:

are,

originally, almost all declinable except

pronouns
:

in verbs, the Present is inflected, the Past is not. (See 29

3,4).
3.

Particles are indeclinable.


are //^declinable
?

What nouns
(a)

Pronouns, although a sub-section of Nouns, are not dec;

linable

(b) all

words ending in

(alif

maqura) are quite

indeclinable.
4.

What happens
It

to

an indeclinable noun

retains the

same case-form throughout, being, so

to speak,
^

immutable.

notable example

He

is

a well-behaved youth (ISIom


a well-behaved

:)

^i^ ^> j*
I

We

saw

youth (Ace:)

U^ ^i
1

ll

jlil

We
5.

went with

a well-behaved youth fOblg.)


tell

^-^3

li^i^i

Then how can you


By the context
panying, and,
;

the case

there are often declinable

adjectives accom-

in

any

case, the

meaning
?

is

usually clear.

6.

Are there any words partly declined

Yes

and we

call these " Imperfectly call

Declined."

Some gram-

marians (fond of Latin terms)


words)
Others
7.

them "Diptotes" (2-case-

to distinguish
call

them from the "Triptotes" (3-case-words).

them "Nouns of the 2nd. Declension".

Mention some nouns "imperfectly declined," or 2nd Declension.


Those on the form Jil Note that J*i
(1)
I

(a)

comprises

Nouns

of colour, as

^*)

'

white
'

(2)

Nouns

of physical defect, as 7-^^


etc.,

lame;
excellent.

(3)

Comparatives

as jjai

more

8.

133

(diptotes, or

Mention some other "two case nouns"


Feminine of
the

2nd

Dul:).

(b)

Noun

of Colour

etc.

(58
-i

4)

\ IJa**

white.

Also there are two broken plurals


learn
^

in

I.

Do

not trouble to

them, as plurals, today, but note examples of each.


T-

C\i

^JliS'

divines, or doctors of

canon law.

>^>U^

intelligent ones.

'

->

\ lil*-

Khalifas,
-^

-i^yi poor.

Then "^
There
is

prophet, plural

Uj^I

anbiya'u.

also an adjective of the form

jU^^
f'j^y

angry.
for Nom.,

All the above have but two case-forms

and

^j>^^4 for the other cases.


(c)

Most foreign Proper Names.


Paul
;

Examples
f'
;

y^l Jesus;
;

^)^>

y^ Mary
indefinite.

^aIj-^ Abraham

^.^^j^

Joseph

j^j^ Egypt.

(d)

Four-syllable

Broken Plurals on the forms

J^^^J J^^y
- 6.

while

These

will

be studied in Lessons 64
offices
;

Meanwhile we give one or two examples ^rl^


mosques;
j''^:^ prizes;

Jl> l*->

^f^ ^^ capitals (of countries).

But

note that "when defined, they are fully declined.''


(e)
9.

The Regular Masculine and Fem. Plurals (cf. 44 5 etc.) Wherein consists the imperfect declension of these diptotes ? Examine them and observe the complete absence of tanwin
:

(except in the Regular Feminine Plural),


first

learn
the

this as the
is

point

the second
a
,

is

that

while

Nominative

shown by
single fatha
ivritten alike.

single
in other

damma,
words

both the other cases

use the

the Accusative

and

the Genitive are


if

But note that this would be altered


if

Ji

were

prefixed to these nouns, or


10.

they were placed in construction.

RULE

written,

Nouns "imperfectly declined'' have only two cases shown by damma and fatha respectively, and they take no tanwin; but they are fully declined when made definite,
:

whether by the Article or by being placed in construction with

nouns already defined.

IT.

134

Ij^l^Js^^J^

Giye examples,

(to

be copied, and memorised),


(Gen.)
(Ace.)
^J
I

We
We

went

to

many mosques
many mosques

UJki

entered

IjCS
**^

Ji>Hr>
*

Q>.i
^
^-^^^

Divines-of-mosques(constr.)are intelligent

^Iac-

/^.'^

J*"

We

saw a lame man

(Ace.)

Tj^' ^?"J
(Obi.)

^j^^'

We passed
That
it

by a lame
bring
^//^.

man

TTj^^ j^J*. ^Jj*

may

come

with)

more

fruit.

^.5
7).

J^lt

^ U

More
12.

fruit

was brought (was-come-with. 39


prefix Jl
to

yCS
(

J^Ji)

But suppose we

these nouns

not to foreign

names, of course)?
In that case a great

change happens.

Nouns defined by

Jl

or by

**

construct state" are no longer diptotes but

become
above

fully declined three-case nouns.

Let us prefix Jl

to the

diptotes,

with additional examples showing broken plurals

made

definite

by being placed

in construction to defined nouns.

We entered
We
went

the

mosques fAcc.)
mosques
^G^e /I

J>.Lrjl l:l^S
^

r*

**

to the

J>.lirjl

" ^\ A\ UJ^S
';

The doctors-of-the-mosques
The doctors

are intelligent >^^ac

>

I^JlI

\ [Ji.^

of Cairo mosques are intelligent

K^n^
"-r'

la.fi

>

!>.

C^lfc-

We We

saw the lame man

(Ace.)

j(H\

\^ }^

l.jla>

passed by the lame

man

(Gen.)

iTj^*^' J*" J^'


o

^'

Jj*

in the

synagogues of the Jews.

.5^^

/*>

li-

j
"
I

did not go to their schools

^.^-^;'j^>

wi^i

Exercise 53,

Translate above sentences from memory.

If

possible,

memorise them.

135

Lesson 54. ANCIENT DELE NSW N.


1.

What was
It is
I

the ancient
to

method of declension

supposed

have been expressed by the three long vowels

date). ^ and (^ (Vowel-points are of more recent


still

2.

Do any nouns
Yes;
'f'\

keep

this ancient

form

five

do

so,
^j^

when

"in construction'.

These are

^1 father;
Let
are all
in the

brother;

father-in-law, ji possessor; ^i mouth.


first

us deal with the

four of these.

and

.r>.

defective, the missing letter is wau,

which re-appears

Dual

etc.

(c.f.

48

6).

We

will

now

fully decline

^\

and

In construct.

With pronouns.

With

article. Indefinite.

Nom.
0^
t

:^5
^

a^'
f
t

Ch\
\

vi
^
fjl
(

Ace.

,-i3lil
x

A;l
(-

iJU
i-

J.'
^

L>S\
.

Oen_

:^.3(JJ

ol
.^1
^(^1

^}
^Ni
^
^

Nom.
Ace.
0^
%

>,.\
^

?^>

Gen.

.&is

3.

How
It is

ji declined

a word complete in
is

itself,

the

wau

is

present, not missinj?.

The meaning
is

"the possessor-of, or owner-of," and therefore


Its
!

onhj used in construction.


J,

plural

is

j^> and
-

(C_)^

>

Nom. JUji Wealthy man.

J-^i jjS doers of favours.

4.

136

What
If

about the word


is

mouth

J
*

used, there
;

is
^

nothing to remark, for


>^
^

its

Nom.

is

r-

r
etc.

Ace.

Li
it

and Gen. J

also

<Ji

^i

But, as a matter
etc., to

of fact,

is

usual, with the affixed

pronouns

employ

^i

which
Thus
:

is

an older form, and this follows the ancient rule


With pronouns
With a noun

in 2.
Indef.

With

article

Nom.
Ace.

J,

'4
'ii^

?'
iM

(jyj^>

?'

Gen.

}'
not (J
cilj be confused with "in me, in thee"
?

y
Arabic

5-

But

may

Yes; but the student can distinguish by the context.


meaning, but English has many more!
6.

has a few cases of identity of spelling with distinction of

Give further concrete illustrations of Lessons 53 and

54.

They

sat with the

poor people

s^iyill

(j'UI

^ ^3*^>'

Another

polite

man came

to the castle of the Sultan of Egypt.

The "owners

of

work"

(i.e.

business-men) studied in
;j*j^^^ ci

offices.

Some people
Some people

studied in schools

'j**^-)^ c/''^-''
>

(j^*i
>
-'

studied in the schools (j*j' J^J^(JJ^**'j:>^L!l

^-j

Some people

studied in the schools of rhe missionaries.

do not

strike

my

father or

my

brother because

God does

not

wish that anyone strike his father or his brother.

Exercise 43a.
1.

137

to

Arabic

2.

The people of this city are very poor. The whole of the people of this poor city
She dwelt
in a

are intelligent.

3.

white house with a lame

girl,

and they had

a black slave.
4.
5.

Istruck

AbuZaid on his mouth. (AbuZaid was a famous scamp.


of the " Father of

6.

Abu Zaid was not a virtuous man. One of them came to the palace (castle)
the fellaheen" (a playful
title

of the late Sultan of Egypt).


is

7.
8.

The Chancellor
I

of

Al-Azhar Mosque
(lit.

named Abul-Fadl.

was

visiting

His Reverence

Virtue) Prof.

Mohammed

Abul-Fadl, Chancellor of the sacred Al-Azhar.


9.

10.

What I hear from my father I say (tell) to my brother. He has shewn me a favour (lit. He is an owner of favour,
merit, against me),

or

Exercise 54b.

j^

4I' ii 4:,

aj| ^j^^ U|

^^*
*

^ \.^

***

*****
-

^^

^_^

^^

g^ jl'i!f U

lc;: l\i}{\ iiSi^\

c^u j^ji o2"

Apply
the rules of
is

138

Demonstrative and Relative.

Lesson 55.
"Case"
to the

What
The

the Demonstrative Pronoun (djLi >l

^
is

real

Demonstr: Pronoun
Dual
Fern.

is 1^

"that",

and

declined

thus:--

Plural

Singular

Mas.

Fern.

Mas.
'i

H\

or

j/i

OU
oi"

y'i

i^))4^
(4)c5^

Nom. Case.
Other Cases.

Cj}

'^

2.

But one thought there were two words,

this
is

"and

that"?

You

are right
a

the

word

^S

given above

hardly used alone.*


o

By adding

demonstrative particle, such as


e.g.,

or

13

some

very useful words are formed,


3.

l-\*
(i.e.,

and dllS
the one near).

Give,

first,

the declension of "this"

jl>
H^,
^
1

Nom. Case.
^
-;
,JIA

IJ^

OV'*
4.

Other Cases.

Now the word Add U to ii

for " that

one" (intermediately
iJlS
.

distant)

and you get

The
(5).

other numbers and

cases seem to be as with dAJS in


5.

Now,

the

word

for " that

one"
alif

(distant)

Add

i!

but interpose
alif.

in the singular

and the

then becomes defective

'd;ir

aii
iJL'dii.

Nom.

Case.

airVji

Other Cases.
6.

What

is

a Demonstrative Adjective

Demonstrative Pronoun used adjectivally

in
I '

every case

it

must he followed hy the Definite Article; as >^l;^l

J* means

"this

book" and

o^I'*^Ji

vil^Vjl

means "those
^^5" Vj
I

believers";

whereas

(without the article) Oy-*


* It
is,

"Those

[are] believers."
da, de^

however, the foundation pf the Egyptian Coll: Denionstratives,

7.

139

How
(a)

can we

tell

the Demonstrative Pronouns


of

Partly

by observing the absence

the definite article

and the presence of the tanwin; thus


[is]

'i->'J3

Ua

"this (thing)

book"

vl-.j

dil'Vji "

Those

[are]

women ".

we may need to say "Those [are] the people" ^_^UI^M}*; and as this sentence may read (simply) "These
(b)

Since

people " in Arabic,

we may (and do
[are]

usually) insert a suitable

detached personal pronoun, which makes the meaning clear.

Thus we
lit.,

say,

These

the people,

'J^li
i.e.

u^^J^
I

(^ *Nj*

These ones, they are the people.

N B.

people (indef.)

0C:_5CJI
8.

^-i*

"This,

it [is]

the

book"
?

"this is the book."

But which detached pronoun do we use

One which

agrees in number and gender.


jli^jjl
'
l^/b

These two persons are the guests


This
is

jl^^^^l ^jU*
'-.'.
,

the honourable visitor


I.

V.

' ^^

'
:

(f).

An ^'1

o yi*jl

* J*

Exercise 5oa.
2.
3.

These two suras


[are] the

(chapters).
in the book.

These-two

two chapters mentioned


is

He

(or, this

gentleman)

the famous writer.

4.
5. 6. 7.

These

[are] nice people.


is

That lady
This
[is]

merciful and generous.

the noble lady.


* his

That youth (boy) does not obey his parents do not love* him.

father

and mother, so
\

Exercise oab.

jl)'j_,JI j^'^*

(0
(t)
(r)

JC-Si j,
I

JCn^ ^'J'
8

J>-V^/.ll
3

oUr*
*

'''^^

j/^ji i^)l<li

4,"^i'p.

^Ul

and

w>-l

are Conj. IV. Verbs.

(Lesson

76).


I.

140

Lesson 56.
How
is

the Relative

Pronoun formed
55)
,c':>

(uj-^j^^

We

have already (Lesson


is

shown
.

that the feminine of the


to

Demonstrative Pronoun

Now,

form Masc

of the

Relative Pronoun we take that Demonstrative Pronoun, prefix

to

it

and then add


Dual
Fern.

the article

also.

Thus we get
and
Mas.
is

fjj\
:

alladhi which
Plural
Fern.

means "who"
as.

or "which,"

thus declined

Singular
Fern.

Mas.

Nom.

ii>" cWhat
(a)

ill

:i!l

Other Cases.
is to

be noted here

The

fact that three of the


five,

above have a lam with shadda,


have two
carefully,

but the other

including the four dual forms,

written lams beside the shadda.


for in
to
(b)

Sound
all

the

shadda

Egyptian Colloquial Arabic


illy,

these forms are reduced


etc.).

lU

(who, or which, Masc., Fern., Sing., PL,


is

That, except in the Dual, there

no difference marked

between the Nominative and the other cases.


If (_^JJI

means who

or which,

how do we

write whose

By saying "who,

his."

Thus, "the

man whose

horse
(JJ\\

is

lost"

"the

man who,

his-horse etc.

etc.

'\$i^>-

J^JI

Similarly,

"the lady who, her-horse"


languages

(Those interested
in

in the history of

may compare,
son
"
I

old-fashioned

English, the usage "John his book " for "John's book."

Write:

"The gentleman whose


" with
:

was

at

school with.'
",

Transpose
write
it

whose son
4l>l

"

to

who, with^his son


ij^-o
/C-ii^

then

thus

V- A^O-U*'
in

JuJl
wickedness

Note
(^j-^

this long example,


.
.

which "who...

their

(J*-^'

3re widely separated.

"And

those who, on

account of

all thei?' sin, I

hid

my

face from this city." (Jer.33:5).

141

him.

"

Whom

serve."

Whom = who,
^

Thus we

get " who,

serve him."

A/i>-l ^j!i

"The lady whom


"Behold, he
6.

know"

f^* J^
is

'

J-^

'

SjlJl
^*< ^^^
'

whom

thou lovest

sick"
j^^j-^^

{Ja-\^

'^j*

How

do you explain I^I^Uj

^^il

"The lessons which, them I learqt"=The lessons which


/.

learnt.

But you have Written her, not them

Yes;

not only so,

but
:

^11

is

Feminine Singular
plural
i.e.

also.

Recapitulate the
rational
8.

RULE
the

The broken
of /^*

of

a non/<2
:

is

treated as Feminine Singular,

Neuter. C.f.

6.

Do you remember
^^

meaning

and

means who,

or whosoever, while

that which, or, what.


relative.

Both are sometimes interrogative, sometimes


Exercise 56a.
1.

wish

to take

one of your children who are


to take
1

at school.

2.
3-

Whom
I I

do you wish

4. 5.

who was ill yesterday. know a man [who] does not believe in God. (Ex: S/d-Notei). Have you been-into one of the Egyptian houses, which are
will take the child

in the small
6.
7.
I

hamlets

.?

went-in with those two ladies These two men are the famous
"

whom you
writers.

(s.)

saw.

8.

The path

of those to

whom

thou bast-been gracious."


>^^

Exercise 56b.

(^- -jf j^ -^j^


j^ii

^^^^'^\ ^^^\ j'-T ^J',

^^

^* U.y jls' ^^
I

a) jli

J:^

(r)

j^^

I;

01 j,^/

"^"^

(v)

r4">;

o^iUi

^f JJji

di:>j

;;:

'Jus
o'j*

C"^)

ji y^'ji jCjCsui

u* :})J}\

(V)


Exercise 56c.

142

Read aloud and


study.

f^

ST

V^\ ^
^.
.-^

-W P

=?

J3(i.'

y^^'

til

/^ir^i iiaiis

oj.'iv^ii A^f
'

Ui
56d.
I

'-'

Translation.

my father, mother, and brothers say to me and I obey them. If my father says 'Give me [some] bread,' I give him If my brother says to me 'Give me (i.e. pass to him) bread at once. All my brothers obey my father and water,' I give him at once. My brothers and I love obedience, and (so) we obey mother.
hear what
Father and Mother.

We

never disobey
theirs).

(lit.

contravene) any word

from them^t>. any wish of

They

love us very

much because

we hear

(listen to) their

words and act upon them.

Parents

love children

who obey

them,
is

but the one

who
his

disobeys the wish (wishes) of his parents

beloved by no-one.

People much dislike the boy whose parents do not


actions are (what he
is

know what
t

doing).

So

far as

concerns myself,
teachers.

obey not

only

my

father

and mother but also

my

143

Lesson 57.

RULES for AGREEMENT


RULE A
RULE B
:

of

ADJECTIVES.
ihe

The Adjective agrees with


Number, Gender and Case.

Noun

to

which

it is

attached, in
:

When

Noun

is

defined in any way,


article.

its

attached
^^

Adjective must be defined by the

^^

Her great house

A*^
~^
**

T*^J

The

great house of the king


of Mo?es

j^.*^" cilLli Z^C>

The mighty Book

^^i^^^y^^zS
j\*$^lidJVjl

>

>

"

The house

of the great king

^xj

Servants of their gracious Lord

(^j^-^'
''"'

{il J-^^*^
i^.n
^-aV

The condition
people
(

[is]

of the poor \ a hard one (f.) J


is

i^'^^'n

y
subject).

In this 6th sentence " hard "

not an attached adjective but

a predicate.

But

its

gender agrees with that of the

Suppose the antecedent of a construct noun has an ordinary


adjective attached to
it,

as in the second sentence

above

RULE C
desired

The Antecedent and Consequent nouns


must not be separated by any adjective;
qualify

in
if

conit

struct state
to

is

the

antecedent

by an
:

adjective,
it

that

adjective must be placed after the consequent

can generally

be distinguished by the vowelling.

The

)"

child's noble

countenance

vJd

-ill SS

The noble
He

child's

countenance

cJb^lll jl^H ^'U^

dwelt in the peasant's small house

^; J

T-^Hil

J^Ju

J *^^

N.B.

This particular sentence might also be construed " in the


",

house of the small peasant


3.

but the sense

is

against that.
?

Supposing there are two antecedents connected by "and''


In that case,

mark

this

Supplementary Rule for old-fashioned

''good" Arabic (often disregarded nowadays) ;


RULE D
:

144

construction with the pronoun

Place the

first

antecedent in construction in the


in

ordinary way, and the second

"if or "her", The mercy and

etc.,

as consequent.
)

blessing of God.
blessing).

(The mercy of God and His

'aL^'

"

^if "k'
"

J
1

The power and

the

wisdom

of God.

\''

(The power of Godand His wisdom).

^
"
,

hs\

"^

The
By
4.

pupil's

books and pens.


their pens).

(The books of the pupils and

l^'^^)i5<' i ^ V i V'

^li"ll "

^ "S
' 1^'

the child's

book and pen.

\
J

V*^
"^
1

\V if
^

<C^
'"
'

(By the book of the child and his pen).

Suppose

Demonstrative Adjective intervenes

That

is

not a barrier,
to its

since the Demonstrative

is

adjudged
its

to

be in apposition
Its

Noun;

in

any

case,
it is

it

retains

place.

case-vowel cannot be written, so


is

"understood."
dJill
-^

He

the son of this king.


this one, the king).

l'

Ja

'^^

'

flit:

^^
I

^*

"i^

-^

The business
lit
:

of these people

is

great.

-^
\'

<^

The works

of these people are great.

7^
the

jf

.^^^'a^11' *!
-^

5.

May one
Yes
;

antecedent have more than one consequent


is

that

no

difficulty.

Ex.

He

is

owner of

stores

and houses.
6.

^^j*-\^

Oy^^

^*"^ <j^ap-

What

is

the use of the

words

^a.>-

and %t

^>. was
similarly

originally a substantive,

meaning

"ijood,''

and

^i
as

meant

"evil".

They

are

now very much used


to

antecedents of nouns
**

in construction,

mean, respectively,
best of creation
> 0^.

the-best-of "

and

" the-worst-of."
is

Ex.:

The

\y^^
il^ljl

J^ " The-best-of-speech
-^S*
'(.v'J.il 'o'Xi

kings' speech" a^>^.

"The worst Muslim


'iJy V.

is

he-who leaves

his brother

Muslim."
7.

^1. V;
from
^rv->- ?

How
Jv-c-

is

^c

to be distinguished

is

similarly placed
its

as the antecedent of the construct


is

state,

but

etymological meaning
its

"other-than,"

(c.f.

^y^^^

"and others") and


prefix

local usage corresponds to the


in

"un"

or the prefix used

Logic

"not-" or "non-."

English

Is

145

the

Quran created or uncreated

The

voice of

my

conscience was unheard.

8.

But

why

is

JLp marked with a fat-ha

in the last sentence


is

Because the predicate of jlf

(or the sisters of (j^

always
falls,

manub (24:9)

in

other words the action of kdna


all

not upon the consequent at

(for this

is

always Genitive of

Construct State) but upon

the antecedent j\c

My
1

assistant

was useful
is

(^ V*'*)

^^* sS-^"^^
^
'

^^

found that he

non-useful
(useless).

\^'^* J^^)
(;^;*'^

J^y ^^
^>

^-^^^
^"-J^^-J

found him non-useful

/|^ ) /*

>^

Exercise 57a.
1.

2.
3.

The Lord is King (Emperor) of land and sea. Wine is the mother of vices (Broken PI. explained
Rivers of living water will flow from him.

in L. 66).

4.
5.

God is un-create, but man is a created The student was non-industrious (was
king's speech

[being].

not industrious).

6. 7.

The is the king of [all] speech. Upon you be peace and the mercy and blessing

of God.

Exercise o7b.

^!lUn*^l7J'l
y?- *' ->T
'

(r)
(f)

'*V

^J^

3Md^Sy\

'js^

jjU^'^'i

(t)

^^'i
/.

dJi;

dpi

1^

(i) (v)

i:iy,) ^1

Xw/j '^il

d>


Ex.
57c.

146

READING EXERCISE.

tf

**

**

-^

^
^a;. 5?f/.

"

^^

-^

-*

verif literal translation : There was with Halim (He had) a nice faithful dog [whicV] (I) the son-ofAnd he used-to-send him his-brother (his nephew) had given to him. constantly to the market to buy (2) bread so the dog goes (3) and comesThen in one of the days (One day) with (brings) the bread in a basket. Halim wrote a paper to the baker and put it in the basket. So the dog took that basket in his mouth and went to the baker, who took the basket from his mouth and put the new bread in it. And while the dog was returning (4) to the house of his master, another dog saw (5) him and walked with him. Then that dog smelt the bread, so he took from the basket one loaf. So the first dog sprang upon him, and all the dogs that were in the street
;

heard him, and attacked him, and ate

all

the bread that [was] in that basket.

When

the dog

saw

(6)

that,

he took his empty basket and returned to the

house of his angry master.

Grammatical Notes
(I)

N.B.

The

Relative of an INDEFINITE noun


!

is

not written,

probably because
(3)
(5)

alladhi contains the article


.^.

f.

Ex. 56b,

(3).

(2) Suhjiinct:
^///7.

In the Present,

continuous action.
is

(4) Pres. partic. predicate of

and

(6)

"To

see"

a weak verb,
this
'

(I

have purposely omitted a few of the unimportant


" Story).

vowels frpm

School Reader

147
a^.1[\ 'kA^)\

Lesson 58.
1.

/Adjective Assimilated to the Participle.


It

What

does this

mean
it

means

that,

so long as the verb is a transitive one,

is

quite logical to say that the Active Participle

Jc U represents

ont-doing,

and

is,

therefore,

quite rightly called the Active,


if

rather than "Present," Participle; but

the

meaning of the

verb

is

"to-be so

and

so,"

it

is

little

far-fetched to use the


therefore, use

Active Participle for ''one-doing".


other form
for the adjective

We

from such verbs,

but the

some Arab

Grammarians feel that there is some similarity between One-who-is and One-who-does, hence "Assimilated" Adj.
2.

Give some examples from the Intransitive Verb


Meaning.
Adjective.

U^
Verb.

Meaning.
to

one-generous, generous

f/

be generous

Yf

one-noble
mighty, great
beautiful, well

to be noble

o>
^ > ^

to

be mighty
be beautiful be brave be firm
?

>

0-^

to

brave one, brave

to

firm,
3.

hard

to

What do we

notice in the above examples

That from the Intransitive Verb-form


very often moulded upon the form
other forms,
4.

J*j

an

adjective

IS

Li

but maij take certain

e.g.

the last three shewn.

Give examples from the verb-form J*J


(a)

Adjectives on the torm

ui
to

glad
cheerful

be glad

to

be cheeful be annoyed

annoyed, depressed

to

"

>

148

(b) Jiii taking:

^'^i

for its Feminine,

and

Plural,

is

entirely used for

words representing colour or

defect.

lame

dumb
one-eyed
cross-eyed

deaf
blind

r
form
j^l*!

c ^ c
.

r^>

3>1

(c)

Taking

Its

Feminine takes

Jiiti

thirsty

tfiV

11-

J^
Jy'r

t)Cik't

hungry

&^

Do

not spend

much time upon

j^i
The

as

it

is
is,

rather intricate,
it

and not very important now.

fact

is

sometimes
a

0^*i with tanwin damma, and,


feminine with
5.

in that case (only), takes

A;^\f

But

m co//;
.''

iJ^.i

is

usual).

Are there any miscellaneous examples


Yes; any adjective, from a

triliteral verb,

which happens

to

take a form other than that of the regular Active or Passive


Participle (but with similar meaning)
is

classified here.

elderly

Ugood
dead
( tl:^>

to

grow old
be good

c^'S\>

V^^
or)

to

to die

ou

wounded
victim

to

wound
murder

c>
3^'

to

6,
It is

149

^0 ^

not possible to form a


;

J^

^aI

^s>^\

from Cu for example

Yes and

J^^JL

means "dying," but C*** and ^;^ mean "dead".

Similarly ^jH*^

means "pressing closely" but

^J*J?

"narrow".

In other words, the participle (N. of Agent) describes temporary


action, but the assimilated adjective denotes

permanent

state.

Exercise 58a.

When we
road,

went out of our house, we saw two blind men


us,

in the

and they immediately followed


for "
told

shouting and saying,

'Have mercy on us

The merciful
them
)

shall be
is

shewn mercy."
in

'

We
(

said to them

that

it

impossible to assist
this

57:8) the whole of the blind, deaf,


is

lame and others


as
for the
(

great city, which

full

of them; while

hungry
33:4
)

(starving) and the

tliirsty,

[why] there

is

no number

to

them

(i. e.

they are innumerable).

But the matter was great


Sir,

(grievous) to

them

(in their

eyes) and they said, "

you are
'God
is

neither generous nor noble:

ah well

(in

any

case),

generous' "

Exercise 58b.

iii5
.

'S-'j*

'^^

,^A^

jV

lu'^jl

jV^i 3jl>-^A^

^-^^j

'

w*

^*t**

\^ J^^SttI^'S ">o^I3 J^*' 'r-^^ CuLi

jl j^s^M ^j^c'V] u!

The usual phrase

to dismiss a beggar.

150

Lesson 59. NOUN OF SUPERIORITY.


1.

How
The
a

is

the Comparative denoted


its

adjective being a noun,


it

comparative iform
of Superiority"

is

naturally
i

noun;

is

called the

"Noun

U^k'*:!

^A

For the Superlative see


2.

8 li

below.
?

Does the Noun


Yes;
it is

of Superiority take any special form


I

formed upon J** from adjectives which have been derived from triliteral verbs, that is to say, before the first
\

radical, prefix

and vowel the


etc.

rest as above, discarding

any

letters of prolongation,

If

the second

and

third radicals
in that

are alike they coalesce,

and we use a shadda;


to the first radical.
learned

case

the fatha

is

thrown back on

more learned
>

)U

greater

great

miglitier, greater

iiV

mighty, great

more

virtuous, distinguished

^S

distinguished, virtuous

(better)

more

beautiful
t

good, beautiful

uglier

ugly

more

glorious

glorious

more

intense

intense

\*

sweeter

sweet

li
"

In the last

example the wau undergoes a

permutation/'

reverting to (j which can carry no vowel

itself.

Can we

say, in Arabic, "sweeter ^/lan"


"
'J-

Yes; we translate "than" by


sweeter than honey.

^^^

and say

[^c-

a^ ^A>

The

preposition min governs the following

noun
in the oblique case,
if

151

if

with tanwin kasra

J-^ has
"

tanwin,

or a bingle kasra
4.

J-Ji has the definite article.


?

How
Since

would you say "redder, or whiter, than

we have

learned a form J*i


it

as a form

of colour or

physical defect,

is

clear that adjectives denoting these

two

qualities are already on the

form

\\\

so

we must adopt

a dif-

ferent plan.

Take some such word


comparative
SZ.
\

as Ji)^J^ strong, or intense

and form

its

and then say

more intense

in - the - matter - of- redness.


5.

how can we condense that long phrase ? Into one word. The madar (verbal noun, or noun
But
is

of action L:68)

used with tanwin fatha

(i.e.

adverbially) to express this.

redder
whiter

=
=
=

stronger as-to-redness

more as-to-whiteness
intenser as-to-deafness

deafer
[6.

Can

the comparative be formed from Derived


!

Verbs

Theoretically, no
useful."

For example
in

^Ki

is

the 4th Conj.

" to

be

We

learn
is

Lesson ^^ that the V.N. of Conj

IV

from

this

word

olJl

Then

the phrase

"

He

is

more useful
^

than she*,"-becomes

t^JL*

( 5 JL^li

or)

o:>Ul

f.S

jf>

As

matter of

fact,

this

rule is completely disregarded in


is
lj;i

modern Arabic, and one of the commonest phrases


This
is

more useful than

that
[are]

diJS

*/

j^b\

Also

"

Then they
S .-.J

(the hearts)
!x.i
I

like stones, or stronger


.aJ

in-hardness."

SjUi-

\S

(AI-Qur*an 2

69).

To-day, people would say


*

^J

similarly to

^a-

].

It is

interesting to note that in English


her,''

we

say "than she [is}" but, in Arabic

" than t 6

because her

is

Obh'que case governed by the preposition min.

is less

in^portant, and n^ay be passed over for thQ present, if desired,

'

~
7.

152

Is

the form J*i


.
*.,*

invariable

Yes; wiien
say
\Jp[i

can be used.

Thus even

for the

Fem. we

Uj
(^

jj/b

"aind

(a girl) is better

than Fatima.'*

;^-* 0'' J*'^


8.

'

J* J!^^S
?

Mariam(Marv) was

prettier than

Hind.

How, otherwise

sort of superlative

mav be made by
Noun"

placing the form


in Plural, as
;

**5

as the antecedent to a ^'Construct

example
but this
'-

Jl?-^
'

J^^

J^i "Mohammed
according
to

[is]

the-best-of-men "
^ *

might vary

gender,

thus,

ti^'x.^

Jk.^i
-

X*
-J,

lu

"Hind
and

is

the best of

women." But we may a/so say


'

t^^x\ M<,kil j:*

this

way

is

more usual now. fj^^\ J*^


wives.

lj'^

^^^

^^

^^^^

prettiest of

my

0>^^

^*u>*
-"

the best of eatables,


*
"^

^
for
*

9.

curious variation
greatest of

is

the use of

j\0

j^S .^
-^

in construction.

"The

them did it"

'^J^S
^0 3^^'

^Q
^

(Qur'dn).
y^"*"

"The Prime
"
10.

Minister attended"

S^^
1

He

is

the chief of the Muslims."

^Ji**.*l
?

j^

^^y-ap^

But, in general,
In a

what

is

the superlative

word,

it is

The comparative defined


ui
I

(c.f.

French);

e.g.

we

prefix the definite article to

and get y'i^\

Ex: J^iM'

the best, or most distinguished


11.

Jo)*^! the gentlest, or kindest.


?

Can
(a)

this
It

vary according to gender and number


its

forms

feminine in Ai)
"

Ex

(jj<Si

i^ ->aJ

the
\

major (greatest) premise


" the smallest school."
(b)
It

(see

Ex.

33).

(Jj^

l^jjJ
3, 4.

Revise carefully Lesson 43


it

is

quite

possible to give

a regular plural,
it

thus

j^ljaiNI u^>-J^

(Revise 45:3d);
\

sometimes takes a

Brokea Plural

Ji Vi^l JlV^H The

most distinguished men,"


12.

153

this lesson
is
?

What

are the

main things
^

to

remember from

(a) that

^
''

^^
*

means

"greater than"
-^^^ ^ ^

and

invariable;

(b) that the superlative

^^5^*^1
with
al,

is

the
this

comparative made
superlative varies

absolute by defining
as to gender, etc.

it

and

Exercise 59a.

To English

oV/UfV-jJ>C

(r)

UJ

lV._^

eik! J
I

Aljt

^^ ^'y ^
I

(e)

J>':!i^'J'.:/-'^j'-^^s::i'jl<'

(v)

lj/;/;5'l'jVll;l

(^)

'JL^I'^I

(a)

Exercise o9h.
1.

To Arabic
is is

Honey

sweeter than sugar.


?

2.
3.

What
In

the best of eatables


lit.

any case (anyhow,


is

on every condition)!

am

stronger

than she.
4.
5.

And Fatima
She
is

the-strongest-of-us-all.

6.

stronger than Hind, and gentler (nicer) also. This is the greatest of the matters mentioned. [kings.

7. 8.

Alexander (Iskander) the Great was the most glorious of


(glad) now. This child is more industrious (stronger as-to-industry) than that one.

9.

God is greater. I am more pleased

10.

154

00.

EXAMINATIOjS paper
A.
Translate to English.

.'r^^_;l^

i-VjS

(t)

_% J

jSCj -jui.

(e)

pSbCji

'.l.i

dujl

j.^lr'

(V) (A)

a^r^5iuv>
J^ L;ui j^U*j^
1

j^ ^^'i

( s

B.

Translate to Arabic.
1.

When

will there
is

be peace after

this

2.

Who
*'He

the Caliph

(Khalifa)

(or

war ? "The Prince

of the

Believers,")
3.

now

whom

thou lovest

is

sick."

4.

5.

The two princesses, whose abode (mansion) we saw, have come home. Salma is my first and most beautiful wife.

6.

7.
8.

We have been to many mosques. The girl went back to ask her brother. Her brother was. with Abu Zaid.
Fatima
is

9.
.

prettier than

Mary.
all

10.

Yes, she

is

the prettiest of

the girls.

C.

Questions.
1.

2.

What words are Feminine What is the Rule for Agreement


.''

of Adjectives

155 -^

Lesson
EYE, VOICE

81.

AND EAR.
at a time.

Memorise the following Scripture verses, one on, Arabic proverbs and other useful sentences

Later

will

be

set.

'cuV^iSLSlldlOC

(r)

\j%^

dl^.:;: 3

^Ac V^3 ^^1

^i^

(o)

db'^ij di.i:l? (v)


Literal Translation
1.
:

(To be compared with the references given).


people do with you, do ye also

And

as ye wish that the


(c.f.

with them thus


2.

Luke 6:31).

If

ye remain

(or,

abide,

U3e Past Tense after jj^) in Me, and


in you,

my
3.

speech (word) abide


it

ye shall (may) ask what ye

wish and

is

yours

(c.f.

John 15:7).
:

The Lord

bless

you and guard you (Numb. 6

24).

4.

The Lord shine *with His


unto-thee
(v.25).
lift

face upon thee and be-merciful-

5.

The Lord
peace
(26),

up His face upon

thee,

and grant thee

6.

As

for

me and my house
:

we

will

serve

the

LORD

(Joshua 24
7.
*

15).

As thy days, thy

rest [shall be].


>v/.

(Deut. 33
(L. 115).

25).

"hollow" verb having middle radical

155

Lesson 62. PRIMITIVE AND DERIVED NOUNS.


i.

What
One

is

a Primitive
is 7iot

Noun

that

derived from the usual


in

triliteral

verbal root.

These are but few


'^'^ sword

number, the commonest examples are


ji[ camel ^j-^ neck.

2.

^^5 heart What is a Derived Noun One which is derived from the
(j^j^ horse
.'*

usual verbal root


i.e.

e.f/.

from

(j^
3.

j^ to study, we get

<*

j-U a place for study,

a school.
?

How many
one root.
(1)

kinds of such nouns are derived from the root


all

There are eleven given below; but not

of these

come from

The first

eight are practically in order of importance.

Noun

of Agent, or Active Participle J^l^ (Lesson 23).


Ox-

(2)

Noun
Noun

of Object or Passive Participle J^*a^ (Lesson 23).


of Place

(3)

and Time,

"^^^ etc. (also of

"Abundance").
63).

(4)

(5) (6)
(7)

Noun Noun

of Instrument, on forms

Jl*i^

etc.

(Lesson

of Quality, or Assimilated Adjective (Lesson 58).

Noun
Noun Noun

of Superiority, or Comparative (Lesson 59).


of Colour or Defect (Lesson 58
:

4b).
146).
:

(8)

of Excess, or Intensive
(11)

Agent (Lesson
:

(9) (10)

and

Nouns

of Unity (139

;),

of Species (142
:

6)

and of Action formed with


4.

Mim

(See Lesson 68

9).
t

What
Its
e.q,

is

the purpose of the


is is

Noun

of Place

and Time

purpose

to

show where,

or when, the action

was done:

^-X^

derived from
is

^1^
an

to write

and shows the

-place

where writing

done,

i.e.

office,

The

result is generally where, not so often when.

But

^j^
West,

may be

either the place or time of sunsetting,

i,e,

either

or Sunset, (But <^j-^ for"sunset"is


(lit.

more

colloquial)

^^\^J^

Farthest West)

is

the

name

of ^Morocco.

5.

Give examples using the form J*a4 the place of doinr/.

office

157

to write

,.^1^^

store
altar

to store

to slay1 J

synagogue, conference
exit

1:4

to gather

to

go out

place of killing, assassination


6.

to kill

Give examples of the alternative form


taking kasra (and a few

J*a-

used for verbs

damma)

in their pres-future.

to sit

mosque
dwelling
west or sunse et
,

to

bow down

home
)

to stay, (as guest)


to set (sun)

J 1

east or t,

sun rise /
a place

to rise (sun)

to put

^
7.

Examples of the
law-court
school
printing-press

third form

Ali^ (incl.
to rule

Noun

of Abundance).

to study

to print

kingdom
grave-yard
lighth [hthouse,
(o? 7Vy.
1

to rule
.>
..

(a

grave
,L;

minaret)/
/^--

(fire

.t

^
A>.0

presbytery
*

\^^La

(an elder

^.^

*
i

These three are examples of Nouns of Abundance derived from Nouns,


=^ Place

e,

where

that thing

is in

abundance

e g.

aJ^[^ Den of Lions.

(to

TS8

SOME NON-SOUND VERBS.


be learned now,
b>it

studied later in their proper section).

to

com
y

to

come
wish

^^

to

walk
throw
(he)

J;\ J^'
-'

to will,

y^

to

to

say

it

was found

it

was

(is)

said

there

is

it

was related

Exercise 62a.
1.

Are you able

to (can

you) print books

at

your press
}

2.
3.

With

all ease.

Do you wish books


for the office

for the school

Some
store,

of

them are

and some of them

for the

and some are

for another place.

4.
5.

Well; send me some of them before sunset.

Those two books are not with us

(in stock)

now.

6.
7.

The king and queen

rule in their

kingdom.
>

When

will the Presbyterial


(

Conference gather
Conj.

And

the

Language "Academy?''
to assemble).
8.

Verb a^^'

VIH means,

They

sat

down behind
'X^^k:.

the entrance of the cemetery.

Exercise

6:2b.

Li5 ^^kr j

j^ir

V
*"

( s

''.I

.o^,|^>.o^^

o.-'lt

V'^

>

^^ ^

^"^

-^'

c-^jO

1-3

l^^*j

i_^i;

u.w>-

(t)

S'il Uifr CJ jC 1:<J1 il;B

(o)

yji '^4.) ^/;ln '^VJ I'j

3^;^'J
0^0
o
I

'^^' '^'i^_
^

J^

(v)
(a)

d^JlJ

i>--U 'S^'JJ l^wi?-

159

V^\
r'
by means of which the
for knife
is
is

Lesson 63.

NOUN OF INSTRUMENT
I.

This denotes the instrumenS or


action
c>5nL^
,

tool,

is

done.

Now

the most

common word

which takes the plural c>S L5w

but that word


it

primitive noun, not a derived noun.

When

is

desired to

derive a noun of instrument from a verb, that can only be done

upon certain forms, which are


2.

l^ jL*A4 and
li^

,l^AA *iA.*A

Give
a
file

few examples upon the form


^

iX.

to

file

'^'y.

a milk-pail

tjk

to

milk
-

iTu

a hand-press
scissors

'u^.

to squeeze
to cut, trim

-^

3.

Give
a

few examples upon the form

JUu

key

c^^
^'>.

to

open
plough

^
dj3

a plough

to

a balance

to

weigh

bellows
a

6^-^0
<KrJ^

to

blow

^i
to

saw

saw

Also upon
a

broom

L.isC^

to

sweep

o^
'J;

a pen-case
1

to trim (a pen)

a ruler

to lule (paper)

%
y/j

a fan

to fan

-- l6o
5.

What becomes
It

of the
in

wau

of the verb jjjj

disappears

accordance

with

the

great

RULE OF
which
is

PERMUTATIOISI :
essential to the

"Retain that (vowel,

etc.)

form of the word, and change the other."

In

most cases
*

this

amounts

to the
to

same

as saying

voivel."

Change

the

weak consonant

harmonise with the strong


this rule
to
?

6.

Where

shall

we again meet with

This important rule will help us


JjAi
is
7.

understand the Hollow Verb


(it

JU

which forms

its

Passive in ^^
is

was

said); the kasra


it.

thrown back one radical and a ya

supplied to suit

What

are the three vowels taken by a prefixed mim, to form a

Derived Noun, and


^

how

are they distinguished

marks

a ISIoun of Agent (or Object) of a Derived Verb, only.


2Vo?^;io/P/aca or r?7?2e,

<*

from the Primitive

(Triliteral)*

>

,,

,,

Excercise
1.

Noim of Instrument. To Arabic 63a.


:

Patience

is

the

key of

relief.

2.
3. 4.
5.

This saw
I

is

useless, haven't

you another with you

will ask the carpenter for another saw.

The
She

place (site)of the Vizier's assassination was near the city.


girl,

Bring the bellows,


left

and blow the

fire.

6.

her books in the press at the school, but she took

her ruler with her.

Exercise 63b,

To English

Tj^

'

^^-"-^

j^^^^

(s)

But as the Noun of Place from a Derived verb has no separate form,
:

it

takes

>

^ on the same form as the Passive Participle (88

10).

I6i

Lesson 64.
Quadrisyllable Plural JpU.
1.

for

Noun

of Place.

How
in
It is

do we form the Plural of the Derived Noun learned


?

Lesson 62
quite

simple "Break the word

in halves
alif

by inserting an

alif,

then the consonant before the

takes a fatha instead


alif

of sukOn
2.

and the

first

consonant after the


this rule.

takes kasra.

Give some examples of


offices

libraries

tic-

assemblies
law-courts

U^

T-

'^^- ^

^ ^

sermons
3.

7;

What becomes
It is

of the final

in

the second

example

dropped, because this plural contains four syllables only,


colloquially

Ma-ka-ti-bu;

Makatib.

Thus

all

unnecessary
its

additions are dropped out.

This plural thus gets

European
at

name

of Quadrisyllable plural, from


it is

which we can

once

infer that

used for words which, in the Singular, possess


:

fow (or
4.

more) consonants

otherwise we should not have the

material to form four syllables.

But where

is

the tan win

This form of plural takes no tanwin


to
5.

it is

therefore analogous

Proper Names, which are called Imperfectly Declined.


it
it

Has
Yes
;

anything else

in

common
in

with Proper

Names

has only two cases (when Indefinite), so the Accusative


fatha (cf Lesson 52:8)

and Oblique both end


defined (either

But when
it

by

affixed

Pronoun, or by Definite Article)

is

fully declined.
6.

What form
lc;U^
is

is

the type for similar

examples

the form for such plurals,


7.

I62

How

do we form plurals of Nouns of Instrument


in

Of

the

three forms

Lesson

63, the first

and third form


of Place; exs
:

their plural

on form

J^Ia^
.

just as the

Noun

^jl^* and
65.

^l5s^
8.

The one

in

JI*a

will be treated in

Lesson

Give examples of odd words which take the four-syllable


because they contain four consonants
",1=1:5
!

plural,

an arch
\^
>

a coin,
\\

money

^^ly.

^^

'y.^-

ilil^

ear of corn
a jewel

a rabbit

^i''/'

l^V

>'7^

a temple
a

a star
inn, hotel
9.

thumb

a finger
of these
is

How may we
By
this

show the vowelling


^
*^

odd words

diagram

N>

*^

which
mim.

commonly used

for

words not having the


10.

servile

Suppose the word contains

^t'e

consonants?
r-

Drop
IJ.

all after

the

first

four (see 3 above) quince

y^-r J^j^--

Directions as to Note-Book.

Take
JpU*.

in

your Vocabulary Book several pages for the plural


Put the form
at

the

head of the page.

Enter up

all

the (attested) examples you

come

across.

Take

(say) the
it.

3rd page for the odd words (para. 8 above) and label
12.

Example

of a heading in Note-Book

J^^*^
k::

an
a
13.

office

file

Example

of another heading

Form
>

-*

* *
'"*''

I--

jewel

^/"^f^

Exercise G4a.
1.

163

If I

had (Had

had) much money


;

would

visit

(have visited)

all the
2.
3.

schools of the world

And see all the mosques and lawcourts and libraries. Do you not wish to visit the printing-presses also
?

4.
5.

Yes,

wish to

visit the largest presses also. visit the

[Will]

you not

Alexandria lighthouse and stay


.?

in

the chief dwellings of that city


6.
7.
I

will look into the matter [the day]-after-tomorrow.

Is

the scissors

more useful than the


.?

knife, or the knife

more

useful than the scissors


8.
It is

said that one of the hotel guests (dwellers in hotels)


(since years) used to

some years ago

throw some jewels and

and they have now been found under the arches of the old temples.
coins in the Nile
[for the children to dive for];

Exercise 64b.

ij^J

^jlJa'Jl

^5^

jjjl jl ij^jl

"i;

(t)

jVj^l

^^ UiJ

^O

cnSClJ

cnSCU

-Us ^^^,^
I

U>

( V)

Vocabulary

64.

Sunday

ji.V
r^-

Thursday
Friday

Monday

WiJ
;:
I
,

J^i
>

Tuesday

^
j

Saturday

C^x.^'

>

Wednesday

l64

Lesson 65. QUADEISYLLABIC PLURAL.


Form
1.

u^Vaa

etc.

What happens

to the

form j^^^

if

there

is

a long vowel in

the Sing., as in the

word Cj\j^
:

plough

?-

See our Rule of Permut: (63


tion to a
2.

5).

Change
is

the letter of prolonga;

(_$

to suit the vowel,


}

which

kasra

thus

Z^ jl^

How
As

do we show the form


except that

in 64,

we now add

a ya to lengthen ihe 3rd

syllable.

Thus ^^^'^
its

3.

But u'Ja-* has a kasra with


a fatha; what happens.?

mini,

and our plural form has

See our Rule again


has
to

Here fatha
*
.

is

part of the form, so fatha

be written, thus

We

then observe that the ya


it

has no longer any "raison


for

d'etre", since

was only substituted

wau

to suit the kasra,

which has now disappeared; we,

therefore, return to the original wau, which also takes fatha


here.

The

^ain
to

has a kasra in the type-form, therefore the


to

alif is

changed

ya

be homogeneous to
(j

it,

and the plural of mizan

becomes mawazin
4.

yy

balances.
this

Give examples of tabulation of

form

in the

Note-Book.

Form
Plural

LpCi>
Singular

a key
a

plough

a balance
5.

Can other words beside

the

Noun

of Instrument take a plural in

Certainly,

such as contain

four (or more)

consonants and

have a weak

letter after the third

consonant.

Examples

165

o^isC"
knife

'cM^
>

sultan

cn^Cu^

^ ^ ^
devil

CnrC

poor(wretched)

>

box

commentary

trunk (elephant)

'f^'',_,(-!
V^^"'

W^^
week

teaching doctrine

)
j

^
praise (hymn)

1
^

'yS(J.^ sparrow
6.

a spring, source

Can
Yes,

the

Noun of Object cV^' <*-' take this plural ? when the Noun of Object is used substantively.
is

Thus

if

maktub

intended to denote "a thing written", the plural form

for "writings" is makatib.


Note, however, that this

Refer to Lessons 23

& 28

on N. of O.

N O.
a

sometimes uses the Reg. Fcm.

Plural.

^^x.rl5C

M.S.

<^^^S^*

a subject
a

psalm

expense
Let us return
is

7.

to (64:4,5) the cases of the i.ouns wiiose plural


65,

shown

in

Lessons 64 and

and give some examples.

They
,,

struck him with knives


their knives

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

the knives
Cy^^ j^t

By

(with)
first

many

proofs (evidences).

The
case,

sentence gives an indefinite noun in the oblique

the second
is

shows one defined by


8,9

its

affixed

pronoun and

the third
all

defined by the definite article.


:

that

is

said in 52

Carefully compare about "Imperfectly Declined Nouns "

under which heading the Quadrisyllabic Plural comes.


Exercise 6oa.
1.

i66

The
subject

(Construe thus "

was what
?

"

What was
The

the subject of your sermon last


is

Sunday

(The word yaum


2.

Adverbial (Time) Accusative here, therefore takes

fatlja).

subjects of

my

sermons are always taken from the


are the doctrines
(lit.

Injil (Gospel).
3.

4.

5.

in (during) the past weeks ? Sometimes, "Christ in the Psalms'*, for example; and sometimes "Christian Evidences"; and at other times, " The Life and Death of Christ." But for (Had it not been for) my poverty, I would have had
(lit.

Yes (Quite <=o) but what which you preached about


;

teachings)

there

was

to

me) many commentaries,

for they are very

useful to the preacher.


6.

(Perhaps) Let-us-hope-you will be able to buy them yet


(later) in spite of

your poverty.
I

7.

On Wednesday morning
were brought
to Jesus

shall

take the subject of the

devils, then, in-evening, the subject of the poor-fellows

who

and trusted

in

and worshipped Him.

8-

Then, on Saturday morning,


than

"Ye

are more-valuable (better

many sparrows."
.

Exercise

6'5b.

4>d

^_

CVl J l^ oVj^ll Mii)


"^^
((

'^* C.

^sCJ J "I (r)


^'^'

OlijV)
((

^Jc^'3

^^^>IIJ^
ijj>\

;.-^''ji

))

oUjVi
1

(t)

Vp J

^JJ

ol-S^))

lrlJ>

J J
i

((

\>^-^^

cn^llrll b)

i67

Lesson 66.
Plural
1.

Forma

|}^*y and
^

J^U*
-^

Are there any nouns of the form J^U (Active


take Quadrisyllabic Plural
?

Participle) that

Yes, and they act upon


letter of a

the Rule:
it

if alif

occurs as the second


the four-syllable

word, change

to

wau and form

plural.
2.

(Not geneially used for rational beings).


of

Some examples
jtf-ly

J^'y

a rule
a prize

y?
r,ru
'fy'^

a factor

a ring, seal
a

a table
a benefit

stamp
.c-^,''^

mosque

'i-'^
^w.''

thunderbolt
accident incident
)

'aIcX.^

a side

l,;u

''i:f.

>1>
is

a thought

>u

3.

Can

there be a form

J^^'y
a

Certainly, on condition that there


^ain

weak

letter after the


first

or

middle radical, as well

as

after the

radical.

From

the nature of the case this cannot apply to the Passive

Participle,

which commences with a

servile
.>

mim
>

(65

6).

cr^

dictionary

^^y\^

law (natural)
a spy

^1

^>-

shop, beershop

cri^'y lantern
>

a law (civil)

~
4.

i68
->i-i

How

does the plural form J>^*^ originate


:

RULE
(weak
the
5.

Feminine Nouns having


after

in the singular a

long vowel

letter)

the second radical, substitute


alif;

hamza
get

for

weak

letter

immediately after the

thus

we

j!^l>^

Give some examples of

J^^^*^

poem

a fact, truth
a virtue
3;'i-.

ii>
'.'>

newspaper
an island
a tribe a miracle
^z-

a vice

a church a sacrifice
^

few (fem.)
a letter

^^
<iCj

jTU^

a creed

belief

i^:.
;rt>
6.

epistle

'Jir

a major sin
a

good

tidings,

gospel

"/jli>

minor

sin

o^i^

The above forms must be

entered at the head of pages in the

Vocabulary Book and plenty cf space allowed forthefiist

and the

last

mentioned

as other examples are discovered


learnt.

and authenticated, they should be entered up, and

EXAM. PAPER
Give the Plural
also Dual
if

66.

(or Singular)

of the following thirty nouns,

possible.

In every case give the

English meaning.

Fully vowel, and send up for correction, with Exam. PaperTO.


(A)

WV^**

<-.^

Ci\

j\

AX.-^-^

\^A ^A

C)j'.>-

o-aC-v.?

(JV.**"

Ov3ji
w*^l
*^''

Ol^^I*^*
(^__>*^

'J^

y"^

j^

Co
j^*l>
I

A^lSs^A

j^-^^^

Ja.C'ljA

^^^'"^'^

^jU
^^"^

\-^^

'

c^j*^^ ^_^)^j^
^

o'v^

crj-:^

j'>^' c?^


What words

i69

Lesson 67.
1.

take their plural on the form


it

Jui

This being a tri-syllabic plural,

is

used by singulars constrong


letters.

taining three consonants, which are usually

Note the tanwin


2.

plural nouns,

on

this

form are

fully declined.

Give some tabulated examples.

t!t^.

man
camel
rope

tiu
^^-

mule
a

s.
jJl)

t)r^
tic.

^^l;

town

o;-

-Sti^.

a sea

">.

tiu

mountain

?'/

generous
small

dog

"Jr
":,cr

By
3.

wind

big

%^

after

What

class of

words take
a

their plural in
letter

J3
the

Some singulars having


second radical.
road
1 J

of

prolongation
case also.

Note the tanwin

in this

way
w
path

^>J^
'i'. ^ ^
->^>

book
apostle

Uz^

A>-

page
1

city
U,^>c^

newspaper

ship

4.

But the word


It

<-Jy

l>t^

is

not on this form.

is

not

but the motive in


it

giving

it

is

to

show

that

when

*^^r**^

means a page,
^-l-^*

takes a different plural.

Further,

such words as

^^iJ^ (fem. form)

may

take a plural upon

^'U

thus 'cj\^^

^n^L


Is

170

hamza
?

tkere a plural form ending in alif with

Yes, there are two, but both of them end in the long

alif

(with

hamza
but

written after

it.

L. 13:4).

The

first

is

-^^A-i

fu^ala,u.

Note that the three radicals take no weak

letter

between them

add a long
noble
merciful

alif aftei' the three.


^

(Used for
old

active Qualities),

/^5

^li^

-iCiClV
^
.r.

wise
ignorant, stupid

-^
>t
'&

-ii^ai

poor

(finan.)

i^
>x:x^

weak
stranger

intelligent

D.D., "Savant."

^UU
6.

Ally(by treaty
is

1 vr^

^17*^

poet

>u
hamza
?

What

the other pkiral form ending in long alif with

i^
oi.
(.

Af^ila'u

which prefixes an alif-hamza


%

before the fir st radical.

prophet
rich

intimate! near j

^al
^1^1
^

physician
precious,
)

^^i^i-

strong
i.

dear
intense
a friend
t
'

wretch 1
J

a rascal

^
-',.

^liil

pure

7.

What

is

important'about

-^vU*

and

-^Ia**

That both these Plural Forms, while undefined, are diptotes, or two-case words. Note the absence of tanwin. But when
defined, either

by the

article, or
:

by construction,
:

all

the cases

can be marked. (Compare 64


8.

and 65

7)

What

is

^^Ui

used for

.?

Principally for words from "defective" roots,

(i.e.,

ending

in

ya) also for words with 2nd and 3rd radicals alike.

Exercise 67a.

171

To English

t}^

> ^

0'
r*

\J^

J^J

(JL->I) Ol'^^^ljl^'^Jr^^^^J^I 0^^

^V (0

^fc' jC<J Ij

^di.^^ C\

( ^(.l'/')

*G'^ jUjl J

^\'Jl\\

(0)

Exercise 67b.
1.

To Arabic

*
:

Let us hope that the Allies will win this war.


Intelligent

''

2.

men

incline to the Allies; as for the ignorant

ones, they are less inclined to them than the wiscTnen.


3.

Poets, savants,
Allies.

and newspaper-proprietors incline

to

our

4.

But for the English ships, the Germans had succeeded


the present war.

in

5.

The poor and

the small are generous

as for the rich

and

great, [they are] miserly.


6.

There-are-found (there are)


spies; they attend

in the

land of Egypt very

many

the churches, shops (bars)

and other

assemblies (meeting-places).
7.

Christians say that apostles are not always prophets.


67.

Vocabulary
miserly

Germans

^ \J^ Allemagne) jUV


7

"'' ^^j^

^.
^'"

to incline

j^^^a

^s.

JU

person

^\>J^

-r

(^ja^>^

172

Lesson 68. THE MASDAR jJ.^1


I.

What,
strike"

in
?

Arabic, corresponds to the English Infinitive "To

The

dictionary

indexes

the third

person

singular

in

the

past and present tenses, and shows, in English, the words


strike." Strictly speaking,

"To

however, the English

is

a transla-

tion

not of the past or present tenses, but of a third word


is

which

always given next, and the meaning of which


#=
>

^
.

>
.

The-act-of-doing (Verbal Noun).

To

strike

b^^ V^^^i V^^


and
is,

is ^
.

'-

Now
But

the

word V^r^ takes the tanwin

as a noun,

in

fact, a
I.

verbal noun and

means

"ihe-act-of-striking."
in the

why have yow


is
is

given<*-->^r^

Accusative ^{j-^

That
noun

the "absolute," or the adverbial form, and the verbal

always quoted
is

in

the

lexicons in the
:cf. "I

Accusative.

Arabic

very like
"I

Hebrew here

waited patiently for the

Lord"; Arabic
placed
in the

waited a waiting", the word "waiting" being

Accusative.

Also Luke
(c.f.
?

II

:g

U.-laC'

b^

l^sUci

"Then they feared


3.

a great fear",

Cognate Object).

What

is this

verbal noun called

jXa^ Madar, which means


upon as the "source" of the
are derived from verbs,
4.
it is

origin or source, for


verb,

it is

looked

and as most Arabic mouns

the "source'' of everything.

Have we

the
;

same

in

English
is

Grammar

Almost so
(look
it

we have what
in Meiklejohn).
is

called the "Gerundial Infinitive"

up

"gerund" partakes of the nature

of a verb but
is

parsed like a noun, and the Gerundial Infinitive


Exs.
is

gerund

in infinitive form.

(l)

"It is

wrong

to strike
is

the

king"^To
(l)
is

strike the king


err is

wrong^Striking the king

wrong.
erring

"To

human,

to forgive divine"
is

= The

act-of-

human, the-act-of-forgiving
in

divine.

In Arabic, the

Madar would be used

each of these cases

173

like

5-

But

is

the form of the

Madar always J*^

v^^ ^

No, there are over thirty forms,

we

will

learn a few of the

most important.
6.

Some

of the others are quite rare.


?

What madar
I.

is

used for transitive verbs

Ji and this happens to be the most

common

of

all

madars.

to strike

to kill
^

'U

to

understand

to eat
^0
i.

to take
-

to

make
say

to

7.

Other important
to disbelieve

ma jdars ILJ^

'X
CLi
^0

to

be beautiful

'i^.

to

know
mention

>

'?-

to

to preserve

IV.

J** For Intra nsitiv<s verbs in


to

J'

be ashamed

SCi
iVu'o

to thirst

>.

like-

to

be glad
be sick

u>

rj'
LT'j'

to

u>

i?4

or

V. J^* Verbs denoting


to fall

movement

the lack of
> >9

it.

to enter
-

to

go out
ascend

r>.1
>

"

to

to

descend
>

to

be tranquil
be silent

^0

to

^j^

**

to sit

to set (sun)

\3f'
qualities.

VI.

*^)^**

comes from J*^ which denotes

to

be rough

%
to be easy
^.r

>

ytr

>

to

be

difficult

^^

to be

sweet (water)

to

be cool,

damp

nr

LU' J_

VII. ^il*^

usually denoting qualities.


^9

to

be safe
o ^

to

be charming be eloquent

to

to intercede

175

VIII. ^f?

often used for office, trade, etc.


>^^:<:'

to write (as clerk)


>>
^

'^r

to trade

to

worship (serve)

iX
^ -

IX.

ili
-

to to

show mercy
be plentiful

r'-'

^!^

'ir

X.

uSU
to shine

Gq
.

'4
>'

to dissolve

GG'j^

^3'^^
> ^

ul
'&

to get excited
8.

6i;ci
.?

Which
I

are the most important

J**^

IV Ji

J^3

VI ^yi VII aIU

9.

Is

there a
is

masdar

like the
in

Noun

of Place
like
it,

There

one which

form

is

but the meaning

is

different; for'example

"i^

(Advent) means not the p/ac^ of


It

coming but the


^^-

act of
(

coming.
J-e-

is

called

"Masdar Mimi."

J*^

y^^

'

'^^*

^(J^-^^-*^

with >).

to see

P
'J.
M.

to
to

come

know
wish

4d jnA

^j".
*[ii

to will,
10.

Note that one or two

Weak Verbs have

been introduced above.

These

will be studied after the

Sound verb (Lessons 101130).

II.

176

Give examples of the use of the madar, governing

noun

The madar may be used


(a) In
I

either actively or passively.


<f C
.

an Active sense

^
.
1

was surprised
is,

at his killing Zeid.

1->j^

<0
.>

>

^ C^-?tC
i.e.,

There
Zeid

however an alternative construction,

to place

in genitive with

thus:

-^
if
<

*J
-y

*W^l5

^^

w/

C^-^tC

Here

<i-^

(his killing)

does not

msan

"being killed" but

"killing

someone"

{i.e. it is

used actively).
to

That he would not order them


That he would give them leave
(b) In a
I

go

^w^U-wlj

^^ j*\
/^^I

^j
b

to enter

J^>-IxHj

j^

j^

Passive sense

was surprised

at Zeid's

being-beaten
^^ ^
\
;^

^^j^^^
ji

^ 0.0

>

--

^a

C^^->S'

''Its

ful
12.

being-eaten is not lawexcept to the priests

<^_y
^
^

^^^ ?

>^^|

i^i
^,
-

Disjunctive. What does

o\^\

^^

mean

When

there

is

any

possibility

of confusing the pronoun of

the agent with that of the object, one

may

use a Disjunctive

Pronoun
ti\

for the latter.


tvith
"d

may be used
l>
;

i!

i!

Li

\S "^P

0^ "f cf

and

thus Ubl

ob\
I

<X3 means "his killing him; UbI 4.3

his killing her."

Note the Accusative Case.

This disjunctive pronoun


as in the verse of Sura

may sometimes
-^*j

be used for emphasis


;

^o'

"^/i^e

do we serve

" also in

(J^-^t^

^U^

worship

Jfe,

Myself.

Exercise 68a.

Write out and learn the nouns of action given above


are carefully chosen as being in frequent use.
If this

they

takes too

much

time,

learn one -half oi the examples given on each form.


this

(Perhaps the most notable feature of

Arabic Course

is

the umhlenesx of

every illustrative word, which has been deliberately planned by the author.

Exercise OSb.
HaiTin el-Rashid.

^ ^j'' 03 J" f

1^4

cni.

J (3^

cj-^-

J^^l Oj-*

:>l-^*i

'^^i::^>

slJo

J>C^Ai

Ij

^ J Jj^i^
I

^"^ ^a)

!xa3

cn^^j

jlLl^

^n-:^

..^

.y

lo

\^A

L-A^t^j

^j^lk^j ^^j'-^ aG

}/

cAb

-^^^i

J^^^l-J

(The above are *'known" words

revise them),

j^^

^^

^J

^.

^^

Exercise 68c.

To Arabic

and most cultured of kings {lit. greatest in scientific and ordinary knowledge). Also his city, Baghdad, was the handsomest of the cities of the East at that time. Al-Rashid himself, who is the one so often referred to in "Arabian Nights" (^z^. lOOl Nights) had a great share of eloquence and of knowledge of philology; probably he was the best sultan the Moslems had, for he prohibited vice and inculcated virtue.

Haiun al-Rashid was one

of the greatest

Now

it is

related of this "Prince of Believers'* that he took from


poor, and upon great and small
that
alike.
in

the rich to give to the

he bestowed

many

great blessings

Although there were no schools, presses or daily papers


those days, as at the present time, yet poets and
(professors)

learned

men

had no difficulty in committing memory, without writing it down.

their

poetry to

178

Lesson 89. USE OF LEXICON.


I.

Which

are the servile letters

^oi

The whole
which
2.

of the letters in the


for
it",

word

\^^^-*.2

U
?

the

meaning of

is

"Ye asked me

ma> be
weak)

servile.
letters

What
They

is

the use of the servile (or

are

used

in

combination

with

the

radicals

(strong

letters) of a root to

form derived verbs, which we shall study

from Lesson 72 onwards, and also nouns derived from verbs.


3.

How
Take

cjn the derived verb be reduced


the

to its original radicals?

word ^y

(he honoured me), (a)


(b)

Remove
away

the
the

affixed

pronoun, with the linking nun.


is

take

preliminary alif-hamza, which

the distinguishing
left
is

mark of

Conjugation
4.

IV.,

and what we have

^
III

^
?

-^

How
Take
tJ

do we find the meaning of the derived verb


the Dictionary

and look up the root


it,

under Chapter
Conjugations

and having found


it

trace
find

the

II

and

below
5.

and we ultimately

IV

^y

to

show honour.

Give further examples.


(a) j^-^^-^'-^^

Take

off the plural una,

and get

.^aI^*)

from which

remove the
root left
is

servile letters --1 (see 1 above)

and the original

to

understand,
off,

(b)

Oy

J^--*^,

Here jj comes
centre,

then

and

finally the

long

alif

from the

leaving

-^

j ^
Here only the

(c)

zj^-^

"It-was-rolled-away"

comes

away, leaving
"to roll

z j^^ which

is

a quadriliteral

root

meaning
97)-

away", upon the form

J.^*i (to

be studied

in

96

*>
'

t;9and the plural


sign, but

(d)

>j^^)^r

Removing
ta,

the pronoun
is

keeping the
left
-UL**

for this also


find

a quadriliteral verb, to

we have
"to

which we

from the lexicon


pupil, or disciple).

mean

make

disciples" (from
6.

-^^J a

May

a servile letter act at other times as a radical


it

Yes, and then of course (for the time being)


for

is

strong.

Take
Here,
to ask,

example, the word

^^y Uj
first

they-are-asking-me.
(^

removing the 3

iS

^^^

we have

left

Ju*

which
see
7.

is

a strong

tri-literal

verb.

For another example,


?

5 (d).
is

What
(a)

the order of the


triliteral root is

words

in the lexicon
first,

The

placed

and, in good

lexicons

such as Hava's or Wortabet's, either of which we recommend,


it

is

marked by an

asterisk on the right side.

To

its left is

always shown the vowelling of the Mudari*^ and, farther on, the
madar.
to a

(Hava uses two

sorts of asterisks,

one of which refers

word being

specially Syrian).

(b) Possibly there

may be
:

another verb with the same radicals

but different vowelling


(c)

that

would be shown
(if

next.

'

Then

the

II

Conjugation J^
lOth Conjugation

any); the
if

III,

IV

etc., if

used.
the
if

(d) After

the

any

look out

for

participles, or rather,

Noun

of

Agent and Noun

of Object

they form specially useful words or phrases.


(e)

Lower down,

the Derived
^-^I-S

Nouns may be shown,

for

example

c^lSs^ at the foot of


8.

fairly
is

full

dictionary

recommended

for the

elementary

student

Wortabet's Arabic-English, which can be piocured

from

the

American Mission

Press,

Beirut,

Syria,

or

the

American, C.M.S., or Nile Mission Press Book-shops

at Cairo.

fuller

and more excellent one

is

Hava's (SJ.) of Catholic


latter.
It

Press, Beirut.

Most scholars use the

has not been

9.
I

i8o

New
edition,

obtainable (except secondhand) for some years.


5

now obtainable

of Nile Mission Press, Cairo.

Please note that the student has no expensive grammars to


buy, for the present course, bound up, comprises a complete

Arabic Grammar, including

new and

original Syntax,

in

addition to Reader, Exercises, and Examination Papers.


10.

Lane's eight-volume lexicon,


(Williams and Norgate),
is

formerly

five

or

six

guineas

useful for very old Arabic, such as

the Qur'an and Traditions, but quite unnecessary for practical

work.
Arabic.

Some
The

will,

later on,

need an
'

Arabic Dictionary
'

in

Jesuit
is

one

;^j^j-J

V j^

(3 vols,

10

plus carriage)
11.

summary

of all others,
the best
is

For English
(_5^r^'

Arabic Dictionaries,

"The Modern'*

by Elias Anton, 80 piastre?, and the next best Ab-

carius (Beirut).
12
It ip,

Get an Arabic Gospel from Bible Society.

from now, assumed that the student can search his own

dictionary for

new words.

Exercise 60.
The
diclionaiy

may

be consulted for help in reading the following exercise,


to Arabic,

which may then be re-translated

^JJ

JaV Ij J5^ J
I

<>Judi

"yj^

J^ J
I

4il

C-'jJ ^:^.>

Li^f

<i^

I>.|

o\

^li^

Ji5S

J-^^^

3'-^-U

VI

Air

y^

S;

^i

<":

l8i

Reading Lesson 70, ^ dd^^^Cj"* ^ " ^ ^ ^

''

-^-^*'

jl LiT jG]

5V

'^-i

^iil '^jI:!

3^1)f jir.

,>ij i'/J

jt I'liil'^

jklkft

ii

>^Jlj
^

"j jlII
mT

J^

LI3

4L2r
*

<,tf

U3

^f>-

ir-MUJl

J^

<*

(J

A^*^

1>JL3-I

U^*>. /,^

<i\A

,v

St.

John

I-18.

l?-j^ ojl-lj
)

EXAMINATION PAPER
A. To English

70.

j^^U

c-VJ' o::^! -tl^-^

(s)

il^lj

iU^.V

(r)
(t)
(C)

O^li
(

.^i^i^

Jii^lSy^Ull

^1

^1

^^fll

c^^^..

t^i-::.J

:^^

J5.

To Arabic:
1.

She put the psahii-books


This prize
I

in

one of her boxes.

2.
3.

is

the greatest of all the prizes.

may

(can) not s.tiike

my

father,

my

brother, or

my mother

4.
5.

Another man came

to the castle of the Sultans.

These people are poorer than

those.
?

6.
7.

Are poor people

better than rich ones

Every man has two ways before him, but one of them only
is

the

way

of

life.

8.

That he would give them leave


Write out the Alphabet

to enter.

C.

(l)
(2)

in the usual dictionary order.

Give the Singular or Plural and meaning of the

following,

where possible.

If

a Derived

Noun, give

its

root also.

''

(^ ^^^

lT^^^ "(^J" o>^^

j^^

^y^

Vj^^^

r^'^^

i83

71.

Lesson

SOME ORIENTAL PROVERBS.


"
>

olJ.il'

WJ
;7-^a)

o\J^\

A.SC-

(y) (r)

ill

<ii>GClV^r_,
I

T-lli^

^"U!

(t)
(o)

Va^^/>ilrj:;^!:^'\5;ui

Vj
sjjti^i
I

^-oI

(v)

Li^

Lrl<!i!

(a)

Encjlisli
1.

Tramlaiion
is

Patience

beautiful

(/. e.

a virtue).
is]

2.
3.

The The The

safety of
fear of
is

man God is

[lies,

or

in the

keeping of the tongue.

the beginning of wisdom.

4.
5. 6.

Patience

the key of relief.

intelligent eats to live, the ignorant lives to eat.


is

One

thing by [ another] thing minds me of a story").

remembered

"That

re-

7.
8.

9.

Whoso striveth, findeth. Note the two Past Tenses after Writing (correspondence) is half seeing (e. e. half a visit). Information is not like eye-witness (= "See for one-self")

Notes

(3)
(5)

^Ij

is

often used for beginning, or source :<il^


is

is

Masdar Mimi.

^*\

cr

Hollow verb

to live.

(7)
(8) (9)

Note the past tense with continuous meaning.

The two masdars

are those of Conjugation III (Lesson 74).

The word ^i

is

used for "news".

N.B. Learn one proverb

a day, but keep up the back ones.

i84 r-

Lesson 72. DERIVED CONJUGATIOyS


1.

How many
are there
?

Derived

Conjugations

of the Triliteral

Verb

There are fourteen


used,

but the last five of these are infrequenly

in fact, the solitary


is

word, or two, illustrating some of


!

them
2.

found

in the

grammar-book but not met with again


full,

Write

all

the conjugations in
off the

with one example of each,

marking

unimportant ones.
Example
^ > ^

Meaning of Example
to be good, beautiful
to

Special Use

Form

No.

Trans: or In trans

make

better

Intensive, or Cans:

II

to
to
to

keep peace with


cause
to sit

J:
o-^Vi

Prepositional.

j;u
-a
1,

III

Causative.

3-' IV
11.

become

better

'o^

Reflexive of
Reciprocal.

to be reconciled together

vu
I.

VI
VII
VIII

to

be cut off

Passive of

I.

to separate onself

Reflexive of

to

be red
^
-.

Colour
^0

etc.

IX

to

consider good

Asking, or Considering

X
tJui^

to

be very red
'

J^'^l

XI
XII
XIII

to be very
to last
to have

rough

yA
rX
^0 ^0 ^e

long
a liump in front

J^rJ^l

XIV

to lie

on a couch

Jd'J

XV

iS5

Reckoning the ordinary simple J*-* as


jugations talie consecutive numbers.

I,

the Derived Con-

We

shall systematically

study those up to X, but the


QXote
3.

last five

may be

omitted.
left).

-AW
is

our tables are read Arabic fashion riglit to

What

the distinguishing feature of Class


radical,
in

II. }

shadda over the middle

emphasising
place
to

it

and reaUy
Exs. ^r-^

making two consonants


-

the
to

of

one.

-?^
r--J

to break,

becomes

in II

break

bits

'V:

to

cut,

4a?

to cut to pieces.
it

Note

This

shadda must be carefully


and J^y^
.

enunciated as though
4.

were written y^*^


.

Write ^^Lll of
".0

l^

.-^

^/j:^

b'.ir

'IT

Cf

&jr
\fS
observable between the Past Tenses of
I

What difference is ^"i^ and II yi^?


ference
is

Comparing with Lesson


Give (Al-Mudari^).

18, it will

be noticed that the only dif-

the presence of the carefully enunciated shadda.

6.

Here again the shadda makes the only difference, except that the kaf takes a fatha, and the servile letter a (Jamma.
7.

Write the Jussive

(^jj^i)

and from that deduce the Imperative.

isi<:i lilies
'j^

153

'

"

Imperative.

186

r
8.

iSj-

St

f^M'

For further practice,


Past.

Ac*

'Vo fi'acA

id^
''"'
^

UU

0'-'

Pip sent.

^'^-'''
Prohibitive.
"

Do

nol teach
;

^;:u'v i;:u-v
Imperative.

d;/

Sf

^i'v

-^H

Z^}9.

'A^

cU
?

Are the Derived Conjugations much used


Very
iiuich

^
^-^
-^

so; especially in Colloquial Arabic


\ ^

Exercise 72a.

o ^-^'^

.'

V,

*-^
I

-^

-1

^t I"

E.vercise 72h.

"Go ye
them

then,

and make disciples of

all

nations,

and baptize

in the

name
:

of the Father, and of the Son, and of the


to

Holy Ghost and teach them

observe
all

all

that

have com-

manded you and


:

lo,

am

with you

the days unto the end

of the age.

Amen".

Lesson 73.
I.

How
The

do we form

> .Ul ^
(for

from Conj.

II. ?

original formula for the Ismiil-Fa*il Trom the triliteral verb

cannot apply here

where should we place the

alif

?).

RULE:
nal

In the case of

any derived conjugation, take the 3rd.

Masc. Sing, of al-Mudari^( Active) and exchange the pronomi.


prefix for mini with

damma, and
is a

replace the end vowel by


J.)^

tan win,
^it*
a dual

since

Jpli)

.-*i

noun. Thus, from


(

we

get

one-who-teaches
(jC^^**

a teacher

fem.

*UA.*^

).

This takes

and the regular plurals

U^-^i.*^

and

OlJ.**

Similarly
2
Is

^^aa one-bringing-forward, or presenting.

the passive of

^
it

formed
:

like the triliteral

J*i

First revise

Lesson 35

2,3.

Remember
*

that really

J*5
is

is

quadriliteral since --

equals J*^

Then
-

the passive
>

l*3

>

which

is

written

^5

Pronounce

it

like

^**^

oUi'
.>-/
0-^'
u.

IJ

3.

The Passive
the fatha).

of the Imperfect
>^l

Tense
o 1

P-jUaii

c.

/.

35

noting,

Pronounce

this

U*i>

0>

IjiaJ

Uil

o ^o

4.

formed from How is J^*J RULE" The Noun of Object


^**l^

Conj.

II

of any

derived

conjugation

is

formed from the 3rd Masc. Sing, of the Present Passive by

i88replacing the
-j,

by

and the case-vowel by tanwin.

Thus

from

/-^\

he-is-put-forward,

we

get
of O.,

^J^
e.g.,

put-forward, or
i*>

ahea^J. If

wedonotalwayswsetheN.

(one-taught),

that

is

partly because

we have

a N. A.

formed from Conj. V.


to

^LjO (=one learning, or taught) and also


N. of O. from
its

distinguish the

Noun

of agent

^^

'

tQ-acher'\iuhen unvowelled.
:

N.B. For the Plural of such participles, see 45


5.

3 (b).

Is

the

Madar (Noun

of Action) of the

derived conjugations
verb
?

different from that of the simple

triliteral
II.

Quite different.
with
faih:i

The Masdar
first

of

is

formed by prefixing
a

fa

to

the

radical

and inserting

ya of prolongU*jw
.

ation before the final radical, which gives us


i^
.

Thus
it is

the

masdar of

i.^

is

^a*j

the

act-of-teaching, or (as

conthe

r-

0.

ventionally used) teaching or doctrine. Similarly


act-of-putting-forward, or presentation.

fSAi

is

There
in

is

second form in

^^^

As can be

seen,

it

differs

having
clarify
(

instead of ya of prolongation.
or,

Thus from
)

^^
get
<-^w>
^

to

conventionally, to clear up, liquidate


or liquidation.

we

A^A^)
..'

clearing,

From

^^
a

to

name,
verb

the

act

of

naming.

Occasionally
4?^-.^)

strong

may

take the second form as in


it is

act of praising

God, but
in

much more
is

generally used for

weak verbs ending


II
?

ya.

What (a) An
(b)

specially denoted by Conjugation

Intensive

meaning

is

often given to the primitive verb


to

At other times the factitive meaning (causing Denominative,


i.e.

do the
;

action); (c)
(d)

the verb

is

formed from a noun


"to declare to

Declarative, or Estimative, eg. <^Jo


lie',

be

i.e.
to''

to

deny

0-^

to believe (a statement).

^
73-

**to

speak

hardly comes under either of the above-

Study the following table before working Exercise


2
^^'^ ;13
^^-;
\

189

2 ;^

\1

'>

sb
y-^

^_^
"ID

l/i

A
cu

^-^

CD

S 'S

o
(U

XS
-4-J

>> 4^

'5
V4-,

2
g
4->

O
3

3
.-9

o
'a
-4-*

^
3
'O
4-*

G
.5

3
TJ
4-1

ii

a
O O
4-1

2
I
^1.^

O
4-)

4->

< 2

''V VO
(fl

-;^,
')^'

t**.

l4i

':;!j

:A'

4>
?^ 0)
4-I

"c^

a
b/)

QJ

M-)

a
o
Kfi

bfi

o
0)

tj

en .22 ui (U

tM i<

O
<u

o
c

3 o O

u
4-

rJ

CTi

2? 3
"^
-^3

13

D
>

3
R3

u
<u
-4-

3
'c3

o
v-a

S
0)

a;

o
c
as

<

\*'i

\*3

v:3

a't

^t

I'.l

\*x\*'i

,'^*'i

\*-i

^
TO i* wj 'Zl fJ

=
,

-2
,_,

bZ)

^ Oi
w

Jr^

.5
*-

-*-

D f3

h.-J

c c

t:
<j

*-

IQO --

Exercise 73a.
(

Sign

"^\

U^tj.

^.

l^!-i^j lj>^ 61:^

'

( N

losc- j_p_j'.'4iiirj

(y)

jl'l L,G<:!il

J>

'.il

o\

ill's

(t)

\)^.^^^^^

(V)

jI-IjJ

dllr

J ji^ j

jju) j

(^)

Exercise
1.

73b.

And

those

who

disbelieved, and denied our signs.


to

2.
3.

AndGod spoke
That-which
to

Moses

speaking

(i.e.

earnestly, or,much).

is in

the heavens and the^arth offered praise

God.
in truth.

4.
5-

That is that God sent-down the scripture


It

(He) came with (by) truth and confirmed the sent-ones

(i.e.,

God's messengers).
sent

6.
7.

God

down

the best of conversation, (^the Traditions).

He
It is

it is

that forms you.

8.

God,

the Creator, the Originator, the


to believe that

Former

(painter).

9.

We
The

were not able

good-news.

10.

Ministry (Cabinet) issued an official denial of the


that the king
to

rumour

had been murdered.


to

iVo/e Students able


Arabic"
first.

do so should now translate "English

But both portions must be done in every case.

Official (adj.)

^^J

to issue

jA^

191

Lesson 74.
Coiijug^ation
1.
III.

How

is

the

III

Conjugation indexed

in the

Lexicon

VUij
''

5ic^lA4

Jc-^
what
is

3^1^
" ^ "

^..^

2.

If
It

v^^I-5

means

"he wrote,"

the

meaning

of

s^O

means "he corresponded with" (someone).

3.

Al-M^di:

OV^^

>/r^^
I'^rir'

Al-Mudari* of the same


.,J*L>o
/;*-.)*

l>o

,/jlJ*l5>J

/jLol^o

,^l>o
cXJlsCr

,^^ l>vj

>^\<s

irt
Al-Amr

Crir
There
verds:
is

^x
whose Jussive
III
}

usually no need to write out 'the Jussive of "Sound"


the "Verb

it is

weak

in its final character"

will receive special attention).


6.

How
There

do we form
is

Jcliil

J\

from

a
;

good deal of

similarity

between
II

II

and

III

in all

the tense

the difference being that in


(in the
is

the stress falls


alif.

upon

the sukiin

shadda) and
J^^-*

in

III

upon the long


j

The
0^>

Noun

of

Agent

(compare with J*a4

thus
a

u-^>

a correspondent, J.5l^ a controversialist,


S<^\.^ an assistant.

C.^>-^^*

debater,

For the
of J^L*
^

plural,

see

45:3

(b).

7.

What

i5

the

masdar

to J^^AA thus

192

their

There are twj;som2 verbs make

madar by adding

we

get

^'^'

oversight, watching (See also 71:8)

but others in 3^ii take Jl? thus Jll? to fight with, takes
fighting;
ally

Jl3

and

^Umay
in

takes

^^^

contention

(p. 194),

Occasion-

one verb

use both madars, as will be seen from the

examples given

Lesson

75. In the
its

case of

JU-

each madar

has a conventional meaning of


inter-related,

own. Lessons 74 and 75 being


before Exercise 74.

students

study Lesson 75

Exercise 74 B.

'JiC

uil

'J (^_ J.

5"

( \

1> ^ J>'
CJ\ 4)J^U
-C

()
(a)

j^;i!x^C'jiV

^0_,-

0,

Wf

(V)
(a)

\^:^

y^^ 3V^1 Q; cnJisCj iscj '^Vi


ill

S/ C;1

Cil'i

jj;l

liUj

(O

Exercise 74 A.
(i)

Everyone who contravenes the law

is

(will be) punished.

(2)
(3)
(4)

(5)
(6)
(7)

Fight (war) a severe fighting (war). Accompany (f) thy sister to the house. Bless me. O my father. Purify me. then I shall be pure.
Assist him, you (fern, sing.). No, rather assist him yourself. I do not understand why you (f.) correspond wiih this wicked man. Explain to me. Why do you associate with him yourself, then ?

(8)

(9)

193

Lesson 75.
I.

Give the passive of

J^U

(Refer to Lesson 73

and

c./.

63

5).

'A^y
;

>

0%>

-b^
'
>

Give the passive of

'Uil
3.

From

the above, form the


II

Noun
-j^

of Object

c^^
is

^\

As with

so here

replace
is

by

and add the tanwin of


reflexive to
III.

the Noun. This N.O.

not used much, for VI

and the same end can be served by using the noun agent of VI.
Ex. of the N.O. s^J^\i>^\
4.

The person addressed.


Ill

The
a

significations of Conj.

are best expressed by

means
far

of

table,

which

will

show,

at

the

s?me

time,

how

the

derived verb differs from the primary verb, and also which of
the

two masdars

is

used by any individual verb.


the

The vocabverbs

ulary

has been carefully selected, and

derived

should, therefore, not only be ledgered up, but adttaUy learnt


5

The grammarians give


(a)

three chief significations:

Attempt or Effort "Wq attempt to perform the primary ac-

tion

upon someone;

this often involves reciprocity.

See exs.
object,

(a).

(b) P?-e/)oszY/o?ia/ converting

indirect

to

direct
(b).

by

ahsorhinrj the preposition, so to speak.


(c)

See exs.

Qualitative s.hoviiug the quality in acting towards some-

one.

(This

use

of

III

only occurs
(c).

when

the primary

verb

denotes a quality. See exs.


6.

In the following table carefully learn the

meaning

of the derived

verb, as

it is

more important than

that of the primary verb-

194

^A
o
^
tt)

5 o O

<D
0)
'bJc

4)
f-l

OS

o
4-1

1)
jaj

u
"tfl

^
a;

"co

'o

^
o

^ >
^

3
;:;:j

^^
:t-

\13

.'^

\lf>

;^V>

>

\^
;>

N-^

:v> \"S
!

n
c o

M^

_3N

mA
r'-s

;-.^)

o
o
.s

i-^

o
J3
0-)

o
4-1

x:
4-

(-1

>^
bX)

"5

<u
4'

^
bc

t/J

^
^ O
4-1

C3

3 o
;m OJ

W)

3 w o o o O
t/3

a
t/i

-o

1^
.*->

.O

'-^

o
"'"'

^ o
'^-^

:j
\'^

.3

^"3

4^"

0?.

^^
1^

s^

o
4^

>.
Jaft

C
cd

c o
h
ro
bX)

u
o

C D

o
c o
r-^

53

t:

>,

03
(/i

o a a
(/)

QJ

bC
b
;::

CD (D

c u

An
interesting case
is

195

from

i! jl^ to bless,

^ j,

to

kneel (camel)

Exercise 75 A.
1.

Every contravention

will be punished.

2.

They fought

a great fight

(Holy War).

3.
4.
5.

The
I

thief

was seen coming from the house.

wish to discuss with you the subject of the present war.


is

Disputing

the source of quarrelling (fighting).

6.
7. 8.

They watched
Bless me,

the

army

intensely

an intense watching),

O mother!

Assist me,

father!
a

The student was punished on-account-of


vention.

simple contra-

9
10.

Then he went
This tribe
is

to his father'

house

to

ask assistance.

notorious for the quantity

(amount) of
its

differ-

ences and contention (litigation) between


Exercise 75 B,

followers.

i;.uLiU

Aiiu^L

(s)

(S^\A^\/1(>.
jljJI^
Lrl

(y) (r)

^11

^f^^z.

Aj

jl^i

^S^A

<i.>l>cj

(0)

;a,_j-i

ijri^

^i'

iy.ji

(^)

(J.

'

^L

<J

-^ ^- ^,

^i

^f^

^;

^ V)

196

Lesson 76.
Conjug'ation IV.
1.

What
The
we

is

the distinctive feature of IV.

prefixed alif in the past tense, which generally

gives a

factitive

meaning

to

tlie

verb, though, in the

example which

shall use, this signification is not so easily perceived.

2.

Trace the derivation of

^^^
>** IL. to deliver, and also to salute
III.

^^

I.

to

be

safe,

and

with 'peace," while


originally
local,

Jl-^

to

make peace
(to

with.

S.^^

means

"to "surrender oneself"


" to

God) hence the


i. e-,

modern meaning

become
**to

a Muslim."

to

profess

''Isldui." It
3.

may

also

mean

surrender up".
-0

Write Al-Madi of Aslama.

jxi
^0 ^
'

\;x^\

l:.UI
-^0 ^0

CUI
-i.

-i.

l:Xl
Al-Mucjari':
>

'::::X.i

^
^

>

C>\jL.^i^

\J^
-I

-p
Al-Amr:

U-

What

is

noticeable about the vowelling


for

.?

The Rule

IV Present-Future

is

"The

servile
(in

pronominal
this

prefix takes

damma

while the ^Ain of the root

case,

lam) takes kasra".

Rule for IV Imperative

"The prefixed

alif

takes

hamza-

fatha (which must be actually written) and the middle radical

has kasra, as

in

the Present-Future.

7.

197

its

^J^\

"to believe",

will

be studied in Lesson lo8 but

Imp

may be

learnt now.

8.

How
As

is

the

before,

Noun of Agent of IV formed ? we mould it upon the 3rd Person,


by
/
,

Singular, Present,
^a/i^^-m
:

replacing -i
a

and of course writing


;

thus

^>^*^^

Muslim

^>;

an informant, reporter

^j*^

benefactor

^y>^^^A possible

^^-^

a believer; *^^^ a lover. (In the last exto

ample a shadda causes the kasra

be thrown back upon


to 45
B.
:

r- )

For the Plural of Derived Participles, refer again


Study Lesson 77 before working Exercise
Exercise 76 B.
76,

3 (b).

A. and

To

English

ixX.

ij'iU-

sJii

:>')

ijZ. UJ

4,>"

j l-UjrV
iJ'

(y)
('^)

S-V

^-^"-^
'

!>*

^^VJ-*'

<5:^"'

^'iH vjl^

^J.

jVl ji

dC tA

'\'^

'JCJ dl.

iJlfl

y\

(a)

Exercise 76 A.
1.

Evil

To Arabic company corrupts good manners


:

(character).

2.
3.

Lead
I

us not into temptation.

am Jehovah,
I

thy God,

who

brought-thee-out from the

land of Egypt.
4.
5.

And
For His

do good

to

thousands of them-that-love-me.
not acquit him

Jehovah will Name vainly.


father

who has spoken

with

6.

Honour thy

and thy

mother that thy days may

be long on the earth.


7.

They expelled

the informant, but did not punish him.


I.

198

what must we remember


its

Lesson 77.
To form
i

the Passive of
I

IV

Past,

hat

\^

jg

really a quadriliteral verb, therefore


:

passive

is

formed as

in 35

3.

o
I

-V

7U /O

u^

h-

-V

Write the Passive of the Present-Future of

IV,

jU
oy

,5nj

J lV.<;

v^
r

Form

the Passive Participle (N.O.) from the Pres. Future Passive.


/^p^^

Replace the servile ya by -* thus from


J
I

we
one

get
sent,

to send,

comes
aU>

\'^

i.e.,

missionary;
4.

r^^-^^

reformed;
?

raised.

How

is

the

Madar formed

Conj, IV. agrees with VII, VIII, IX and

X in

forming the Madar


alif

from the 3rd Masc. Past by inserting a long


its

between

^ain

and
;

its

lam, and vowelling the preliminary alif-hamza

with kasra
5.

thusJl*5[

^^\ A_f

o^Z>-\
?

How
By

can

this
:

be easily remembered
All forms (VII,

this rule

etc.)

which

in

the Preterite

begin with a supplied hamza form their Noun of Action by


inserting a long alif before the last radical.
6.

What must
It

be remembered about the hamza of IV.

is

a hamzat-qafa,
'Jl**^-'
;-^->^
I

NOT a

wala.
l>lw.>-i

Therefore we can never

write

but always

*1^

7.

But

if

the verb already has an alif as in

aU

'

''he

raised up"?

In that case,
i*li[ raising

199

giving of rest:

add
,

as "compensation" for the second alif -JExs


^5-'j[

dwelling:

^iU[ killing.

(This will be studied under the

Hollow Verb
?

in

Lesson

II/).

What
This

are the chief significations of this form

is,

"par excellence", the factitive or causative conjugation


causing-to-be, etc.)

(making-to-do,

but those under (b) are


last

from

iV^oi^/is

and have various significations: the


to

two are
learn,

commonly used
Meaning
(a)

mean

"to

become".

Copy

and

leaving plenty of room for fresh examples.


of

IV

IV.

Meaning

of

I.

I.

Factitive:

to

destroy
(a person)

diUI
--.

to perish

iiu
-'/

to corrupt

^Ji\

to be corrupt
to enter

a.J

to bring in

>^
7-

to cause to

go out

to

go out

>-

to

send down
^

Jyi
8 t

to alight

J>

to associate (partners)

to share
1.
-'

(with

God)

V
"

"

to
to

do good
^0
i.

to be good,

handsome

, ?

0-=^
- >^

make

sound,

reform
^0
t.

to

be sound

to

inform
^3
%.

to

know
be present

t
-A^-

to

bring forward

to

>0^

(b)

From
commit

Isiouns

'".

"^

to

sin

^)
Yemen

:>

sin,

fault (noun)

^i:>

to face towards

'j^)

Yemen

(S.

Arabia)
^0/

to be in the morning (to become)

cV>
f.

mornir.g

(nomO
^\^A

to be in the evening
(to

.become)

evening (noun)

200

77,

EXERCISE

every day,

was
^-j^o

in the habit of

sending

Said one of the


polite-ones,

(used to send)
Aim

my

servant,

'^\

he brought

And on one
of the

to the native stores

which are

with him,

days

in the market.
t: --

had reformed some


of the sinners,

that one of the

beneficent,
>

two another person. informed me


the
l:il)_Ju

And

if *

'^

<^

'

^J,

for fighting.

[those]

who had been punished,


0>0
--

in
;

our city

6-

CnJ AJ \ri^J^'j>^lQ'y3
"Possible".

>

>

They-said:

And

is

the reform of

said to

sinners

possible

them.
>

a'^
By taking them out the evil company.
I

r
that'7.

of

They
>

said,

said,

'How

is

>

And by sending-them- And which


far

will

Which corrupted
them.

from

their friends.

destroy them

Where they
be

will

And by

putting

them

into

And

their lovers,

the "Reformatory"
rf
\

-o

if

>

-'

"May God

bless the benefactor",

said

under observation.

20t

Lesson 78. TABLE OF CONJS I- IK


I.

There

is

a certain

amount

of similarity

between Conjs.

II., III.,

and IV marking these


notice, later, that V.

off as a class

by themselves.

We

shall

and VI. form another class having many and X. form another.

features of similarity, and VII., VIII.,

We

give the table (or Paradigm) of

Forms

I.

IV.
PAST

To be

copied and studied.

PAKnCIPLES
Masdar
Passive Active

Present-Fut.
Imper.
Passive Active.

No.
Passive Act.

etc.

\'i

W^
Waj
VAJ

I.

II.

III.

^
>

IV.

2.

Here are examples worked


^^
^

out.

To be memorised.

liiS
/^>-

'j^'^J<:'J<::^J^'Js^

1A>

--^ijlrc^Jk

^*

Li
^
o

^
V\

0^

0'^

o-fc

r'

3.

These

details are

all

that are needed; the other persons


in

and

numbers are

easily

formed

accordance with the usual rules

(already learnt).

This table

is
:

one

to

be really well learnt, not merely "noted".


to

Exercise 78

A. Translate
^ j^

English

ry
B.

Tj^*

t^-^

^y

'(J^^

^ir^-^

AjU-j

(^?^**^

To Arabic:

One-honouring; wriring; praise; separate!;


;

he-was-honoured

one-praising; honour!; honoured; honour.

^202
Lesson 79.

READING EXERCISE
(from
-p

"Magani-1-Adab"

Vol.

II.)

uk^'^'l^W-^' o"
of-the-iich^of-Isfjahan
i

>j-UlJ^
came-to-the-door-of-a-man
It is said that a

beggar

>

4i

liJo^ 1) lli

and said to

his servant

And-the-man-heard-him

And-asked some-thing for God.'


'

^-

say to Ruby,

and Jewel,

to say to Jewel

tell

Amber,
oi

O Mubarak
^ -

>

--

>

and Turquoise,

and Diamond

tell

Turquoise,

and Ruby say

to

Diamond,

"God open upon

thee.'

and Coral say to

this beggar,

tell

Coral,

So he raised

his

two hands

to

heaven

the asker,

And heard him

aisCj
And MikaU
to Mikail

he says

Say

to Gabn'iil

Lord,

'^\<.f'3
Say
to IsrafTl

y>^^^ 'y^k^^^^^'^M^^'^'A'^A
And
Dirdail say to Kikail

And

Kikail

say to Dirdail

"

this miser,

that he

visit,

And

Israfil tell 'Israil,

t<5 the-state

-oMiis- way.

and the beggar went

The merchant was ashamed,

THE BEGGAR AND THE


It is

MISER.

Translation of Lesson 79.


J.

said that a beggar

came

to the

door of a man, one of the

rich

men

of Isfahan,

and asked something, "For God's sake."


said to his servant,
tell

The man heard him, and


tell

"O Mubarak,
to tell

Amber

to tell
tell

Jewel to

Ruby

to tell

Diamond

Turquoise to

Coral to say to this beggar:

"May God bestow

(goods) upon thee."

But the beggar heard him, so he raised his hands to heaven

and said "O Lord,


:

tell

Gabriel to

tell

Mikail to

tell

Dirdail to

tell

Kikail to

tell

Israfil to tell 'Izrail to visit this miser".

The

merchant was thus put


his way.
2.

to

shame and the beggar went on

NOTES.
(1)

After

jJ

is

used the particle

d[ not j

'

but

either

of

these particles causes the subject to be


(2) "Isfahan'' is a (3)

^j^^a

diptote (Lesson 52
is

6-8),

The phrase

"for God's sake"


;

common

in the East.

(4)
(5)

"Mubarak" has no tanwin

it is

defined because "vccalive"


the

The

miser, of course,

made up

names

of imaginary

servants.

These useful names of precious stones may, or


be learnt just now.
is

may
(6)

not,

"Turquoise"

a carruption of the

word

faiiuz,

possibly

through the Turkish.


(7)

"May God bestow upon

thee," means, "I myself cannot".

(8)

^j

is

Quranic abbreviation of ^{j


etc.,

my

Lord.

(9)

Gabriel, Mikail

are diptotes.

(10)

The beggar quoted

the two intermediate

names

to

rhyme

with "miser", but the last two are the actual names of the

Moslem "Angels
3.

of Death".

The

curse

was thus a bad one.


a/o?/f/.

B.

All

Reading Exercises

??? 2/6-^

be pronounced
if

Also,

tnemorise short (complete) exercises

possible.


A.

:204

80.

EXAMINATION PAPER
To English
:

-^

J.:J.^

(r

CJic- Ijji. lyU-

(i

;>:^ Vi)l

djjCii

'/^^'j'

'ill

iJ'jC

(v

B.

To Arabic
1.

Lead me not

into temptation.

2.
3.

We can
"I

do

this deed, but with difficulty.


to

do good

thousands of them that love me."

4.
5.

(Write out) the Third

Commandment

in full.

Ask, from the carpenter, the keys of the trunks.


I

6.
7.
8.

put the commentary-books in one of


allies are

my

boxes.

The
I

very strong now.

wish to see some dictionaries.


teach them to observe
those
all

9.

"And

that

have commanded you''

10.

"And

who
^^

disbelieved, and denied our signs".


:

C. Discuss ten of these


^^
1-11

words
^
-^ ^
X

^r
<J

1
.

o
"

>^.

J ^

^rc
\
\

tf.

Lesson
"EYE, VOICE,

81.

AND EAR" EXERCISE.

"The Lord's Prayer".

l^^J

^V

^i;;

rX. byi

l-J

jAPij

y_/-^

'

l-ja^l

llilijT

NOTES
(1)

v^

is

used, alone, for

"

(Heavenly) Father," to distinguish

it

from
is

'

(without madda) but


alif (see

when
:

in

construction, the accent

thrown upon the


vocative,

54

2).

The

only when in construction,


-^-^

is

placed in the
in Less. 180.

Accusative*^' ^
(2)

^ ...

not <w ^

'

-X-^b This will ...

come

^^^^J

is

the Jussive of Conj. V. (Lesson 82).

(3)

OQ

is

the Jussive of the verb

jl

'*to

come" (Weak Final

Radical
(4)

Lesson

124).

/jSs^J
c-^U-j

is

Jussive of

jo

(Lesson

116).

(5)

is

not used elsewhere.


11.

See Diet.

(6)

}p

is

Imp. of ^j^ Conj.


c^I^ ij

Lesson 12/

3.

(7)

A>cJl J

dilj

For case of these nouns, see page

89.

:2o6

Conjugation
1.

Lesson 82 V

(^^^

of

^^>*

"to talk, to speak".

ll^S^^J

l-.A.S<0

vll^.15^0

(^^S^O

2.

P-jUll

Of

i^-:j "he talks".

'^i
^-A,^v._i

3.

r'^lj-i
,

j^\^^.

4.

What

is

specially noticeable in 2 and 3

Previously

we have found

the

'^ain

of the verb maksur, or


is

marked by

kasra, but here each


(c.f.

vowel

fatha except, of

course, the case-vowel,


5.

Conjugation VI.

in

Lesson

84).

Form J^Ull

^^1^

from

Sy^

As

usual, take the 3rd Sing, of the Mudari*^ tense and'substitute

^^We thus get^iSCl*


jt-^*I^

a speaker; /-Xil^ one-advancing (leader)


polite person;

a learner;
is

^^ O a
.?

y^

-^^ remembering.

6.

What
The

noticeable here

fact that the


{c.f.

Noun

of

Agent takes

a kasra

under

its

middle

radical

Conjugation

VI.),

even though both Pres.-Fut. and

Imperative take fatha.


7.

Is

the Passive of V. used


:

Not very often

e,g.

we do

not say

^x$^_j

"

it

was spoken",

because we use

'I

U^ it-was-said

JU)

'\('

it is

said.


We
can, however, find an

207

in

example

^y
1

to

cause to die,

whence
'

^^y
He

tuwufifi,

he died (the usual written word). Another

example:
'

studied medicine
.
..

^J
>

^r
\

The
of

science of
^j^-*^'
is

- ^
'

>

"

medicine was studied Ja)


thus written

^*r

The Passive

^^^

^ y\

Note the vo welling.

Sdf-Test
:-.

82.
is

(l)

What

the point in the vowelling of the Present


:

Tense
4).

of Conjugation V. that students usually mistake (82


> ^"^^

(2)

Conjugate

>-^-j

"he advances" (82

2).

Exercise S.2B.
'

- ^

_^2^
Exercise 82 A.
{\)

Jiiii

(i)

"Then,

when thou

causedst-me-to-die,

thou

wast

the
^

watcher against them".


(2)

(Quran "Table Chapter").

"And, whosoever

is

filthy, let
let

him

defile himself still,


still,

and

whosoever
is

is

just,

him be

justified
still".

and whosoever
:

sanctified let

him be

sanctified

(Rev. 22

II).

(3)

"The Lord Jehovah (GOD) hath given me the tongue of


the learners" (Isaiah 50
:

4).

(4)

"The favour

is

to the

one who precedes" (Arabic Proverb


credit").

=
(5)

"the

first

one gets the

Whoso

learns while-small advances when-big. (Lesson 194


that

will explain

may

act

as

jazmating particle,

apocopating two verbs).

What
The
fixed
is

208

Lesson 83.
remarkable about Conjugation V.
type-form
is
?

fact that the


ta.

like that of

II.

but with a precases, V. acts

This

is

very important, for in


11.

many

as the Reflexive of
v., VI.,

Also,

this

servile ta of

Conjugations

and

VIII., is itself

primarily, the sign of theJReflexive,

and may be compared


wash one -self.
usually

to the
in

French "se"

in ^'se lavei" to
is

There

is

Greek a "Middle Voice" which


(

translated

by the Reflexive

"to

do

it

oneself ") and


this idea

Meiklejohn and others point out that


in English, for

we have

even

we say "The door opened"


defiled

"opened

itself".

Thus from
and from
self"
2.

11.

"it

me" we

get V.

"I defiled myself";


"I

II.

"he reminded me", comes Y.


(V.
:

reminded myto
II.)

remembered.
this

is

said to be ^

jU^
II.

Give examples of
Meaning of V.

Conj. V.

Meaning of
to sanctify

Conj.

II.

to sanctify oneself
to defile oneself
to

Ij^JZ

remember

to learn
to

n p
V

to defile

'u

to

remind
teach

T'

to

>
51

''

be cut

in pieces

to cut in pieces

to

be smashed to bits

j^^y^i

to

break

to bits

'f-^

to

come forward

to put

forward

to be polished, polite

to train, chastise

O'il

to suffer
\

to
i
ir'

cause

to suffer

7'
1

t:

to delay oneself

>lr
-5?

to delay, put

back

>'
^ i
,'

to

become

justified

to justify

to

be courageous

to

encourage

209
3-

A
to

few examples of Denominative

force,

(c,

Conj, II.)
(jijUa^

embrace Christianity j-^*be Arabicized


1

Christians (Nazarenes)

to

<^

Arabs

'^-*/'

to call oneself prophet,

V.".

to

prophesy

prophet

^^J

*"^>

to be named(i?e// to take a body,

of^j^^j
|
j

A>

name
body
J**:*-

4.

become incarnate How is the Madar


As usual, we form

VV

Flesh,
?

of V. formed
it

from the Singular Past, but in this case we simply substitute damma for the fatha of the middle radical.

Thus from

1*7

we

get

Jir

act of learning

o""-^
aJc/)

,.

c^-^^
^Ssii

sanctification

advancement
rashness

,.

? j^"^^
a.

"

P^r^^

Exercise 83
1.

(For missionaries).
(forward) to

A man came

me and informed me

that he

had

2.

been converted viz, become a Christian. His conversion took place after the coming of the English to Egypt.

3.

4.

And after that he made He says that his wife


sickness.

great progress in religion.


is

now

suffering from the effect of


\

God

willing

we

will visit her

and she

shall learn to write, in

one of the schools.


Exercise 83
h.

j^^i^

i^

JaJ.5s..J^1

j^<tk>-

-Xjw

^aIj" (ju

(t)

UIxaT

-y^^
1

^^

"/J^^r

dU i
o|_

-X*)

(r)
(t)

(j^j*

^*

Ir

*^^

j V U^ U*

at 1^.

JjL

210

Lesson 84.
Conjugation VI.
I.

What do we

notice on comparing VI. with


is

III

That the Past Tense

declined very similarly, the only difta.

erence being the prefixed

\i^y

V"^

^^

PuH
.

a garment,

(backwards and forwards).


-"
,

^C/

iU"
'iU"

2.

Is

there any distinction between


?

III.

and

VI< observable in the

Present and Imperative

Yes

exactly like that between


in
111.

II.

and V.

viz.,

that the kasra

under the middle radical


Give Al-Mudari^

becomes

a fatha in VI.

^
rtJ 1.^1)*

7^

I-^sIj

/Jl^^ar

Al-Amr.

QU
5.

L>-

ii:

TaUaT

Toioww Ism -id- faSL


the
7??77?i

Compare

lessons 74 and 82, then add

with

damma

to the 3rd Sing, past as usual.

(jWUil* \^
>>

They two
6.

are being reconciled.


(a)

The

Passive,

The Past Passive


is

is

on the form
:

J^jiJ

The

rule for the Quadriliteral passive

followed (35

3)

but the alif

becomes necessarily changed


L/.?:^^
etc.

to

wau.
tj

i^^
etc.

etc.

(/>)

The Present Passive


for
_)

is

changed from the Present Active

by substituting-)

thus fromJJlAl)

we

get

ITUjj: j^ArUl)

(c)

From

this the substitution of

gives us J^nill

^1

thus

w>^Utl4
7.

pulled from side to side, reciprocal


78.

(conversation).

Let us continue the table of Lesson


ity

Observe the similar-

between

IL,

III.

and

IV.

and now between V. and VI.


Prksent-Fut.

Masdar

PARTICIPLES
Imper.
Passive Active

PAST
No.
Passive Active
^ > >
3?-"-

Passive Active
;?'?--->

^i^'>

,"'-'''

5^.>^

'ur
^/

'ur v^
^

V.
VI.

^^}

^.>

-^^

>U: .yKc^
Examples

>>

^^

>>'
5;

?'

A>- ^^>

^
,3:^->

^
\

>>

?"
.

7.\

V.
VI.

r^>>
^ ^--

3^

^'>

^-^

"ITUT

D-V "
when
?

'irU

8.

How

is

the phrase "one another" written,

not incorpo-

rated into the

meaning

of the verb
'

Examine
Very

the sentence ^i

ji

-^

(j*

^*I ^^*i -^-L

*^
'

"That we

take not one another (one of us


literally translated,
It is
it

the other) instead of God."

reads.

"That some (one) of us not

take one (some)."


of the
first

specially to be observed that the case

and second ^Ja^

depends

upon

their

respective
the

place in the sentence.


other," or,

But always translate "one

"one

another" by

^%i
(

^;
or ^c-U

Thus,
)
\

we helped one another


They helped one another
(a)

L.^>

Uja*) O-Xc-L*

l^*)

^^^'Om^

Jic-U

Note two things

When
^jkio

the reciprocal

meaning

is

expressed by Conj\ VI.


:

then

need not be repeated, thus

"They lorgot one another" U^^> l-^Ur


(b) Also, after prepositions, the

word ^<jneed not be repeated


1.^,J2a>

"They two went out together"

^a IV^>-

"The men went together"

^.^^Vj

""Ha^S^}^ LJfc i

Lesson 85.
1.

Give some examples, showing the growth of Conj. VI. from

III.

(We

give the vocabulary in 3rd Sing., but

if

the action

is

mutual,

the subject of the verb

must be Dual,
VI.

Plu., or Collective).
III.
III,

Meaning of VI.
(a)

Meaning of

Reciprocal

to fight together
to dispute together

to fight with

...

in;

V^lki
;3)C.j

to dispute with

?^
j'A-

to

be mutual rivals

to vie with

...

to dispute together to discuss together to collide together to

J'Ai"

to dispute with

d%
'^i
ViL

cT-C

to discuss

with

...

to collide with

...

converse tog

C^iid

to

converse wnth...
...

iX
'JiV^
J'l^

to

correspond tog:
agree together

[JlsCr
jsiy

to write to

to

to to

agree with

...

be

reconciled together

'^Ur
'ty/^

to

make peace with

...

(b)

to be blessed,

(God)
to be exalted (God)
(c)

to bless

(anyone)
...

'iJ.\;

J^0^j^

to elevate

Jl-

to feign

sick-

ness
(d) to fall

consecutively

yij
7>'y
3^^^"

to

be consecutive
(tradition)

2.

What
(a)
III.

are the uses of as V.


is

*'*

Just

the Reflexive of

II.

so VI.

is

the Reflexive of
ta.

and only

differs

from
in 83

it

(in
i).

form) by means of a prefixed

(Revise

my remarks

(b) In

213

this

speaking

of

God, we use

form for the OPTATIVE,


C.f. last

153 :4(c) thus"


(c)

May God

be exalted"!
the

sentence Ex. 77.

The example given conveys

idea

of pretending the

action.
id)

A still more common


is

one

is

J*Lf^ to pretend ignorance.


"the leaves
fell

There

also the idea

of sequence;

one

after the other".


3.

^''^-* ^^^

'

days following (successive).


?

How

do we form the madar of VI

Substitute
Past),
c.f.

damma
83
:

for fatha of the

middle radical (Singular

4 closely.

Thus from ^li^r we


A .^Ua;
~

get j^llir demonstrating (or pretending).

,,

A ^V^}

a mutual collision

^"Y J

-^
yy

J"f3

sequence

in

chain of authority
(tradition).

^j\X^

Cj^*^ mutual deceit( Title of Sura 64).

^^^

J^^^ mutual understanding.

4.

Give examples of the use of VI.


I

kept him

off,

so he kept himself aloof


>

-Vc-U-ts

Aj-Xc-U

At the coming of the thief, the watchman pretended to be blind.

ij'1

-"

r"-

'^

f n

>'^'

\.

^7
*^

/^

They feigned ignorance

of the matter

^J

'

'jl^l^

The two mutually

forgot their difference

U^!a^
^\S.S
i

^T*^-^"

God, Most High, sent down His book

jy JU"
(*^i
'

4!

Seven successive days


This
the result of misunderstanding
"-

^.^^^'^

*^*r^

is

J"^^^

'

^j-^

'^^^^ ^-^

The Co-operative Society


has opened stores

-v^

^y

\^3

-(

\^

\^^,
/


Exercise 85 B.
}
-:
I

214 -*

ssX^ J^j^i

J.c^

L^a^J ji-x^^U:J

^^k>-

(n)

cnJ^Wllqj,

fi>Vk:i

\j^

^>.
1

(r)

UC
o^^lfl

jlVjLs

(r)

oOV ::^WU

(t)

JaSLir ^Lll

pV'j

(v)

Exercise 85 A.
1.

Arabic

to

English

iirst).

The two contracting


contract
[lit.

parties

came

(attended)

to sign the

conditions of the contract).

2.

Some mutual misunderstanding


sides (parties).

occurred between the two

3.

The two
The

sides did not understand one another.


fell

4.

leaves of the tree


is

one

after another.

5.

"That
''Be

the day of mutual deceit" (Qur'an Chap. 64).

6.

ye reconciled with

God"

7.

"And

the stars of heaven shall fall (successively)". Peter


{i.e,,

"Then

began relating
in order.)

explaining

to

them

in

sequence"
9.

(Acts 11:4).

The consecutiveness

(authority) of this

information

is

respected (accepted) by the narrators [of traditions].

What
(a)
alif

215

Vll.
J^^Ji^

Lesson 86.
I.

is

remarkable about Conjugation


it is

That

formed from
to

3*^
it

^^ prefixing a nun, also an

by which

pronounce

(b)

That

it is

the form

which

is

commonly used
(This
is

instead of

the passive, especially in Colloquial.


2.

important).

Write out Al-Madi

of the Type-form.

^^0

^0

3.

Also

l--^-!j (Conj.

VII, of

^--J

>?

4.

Suppose the

first letter

of the primary verb

is

nun'^

In that case the radical

nun and the


(

servile

nun would coalesce,


example, but not

and

shaddahe

written,

^^J

is

a possible

found

in the classics), just as the ta

O
t'

of

J^^-^
the

coalesces
of

with the pronominal

sufifix

thus;

^SC- and
thus

^^^

with
5

I)

thus

U5v^ and
I

jj_

with

\^[
''

Verily we.

^ ^0

Conjugate

^^xi

to

be cut

(off), in

Al-Mudari^

^0

(jUkiir

>l
6.

...

''^Ui
?

Can

there be any Imperative to this form

Yes, because in

some of

the verbs the passive

meaning shades


off into the active.

2l6

" to

Thus from J^j^^

dismiss "

(or,

to

spend) we get <^j-^\ to go away, depart.


lease",

From ^j^

"to re-

we

get
o

^^\

to

be

let go, to

depart.

From <^j^^ we
^3^2^
7'
I

get as Imperative:

"Go

aw^ay".

ly^^ai!

^j-^'
etc.,

How

does VII assimilate to IV

and

differ

from
c.f.

V and

VI

In the vowelling of
8.

Al-Mudari^ (second radical)


prefix
/

Lesson

78.

JcUn

^**l

Take ^jWll and

as usual ^-iy-^l* ^lLl.


Uij

9.

Give a few examples of the


In

j-^^-

of

accordance with the Rule mentioned


before the final radical,

in

77
I

5,

insert a long
I

alif

thus

JCi5

U^j^a!)

c^IWajI

Pray without ceasing


It is

(cutting-off)

c-lWxJl

^Aji^'U
^i

'^-'. necessary for you to visit Cfji' mV".*" *' ."^^^ 7^ -C^ ^.^^-^ ^ me after the pupils leave
;

V
"
'

/-

The boy was grieved at being


separated from his father
Exercise 86a.
3-^i;

J^-

V0^ ."^^/^^^
"
.ti
'

'"-nJ

'^

"M

ef;^'

^>

"

^i

j3^* 1^1'^

ju^

^^^-!

''^^^^
'

}^^ cr|^ V^^J ^^^


'

Exercise 86b.
I.

(Consult Lesson 87.)

The Assembly-of-the Nation (National Parliament) has been

completely divided on account of the split-up of the Cabinet


(Council of Ministers)

and the Party of the "Right" has


the

become separated from


of the Opposition,

Government and joined

the Party

and there resulted from


2.

that a great upset

(overturning, revolution).

The passenger was plunged

(immersed)

in the sea at the

breaking-up of the ship.

- 217 Lesson 87.


I.

Give a vocabulary of VH. showing the derivation from


Meaning of VII.
VII.

I.

Meaning

of

I.

I.

to

be broken

>''.5:j'i

to

break

'/^

to

be cut (cut
be divided

off)

;li;j

to cut

'^

to

to divide

'c^;to

be opened
be defeated

to

open

to

to defeat (a foe)
to collect ipolif: to annex)
^

to be collected ) to join i

C"

to be split
-'

to split

to

be put to rout
be led
(fire)

to put to rout

'r'3*

to let oneself

^u;
-j:

to

lead (trans.)
IV.

^C;
^-0
1,

"

to

be put out

toextinguise

to

be locked (bolted)

jUl

to lock, or bolt IV.

to

go away
depart

to dismiss

to

jlk;!

to

send off

JL
>.

to burst forth ( water) 1 to explode (powder) /

to give vent to (water)

2..

What do we
That
it

note about

likJ

and the next one mentioned seem

to

be derived from

IV. Conj. verbs.


3

Is

there any
(a)

way

to assist the search for the radicals of


initial radicals
VIII.,

jaJ

Yes,

Verbs with

j J j
or else V.

iS

'do

not

usually
(b)

take VII. but rather

As

there are but few verbs having ta as


I

first

radical,

look

for

VlJ

to

take heed, as VUl. form of

not Vll. of

<^

4-

218
to this lesson
?

The following may be added


Are there any
Yes,

Defective Verbs.

really Defective verbs


in

d-^^W JUil

we learned

Lesson 36 that ^j^

has

only
the

ilie

Past
of

Tense.

We may

now add ^^^


in

perhaps, in
to
"^U

sense
also

"hoping that"; similar


only
dAft
5

meaning

This

has

the

Preterite.

A-.i>

j
is

4!

^c

"May God

heal him."

j^W

0^

^
!

"What

this likely to be."

Have any

the Imperative only

Yes, three

verbs

OU give or bring
Dual

!(e.g.,

the coffee)

d^^come
:

and J^* come

These may be regularly declined thus


Feminine
Masculine

Plural

lyu
i*_,iu-

Cju

^^u
'ju

ou
^

Ou
>

\fx
Exercise 87
I.

^'
severely routed
if
(///.

a-

The enemy was

"a routing").

2
3.

"Bring your proof,

ye are truthful" (Qur'an).


the waters"
to

"Come unto Me". "Come unto

{PL of ^U

4.

The Turks allowed themselves


spite of the will of the nation.

be led into the war in

5.

These goods are explosible

(liable to explosion).

6.

"God
and

is

a spirit,

and those who


must worship".

worship Him,

in

spirit

in truth they

Exercise 87 b

^'/l Jijj'^u iJryVf ,1:1 Jij/^u


1

(t)

.U .u Jn^u ^M^^1 1

(^) (^:

-j,^Lesson 88.
Conjugation VIII. Jli
>
-^

l':Ui\

Slil
9
-

,-0

--

uuii
^0
-,
1

from
VII.
?

2.

How

does

VIII. differ

(a) In VII. the servile letter

was nun

in VIII.
;

it is ta,

(b) In VII.
is

it

preceded the
first

first

radical

in VIII. the servile letter

placed between the

and second

radicals.

3.

Conjugate

j^-^J

to think.

cJ>Lii\ Ij^-il

tl;^^C3l^

^^SCli

OjSC:^*^ cJ^^:i

O^l'il
4.

J.--i'l

C>^5Clil

c-jUaJI

tense of

he works.

jSU:i

j^l;^:-'^

jSuif^
^

^;':^;

;-^J
to abstain.

.0

5.

^^^J?

using

'J^j
6.

'Ai^-'
VIII.

^l

'e'

Form As
with

WUl'L'^l from
II., III.

etc.

take the Imperfect Tense, remove the servile

letter
7.

and

prefix

^ thus j>^-Iaa j,i:i^ ^ll^>


?

Can

there be a Passive to VIII


all.

Yes, to some verbs, not

W^

it is

borne,

it

is

possible,

'

'

8.

^20

I. ?

Can

a preposition be used with VIII. as with

Sometimes a preposition materially aids


tion

VIII. in the

forma-

of

its

Passive, just as

wich

I,

(Revise here

39:6 on

Prepositional Verbs, also learn Vocabulary 39; then see

Top

of page 103, and revise the note on the Passive of Prepositional

Verb).
^
4;.c

Thus
}0

U^

Z^.1.1a

means, "I abstained from


{lit
"i
:

it; "

then
it)

\
\

^11a

"It

was abstained from"


^
^

was abstained from


^

^
l>

'^o

" ^^

Tiie use of

it

will

be begun l^U*!***

'-^-^l.

Similarly [^^ ji^-^i

"ihe
9

is

(will be)

thought about"

How
Take

is

J^*aJ

^^

formed

the

Passive

shewn
<'-^

in

7
I

and
'the

prefix ^

thus

J*--^

possible of occurrence,

^II^J

thing abstained from".


:

For the use of


This matter
is

a preposition

with Passive Participle compare

looked-into

l^-.*

J>-* ^ ^*-J
,

'

*-^^

Those borne-testimony-to ^^ :>^^Jt

The One worshipped (bowed-to) ^

:>^>^^^\

The
10.

woman

trusted

in

l^^

Jj^ ^*ll

Relied on

\X^

S^ln.*

Form jJ^li
Turn back
and X.
in

of

U-^i
:

to

Lesson 77
its

"IV. agrees with VII, VIII, IX.


alif of

forming

madar by inserting an
:

prolonga-

tion before the

final radical"

this applies
is

to those

Derived

Conjugations whose Past Tense


11.

sounded by

alif-kasra.
^

How
^ 0>

is

the

Noun

of Place

formed from

;**I^i

^^^ Same
Self -Test 88.
(a)

measure as

J^^ili

^1

(63

7,

footnote.)
^

Form
Write

Jc-UII ^**1

and

J^^Ai'

|ir*-^

from j5s-3

(b)

f-jUll

of ^5^-3

(88:4).


Exercise
88.

at

->

'

-'>

0-

^li^Vl

oUU*
Q

^'c. iy*::j:"

(o)

^e

^
1

^U Ji: J
,

'A;

(^)

((.C.U)

Curjo'^i oi^_/j

(v)

Exercise
1.
I

88.

have abstained from intoxicating drink (wine) and smoke,

a period of
2.

two years. and day."

"

Smoking

jli--y!

^^- or

Cni-^:!!

"We

were [in the habit of] working with trouble and

travail night
3.

"If tb.ere

be anyone

who does

not wish to work, then let

him

also not eat."


4.
5.

''Abstain from every likeness (appearance) of evil."

"That they abstain from the defilements of

idols."

6.

"The sleep of
"...

the worker

is

sweet."

7.

and commanding
let
all

ipJ.)

that foods-be-abstained-from."

"Then

the perfect ones of us think this,


to the contrary

and

if

ye

thought (think) a thing


this also to
9.

then

God

shall reveal

you."
are God's

Verily
notice).

we

and unto Him do we return (Obituary

) )

1.

2it

Lesson 89.
What
are the chief significations of verbs in VIII.

of I { = "to do it for one's self." (b) Sometimes the meaning is Reciprocal like VI. ( = to do it
(a) VIII. is really the Reflexive

one another.") (c) Occasionally the Reflexive meaning passes into the Passive, especially with verbs that do not take Conj. VII.
to
2.

These significations are


(a) to

classified in the following table

write one's

name
list)

(j>.fj.

subscription

to write

:;r
:

to separate one's self

oP]

to separate (trans

3>
cr^

to gather

intrans

to gather (trans

to abstain (personally)

to prohibit

to turn one's self

(Jl)oii!

to twist (a thing)

'C-il

to

work

(individually)

3^J

to

occupy one

(in)

to think

to think

J^
'P

to look for, await, expect

>-l

to look at, see

to bear, suffer

>^'
'Si
'4i%i
LiliiiJ

to carry (a load)

3y\h
'qIU

(b) to fight

one another

to fight

one another

to be reconciled

w o.a.

to be reconciled w. o, a.

to differ

from

o. a.

to differ

from

o. a.

'jui
''&

(c) to

be raised (to

rise)

to raise

to be benefitted

to benefit (trans

to be aided, victorious

-^\
il\

to aid, give victory

j^
%:
jT.

to be filled

to

fill

to be extended

to stretch out (trans.)

-- 223

Changes
3.

in

the

of VIII.

Explain the form of


If

^J^

'

to be agitated

where
^Ja

is

the Zj
I?

the

first

radical of the original verb be ^^


all

or

t
'

(which are

very broad consonants), the thin

of

Jo

becomes
is

i?

This
:>

may
'

unite with the

of the verb, and

written, Ex.

.1?

to

be driven

off.

The same coalescence

occasionally happens with

as in c^jJUl

Or
4.

the

fja

and

I?

may remain
to

distinct, as >JiL^I to collide.

Explain "^"^3^
If

throng together (mtn).


i or

the

first

radical be ^

j the

of

"Ul^l

is

changed
if

to

:>

This
:>

may unite (coalesce)


j^':>\^

with the

first

radical

that be

:>

or

as

or

^r^'jjl

to

be stored up.
or C^
it

5.

Suppose the

first

radical be

O
:

Then

the servile
I.

unites with

and forms C) or C^
2.
\

as

^^\
:

Self Test 89.

Explain ^j^%\ (89

4).

Explain fJiLL? (89

3).

Words
Look
under
Its

Difficult to

Find.
ilts

Meaning

The word Look under

Meaning

The word

^'i

to be united
to

ail

>'^
J-J

to connect with.] to be coramuni- \

cated (news). J

>"J
>-i

be spacious

to agree tog to coincide

\
\

'^j
157
ii.1

to

become

clear

C^''l
LsC-1,

.^

to trust (rely)

upon

>3<^-J

to recline
to take (VIII).

to

be kindled

an
j-i

''si.\

^J

to fear

God

Hours may be saved by memorising this table which really belongs to Lessons Verbs commencing with ivau (and in one case with hamza) 113 and 114. coalesce the wan with the ta of Conj. VIII. and write ta with shaddu.


Exercise SO A.
1.

224

~
(liable to catch
fire).

To Arabic

These goods are inflammable

2.

We

work

for the extension of the

Kingdom

of

God

in the

Coptic Church
3.

(Nation).

What
The

is

it

that prevents
all

women's work

in

war time

4.

prices of

eatables and drinkables have risen, on

account of the war.


5.

6.

What do you think will be Do not ask the-like-of this


that but (except) God.
Pa)-^

the result of the present

war

question, because no-one

knows

7.

no attention

to that

person

because he only pretends

being-religious.
8.

By examination
I

(trial)

man

is

honoured or degraded.
girl to

9.

consider (think reckon) that


I

be hasty

(rash) in her

judgments and therefore


ExBrcise 89 B.

do not depend upon what she says.

To English

v/l -V-!

^^.

^'A^^^^^^

oS//" q1

^..^^

oCJl

j::.Tr jl^

(0

'ill

^1 dii'i
L'si

-jj.'

S/ '4;^

S';S\

il*

>

:j

Li

S/

(i) (v)

^til,

>Lii:i 4;V

^ViilcOl'i Jl oii'r

Si

N.B.

OJ^f

is

from
its

^JjUl
fem.

IV.

to

insult or

degrade;
>3
.

-^^J
..

'

means "man,"

ol^JI

and

indef.

^^i

fem.

l\^

I"'

225

90.

EXAMINATION PAPER
A
Translate to Arabic
1.

Have you any goods

in

your stores that are liable to explode

2.

"Let not your hearts be agitated, ye believe in God, then


believe in me,"

3.

was wishing

to

be present with you to-day.


yesterday.
is

4.
5.

The enemy's army was defeated


Be patient and wait
It is I
I
:

for patience

a virtue (handsome).

6.

said that this

woman

has become a Mohammedan.


at present.

7.

do not think we have any inflammable goods

8.

do not know what were the subjects of his sermons


in the

last

Sunday
9.

Coptic Church.

What was

the subject of Friday's

Khutba

in the

mosque

B. Translate to English

KySJ\ '^y'ii jCiy'i

3^"J

(r)

jjjii ^juT

jb

y uT *jl5C"

(0)

ju/i Ji

!:Jj

ill

J^ jisCjj"! i;

(v)

C-

Answer these questions


1.

Which

is

the chief Derived

Form

for expressing Intensity


}

2.
3.

Which
Which

chiefly expresses the Passive


for Reciprocity
?

Give

illustrations.

226

91.

Lesson
Having,
in

EYE, VOICE, & EAR.


is

Lesson 41, learned selections from the Commandments, the student now given the whole section, Exodus 20 I-17 as an optional memory exercise,
:

j^J.

4l

dAAl

jl Ui (j"^ ^^*A..r V_j ^^i. Jbc

"^

^^jVi c.^'

^a;.-

^j___,^

^jlji^c^llill

J.Xl

A:;Vl

L"^l cjj^i Ai:Jl

^U \^\ jW;
U "il

^. ^^^, V ^}\ jV S^WL dlil

ji

dlol J oil

z'

*:^r

diii^ ej^U OA.-- <*id *)IJI ^^Jl Ul_5

j jV d[i\y\
^^
r-i jui_5

J:^b

cSJll

dil i*^ cU:-.^^^ dl:J_j iJA.^^ dA:LI_j


ij-i'j^i

i^i

jp 3 ^^<''j

^w

ejji

z**-*^

j*y

<i-w

* dAAi

ji

Lesson 92.
Conjugation IX
1.

For what verbs

is

Conjugation IX. used


fixed colours

For verbs expressing


2.

and

defects. Revise 58 4 (b)


:

Memorise
to

this short vocabulary,


l/*--,

become white
become black become red

white

U^;i

to

black
red
,0
"^

-^..>-

to

to turn pale

yellow, pale

to

become crooked
one eye

r:>^l

crooked

to lose

jy
redden.

one-eyed

Infiect

j^^ Ho

l;i;

-e

^^

^'

^^

^^^0^-0

.)

D Jj<
4.

But where do the two

j 's

come from

in

2nd and

1st

persons

Simply from unloosing the two coalesced consonants, so


speak.

to

This

is

only necessary

icJien the final

radical has to bear


shall study the
:

sukiin, thus

doing a\yay with the shadda.


in
;

We

"Doubled Verb" (so-called "Surd"),

Lesson 102

he

fled

^
5.

fled

O jj*

she touched 0->


the shadda)
:

thou touchedst

j;^*-*-^

The Imperfect (Note


^^(

'^^0

.^

j\j^

CJ.j^

.i:

6.

The Imperative (where

feasible)
i.9

^U

i.^1

'Ui

7.

228

Is there a

Passive to IX

Naturally there can be no Passive of practical use, and no

Noun
J^lxl
jjitOj*
I

of Object.

The

other parts are

:
3*^-*

^^\ Reddening

^^

on measure

pale;7-^^ crooked.
I

Jl^
jl^^
8.

Redness (inflammation)
paleness
;

j'j*-'^

'

on measure

Ja*^J

tt^^j^}

crookedness.

How
Use

would you
which
is

translate "to inake white, to whiten".?


factitive or causative.
<*

II

He made

it

white

<^;*

she blackened
9

it,

^^**'

Note that many Arabic colours are simply substantive names


of well-known objects
;

thus

3o^

scarlet,

is

really the Persian

word
(

for cochineal
)

kermes;

though the Relative Adjective


it

Lesson 144

is

often formed from


^^

by adding
u-

(^

thus;

A^' :j

Wfj^

(j7*^

Scarlet Fever

^>:-w>a;) violet

^>

coffee-colour.

Exercise 92 A.
1.

When
As

she heard this news her colour faded (she turned pale)

for fear of their striking her.


2.

for them, they

observed her paleness but they did not


it.

know
3.

the reason for

[snow.
they will become white like the

If

your sins be as
face

scarlet,

4.

Her

was reddening for-shame during-the-time-of her

standing (while she stood) before the judge.


Exercise 92B.

^:?Ui

^Xa

l^}y J ^.i J %:J>' ^jIa

f/^j

J^^

Lesson 93.
Conjugfation X.
1.

The form

of Conjugation X.

is

Uil*^

which

is

formed by

prefixing three servile letters to the


2.

first

of the radicals.
*'to

The Past Tense

of ^^^1^

"to ask to understand'*,


0-0

inquire"

^^ 0-0

>0

>0

^0
'

0x0

r
/.

oL

0-0

ii^^A

3.

Imperfect of

^*^*\ "to seek knowledge, to ask information".

00^
-

00
0^

> lO"

4.

Imperative of Ji*l*^

"to ask forgiveness"


0-0

^
5.

yl*-*.*^

.A-wwtf

(ij'
?

y-"-;

The Noun
With
Thus
:

of

Agent

as in IV., Vlf., VIII.,


0-0

and with a kasra before


;

final.

jAI^.

one-asking-pardon

^j^*=^I*

one-who-approves
divorced wife.

j>6l*.
6.

temporary husband
?

to legalise return to

The Madar
00
1

-00
1

*>0
act of asking forgiveness; jl.>:j;>

JUaI^ examples jliil^ 00


approval;
7.

00

A^a-^-J inquiry; aU^cI^J employing,


?

utilisation.

Can
Yes,

there be a Passive

many

verbs of Conj. X. have a transitive signification.

The Passive Past follows the rule of "Penultimate radical taking a kasra", but, as in IV., VIII., etc. the alif takes a damma and in this case, the ta does also. It (he) was approved
;

>o

>
It

)0

>

was drawn

out, extracted
>
'-

^/
the fatha.

>

8.

The Passive

of al-Mudari*:

^^>^^l Notice

g.

The Passive
Compare

Participle
I

is

^^>tl*w

on the form

Uil^^*

J-^aI^J

= that which is to

be met, hence, the "future'

Exercise 93a.

recapitulatory Exercise.

d>
^

Oil.
--

%
(

sli
--

'S'

dLii'.i
^

Ui\
y
^

ilir,

Exercise 9Sb.

"And
will

delight thyself (enjoy-thyself) with the Lord, and

He
to

give thee the request of thy heart.

Deliver thy

way

the Lord, and trust upon

Him, and He

will cause-to-act".

Exercise 93c.

To English

oUii

isij_j (DjSfl

^3\1

l^;i W^^.

''i-^

^V C^"^

^<:^

Exe rcise 93d. To Arabic: The king inquired whether 1.


So he
said
it

they approve (approved) his


it.

thought (idea) but they did not approve


2.
:

"If

GOD MOST HIGH


They
is

will
:

{i.e. I

hope) you will


will".

approve
3.

in the future",

said

"If

God

"Then know

that

there

no deity except God, and ask

forgiveness for thy sin and for the believers im) and the be-

lieving-women".
4
In the

book

of "lOOl Nights" there are

many
a

stories

about a
girl

sharp 'mustahiir

who was married

to

divorced

on

condition that he would divorce her again next morning,

but

fell

in love

with her (became attracted to her) so did


first

not divorce her; consequently her


father were enraged.

husband and her

231

Lesson 94.
Conjugation X. (Contd.)
1.

What
(a)

are the chief

meanings of Conjugation X.

To

consider the object to be

(e.g,

good,
(c)
:

etc.)

(b)
2.

To

ask for the action

to

happen

(Various).

Memorise the following derived verbs


Meaning of X.
(a) to

X.

Meaning

of

I.

I.

consider good,

to

approve

to

be good
be heavy

to consider heavy (a bore)

to

to consider great,
to be

to

proud
important

be big
>

^00
to
-0

to consider

be important
be strange
be small

to consider strange

to
^0
^0

^o consider small,

to
^
^

contemn, despise
to consider (make) lawful

to
^0^0

be lawful
^y

(b) to ask

pardon

yiI-u

to forgive

j'-'-

to ask

news

J\.

>Z.1aM

to

inform

'>-'

to meet,

to expect to receive

y^\
^
-

to receive

to

make

use of
t-o
1

to do,
(J^ ll^
-0

make
oOl

to ask permission

to give leave

to ask one's presence


^0

to attend at
^

^J^

(c) to

extract
a^ (of)

to
1

go out

to be

worthy

to be

incumbent

N.
3.

B. Make

quite sure of sections (a) and (b) as being of great importance.


I:*.

Form ^-^^1 from ji

to ask permission.

232

(.t.)

Write the hamza over the kursy

then act as in 93
or,

6 and

you get
4.

jUlL-^l asking-permission,

asking-to-be-excused.

From aUi^
Compare

and
^

7-I

^a-^

-'

'jalil

Lessons 77

7,

and 117
is

13.

An
o

additional alif

not being feasible, compensation


uprightness, straightforwardness,

made by

thus

<4Uj::**I

'k>-\

j\.^\ rest, restfulness.

Erercise 94 a.

To English

iji^'^aLl

oi^Ii)V(4i.L

(n) (Y)

V>l^>::_;>y!6l
vJl^^\.*JIlu>
I

-Xid

jaJ

-X^i

^ja;>c^

jA+ia.>-

Jl^

,*I**i

^>

'

Jl^-^^"

{y)

^.>

0^0
t
1

i'O^^:;

-^

-"l

-^"^

""

"

^
ij^c-

-^
.5/^1)
I

0i>

^o-t:--

j\j:1>cm>

^^un

!xJ

>*-^ JH^H*---^

J^

(0)

Exercise 94
1.

h,

To

Arabic.
Hit.

The Sultan gave them

received them) a great reception.

2.
3.

The labourer
Inasmuch as

surely deserves his hire (wage.)


I

(Since
to,
I

I)

was surprised

at the

presence of the

person referred

have inquired about the reason of his

attendance

it

was

said to

me

(I

was

told)

that he did not

ask permission to attend.


4.

The judge has commanded


to-morrow.

the attendance of the witnesses

5.

We

are ready for every (any) service.

6.

Don't

make much

of this matter,

for

it

is

not worth your

trouble.

I.

233

Conjugations
VII.

Lesson 95.
The Paradigm (Table)
with Examples.
of

Derived

X.,
No
Forms

jjUI

PAliriCIPLES
Imper.
Passive Active

MUDARI
Passive
Active.

PAST
Passive
Act.

^
t!rci
^.^

^i;

^0 }

'Ul
-

VI I.
VIII.

J^}

5^'

^00
lil^l
.

IX.
0;0 ^

^0

.CO
X.

-.
1

Exs:

Vil
l:::;i ^i^ ^

VIII.

>
--0

j^'2,1

'>.

- >1
>0
^

IX.

-0

-0

-O^O

^Ui^ji ^4.*^->

X.
the aid

2.

Study

the following

Newspaper Exercise with

of
235.

your lexicon.

Then

correct by

page

<i

^
1

i
^.>
I)

^^-0
j/*.x^*
1.

=^^..-'

-^

--0-0O.J

*oV JIiaJ

'''-''

^*j UG; ^^y

^ij

j^-x^:.^J

liV^I

> ^ -.^-^ ^ "

-'

..

> ao

-O
--

--

'^\^

>

0-

, -^

^O
1
''
I

, "^

;t^

234

Lesson 98. QUADRILITEEAL VERB.


1.

We now

take up the Qiiadriliteral verb.


is

How

is it

expressed

.?

The same form

used, but the lam


is

is

doubled.

We

say that

the ordinary Quadriliteral verb


2.

on the form
?

J.lji

How
(a)
(b)
(c)

do we get Quadiiliteral Verbs

By

inserting an extra letter in a triliteral root;


a bi-literal

By repeating

sound (Onomatopoeia);
letters
;

From nouns

of

more than three


''he

(d)
3.

By expressing

uttered the formula


:

"(Rare),

Copy and
to roll

learn the examples

>

.>

away

vy^

to
to

shake (the foundations)


cause to quake (earthquake)
>

^>

to

whisper sedition
dead)
}

to wail (usually, for the

9^>

to

make

a disciple

-X-.^LJ'

to gird

(someone)
demonstrate

(
/

i2aJL.i

)
\ >

to prove,

\d^^ Jj
^
" 9
^

-^

->

to translate, interpret

^'^ J

"To -

to

pronounce the words

...

( <w

^;

)
-'

to say the formula


4.

(^Ai

-U>J

I)

How
the

can Al-Mudari^ of the Quadriliteral best be studied


it

By comparing
Triliteral

with
to

Al-Mudari^

of

either

II.

or

III.

of

Verb
:

which

it

has great similarity, since

we

have shown

(in 73

2) that the

former are really Quadriliterals.

Compare

J^ ^^

with

rt^^ro

5.

How
*^/

is

the Imperative formed

Like

III.,

the rest on the ali!


letter.

being replaced here by the rest on the jazmated (sukdned)


translate
!

r j=^-^
and

roll

^j^J, prove

6.

The Noun
i
,,^j

of

Agent?

Similar to that of IL and


^"^ J^'^

III.

Compare

IS^^

interpreter;

also (^^**'^^ one-

whispering

(Satan);

Cf J\*

one-proving;

a-V^^

one-

mumbling. An ex of inanimates,
:

OWy^ explosives (Neiit.Pl.)


^j^j^il slJ^^ jOl^

A
7.

substitute for mulargim

is

targumdn, corrupted in Egypt to dragoman,

We
c.f.

gave
Conj

in
II.

Lesson 35 the Passive of J^lj thus


of Triliteral verb (73
a Derived
:

2).

But the more usual thing

is
8.

to

employ

Form

(see next Lesson).


to the

Does the
note also

last

remark apply
(^u_j

Noun

of Object

Yes, but

(^>-j^*

a translated

book.
'^-^-^-j

q.

The Madar. By observing


AaJ<a:>

"^'Jj

earthquake;

translation;

mumbling, we gather that we add


J'^ j will also be found.
best find the Quadriliteral

a ta marbiita

to^lil

But the form


10.

How

can

v^re

Verb

(in

Lexicon)

See 2 above.
bi-literal

For

(a)

Look under

the Triliteral root,

(b)

The

sounds are classified under the


to glitter, sparkle

first Iv^^o letters,

thus:

for

^yS

(whence

oj\

a pearl), see

Exercise 9ob.

The
The employees

ENGLISH

of

EXERCISE
{lit.

^5.

(officials)

dispersed exactly at noon, being interested in the

matter of the fighting, for they had heard


that the

arrived to them) that morning


in tlie

two armies, the Turkish and the English, had fought together
(///.
it

Sinai peninsula

like-island).

Then news had

ceased, although people

were
;

so anxious for

that they

began to inquire from every authentic source

but

with

all their effort,

time passed and they were tired of waiting, when behold


copies of the supplement to the newspaper
{i.e.

a boy had

come carrying many

Special edition).

They advanced upon

him, making inquiries, and their faces

reddened with joy at the pleasing news, and they showed (there appeared upon

them) signs of excitement and enthusiasm.

Lesson 97.
1.

What
(a)

are the Derived

Forms

of the Quadriliteral

Verb

JUjir with ta prefixed to the original form (Quad.

II.),

(^)

3*^
J^-*^

'with /vas/^a prefixed, and

\\\t

second lam doubled Qw2id.\\\).

(c)
2.

'

with a nun inserted and kasra prefixed.

We

said in

Lesson
II.

q6,

that

Quadriliteral
:

Conj.

may be

compared with
similarly treated
\VnA)

of Triliteral

csn these derived forms be

.?

is

similar to J^^r {?>. Jjir

V. of Triliteral
to

J>^*^i

may
is

be compared to IX:

Jl^-^*^

'

VII,

its

solitary

example
This
3.

^< j=^\
(c),

it

(the

crowd) gathered together.


dismissed.
II.

last

form

may now be

Give some examples of Quadriliteral


to put on, or

(a)

lui;"

0-^

wear

a girdle

y'^l^.LA) J^klJ*

to

be demonstrated be shaken, or
to

U*-^*
J^' 'J
f'j^'J

to

quake

to

be shaken, shake

to be translated, interpreted

i^^-^^

4.

c-jl^Jl can be v^^orked-out

by

intelligent

comparison of V.

Thus:^*^-j, 0*-^'

w^^^^

fatha over the ha, not kasra. Ex:

^^\
How

it

sparkles. J^W:^)^

he v^ears a girdle.

But, as in V. Jc-Uil
5.

^\

is

formed with kasra jUil* ^M.!^


1

is

the

Madar formed

The Masdar
^^
r>

of Quadriliteral

11.

would be

J^*^"

Examples

> 9^^

6.

Four frequently-used-verbs on the form

Vlii (/e.

Quad

III):

Masdar
N. Agent

^11

Past

Impel

Present

Meaning.
r to come to nought, j cease to exist, V fade away

to shudder,

shiver

o^^J
^.'^
'

to be tranquil

,x

'^\^o

--0

.-.1

s^:^i

to shrink (with aversion).

7.

What
(a)

is to

be specially noted about this table


to

Three things

be learned
?20^6f/

^^^^

?*

jUai'

J^^i!'
:

^'

(b)
tive

Two

things to be
will

only (not memorised)


after

the Impera-

which

be better understood

Lesson 103 on

"Doubled

(or Surd)

Verbs

and the two ways of forming the

Verbal Noun.

In

the case of

^^^^

to

be tranquil, both

oJ Up
Exercise 97
f^:>(f^>^
1

and jllljpl mean


a.

tranquility, or,

peace of mind.

To English
C/'^^l o y

^^

'

-^^j
y

^'^

"^

"'^^^3

^^j^^A ^r*'^^ ^
y

^^

Exercise 97

b.

The
{lit.

pupil

began

to wail bitterly as

though he was
a polished

not wishing to prove his diligence by completing his lessons.

Our

friend

the one mentioned)

was wearing
a gift
to

(shining) girdle,

so he began to sparkle brightly, as though


to

(probably)
(teacher)

it

had been given


(boy) and

him as

from his professor


rival
^

Mohammad.

He commenced
at last

and out-do

with

it

the other

the matter ended in fighting

and boxing.

MEADI^G EXERCISE
1

98,

"

Removed-his-clotlies,

on-a-day-of-snow,

black-one once,

'a1

"UaJ

>

i,-'
and began-taking-the-snow,

Andit-wassaid-to-him,

and-rubbing-with-it-his-body,

In-the-hope

become-white,
that-I,

He-said,

Why-do-you-iub-your
body-with-the-snow,

'a!

Jlij'^^.iC^'

)^ J

^^

Don't-trouble-yourself,

O this-onc,

Then-a-wise-man-came-andsaid-to-him,

increases-not-except-inblackness,

that-thy-body-blacken-

and

it

the-snow,

for-it-is-possible

the good,

is-able-to-coriupt,

that-the-wicked,

This (story) Themeaning-of-it-is.

0^ ^ ^

Over-the reformation-of-the-wicked,

(he cannot,)

and-as-for-the-man

he-has-not-power,

thegood-one,

THE ENGLISH.
A
black

man once removed

his clothes

on a snowy day and


it.

began

to take the

snow and rub

his

body with

Someone
?

said to him.

"Why

do you rub your body with the snOw


white," he said.

'That

may become
to

Then

a wise

man came

and said

him, "So-and-so, don't fatigue yourself, for though


it

thy body blacken the snow yet


itself."

only increases in blackness

The meaning
but the

is

The

evil

man can

corrupt the good

one,

good man cannot reform the

evil one.


239

Lesson 99. POPULAR STORY FOR READING EXERCISE.

'"

^i)1

;jSiiii

ji^u

>_,*ii ^/i

Jii

''j_J^^H.

(-'j-i

jSri^ Ji>"

J;li 3^:2.1 j1

L- v j^V JC
1

^jl

j1

This popular story, found

in all

Egyptian collections,

is

to be

carefully studied with the lexicon.

A certain
unpointed.

number of vowels

(only) have been supplied, to gradually accustom the student to

reading the newspaper, which

is

We

give a fexo

grammatical notes

Jaci ^^ji These are Conj. IV.

To be

studied in 122, 123.

<^^3

r^ =
(see 25

/i/era%, "Hearing and obeying". (Very frequent).


:

^p^\
Jl; a

7).

modern Egyptian

silver

coin=one

dollar.

<-^ jj^lfr

twenty years.

(Explained in Lesson 148

1,2).

-A>

the Imperative of -^1 (Lesson 104:4).

^->-\

Conj. IV. (to be studied in Lesson

107).

~
To

240

100.

EXAMINATION PAPER
A.

English

SiJ'dii'i > \I^z ';:J\

V j 'V

ui;

aIj

,.

^.--^

(v)

^:;- Ir

U J dlj i '^

'^j^^r

CJ

4ji

y;:^

(r)

^0 -

C>

^'^ J

"^ 2r* 'j1-*-*

(e)

:-/^ioiy,r.i,^j;-ir'Sl (V)
/>'.

To Arabic
1.

The

stars

were shining

in the

sky (heaven).
(of corn)

2.

And
I

his disciples

were plucking the ears

and

eating,
3.

and they were rubbing them with

their hands.

am

the

Lord thy God who

brouo.ht thee out of the land of


,

Egypt, and out of the house of slavery (bondage) thou shalt

have no other gods before Me.


4.

Hallowed be thy Name

Forgive us our

sins, as

we

for-

give those-that-sin against us.


5.

Honour thy
on the
earth.

father

and mother,

that thy days

may be long

6.

But for a misunderstanding between the two parties the


conditions of peace would have been agreed upon before.

7.

8.

9-

The book was translated by one of the best of the translators. You cannot prove that statement. He went to the carpenter and said 'Bring (to) me the
bedstead'.
:

C.

Give the Arabic Singular, Dual and Plural of

week month year father mother brother^ sister newspaper library book church house dog cow
dav
piule.
*

Plural of this

word not yet studied

(but used once in Ex. 56

c).

Lesson
how many

101.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO WEAK


1.

VERB.
?

Into

classes are Aiabic verbs divided

The two main


free

classes are A.

Jl*- J3 Sound (or "strong") te.

from defect; and

B.

Jl*-

^^ J*?

Not -Sound.
or quadriliteral) that
Letters,

^.Consists of verbs (whether


are devoid of

triliteral

Hamza, Doubled Radicals, and Weak


have
their

for all of these


B.
(a)

own
is

special rules.
:

J^i^

j^^ (Not-Sound)

sub-divided into

?^-<>t^

Correct or Regular: which allows

hamzas as
or
ija.

radicals,

also doubled-letters, but does not contain

wau

Under

(a)

we

shall study

j^^^-*

Mahmuz (hamzated

verb)

and

c-AcUa>

Muda^af (doubled)

le.

with 2nd and 3rd radicals alike.

(b)

ll*

{Mn^fall^'Neak) consists of verbs containing the weak


ya.

wau and

Under

(b)

we

shall

have

JL^ Mitlidl (Assimilated

wau

or ya as 1st radical.
or ya or alif in the middle.

^y^ \

>

.-o

Ajwaf (Hollow) ^m;/

^j^li Ndqi^ (T>QiQQ{\ve)wau or ya or alif at the end,


it

whence

often "drops

off'*,

and

in that sense, is defective,

2.

The above complete


and
to

list is to

be used as a general introduction


It

be turned back

to for reference.

is

not essential to

learn, straight off, all

the

Arabic technical terms; you will

learn

them, with their meanings, in the course of Lessons

102127.

But the divisions and sub-divisions must be fully

grasped (under the English names, for the present).


3.

Why

not call the

Sound Verb "Regular", and


the

the

Non-Sound

"Irregular"?

Because

"Non-Sound"

verb also follows


form.

regular laws, though suffering


4.

some changes of

Let us show these classes more graphically.

243

J
i

vm

4irf

<
Q 5

'TS

o
T3

a a
g
C3

4>7

PJ
(4

j:3

i^

rt

>y
ki

S"

J5

3
rt

T3
4)

-3
N

CS

P3

;.4

V .M

ei

.^
,

T3

"O

*-

oj
1 '

N E
R]

^
JTJ

(U

^
>,

<x

^ ^

y3
_

73

J
05

>
T3

s
C

s
3"

X
c
rC Xi

13
'O
01

2
-a

>
T3
<U

3 M 3
Q
Q

tn

rt (U

^
1 1

?S
1-1

>j

2
(/)

u
0)

c
H-]

-s
*5>

J-7

<4-l

u
(U

^
1

(A

TJ
u,

U
tC

M
rt <u

- Hi ^
Lesson 102
*

DOUBLED VERB.
1.

Lk^U'j

^^
Thus Ju

What

is

the origin of the Doubled, or "Surd" Verb.


triliteral

2.

A simple When are


They
sign,

verb with three fathas.

^J^a
?

the

two radicals contracted, and when separated

are contracted

when
when
J<^

the third radical carries a vowelit

but opened out

has a sukun,
;

(e.g.
I

before a Pro-

noun- Affix).
3,

Thus

he extended

0:>-U

extended.

Inflect the

Preterite of J^
e

iT-U
-0

Ia.
o

r
loJU
4.

.5JU

O-U
in the

What happens

Present Tense (ex.


is

'[Ai

he runs away)

RULE.
the
first

If

the third radical


is

vowelled (here by

damma)
its

but

radical

not-vowelled, the second throws

vowel

back upon the


of
5.
.^-X^ji

first,

and coalesces with the


and
for jjij
i

third.

Thus instead
^

we

get

-X^)^

jl)

and

for ^Ja^)

cja*)

Imperfect Tense of

y^

^o think, suppose.
> ^

r!i

u^-^i

)Ulir

,Ui
:-^Uir

\\r'A

^
,^

io flee, rui
--

away.

dij^^
--

^ u'j
}i

^^j^^i

U'j>

244
^JaP to
bite.

^-^4A0

jUi* O

jl^)^

J^'

^J

jl^-o

u^6.

u^'
is

What

difference
the

made

in the
:>X*

Imperative
1

>

<

Instead of

formal

jy

and ^J^s-j we write

Jl.o

and

^^
is

the fatha, in this case, being a contrivance to avoid

two sukuns coming together.


7.

Why

there no alif-kasra

Because f'jl^H has thrown back


radical,

its

vowel on

to

the
there,

first

and consequently, there being no sukun


is

no

extra alif

needed
ijJU

to assist to

pronounce

it

*->

li.

^'^
iS'j
^ ^

-\4

.0

-I

1 1

.d

k-J t^-x^.
*
->

^''
1

l^'-

But note that ^-U


8.

is

sometimes used.
?

Is

WUil
;

^1

regular

Yes
third

it

follows the usual rule, except that the second and

radical coalesce.

jlU instead

of '^

11^

jU

instead of

jjli
9.

jU

instead of

^^(a Similarly

uj^lk jjjli jj'^C*

What madar may be


Various forms
the
:

taken

^U

opinion, thought

JCj

flight.

Perhaps

commonest form

is

Ji as

Exercise 103
1.

245

^
Lord of the worlds

a.

To Arabic
your

What

is

thought

about the

(Sad Chapter).
2.
3.

And
And

ye thought an evil thought (see 6 below).


they think about

God

other than the truth (untrue

thoughts) ("Family of Imran").


4.
5.

Then

fled

from you when


I

feared *you (Poets Chapter).


*

And
And

verily (assuredly)

consider

him

to

be one of the liars

("Stories" Chapter).
6.

that he punish the hypocrites (m)


(f)

and hypocrites

(f)

and polytheists (m) and polytheists


thoughts of evil ("Victory" Chapter).
7.

the thinkers of

GOD

Say

*:

''Flight will not profit you,

if

ye have fled from death

("Confederates" Chapter).
*

These are Hollow verbs (Lesson

115).

This verb has the particle of asseveration

J which means
:

verily or assuredly,

and

is

used after j^

(see 128

10).

Exercise

lO.J b.

To English

(from Al-Quran).
cnJl*^

t/j,

V^-^k Li

(n)

VJ jU '^iiUj
I

(y)

jj:

l^i 4i

L)

jyJi.^

(r)

i5Si<jrj.'4luv ji^j

(0)

Lesson 103.
I.

Form
This

the Subjunctive of the


is

Doubled Verb
from
J-^^

regularly formed

e.g.

3 to indicate, show.

VI- ol

Viol

C)4r

J-^) (J
i
t.

J
2.

Does

the

sukun separate the radicals


so, ivhen the real

in the Jussive

Decidedly
radical

Jussive
it

is

used; for otherwise one

would disappear; since


for,

is

manifestly
'

difficult to

sound J^^
Jj
to

as

we have shownbefore J

=
is

JJ

If it

were

two sukuns would come together, which

never allowed

happen
^

in Arabic.
'

0} ^

> -

VI-

Vi
VI^'

iijr

^j,

0,,0

But Wright

says,

"In the Jussive the second radical


its

7io^-?//i

frequently throws back

vowel upon the

first,

and combines

with the third, in which case the doubled


takes a supplemental vowel",
ic.f.

letter necessarily

102

6 on the Imperative).

What

he

means

is

In
is

the

Doubled

Verb the Jazmatlng

particles (governing the Jussive) are often used with the Subjunctive, i.e.

the Subjunctive

used instead of the Jussive.

Exs

How

is

the Passive formed.?

(a) In the Preterite

^^U'

<

i to blame)

>>

.0

247

^c"to deceive").
^

(b) In the
''

Imperfect ^jl-t^H
.
I

o
A A

^ 0> A A *-

A .-

^ 0>
. '^

-->

^'

u How
In
I

j^-i;r
^'

"*

4.

is

this

verb pronounced colloquially

"i

every case without separation.

Thus ^> he passed


difficulty is

C^j^^*

passed.

Observe how the vowelling


is

overcome

ya with sukiin
affix.

interpolated between the verb and the


^i-^*

pronominal
5.

Compare
it

we extended,
?

vi\{h.

.5-1*

Is it

allowable

to ivrite

in this

way

Wright, late Cambridge Professor of Arabic, quoted words


thus

written

with approval, and Robertson Smith


it.

and De
one says
the

Goeje (Leyden) have not disallowed

In preaching,

Ojj*
is

because

it

is

easily pronounced, but,

when

word
Most

longer, as in

^-^^^

'

one says ^j^ j-^-^>

'

I continued.
There
are

correspondents

now

write

^ij

several

examples of

this in *^Uj *u.J

Jl

For example

^^^ ^i^-

6,

Memorise

this

vocabulary

Doubled Verbs taking


to stretch

damma
knock
count

in the Imperfect.
3^-^

Ju

to

to cease

C-i-S^

to

pour

to

j^

to

draw, drag

j>-

to

lower
fat ha
:

L'>

to sprinkle

Lpj
^ A

to exert oneself

-^>-

Taking

to love, like

'5

to smell (a)

to

touch

^j^*

Taking kasra
to err

to smell (b)

-"a
to tighten

-^
?t^

to kneel

>

to

cease

^Ji>-

to

be sound


Exercise 103a.
1.

248

To Arabic

2.
3.

"And on him I bestowed vast riches". "And when (if) the earth was spread out". "And he took hold of the head of his brother dragging
him
to him".
said,

4.

"He

We

will

strengthen

thy

fore-arm

with thy

brother".
5.

"What

think ye of Christ?''

6.

"And He withheld men's hands from


"Revile not those
without) God,

you".

7.

whom

they call on beside (apart from,

lest

they revile

God

despitefuUy (as an

enemy)
Exercise 103b.

in their ignorance".

To English
h/j^i^^^A
>

^^

cX^>-^3

(n)

Oa.:>',Vllir,
4

(r) (r)
(t)

J ^

<J>.\

^j^Vj J^V_^

dUl

'y^^^iiLjlJ
1

^^"J

jyliJ liC

(0)

ACTIVE Voice and Passive Voice.


1.

"Active Voice"is called by some ^^^I^^'Jl^U A^.llJill = the


verb whose agent (subject)
is

known. By others ajXhJJ ^J.1

2.

"Passive Voice"

is

similarly called J^>ii'

= *U.C'U

Jj^>ci! J*iil

= the verb whose


3.

agent(subject)is unknown.

Or J^^>^U ^J*'
Agent".

"Subject" of a Passive Verb J^li^*'l^

"Deputy
169, etc,

The above

will

beunderstood after Lesson

on Syntax.

249

Lesson 104.

HAMZATED VERB.
1.

In
It

how many ways may

a verb
first,

be hamzated

may have

hamza

as

second, or third radical


radical) what
is

(p. 242).

2.

In verbs with hamza- fa

{i.e. first

the general rule?


a

RULE: A
vowel.

silent

hamza
is

(ie.

with sukun)
to the letter

when preceded by
homogeneous
'

vowelled hamza

changed
^j*^^

to the

Examples

becomes j^l
belief for jUri^

and ^^

'

is

written
write

/^>jl ''I believe,'^

and jUj^
^ > ^ t^
\5'

Similarly,

we

}> IT'

^
1

Ieat,iox
'

11. net

The advanced
1

student may, however,


it

note that since

is

alif of

prolongation, to change
is

to

the alif of prolongation and

then to write madda

but a

conventional custom.
3.

Similarly, ya of the Imperative.


fo take captive.
u

Conjugate

^^*>

Ij

I3-

^-

'^r-*

^^
^

^^

>^.^\

-a

l;'^i
f^>Jli

^jUj

j^^L
u^-

;j^b

J'

1'^ G

J" u

vr

i;

i>9
i;.

<>-c

.l;

l;*

^^1

-V/lj

'-JvriJ

t5^

v-i.

; '

4-

250

rule
?

there

any exception

to the

above

In the Imperative of three verbs the

first

radical

is

rejected

altogether:
5.

ij->>- -X?-

take

'j^ j* command!

>^o

JS

eat!

Form

Ji^Ul ^J\
alif is

The one

placed across the other, forming


\

madda
;

thus

-^Waking; JS
^

one eating

J^i
^

one hoping

/r*^ ^

safe.

6.

What happens
Refer back
the

with the Passive of the Mudari^?

to our

RULE of PERMUTATION (63


harmonise with the vowel
if

5)

"Change
is

weak

letter

to

that vowel
(it)

the distinctive feature required".


taken.
7.

Thus

'^

ji

He

will

he

Similarly
of
i
1

^lLii

the J5"^ y^

food will he iaten.


'

Examples
*

J^ili
r

^**1

from the
'^

-Ic'

^^^* (having
-^i

initial

hamzj)
(J^J^*
8.
^*

w>-*

hoped-for;
*"*

M c d^p

V U
;

r-

U Cp V
<

an eatable
permitted.

J>*

subordinate

official

oj^ U
in

Vocabulary:

(a)

Verbs taking
;

damma
1

Imperfect: to hope

U
(b)

to order j>

to eat
1,

to take

-^
1.

'

%
;

Fatha

to permit

0->^';
:

to

be safe

^j^

'

to regret

^-^

(a)

Kasra

in

Imperfect

to take captive j-^

'

Exercise 104a.
1.

To Arabic:
from what
is

"Then

cat the

set-before (brought forward to) you' (Luke 10

8).

2.

"And
Eden

Lord God took


it

to dress

and keep

Adam it. And

(the

man,) and put him into the garden of

the

Lord God commanded

Adam (the man)


it

saying,

"Of

all

the trees of the garden thou mayest freely eat: but of the
evil,

tree of the

knowledge of good and

thou shalt not eat of


die".

for in the

day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely

(Gen
^-^^

15-17).

Exercise 104a.

To

English:

"^J

^^ IjlSCi (\)

;'^ u VjS^ \

'{-r

u ill

:^

_-.v -,^x\i viT ^ivi L'\\

5SI

Lesson 105.
I.

We
may

come now
it

to the

haniza as middle radical.

What vowels

take

Fatha as

in

l*j

C to inquire
to

Damma
Kasra
2.

,,

^-j

^^)
"

be brave

^"^ -

Lo

^^)

to despair

The

Mudari'^ of "to despair''


jl**; l-J
(JV.*-

U)
^0^
>

V-:

|Ia*

U)
>

3.

The Imperative
0^0
>^a
1^1

of 'Yo

.sA:"
.t:o

Uj
is,

LI

S/Li
tliis

n^i
particular verb

11

There

however, another form of

some-

times met with, in which the


al-Mudari^ and al-Amr.

hamza

is

simply dropped out of


:

Example

of the latter

^^
drops

J^
its

ask!

(We may
in

briefly note here that ^^Ij

to

see,

hamza

al-Mudari^ and makes ,^ j ^^j


125).

etc. It will

be studied under the "weak-ending verb" 122

WUii

gives

no

difficulty

thus

^\^ one-asking, or a
roaring
-^*-i

beggar;
jlj
5.

^b
is

one-despairing
its

"j^'^

(from jij not


the

which,

however forms

IcUil

in

same way)

The Passive

L.]

he

is

asked (about

it).

6.

What becomes
Revise our

of the alif-hamza in of

Noun

of object

RULE

PERMUTATION

once more (104

6).

The

a/t/

becomes

ivau to suit the

damma. Thus Jj ^^^


stoo),

or JjL^a
i.e.

asked, or responsible.

(Notice the kursy =

?/a

without dots, on which the hamza

may

sit,

as in the second

form of writing the word).

7.

What form
It

will the

Madar take

depends largely upon the vowel

of the verb (But there are

not

many

verbs mahmuzatul'^ain (having the ^ain hamzated).


of i\Iadar:
;

Examples

*^) villainij
;

J ^^
\
8.

request

and J'^** a question]

^b

despair

depression (or "dumps").


at this stage.

Revise Lesson 13

Important.

i:!:!

^C:
b.

3r J. 9r^ \;
:

S/ lii

jii 1^1 oi;;jj tijui (v)

Exercise 105
1.

To Arabic
and
I

"Ask

of me,

shall give thee the heathen for thine

inheritance,

and the uttermost parts of the earth


(Ps. 2
:

for thy

possession."
2.

8).

"And Saul
(any more)."

will
(l

despair of

me and

not search for

me

yet

Sam. 27

l).

3.

And

the speech of the desperate (despairing) [goes]


:

to the

wind" (Job 6
4.
5.

26).

"For everyone who asketh taketh."

(Luke

II

10).

"Ask thy
and thy

father,

then {so that, Subj.) he will inform thee,


tell

elders,

then they will

thee" (Deut
:

32
2l).

7).

6. 7.

"Ask him, he
"Then
it

will

speak for himself" (John 9

said to the

woman, 'Has God


?

truly said,
:

Do

not

eat of all the trees *of the garden'

"

(Gen

l).

(Haqqan *

Verily, or truly).
in

This collective will be explained

Lesson 139

7,

25^

Lesson 106.
I.

Give exs

of

hamza
Masdar

as third radical (marking important verbs)


rass:?res:

Meaning
*

Passive

Imper

Present
K^

Past

4
to create
^

v.
*-

';.!
K o>
t

'-^1
^ o^

r;
1-

to read

l'^\j

!>.

cSj
':>''

'a'

1>.

ij
^U'
> ^

to

fill

^X'

5t
__,

^;i

fc
4^0
^

to
to

be slow
make
a

l.k
'U^^

mistake
*

to

begin

.-0>

I.

What do you observe


(a)

in the

above table

That there are fatha-fatha, kasra-fatha, and other verbs.


That the kursy of the hamza
ceding vowel (105
:

(b)

is

homogeneous

to the pre.

6).

(c)

The Passive Past always

writes

its

hamza

over a kursy.

(d)

The Pass Pres


:

writes

it

over

alif,

because of the preceding

fat
3.

ha.

Do

not spend
of
it

much time now over


tiie

the table, as

we

shall

meet

some
verb.

again in

Derived Conjugations of hamzated


Tiie
\

Learn the four verbs marked*.


(lit.

usual

verb for

"to sin"
4.

to miss) is
,,^1

Con j
t

IV.

'J^^

Ik:^

Form WUll

f,-om

i
its

Note that the kasra requires


dots; then there
5.

homogeneous ya kursy (with no


^(^j 15 a reader.

is

no

difficulty, ^i^5 7-

Form
^?y>*

J^iil

^1

from ^J and
;

^U
ywam/w'^^M, filled.

maqruun, read

^^C*

6.

It

will be noticed

here that
for a

we

are

now discontinuing

the

practice, kept

up

hundred lessons, of conjugating parts


,

of the verb in

full,

giving sing, dual, plural, mas

fern., etc.

'

-254 Such special assistance was deliberately given


things".
7.

to

"simplify

We

will

now be

able to save our space somewhat.

What happens
*
e-^ - ,^

to the final

hamza
and

of the
is

word "prophet"
L^
^

is

derived

from

U'

on the form

but the

hamza has coalesced with

the ya; so instead of writing ^^-^

an-NahVii we write ^^^' an-Nabiyu. The plural of ^^ has been


learnt in
8.

Lesson 67

6 with words derived from final ya.


their original

Give examples of words not losing


evil (written in

hamzi.
r-

Qur^an ^j^j
(Its

^i^*^i
1^
.
I

^j^

anything, something

plural

is

a diptote)

^^^^-^

'

^^

with enjoyment ("to your health")


5.

'^^i-**-*

What happens
The

with the plural of


is

/U'^

prayer -leader

plural form

"^\

(Lesson

132).

As
is

the

two radicals are

alike (from ^1 to walk ahead) the kasra

thrown forward, and


;

we

get

'^J

'

Compare

the verb
:

'

to

groan

Cf^^

^ groan.

Exercise 106a.

To English

(From al-Qur'dn).
';

jX3\i (r)

iV* ^JCr^J '>^(^) j^'-c^ii" '4

'a' (^)

jAi (0) iS^^ ;^r 3sCj

dv^^iir^j (o ucj

^.iii diu':^

Exercise 106b.
1.

To
:

Arabic

Read

in the

name

of thy

Lord who

created.

2. 3.

Eat and drink with enjoyment.

He

said, "Verily

am

appointing you as-a-leader to the

people".
4.
5.

And

likewise
if

we appointed
art

to every

prophet an enemy.

Then,

thou
to

in

doubt
those

concerning what we have


wlio
[were]

revealed

tliee,

ask

reading

tlie

Scripture before thee.

1.

255

Lesson 107.
Returning
to the

"Surd'' (doubled) Verb, can all the usual


it ?

Derived Conjugations be obtained frjm

Yes
is

but IX will seldom be found, (because the third radical


:

already doubled

if

second and 3rd were alike


radicals are separated
of Conjs.
III.,

it

would be

trebled).

The cognate
I.

before sukun

just as in

The Madars

IV,

VII., VIII.,
alif.

and X.

separate the two, in order to insert the necessary


2.

The

table of Conjuf^ations with useful examples.

ja-.ll

Jj-ill^-l

>Uli.J

^^'1

^^ Ull

^' Ui

Jje-^

f^J

^il
ST'

i!^

iS;
5=

Ju

;ii

t.

'&^.

J^^

:^c
l;.

:-^

b-^'

'^c

5;

>

L'l1.!
i-'i

-'
'i^'

tCj
^'%
-U^^
->

:Af

^C-,'

L'U
3^-'

6
7

''L\

4,/

>

111
;

10

The English
supply
;

I.

To extend
VIII. to

II.

verify

III.

contact with

IV. to
Vil. to

V. to be verified
;

VI. to be in mutual contact


;

be unloosed
3.

extend

X. to request supplies.
?

What
Take

is to

be done with so

many forms

out

II.

and V. and memorise them, because they are


II.

like

the ordinary strong Conjs.


4.

and V- Note the


?

rest.

Why

are

II

and V. so regular
effect of
to separate those

Because the
radicals
is

doubling one of the two original "Surd"

two

in

all

parts of the verb, in

other words, to regularise this forni. Refer to 72 and 83.

256

in Conjs.
III.,

Why

are the N. of A.
?

and N. of Object alike


distinctive

VI.,

VII, and Vlll.

Because their

vowels cannot be

shown without separating


Exercise 107
a.

the radicals.

^^^l\ J^

Ol'^lil

>3ML

jSli^Vl

;U.Vjl '^;l ^3'^"'

iWj

'4U H ^rjil
y^^J^
;iu.*j

% Or
iptl**.^

3i.V.

c^'

di

sv/ V;^
;"jc>=U3

'^i^^j
/^?t^^
'

^'J^

U^*!J O'jl-i^

Exercise 107

b.
:

RE -TRANSLATE TO ARABIC
There arrived
to us) that tlic

We hear
ing)

(/vY

G.O.C. (General Officer

Command-

sent to ask to be supplied with a

number of men and

a quantity (portion)

of munitions.
i

After investigating the request at the


all

War

Office,

they

reinforced him with


as

he asked of soldiers and equipments (accessories such


(j\

means of
country

transport,

and other things

and so on).

As-far-as
this
it

(up to)

the present there have joined the i^imy of Occupation in

many

reinforcements, arriving from other countries, until (so that)


is

has been said that the army extends from sea to sea and
Tliey have also prepared for tliem a great

ready

(prepared)

for any thing.

camp

Then

after their arrival by a


{lit,

few days, the war became unexpectedly more

intense

an intensifying non-expected) and a great battle took place, only


the policy of defence not that of

we were
attack.

preserving ^taking upon ourselves)

The army has As

several armoured trains and

"Maxim guns" (cannon


-

quick

firing),

for the

Ministry of Communications,

it

has deserved

great praise.

DERIVED CONJS:
1.

257

HAMZATED VERB
j^ from
j-"
^

Lesson 108.
of

Let us speak

first
Ill

of the verb mahmuz-ul-fd.

2.

What

is Coiij.

of

j^

?-It

is

>
'

And
3.

Conj.

IV

of the

same ? It

is

from }

'

How

are these to be distinguislied


J^lill ^m\^

By examining
Example:
-X>-1

j-\^ilj c-j^^ll

to

reproach

-^'^J,J
;

c-X>-i j-

J>'i^-*

to

cause pain

J y^

/1a|,

'J

^ ^^
^^'
f?

^^Ui
JA^II J^.ill^.l

>U)I^^J

^^\
J..!^i
1

r>n

J..il
1

1.
fy.ll

tji-rc-'-'','.>

La'/)

2,

<_ii^.

'J
0^
6
t.-

iJ

3.

J
:;.U
>:rt.
>:^

'o-^

4.

^>v
->

^>-

Ua

5.

'-{:
'>- i>
-^

i^n.
^
^
u.

in
i>>

Lh^
>
s?-

6.

1^}

"'

?-

iuri
ii;:,!

S>tlA

.x^:a

J>cL
'

-\>tjj

Jbil
>

8.

>

'-V

""

^0
-1

8.

^-0

i-0

jiUJ.
4.

ji

li**.!^

10

To

5.

place in trust (^^I>i to be sociable^^ to write a book ~* * < ^ ^ ^> , Learn J^^ callsr - to- prayer (^^^^ sufferer ; ^ ^* painful.
'^*
.

Ji

',

Learn also

j^'>

a conference, which
63:

is

Noun

of Place being

on the same form as J^*ii' ^^ (See


Self-Test 108. Translate these N's of
a believer; asking to be

7,

footnote,
:

and c/ ^I^).
;

Agent
;

an author; delayed

excused

a suffering

woman.


I.

258

only.
.sill

Lesson 109.
Mahmuz-UL-*AIN verbs use some derived forms
f
jJlwall

jUl
c^*!'

J^aU ^J >uti

^^
Jjj^f^l

Jj.^^

r^-li

r>

.'ci

aU>
V^^i

%
"(%
fi
>t

^^
^

LI
f

Ju
cji ^**r
;>'i-

Li

IIa^^

3v;JUli
1^0
!

a.u :uj:
^0

;D-.CJo

6,

llX^

>^ll)^

r^.'
aie Conjugations
is
II.,

,w.

ui

2.

Where
In
II.

VIL, X.?

there

a possible

example J

to

ask nuirh, but

it

is

not

important. Examples from VII, and X. are not in ordinary use.


3.

Why

are there not

more

.^

Because of the awkwardness

in

pronunciation of the interI.

mediate hamza, and the fewness of Conj.


4.

verbs of this class.

Which

of the above should be

memorised

^^
is

to suit, is

used of food

(or climate) suiting a

person;
is

Ji-l*-i

used of everybody asking everyone else

and ^V^\

some-

times used of a

wound healing (edges coming


^^^^

together) while
society).

^yJ'
J^Ur
to

r^T^

annual gathering
to

(of

Also

augur good, ^Az.\

bode

ill,

to

be pessimistic.
is

Note the spelling of these words; the hamza


after the long alif in Al-Madi, also in VI.
5.

written alone

Vocab:
'

to congrat.
prophesy
L-^^r

U*
to

to acquit

j^ to reward
'-^->'

Uo

to cure

J'

'

to

commence

(Add

these top. 259).

5-

259

\^
iki

Verbs Mahmuz-ul-Latm are frequently met with.


to take refuge

VIII.

to hide (a thing)

11

to hide

one

self

lo

accuse of error

to

be

filled

to

inform

n
\i^\

to seek
6.

warmth

Ur,J

X.

to sin,

miss aim

Pa.V special attention to Conjs IL, IV.

and

VIII. in this table.

t^ui
jJU-il

^ii
J..<ft|

J^.ill^^J j-^iiy-i

^Vi
Jj<!il

p 3
f>il

^>II

2.

u,

>

2.

sUuV.

\^
til.

!ibC/

3ir

ui<:i

J^.

^ir
> >

'lis-

3.

1-1
eir

4.

5.

6.

M-\
-

-/

-0
1

^j:.>.

Wi'

\"

11:.

8.

%'j1J.
Exercise 109a.
1.

i..", J/--1

10

To Arabic ;
bility
;

being-filled

taking-refuge; pessimism
;

suita-

assembling; beginning

congratulation

acquittal;

he-was-rewarded.
2,

Also : suitable
filled; a

congratulator

one-requited
;

refugee

one

beginner; hiding oneself

optimistic.

Exercise 109b.

A. Translate to English
:

260

EXAMINATION PAPER

10.

>

'iS^c^'>vL\
c>j:<l

^(.Qi iruiii

i2.i
I

(y)

oOll"

(^e-^=-j-. .SC_i;*

(v)

^^^^"^..ijlJlGLWl^^J,

(t)

'>^l

'41

S'^'l

(y)

^. Translate to Arabic:
1.

Ask

these two sheikhs where they are from.


is full

2.
3. 4.
5.

The school
I

(has filled); then

let

us begin.

believe in

GOD

and His Apostle.


and
for the believers

[women.

Ask pardon

for thy sin,

and believing

(Write out The Fifth Commandment).

6.

The

girls ran

away

(fled)

from

their teacher

(f).

7.

The two women were prophesying about


the

the extension of

Kingdom
(so)

of

God.

8.
9.

Thus

God

loved the world.


praise.

Those two ladies merit (deserve) your

10.

As

thcfugh he were 'engaged (busy).


(a) Preterite,
filled,

C.

Give Second Person, Dual,

and

(b) Present, of the

verbs: to stretch, deserve, be

write a book, abstain, think.

261

111.

Lesson
EVE, VOICE,

ASD

EAR.

Arabian Wisdom.

^^Li

A>-^i^

s^^kij

j^lii

c-^yi

^J j_^^i i')ir

(\

C;l^.Vlj^U3l
Translation of aboie
1.
:

0^4:11

(a

Rest of body

[is

to

be found]

in rarity of
;

food

Rest of soul in fewness of sins


Rest of heart
in scarcity of

anxiety

Rest of tongue in paucity of speech.


2.
3.

Knowledge

is

a tree,

and action

its fruit.

Two

are never satisfied,

the seeker of

knowledge and the

seeker of wealth.
4.
5.

In haste

is

regret,

and

in

consideration safety.

slip of the foot is safer

than a slip of the tongue.


:

6.

Three things please the heart (we should say the eye)
{i.e.

water

the river)

and greenness

(i.e.

garden) and a pleasant fate.

7.

metrical rendering,

the terminal sukun being "Poetical

license" j^n oj3^I>).

"Three things

send

away

grief

greenness, and water and a pleasant face."


8.

Paradise

is

under the

feet of

mothers {said of training children).

-*

262

112.

Lesson
the:
1.

weak
^*^"
^

verb.
does
*\1ha

We

come now

to

3**^'
2

What

mean?

By comparing
^lic-l

107

U^ will be found to be the Participle of


to contain a
letter

to

be

sick,

hence

called

UJI _i
and
?

,-

"letter of sickness."
2.

The

**Sick" (weak) letters are j

What
(a)

are the three possible classes of

"weak" verbs

JIjU

those
with

with j
J
or or

or

as j^rs^ radical.

(b)

<-^j>-^

^
^

in the

??/z(ic?/e.

(c)

/>a5U

with J

as

^/^r/'o?

radical.
to

There are two supplementary classes


1.

be added
;

Verbs with

first

and

third both

weak

2.

Verbs with second and third both weak.


is

3.

What

meant by the word JLU


:

Compare 74

7 with 75
its

5,

and note
in

that

\t[*

(Conj.

III.,

to

resemble) takes
lation)

madar

j[l*

(resemblance,

or assimi-

so these verbs are called "Assimilated" or "Simile"

verbs because they resemble the Sound Verb.


4.

In verbs

having

ija

as

first

radical,

what happens
despair

Ya verbs
Verb.

are inflected in almost all their forms like the Strong

For example

^U
ju J

^jJj

to

(of), (in

105
>

2).

cr

>\

.0'

IL)

/ji** l^j

l;

cb
'*

1.0"

1.

CJ

5.

The Noun Agent

is

^C

and The Noun of Object "^/^-

both of which are regular.

263
?

if

6.

Js the

Passive also regular


;

Yes, in the Past

from j^^ we should have got j^^


but, as a

the Past

had been Transitive,

matter of

fact, the

few

initial

ya

verbs are mostly Intransitive.


f.

In the Imperfect the Passive requires

damma
(63
is

over the

first

ya,
?

then what would happen to the second ya

( i.e.,

the radical)

By our

RULE
^My

of

PERMUTATION

5)

the strong vowel

over-rules the
thus,
.

weak consonant, which

then changed o
:

wau

The same
:

applies to the Imperative

^mj

8.

Vocabulary
laZ
*'to

"o

"to ripen," ^^j^ "to be dry," j^^^ "to be

easy"

be awake."
a.

Exercise 112
1.

To Arabic

Do

not despair of the mercy of God.


is

2.

Verily after travail

ease.

3.

Let us pick the ripe

fruits.

4.
5.

Our crops

are

mildewed

this year.
I

After long

trial

(experience)

did

not find

(1 13

4)

the

climate suitable.
6
7.

The Annual Conference


I

will

meet

in the city of Cairo,

congratulate you sincerely on your safe return.


b.

Exorcise 112

To English

^1 <:^j^_^uv
\jLl J^J^
\

(n)
(y)
(r)

Ji,

j[

"iiOl'jV^l
i:_!l

J^\

aJ*

<j^

l:itjj\

(t) (c)

:%'M'\j^\] \,LijLivla

<JU. i:v

s'A"'^'

^'^^-^

^^^''

(v)

264

113.
j (^^\^ Jll.)
?

Lesson

ASSIMILATED VERBS IN
1.

Are Verbs with j regular,

like those with ^^

few are regular,

like the ya

verbs,

the others have special


39,

rules.

We must

refer to

Lessons 38 and
104,

and the Revision


40.

of the Six Classes on


2.

page

under Lesson

^^ "^ .^ \
Firstly, take the fourth line

(page 104)
it ?

\^>

\^i

are there

Assimilated Verbs

in

like

very few, and these are regular.

Ex:

1)

^j

\)j

to

be un-

wholesome.
3.
^j..al> '^J.oi

This form
Uaj

is

not used in j
:

That leaves
UjJj

four,

namely

\9.sii

XfA

\iA

U^>

Ud ai.d

\d

4.

What happens
All
as
to

to

l^ij

Ui

t/;aw

verbs on this form reject the wan


in the

in

p jl^ll and

j-^'

shewn

following table
J.C'

promise

> ^ Aft}

-Xc-j

to give birth
>
.

- "

to find

to be

incumbent

to connect, arrive
>
^

to describe

(.ji^ vj!^) iwjiv^

_5

^ ^ ^
to stand, stop (^^5
^_JKiJ

to arrive,

come

^^3 J

5.

What
That

did

we say about

Uij "**i to

in

Lesson 39
in

its

few examples are

be found
in

Assimilated Verb,

and that the wau always disappears

pjUaii

to swell

to inherit

to be in

good

to trust, confide

condition

6.

265

wau
?

Does

li^ "1*3

also reject the

Verbs on
;

th5s

form are
J

niostiy regular; e.g,

J^l^
shall

J^^l J?'^^^
mention
ya).

fear

'^^V^j ";i^

to

be
(In

in

pain.

We
is

two

exceptions in
7.

7.

^^i^ the wmi


U^j

replaced by
Ui.l*i

The following

eight verbs in

Ud and

although

they take fatha in Mudari^


e '

etc.,

yet drop the initial wau.


to fall

to be spacious

ito trample

P
It
^

pi
h^

ir-'

C>".
place

ri
y". ^

upon

U4 ^>'.
^

to put,

to let alone

ji

j-^i

j^j>

to give, grant

to restrain

to

let,

let

alone
*

L^^
off the

8.

But

why have you marked


the Past of p.5j
is

two verbs

These may be omitted, as not much used.


9.

Why
^c^

is

put in brackets
in

Because the verb


Let

only used

Present and Imperative,

me

<c.jij.

he

lets

him

(or,

he leaves him alone).


?

10.

What

outstanding facts will simplify this lesson


quite regular in

That these verbs are


Passive
;

(a) all Preterite

(6) all

(c) all

their

Derived Coniugations.
first letter is

This was

to

be

expected since only the

weak.

(Turn back to
3).
?

Lesson
11.

51 E. V.

&

E.

and revise and re-learn sentence

Are the Participles (Nouns of Agent and Object) regular


Quite
:>^>;

c./.

^ij

finding
(i.e.

(J^ij standing

;^nj

trusting
Ai

also

^^
.
.

found
^:'
,

present)

^y^*^^ given, granted

ij/*y

>^^
inherited.
for the

trusted-in
12.
Is

c^jj^>

there
;

any special form

Masdar

No

it

may

take various forms including


'

l*j

but J^i

is

com-

mon

e. r/.

UU j

^j

ecclesiastical

endowment;

^yj

standing: f-yj falling, happening

.o^Vj giving

birth.

13,

266

and compensate
a gift
;

But a great
it

many
o
:

of the verbs drop the ^


k'sa

for

by adding

thus

confidence
;

"k^f^

<J

j weight

ii^ attribute
ever,

<l^ connection
\^

tliese

last three

may, how-

take the
a.

form
:

j jj

^^j

and

U?^

Exercise 111

To English

-,^
4^1,1

^^
*^^

^^

o^ } ^

( t

^*jjVu^-5^'^ ^*!^
Ixij")

"J

jJi.

4jil

i>j^'

J.C-

U^^y*

47

Vj J ^

1.

Put

down your burdens

here.

'

[earth.

2.

His throne

(seat) extended (covered) the heavens and the

Had he been
have given her

relying on
all

(felt

confidence in) her he would


I

she asked of him. {A

dm follows

lau).

4.
5.

Man's nature

is

inherited from his fathers.

6.
7.

[his death. God did not beget and was not begotten. He did not promise her that she would inherit anything after
It

is

incumbent upon us
in

to

accept his word and to have

confidence
8.
I

him

entirely.

found

it

placed on the chair.

9 There is no-one in the house at present. 10. Not every city is as it is described in the books,

26;

114.
II.?

Lesson
1.

Derived Forms .

What

of Conjugation

Neither in j verbs or
to cause to join

in (^

verbs

is

there any difficulty.

X^^
No
_j
1

J^^^i
l-^J^

^^
-^J

to deliver (childbirth)
2.

-^'^^i

Conjugation
to join to

III.?

special remark.
aI^^Ij;*

Vl^j

l^^^> 3"^'-^

3.

Conjugation IV.?

PTaw verbs

are regular, except the necess:

ary permutation in the madar


^^"^il

e.rs. to

make
^^'-^J

clear,

explain
f'-^j'

r^^^i

^jl

to leave, deposit

f'

^Jt

to cause to arrive to
4-

Vl.^jl

^^^^
'

J^ J

'

to necessitate

w^^jl

cause to despair

^f,

to

cause to exist
?

-^jj-j

>

What

of Conjugation IV.

i/a

verbs

These undergo
in 63
:

a
to in

permu-

tation of the ya in
up,

^jl^l (See Rule


in

5).

^^^
ia?^^

wake
C'jUall

becomes
.1

JilJ
- to

IV.

Coiij.

Past,

but

%^i

-^^1

have easy circumstances j^y^ ^-1'


difficulty.

5.

Conjugation V. and VI.? No


to hesitate,

depend (upon)

y^J-'^)

^^5^-

^^^^i

<-ii>y

6.

Conjugation VM?.
In Colloquial

Arabic we have-^

j'

ko be hon^,J^> y

to

be found

7.

Any

difficulty in VIII.?

Yes, JL:^

verbs on form JIdJ curiously change the j or ^^ to

O and then coalesce


8.

with the servile: thus


list

7ckr

{^"A

"VaA
it).

(Turn back to the special

on page

223,

and memorise
in

Conjugation

X What

happens

to the

wau

al-Madar?

The

usual permutation of

wau

after kasra.
1

to deposit (in care),

UU^l**.

<^:>yl^i

^<>:>^1^\

to

268

\^

ask to stop

U-^X**

^uA

4^.) e-A5 A*-*

to seek to procure (import)

to

awaken
^

9.

J^Ui ^\
get
-k23^^

The only change

is in

IV. of(j verb,

whence we
:

arousing, ^^^> necessitating; ^^^> wealthy


-^

and

in

^^>
trusting
;

VIII, Jx:>i

agreeing

J^->

J-^:>

connecting.

Other

useful
10.

words

^f\^l humble; ^-^^^ midwife.

J^^aII ^*-I

Like ^'^l^'

|t-*^l

but changing, of course, the kasra to fatha,


;

^y deposited
11.
Is

aAc-JaI^ agreed upon (c\ry/'Sound" Tradition).


Ja^Jili ^*^i

jos.-ll
that

^*-i

on the same form as

Yes
c- :>

is

so with Derived Conjugations

(c. /.

63

and 108

5),

f^^M a public depository.

Table of Conjugations of Assimilated Verb

fjUi
II )X^.\
.

^.Ll,

Jj.il^J jeUll^J^

^^1

p
<1^.

Jjel'
.

fy.ll

uWli
I.

a}

\r
^
>

^;3

3'.1

i;i

Xi

2.

'Cr;
>

3.

>

4-

5.

y.

p'.
6.

8.

-0

10

269

115.

Lesson
'

HOLLO W VERB.
e

1.

lijVVl
It is

Ui)l

What

does the word


'

^^^^ mean

on the form J-*


so called
?

and means hollow, or concave.

2.

Why

Because the weak


3.

letter

j or^^ or

'

"drops out"

in the Jussive, etc.

Explain the theory of the changes

in the Preterite.

The
(a)

three classes are

named

after the letter taken in the Present,


:

Medial Wau.
9 >

Revise Lesson 24
LJi;

3,

4 and apply

it.

\)^

vij

ca;

a;
ib)

Medial Ya.
(to

The same theory


to

applies here.

We
/^^

assume
*

jl^

become)

be from

^^

but instead of
ya,

O^a^^
>..

to

avoid two sukuns together we drop the


IrM. J^-><i?

and get ^^^^


jl*^

IM Jl^

o jl*^
x'

i;,

(c)

Medial Alif.

Jl?- to fear,

from

*^^

gives C^x>-

feared.

IJU

UU
,A>.

r
Lii
4.

A>-

But

do not see any difference between classes


(a) is

[h)

and

(c)

See ^l^i'

Cj\

ib)

j^^i but

(c)

is

^Ul^

5.

What

is

the fundamental
letter

RULE deduced

from

3 (a) (b)

and

(c)

That a weak

always drops out when followed by a

jazmated consonant (one bearing sukun).


6.

What happens

with the Passive

? The

letters

J
j^^

being
)

the original radicals (see also f'O

to sell, similar to

the

passive

would have

been

J**

;*

>

but

permutation
;*^>

takes place, and the kasra and ya are written

J-d

also

0}

^zXS ^fui and sZ^^ ~ ^

was betrayed.
^-^i

(Some allow c^l^

).

7.

Any change
Yes
;

in

Jc-Ui

the

weak

letter is

replaced by hamza

JJ^i a speaker%*^l5
a

saying (adverbial expression to introduce


A>.S,1,

speech; "^l^
A>.|
;

becoming

j-

V***

going

t^^U- afraid

^.

A>l.

(^b sleeping

C^ U

dying.

The feminine
8.

is

regularly formed by
J^iiii

thus <}^

Any change
(a)

in

^1
;

Middle wau verbs drop one wau

03/^

is

written

uy^

033^'^
(h)

we

write j^^- guarded

(/.e.

chaste);

^j!^^

blamed.
;---*

Middle ya verbs change the long wau


but
is

to ?/a

thus

sold;

Jos^ measured
(c)

f'^-^-^

possible

'-^^^^tr^ articles sold,

From v^*

^^

f^^^*'

^^ S^^

V^'

to-be-feared, venerable

and from Ob9,

Oj^

feared, fearful.
?

What form

does the madar take

Generally j*^ but not always.


of selling
;

Jy

a saying;

^)

or

^
;

act

j^-^
.

act of going, or pace


"
^

^y

sleep

^y

^ . death; <^ y^ fear;

'^.'^i

repentance.


2/1

118.

Lesson

We

said in the last lesson that

Hollow Verbs range themselves


letter of their
il
^''

in three classes

according to the medial


;

Imper-

feet tense.
in
^i

Very well

but

why do you say

J^A3^

when
by

the form
a vowel
?

how
is

is

the sukun of the fa replaced the hypothetical form


is

The answer

that

J^i

yaqwulu

but that becomes jya


jj&i yuqivalu
2.

yaqidu just as
written

its

hypothetical passive
yuqdlu.
alif,

is

actually

JUj^

Show
(a)

this
0^

for the
says,

three classes :- Medial waii, ya,


}^

u y\
^Jo

lie

becomes

J^aj^

J
>

*i
>

becomes JU) Passive

(b)

he

sells,

(c)

O^^^

he fears,

A
(he sells)
:

Inflect

one of these only

0"

;t.X)

.Jo

J;V

^^*rl^
;t--Jo

jl*-a.r

(^*-Jo

^Jo

4.

Why

has the middle

letter

disappeared from the Fem. Plural


the third radical receives a
is

Revise our

RULE

"When
it

sukun

then the long vowel before

changed

into a corresponding

short one because a shut syllable cannot admit a long vowel"


(

ie,,

two sukuns mav not occur together


to 115
:

).

Turn back
us for the

and very carefully

revise.

This prepares

most important section of the Hollow Verb, ^^'j^^

(jazmated, or jussive).
93 (Lesson 36
:

One example was worked


is

out on page

6).

There

no

difficulty at all if this

RULE

be

really grasped,

and many examples be analysed,

272
5

Inflect

"He did not say":

'lA^i^

'JA/

'^^f

%k^
,M

NOTE on

lam

yaJnai,

same form

as above.

Some

of the J

poets and Al-Qur'an


still

in eight instances only

shorten lam yaliun


iJ
I

rj>^

further,

and write

f
<-A)^

he was not

was

not.

6.

Imperative of the same


> >

'v;^
7.

Jy
e

Jussive of (c)

"He

did not
^
--

fear.'
*

.Jli

8.

^^ ^^ Imperative
-

"Fear!"

^iU
9.

uu
did not
sell."

^\^

Jussive of (b)

"He

'

r, -.-Lj

t^X)

^^
10.

^
:

Imperative

J r "Sell." I'
:.

0^
II.

Jussive of Passive

"He

(it)

was not

sold."

UCr
i /

ca?. ^'-/

C-^
L^-

cr-r

UD

i.Q(^,

erf

12.

273

in frequent use
> -

Give a short
to sleep

list

of

Hollow Verbs
to adorn

>U) aU

lT

J-

O'J
i^U

to guard

j^-tAi jl-^

to venerate v-jI^

e^l*

to live

to die

**-i?^

<^^J*

to obtain

JLo Ju
^A<^^''A<r

to be fitting

^Jl) iS^
-^ _/
^'

to

blame

V^'>^
to repent
t^>*Jj

'r"^

to be

on

tlie

point of

-^^i -^

to increase

Exercise 116 A.
1.
I

became afraid

of not selling (lack of sale of) the books.


;

2.

Guard (Hold) your tongue


you betray
it, it

if

you guard

it,

it

guards you,

if

betrays you.

3.

bought books and sold them again, but the sales were small.
not one of the blameworthy ones

4.

He was
I

who betrayed
{lit.

their country.
5

fear that that person has not repented sincerely

3.

true

repentance).
6.
It

was

(is)

said that the Khalifa

Harun

the

Wise one night

did not sleep, so he arose and said to Ja^far, "Get up and go

with
7.
It

me

to visit the city."

was said

of General

{lit.

Leader) Jouhar that he lived

honoured and died regretted.


Exercise 116 B.

^:5CJ
"dl;

^^

J.M.

^. U;

U o> J\
dl; llj Jii^
I

( \

U- '<iL^ o\J^ dl;

a::i^

jj

( y)

274

117.

Lesson
1.

DERIVED CONS, HOLLOW VERB.


Does
the

Hollow Verb
?

differ
-."'.^^

from the strong


i

in

all

the

conjugations

~ No,

only
e.,

in IV.. VII., VIII., X.,-z


2,

in

>

-f*

>-^'J

>^l >'

-r"".!

-i'"-

'

Prove that statement by examples upon the other forms

We

will

do so by giving examples of both wau and ya verbs

upon

IL, III, v., VI.


i

&
'"

IX.,
^
^

which examples must be memorised.


^ ^
-

to cause to be-

"

come
(at auction)

'^t^ ^^i
-''.

-^
*

to straighten out

Ai

to outbid another

K A

r*''

^i

to

oppose

to adorn oneself

L
^"

to

marry

-?j'

JU-^i '^ J

:.>
1-j

->

to be dissimilar
.

U)
I-'.

^
i
,

UJo

^
*
,

to exceed the
l-^j

bounds
to be black

y^'

^U ^'^X^_ ^jti
j*.'

to be white

U9l^.o

.-'O ^ wa-.X)

,^0
wfl-o

bO
& V.)

:>*-> ^

3.

What
(a)

principles
letters

may

be inferred from these examples


(II.

Weak

marked with shadda


(IX.)

or followed
;

by

consonant with shadda


(b) In general,

undergo no change

weak.

letters

undergo no change when preceded


prolongation (in.,VI

(or followed)
4.

by a

letter of

& Madar II.)


IL,

Give the jussive of one example each of medial wau on


III, v., VI.,

IX.

i_j)

jjU:^

^jv^i
I

cjj^

cyi
:

(i

5.

Now
.1?
I

give one example of Conj. IV. ^*i

(Compare 76
)

3).

he raised up, trans.


11.1;

(or,

he stayed, intrans.

r'

Gi;1

15

I'^i
/
..

What

is

observable here

The occurence

of our fundamental Rule (115

5)

"Weak

letter

drops out when followed by consonant with sukun."

7-

275
?

What
>

does ^jWl come from

0/0
c.f.
.

^^
.\ o
>

comes from
.

^ y^i
>

^^^^ (76
> ^
(J
.

4 and II6
^

2).

>

>

o^-A
-0

JU-A)

('I

("';

r:
8.

pjii of the same.

Watch

the effect of the sukun

^ * "..0
I

1^^; J

.i-

^r^

9.

^^
11. ;
I

Ui
/^U UT
.^U IL
1

10.

The Passive

(a)

Indicative (he will be raised).

^
>

O
....

r
A 05 liT
')

,ju

)U uT

(J
aU'

U\A

f'^
(b) Jussive (he

was not

raised).

i_j'^.

J
|,\

>i"

(J

\\

(J

0^
J^Ull

>^lS"

<f
_.
r-*>

J
formed fromp-jUai' thus
;
:

11.

^A^l is

c^ staying

Z^-^
;

fatal

restful ^^ j'

j^^^ prolonging
insulting;
^\aa

^Sa making permanent


;

Jj.

j'

removing
12,

C^^-

r-^^ obedient

\^ beneficial.
jl^
insulted;

J^iil
P'lLi^

^1

raised;

Ji> removed;

obeyed

^Cm brought back.

13.

276

~
e

Should not the Masdar take the form


It

Jli|^ ?

should; but
'jot
>

A ^^\ would
,-

be the Masdar of
latter

j*^*

'

and
to

Ul

t
I

of

not of

|l3

from the
is

we

get vl5[

and

avoid

the two silent alifs one

deleted,

and compensation made by


,j

adding

^'^

^
:

<uld|

act-of-raising; or staying;
*^^l

'^^l
"^^
j>\

killing;

<iiy lengthening;
5iUl insult
A^llsl

^j^

making permaneni;
;

removing
;

obedience

o:>lil

benefit (to others)


direction.

o ^U-l

repetition; 6:>'^[ will; o^-^i


14.
Is

management,

there any instance of a verb on this IV. form in which the


letter is treated as a
.--0
I

weak

strong one
to

(i.e.

an accented consonant)?
:

Yes; jj^^

(to

be lacking
is-lacking-to
is

anyone) thus
3
:

"The Glory of God

them" (Rom.

23)

^1>''''o>'-o,
^
^..''
'
\

(Subject of the sentence

a^)
is

^
^^'
*'^-

Wisdom

is

lacking to him
is

(=he

destitute of

it)

*^,

"]

(Subject

ijai)
is

<-^y^JJ
coll

This root 3>^

the one from

which we get the


l).

j\^

"wanting" (N. of Agent of Conj.


Exeroise 117.

To

English, and vice versa

c>3

^""f <'0*^

ixJiA rU3l oA^

(n)
(Y)

i.ioSu;yij^^i
o

'/ Vui

UUi

iJldl
^Ikr j
1

A^lUl '.:v^

(t)

c^lLTi^j^ C 3^^

i'lj J

li|^

(0)

y-'vj^-v>3:^^

(V)

CONJS: VIL &


I.

277

118.

Lesson

VIII.

(HOLLOW).

Give as an example of Conjugation VIL Hollow,


oneself be led
.

"to
^ -0

let

".

^ ^0
~.
1

\/AZ

r>\i;

-0
^
...
1

0^0
^^

2.

Supposing a passive of VIL, were


written
?

possible,

how would

it

be

Since

J.*aJ

takes
(if

its

passive

(if

any)
'

in

Jaj

.^U) J

would

form

its

passive

any) thus :

\^

Or even

-^-^J

^0jjjii)
^0
.

* -

..

(Jlr

-v.>uir
-0
1-

^.lAir

^Uli

NOTE There being


few taking Conj
trodden
4.
:

but few transitive hollow verbs, there are


o

VIL One other example

is

e/

"^^

^^ ^^

down

(crops).
is
.-^a-^)
.

If

the Jussive

-V^-^j

etc.,

give the Imperative

jSZ
5.

'j^Uj

'UJ

c5?
:

-Xa)

J^ili ^^'j

JcUn

<^*-^

in this
alif

case are alike


of the

:>\aLa tractable.

6.

What becomes
permutated
o
I

of

the

verb

when

inserting the

usual alif before the third radical to form the madar.?


It is

to ya

because the preceding vowel


o
;

is

kasra.

Thus ^La^
7.

tractability

(j-'t-^

being trampled upon.


5).

VIII. ^i:> jj to increase,

be augmented (see 89


(j^^jl

2/8

0:>bjl
:>bj
(wJ^^j

Ij^oj

C-'iiS"

->

O ^ O

._;^^jl

l;^^
8.

w^^^ J
jll>>
1

Passive of
'.

to choose,

^n.^

is

occasionally heard.
>

-".

t
>

^r^^
,

>

>

>

9.

Give ^jl^l of jl.>3^

to

be adorned.

0^0-10.

The

Jussive being tj:>j etc.

what

is

the Imperative

oo3i
11.

i^;i:>3

Ji^3j
?

u->3j

Why
That

the shadda in the Feminine Plural of 9 and 10


is

caused by the coalescence of the radical nun of the

verb and the nun (affixed pronoun-mark) of feminine plural.


12.

Give the Passive of

^^j^

P-jUall

(Jussive)

Jj^ J
'0 >

>

^ji:^

jj

^0

"y.^Y'

r
13-

J^*iii

(^*A.lj

Icljjl ^**.i

arealike

^^'y

r^ y
:

J^-^

^U*>

14.

The Madar
>Ll>.
1

According
option
;

to rule.

Exs

^iJjl comfort;
;

choice,

^lo*;l increase

.^lllC'l

custom,

279

Lesson 119. CONJUGATION X. (HOLLOW).


I.

^^^

^\\ ^lliof ^V^J to

be upright.

--0

-^-

U^I**
2.

J^.^*J

^1
^.
.

^;,lil

of jbL.1 to consult.
>:
;
.^

//

>

f y^^

-v^X<U

3-

^jUll of

jUi.-!

to derive benefit.
^0 ^

^0

^0

^0 ^

4-

Jj***^

^' fjUii

of

,^Ui*l

to

answer (prayer, request,

etc.)

*>

..

>

I"

^^

^ '^

^..

c^

5-

cjj^l

^^

jl^".<l

to scorn

(compare with

3 above).
o t

*"

"

"

^'

**

L5-tf^'

l^

C>^1^

;i (jr-*-^
6,

c>^ ^
to

^Vl

of

yU:^l

answer (prayer, request,


V..A^%.^

etc.)
^0
I

'

28o

7.

Jc-Ull ^^1

Examples

^aI^a upright
(a

X^kl^A receiving
despising.

benefit; ^^>^L^a answering


Jjili

request)

c>\^I^>

8.

j^**l ?

Examples

jCLI^a one-consulted ("Adviser"


;

to

Govt

^Ul*.^ profited
c-lLTl*-.^

A>l>tlw^

t^^ answered
;

prayer

Ai^ijX^Z^A

scoffed at

possible

c-lL^^^
?

^i^ impossible.

9.

Is

the
;

masdar similar
but
it

to that of VII.

and VIII
IV.

No
of

is

similar lo that

of

(contrast the
VIII).
4.*

Nouns

Agent of IV. and X. with


;

VII.

and
I

U:**.

upright-

ness

ojl-lI.*.ul

consultation

i)l?cI--

answer

(to

a request

or prayer)
10.
Is

ic-lLl-*

power,

ability,

there a verb (as


(i,e.

we found

in IV.)

treating
1

its

weak
:

letter as

sound one
o

an accented consonant)

(see II7

14).

Yes;

^>^1j^\ io

catechise or examine (legal enquiry,

etc.)

The

root idea

is

that of asking for an


o

answer (^l^>-) Another

example
sound
:

^^4.^l4*l

to

consider correct.
'

The masdars

are

(^^1 a^I**-

a.^2Ia*

Exercise 119 B.

To English

(See

p. 281).

Ja5 A^^^^-i

Wr^"

'f^^ ^*^^J

Exercise 119
1.

28l

280).

a.

To Arabic
(fern
:

(see

page

Be tranquil

fear not, because thy friends are safe.


?

2.

How

are the dead raised


as

3.

She made show

though (pretended that) she did not find


Note

the weight short (deficient).

verbs like

wajada can

take two objects, both in Accusative Case).


4.
It is

not in

my

power, nor in the power of others, lo-grant

(the-granting-of) your request.


5.

His Excellency the Adviser did not grant


said that the matter

my

request but

was impossible.
her,

6.

They requested her presence, and interrogated

but she

did not consider-right (approve) their interrogation of her,

so she did not answer them with with a single word

(at all).

EXAMINATION PAPER
A.

120.

To English

i:y% i^vji^

(N)

ui

:>(^

ijT q\ *^^^' fi^y ly &

(0)

:'^UI j'^Ce-Vl

J
I

llJ

(V)

dll'jl

;>, 'o^q

(A)

0^
>

282

5t^.

^-

;J-.^,0-.

B.

To Arabic
1.

She did not

find in her father's

house more than eight coins.


is

2.

Despair not of the mercy of God, because He

very merciful.
is

3.

You cannot
by
others.

find

any person exactly as he

described

4.
5
6.

We
It is

blamed thee because thou

didst

masc

not visit us.

said that the house was sold at a small price.

The

children of Israel were punished because they did not


his prophets.

obey God but opposed


7.

"Awake thou

that sleepest,

and

arise

from the dead, and

Christ shall give thee light."


8.

We hear that the


the
but,

G.O.C. (General Officer Commanding) of

Army

of Occupation sent to ask for re-inforcements,

in spite of all that,

he was badly defeated.

Q.

We

will

weigh

it

in the balance.
}

10. Is

not the plough more useful than the sword


:

C.

Give the Imperative Plural, Masc

and Fem

and the English

meanings

of these verbs

Lesson
EYB:,
Reply
"Sj^

121.

voice & EAR,


Salutation

L^
U>-j>

(Coll

(jC-.:^

^'

<-A,

U^^*

(Welcome
(Salaam
!

dl^U.^Jl
Jli-I

(Kind Inquiry)

^V>

(When

eating)

l:*4*^*Uair
diljaj ^^SCil

(Thanks)
(To one eating)
(Congratulation)
(Feast-day)

Uu*
^1

^!'

^ jt-.^
c>:Jl

-J^^

dLi iJjL

4jil

(Weddings)
(Recovery)
(Arrival)
(Birth

?^lij^>

dll.ilpjLfr4jijui-i

'i-^tJI
-.,ja>.

J.C4i

Jui-I

o^^)

^S^-^.i'^^
(Condolence
^,j:i!)

(New Year

i:JI

^Ij)

(Long Life

!)

dXli^ ^1^

4il

(Thank you)

'^j^ J^^
ii^A^^JI
>

(Good bye)

Lesson 122.
1.

- ^iUI Jxill
^aJ
to

Why
Naqi

is this
is

verb so called

the Active Participle of a verb


;

come

short,

be defective
radical,
710^

and the verb

is

given this

name because
off."

its final

being weak, has a tendency to "drop


its

But

it is

defective in the sense of any of

tenses being missing.

A
2.

much

better

name

is

used by some

:~

;>-

Vl

U^^
:

i*AJl

'The Verb Weak of Ending." (This


Into

constr. expl. in 148


.''

16).

what classes can

this

verb be divided

Four, according to the classes of verbs given in Lesson 39.


Meaning

^a

Example

^l^'-l

Type-Form

jjj

(a) to call, invite

(b) to

throw

J" J"-^

(c) to run,

endeavour

(J^. c/"

(d) to

be hidden

j'i^.;>
Uaj
U*5 ?

3.

Is

there

any on
Uij

No
is

see 39
"^^ ^^

and 113:5.
is

4.

Any on

UJ

JjHl J^r^

magnanimous"

the

only example given and that


5.

very seldom met with.


:

Give

^^^

of each of the above verbs


vC-^

(a)

^'^^ \^^
s:>
^
^

dj^^

l>^

jC'Ji

J^'
U'
^c-^

^(^:>

fj"-^
J
c-^

(b) of

^ J,.

^J

^o

throw

[Iaj

L>.j
^

o*-'

ci-.
[:,.j
-

>

(c)

285

of (i-J j/u to run (Note

there are very few on this form).


(J^

***

VJ^

K^^
^0

>
.

^x

rX-

i::c.
^0 ^

(d) of ^3i2

^^ to be hidden.
g'i
.'.
r.

L^

u::^;.

ui^
6.

What
(i)

is

specially observable about the above tables


(third)

That when the weak

radical
affix,

is

jazmated

with

sukiln)
alif

on adding the pronominal


(c) all

the alif of (a)

and the

maqiira of both (b) and

return to the original leUer,

viz, (a) to
(ii)

wau^

(b)

and

(c) to ya.

That before the wan of the masc. plural


in (d) a

this
is

weak

radical

is

dropped out altogether, but


in the

damma

supplied,
(c)

(m) That
radical
is

third fern. sing, of (a) (b)


;

and

the

weak
dual
also.
?

dropped

thus C^o:> C^* j sZ^*^


:

also,

the fern,

being formed direct from the fern sing,


7.

it

is

dropped there

What form
Always
(j

will the

weak

radical take in the Derived Conjs.


:

except in the 3rd. sing


alif

past,

where

it

is

^j
,>i

(See Lesson 127) but long


8.

before an affixed pronoun

Is

the

weak

radical dropped in forming the


:

Noun
it

of

Agent

(a)
its

Indefinite

In the

Nom

and Obi
;

cases,

is

omitted and
f\

place

shown by tonM;m

A^asra

thus
letter
is

^U:

^l-*

f^^^

But the Accusative retains the weak


(b)

UUy

LpL-^ LI j Lc>l
y y y

:>

Deiined

The missing

radical
c.

restored in the definite


the

thus
(c)

Jii-^i^^in^j^i
Jbeminine
is

,cljji

/.

(_^.5UI1

Redeemer.
^^^'-^ \^^- ^

The

fully-declined

thus

}^^^

What
The

286

123.

Lesson
1.

is

noteworthy about the passive of the past Of ^j^LII

fact that the

weak

radical ya

is

restored,

and the weak


obvious, for

wau replaced by
it is

ya.

The reason
:

for the latter

is

preceded by a kasra (63

5).

2.

Give the passive of


cnc^
>
,c-:>

U^ and

^j
u^.
>

>

c;-t

r
1^^

r^^p :>
.^c^:>

>

il/,
>

>

^:^
AS
> >

r-t^^
l-L*.>

3.

How
(a)

is

J^iil ^J\

formed

From
we

verbs

whose

final

radical

is

wau,

this

radical

coalesces with
j^c^J^^

the

long wau of the form,


invited,

and instead of
hoped
for;

get ^c^J.4

called.

Also ^>- j*

'^

^'si%M 3'

pardoned.
verbs with final
3^

(b)

From

a the long

wau

is

permutated
to kasra
;

to

ya

to coalesce

with the final ya, and the


;

damma

thus
etc).

we
4.

get

^*^ thrown-down
of

^^-.^ built

{^^^ gathered (fruit


).

pjl^U

y^^

ll:v to

kneel (like

^i^Ji^ Ip:>

ii-_,V

jr;i;.

't
'o<4
'

;i=

;^-

A'

What
{i)

is

to be noted here
is /io alif

There

aiter the final

lt;a^^

of the masc. sing.

287
Ui)

In

2nd

fern, sing,

'^y

}'

becomes
pi.

(X
is

(m) In 3rd and 2nd masc.


result that the niasc.
6.
c-

one wau

omitted, with the

and

fern, are alike in

those two cases.

of ^5C->^

(J^j

to wcH^p (like

^ ^.. ^' j )

L>
7.

<!;
?

iCi
ya
is

What do you notice here What the weak radical

dropped from the 3rd and 2nd

masc. plu, but retained in the feminine.


8.

f'j\^\

of

^^ J.. ^^ )
,

to ba

pleased (like

^a^..

(^a:^-

^
J*"

L^^

J-"

^J-

o^-^j,

^^
t

9.

What
(

is

obser\ed here

That the fatha of

Ui)

changes
sing,

^^ to a

That the ya of 2nd fem.

forms

diphthong with the

fatha,
(iii)

and the
is

alif

maqsura drops

out.

There
[n the

an exactly similar one in 3rd and 2nd fem. plu.

{iv)

3rd and 2nd masc. plural the


(au).

wau forms

a wau-

diphthong
(

v) The student should

now spend some


(i.e.

time comparing and


...1

contrasting the three types presented


10.

in

and

and

.;_._).

Give the passive (the same for


jl'-^Li:-

all

three classes).
>

jLi^_
- 9 >

.0

288
11.

What do you

observe

What

is
is

the reason

We
The

observe that the passive

very similar to the active of

fatha verbs,
reasofi

( 8 above), but distinguished by the servile

for the similarity of the permutations

is

that the

final letter is alif


12.
Is

maqura

in

each case.

there any special form for the


;

Madar
hope

No, various forms are taken

^U j

^\^':>

call, petition;

jA^ pardon
Vocabulary 123,
(a)

L^ J

good pleasure.

to

kneel

j^V
>

l^-

to raid

3>.

'>
Ui
lit

to

hope

to

approach

to

grow

A^-ij

L^

to

pardon

(b)

to flow, run

^J^

^^j>.

to pluck, gather

^^^
^-.j^

^^?*

to give to drink ^^'J

^^

to build

^)
L>

to suffice

u^" l/^
^Jp j

to

weep

L^-Vi

(c)

to

be pleased

f^j
c!^_>"

to fear

L^^c^-'H.

(.5^-^

to

be ashamed ^'iii

to perish

l5-*

to meet, find

J^l

to

remain

L>^i

(JH

Exercise 12B
1.

a,

2.

The mind grows like the plant. As for her, she knelt on her knees, and prayed
:

to

God.

3.

4.

Let both of them (113 9) grow together until the harvest. And when he found one pearl, great of price, he went and
sold
all

he had and bought


:

it.

5.

The
that
It is

gazelle said

'That which
for

despised saved me, and

which
clear to
is

hoped
{lit.

(requested) destroyed me.'

6.

not hidden from) owners-of-minds that the


Correct by Eaercite 123
b.

Creator

Almighty.

(on page 291.)

'

289

Lesson 124.
Give examples of each of these three types
in the Subjunctive.

y-^
>9 -

:^

:^^
}0 ^

cnSs^o

l^^-t'

u^^-^

U^^

<)

L>^-^
1.

0.

U^^j
",

L^'i (^)
".

'

^"^ J

^J
2.

L^->
the three types together
I

By comparing

we observe
of (<-j
)

(O

that the vcau of (


fatha,

and the

?/a

both take

the

or

other distinguishing
;

mark

of the subjunctive,

without any difficulty


{ii) that in the

masc. plu. (also in the 2nd f em. sing, and in


the

the dual),

nun
;

is

apocopated, as always happens

with the subjunctive


(Hi) the retention of the
3.

nun

in fem. plu.

agrees with 30

(c).

Why

is

the vowel of the subjunctive not observable in (


alif

?- ) ?

Because

maqura

is,

after
:

all,

form of
:

alif,

and cannot

carry any vowel (compare 1/


4.

6 with 52

4).
:

Give the Jussive of the same three verbs


>0 X

> -

^>'*

-:

> ^

>^.
)9 ^

'^^.
}% -

^^
>^
"^

^'^<.

^
>

'.

j.^
>
^

y'f

^^

>'.^

i^'

C.^

'^

:^i

en.

290

dl.

dl:

cn>

\^z
dij
-

LsC:}

ic:
fr

dij

''0

U^^7
, '.
'-

0)f J

r-.*. ^:^j

i>7

5.

Wliat

is

the great distinguishing feature of the Jussive

;u'
6,

ij^

the deletion of the


tliree
>

weak
verbs

letter.

Give the Imperative of the same


>o

:::>i(a)
>

<:
.0".
1

d{,
.

(b)

U^jj

(c)

Now

recapitulate Ismul-FcVil (l22

8).

d.lV
^-

(a)

CTi:
oL-s^i J
8.
A-.4^1

iJi;

(b)

c>l J

(c)

OLr

"^1

"the

coming things" or "the coming ones."


c-^i
'^

Ks\
'

Indef

^
J^'S/lDef:
40, for

'cJi:ri\
9.

Oi

LfVl
y y

Missionary students should study Isaiah ch.


of

examples

Weak Verbs
a.

used

in Scripture.

Then

revise 122

124.
UUII ^J^

Exercise 124

Write the Arabic, Sing, and


of the following verbs
flow, pardon,
;

Plu.,

Masc. and Fem., of

to

fear,

weep, kneel, be ashamed,

be pleased, throw,
Correct 124
a.

call, build.

Exercise 124

b.

by classifying under

7, a, h, c.

iJxerctse 124.
(J
'

To be studied with
'

the Lexicon,
'>'^'^.

^'

^ LT^'^y o^

""iS" ij-^

h ^'^J ^^

^j*

'^

'

Translation

Hon grew old and weak and had no longer any power over the wild beasts, and so he wished to scheme He pretended to be sick and took for himself in order to live. refuge in one of the caves. Whenever one of the wild beasts came to visit him he killed and ate him inside the cave. One day a fox came to him and he stayed in the door-way and saluted him saying "How are you, O King of the Beasts ?" The Lion said "Why do you not come in 'Father of the little fortress?'" The Fox said "Sir, that is exactly what I had decided to do until I saw many foot-marks coming into the cave, but I do not see even one foot-mark coming out again." The meaning of this story is that a person should hot rush

Once upon

a time a

into a matter without taking time to consider

it.

(The Arabic

nick-name given
Exercise 123
b.

to the

Fox

is

an allusion

to his sagacity).

(After Lesson 123

page

288),

'C.{/\p.^^^yl/^^

(N)

What
a ya.
i.

are

Lesson 125. "DOUBLY WEAK Verbs"?


letters
i.

Verbs whose radicals contain two weak


consisting of hamza, wau, and ya.

e.,

a ivau

and
be

(There are also a very few examples of verbs trebly weak,

e.

One example
?

will

given at the end of this lesson),

How
They
(a)

do Arab Grammarians classify these verbs


class

them as

<JaA\ (wrapped, or complicated)


i.e.,

thus
to ya

jjjX

^Ji*aS

(Lafif-joined)
to fold

having wau adjacent

Exs

up

ijj^^ (Sj^

to

be strong
;

(Sj\ (Sj^

(b)

^)jAa IJ&A] (Lafif-Separated

having wau and ya apart)


J^.
^1)

Exs

to guard,

keep

J^
^Jj

to

be adjacent, to follow closely


126,

We shall,
3.

in

Lesson

study the classes of verbs containing

hamza and one weak letter. What, in brief, is the method


Class
(a)

of treating classes (a)


its

and

(b)
;

has

its final
its

ya defective, but
as

wau

quite strong
(c
f.

Class (b) loses

wau
^

an Assimilated verb

Lesson
:

13)

and also
4.

its

ya
o

in the Jussive as a
'^^

Defective verb (124


^^p'

4).

jc-^ui

of

(^y^j (S^^

f^^^^

c;.>
=

'v>
*

lr>
^'^.>

ir>

b>
-'

c^>
::::,>

"

i;>
^

>
Vf
'^.y
^

^lli

of ^^y.>^

^y

*7o he stvoncf^

Ijoy
>

Cy
U:jy
r'-/
*

<

~m6.

Aj>rjl of ^^^^

^)o
C_,kr
I',

;',

>1
A
-

e ^

0'

01 >w
.k;

Mj

C .kr
^

>1
c$y
0^

fJ>II
X

of

(^y.

^ ^

l/^iT
0^

U
J ^iu

^/J
e ^

8.

^Vl

Ol>j

l',ll

^M
O

CJJ
9

iVyl

C/JI

L$yj

Let us
^

now

turn

also Defective.
^

to Class (b) which are Assimilated and Give the Past, comparing with 122.
e

'y.
S5''*-..

l3j

IJj
-'

Ji
^ e -^

0^3

-;'.'

0J3
0^:*J

l:J :'->

U'^

r^-

LJ'j

U
10.

For the pjUall one example of ^3'j>^

will

suffice.

Why

Because the lexicon shows that they are formed


u2r
i.ir
1*1)

alike.

L.

3'

II.

When
That

the servile letter

is

deleted to form the Imperative will


?

there be only one letter in the verb


is

so

but a ha

is

sometimes

affixed.

Learn both ways

u^
12.

Li
to the "trebly

(<)

What happens
It is

weak" verb
,

^j

"to take refuge"?


first

inflected exactly as

^"J^

except that in the

person
:

of the present tense the

two

alifs

form a madda (see 104

3).

c/i.--

A-

^3^
u

if

or,/
Exercise 125
I.

3//
a.
(

/
=
[Long]
live the King).
!

God

save the King


!

2.

Long

live

the

Queen

3.

Success to our native land


its

4.
5.

The

birds of

the air used to take refuge in


^

branches.
6.

She wrestled

with him, but did not overcome him.


follows
it (this).

Another chapter

7,

ye

who have

believed, guard yourselves


fuel is

and your families


will 'out,*

[against] a fire

whose

men.

8.

Truth

and
b.

will not be suppressed.

Exercise 125

>"

Jlj

'^jtU

(e)

L^uVl Ji ^/ir
(V)

*Ol

'jjA>

o;ir (0
(^)
^^'"^

'^<:Ji^\ \) ly-T^ii'l ^r) t

'j^'S^

<A>


1.

295

verbs?
or ya.

What

are the other

Lesson 126. "DOUBLY WEAK"


a

Those containing a hamza, and also


three types
fa,
;

wau
;

They
a

are of

(a) like

3/ji d
;

to turn

which have

hamzated

and are also "hollow"

they accordingly follow the laws

of lessons 104
(b)

and

115.

Those
Those

like \jst

AV
I

to

come

(*!>l!l

j^-f-'J

^^=rO'
(j^^^J j^*^)'

(c)

like

JCJ

and J^ C

to refuse

They refused
2.

to return to their lessons.

^^*^jj:>J} ^3^^\ o' ^^I


to return
?

What
The
(c./.

are-the principal parts of <-Jj^;,V^

3rd masc. being

^1

for

^jl

the second

is

C^\

C^\

'

etc.,

Hollow

verb,

Lesson
>
-^^

115).
,
. .

The
dj^j

present being ^>j^|, the jussive

is

^^j^ and the Imp

'^^

JIT

*
:

I
i

^.j

"to turn, or return,"

is

similarly treated.

The Nouns
3.

of

Agent are
to the

^
\\jLi

and

JI"

What happens

weak verbs with hamzated lam


;

These are of three sub-divisions

\^S iK^ with middle wau


alif.

\^^

i:U-

middle ya

and

-t

Ci middle
(^ j is
'

Their chief
(see

parts are

shown
^-i

in this table, to

which

added

below)

>wi

J^l
e ^

^>

^Nl
,ra.

tM\
j^^i
-tlJ
^ >

^.Ul

f^^ll

J^ll

^M
a'_^
.

1-

^p.
^

v*c^

"J:
^y-

uu ^^ uu
--

^--

>

^
^^

dr

*u.
>

*L^

i^

^,

u
^
*l^

U
J

K\t.s

*U)
^

.Li
*

-^^'i^

^-

^.iJ

v'lj

iSJ.

t^V.

^^^

lib

4.

290

While the above


'^^^
use,
^ ^>-

will
fully

be generally su^cient,

give the verb

more

on account of

its

exceedingly
it

common

and also the tendency

to error in spelling

:^W(l)
\j\

U^

LTi:

li
^
e

ki;
U'::

Zjt

u
^

r-^

C'jljall

(^)
'J".

0^.

'J"
^o?^

'JT
^,>ll

^,U1 (^)

>
c;^'

^^

>
t^
:^-yi

(.)

>

ens-

-7

U.

This imperative
5.

is ?io^ wsec?,

JUT

(87

5)

being substituted for ^\

it.

Is

the passive
;

1.^

in actual use, similarly to

Yes

as

it

is

a Prepositional Passive, only understandable


a preposition, the
mas':, sing,
i^^>.

when read with


used.

is

invariably

Thus : She was brought

l^

they
^^>-

were brought

^,

i^

Hell was brought (Qur'an)

^^,

See the passive of


fainted
or
6.
;

297

with
Jp:

^^Js-

"to

cover,"
lit,

aJ.^

^ti

he

X.^ls-

^JlI

she fainted

"was covered over her")


ilj^j

we may use
there

I'^l.'i^.'^c.l

(c./.

dLi
?

Well done

).

Is

any
:

really Irregular
is

Verb

Yes, one
(^\)

and that one

as

much used

as

any

in the language.

to see,

ought, by the rules, to form pjUaii thus ^^1^ but,


it

as a matter of fact,

rejects that alif-hamza altogether, form-

ing f^j

instead,
is

The

Preterite

^\j

is

similar to

^j

The Imperative
(Indicative)
" ^

not used

J^\ being used

instead.

jj^^

jl^.J''*

0^^.

Jy
^J
^

ovy
C^V
(Buhj.
^
'

c^'.l

and Passive)
>

J^>ci' ^y,aj!S\
^ >

ky.
>

cy.y
.>

iVy
iSJ

^i

>

^^
=

{Jussive)

f3>il
-

'v;.

k'J

k'y.

'Vy

Kj
"^^

^^
''
1

J
jl

J
{Imp, not use d):
'

,>
^

^
k'->

O'P

Ijj

/J

(;>


7,

298

^ j.
?

What
It is

is

the specially idomatic use of

used with I

O, to

mean
in

"I

wonder,"

or, Is

it

possible
:

It

is

used
I)
1

principally

Interrogative Sentences

thus,
?

e.

<7.

^
1.

J/**

SyG
a.

Have they met one


:

another,

wonder

Exercise 126

To Arabic

All these affictions will turn to good,

if

God

will.

2. If
3.

you wish

(Past, c.f. 61

2) to

see her,
{Hi.

come with me.


come-with) him you

Then she

said, If

you do not bring


will

do not know what


4.

happen
her,

to you.

When

the

servant

saw

he went running, until he


to him,

reached the king, and he said

O my

master,

come

and look

at

her

so the king went in to her, and

when she

saw him she screamed and swooned.


5.

Creator of heaven and earth and of


invisible.

all

things visible and

6. 7.

Then bring ye
They
said,

a sura of the like of

it

("It" refers to Qur'an).

'Hast thou come to us to turn us from that


in ?*
...

[position]

which we found our fathers

And Pharaoh
(sorcerer)'.

said 'Bring ye to

Exercise 126

b.

me every knowing magician To English


:

4il

il^ jj J^k\

J[ 5jy

^[JJ
-

ol^
^

^^^

(n)

- ^

4i^j^>_

l; -jj:-

% o
^,

L- "(J 'o\

vjui (r)

^
. .

^^0

1.

> ^

UGI U'fr U'i^j

Ce

LuJii Uli^l IJIJ (Y)

299

Lesson 127. DERIVED FORMS OF 'DEFECTIVE:


jjU\
J^.Ail^l

>Uyj

t^ui
^H\
Jj<^l
r-^il
Jj*ii|

^u.
f>i'
5v-

9 3

<Jua

(/^/
c^'jtfi..

2.

.1^

j^

c5jlH

UjyT
J3I

c^Olr

3.

>^r

sh
,3^

>

J^*
>

M
0^

<ii

jVi
,i?

4
5.

i^-

^3 J
^ e

6.

O^J
o

.5^-1

'>^-o

c^'^'
->o

cr^''

7.

^v
^

.%

."%
ci-^V

>

(^^. ;>.^i
^0

^I>i

8.

0-

>

J
I.

j>j
observe in the above table
of all the Derived
?

JvLi

10.

What do you
(a)
(b)

That the past


This
alif

forms ends

in

f^

maq^iira becomes ya in the present,


in the jussive

and

is
;

apo-

copated
(c)

and imperative, leaving kasra

The noun
(Jamma;

of agent ends in tanwin-kasra, as a substitute

for the apocopated ya

which should have borne tanwin-

(d)

The noun
which
is

of object,
;

having fatha, takes

alif

maqura,

indeclinable
of
II.

(e)

The madar
(See 73
:

(Defective) always takes the form

JLiT

5). III.

substitutes alif for the

weak

letter

(c./.

74
:

7).

Madars

IV., VII., VIIL,

X. are similar to one another

after

the servile alif the weak letter becomes

hamza

(revise 77:4,5)

The Madarof V. and


substituting
(f
) I

VI. apocopates the

ya of .\-^ [S^ J

c.f.

Jl_^ and /J'^J^


(e.

Some

of the pseudo-passives are not usable

g. VII).


2.

300

(c./ 63

Useful examples of jliCil^-.!

:7foot,and88

ll)

are

^J"^*

a prayer-place

ie. g.

a school chapel).
etc.)

^>t-I> a curve, or bend (railway,

3-

Vocabulary,

including words in the table

to be transfigured

cj"^^
(^-^^-^
Six-"-

ij^
(^-^
iy^

to

pray

to eat

noon-meal

to deliver, save

to take supper
^ to mutually agree

iS^*"^ lS^'^
^^ ^

to clarify

(^^*^

c^*^

^\ j\.) ^\ j
n"
^
^

to

comfort

(5

>. c^>

to

come consecutively

u"
-^0

J> J^^

L>^y
to

pay attention

(to)

i^S) (Jl^^

Ju

to curve

lS-^^I
^0
-

^
^ -0
,

;
to cry
'

aloud

(S

"^^"^

iS '^^

to be decided,

end

^izij) ^^^-^^

7-

to imitate

to

be disclosed

1>cIj
^O ^

1^
^0
v

"

>

to be guided (by God)

to blandish
1

~;(s

^^-r

c5-^-^J
to execute
'

to be content (with)

^I>sj ^i-'^
''
..

to seek to

go far (research)

"

..

to fulfil (a

vow)

c^^-^-lc^*-^;
(J^JLJ (J^-^*"
0-0
'

to take possession

to

show

^0^0
^..<^
to please

to consider rich, to dispense with

}.^
is

^***5^

4.

Exercise 127

intended to be an exercise
all

in

Weak

Verbs;
If it

students are not expected to memorise


takes

the words.

much

time,

do one paragraph.

Exercise 127.
(Isaiah 40
:

301

1-17).

>..

iX
c->J
lilc
I

j-^

^j V>*V ^^j ^ W^ ^"-^


.

j^^'

^^

Ji^S-

/yl*-3

]a^->- w/*;3I^)

U-ua-..w

/T^*-^

^;*^i-^

u^*^^^**^i

Dli

.^^U jr\5

'Cjy^ /JSC"

05

<

'rr^

j"^

l>

^ 3^
\

il^-J

^^

^^^^

^::c ^^J

l;^

a1c>

c^ ^j

A^.
^^

^ji^ ^itj\
^

>o

OUi'jJ

:>y'.j>

^^^l

Al^'-

j JU^-^'

A^-

^b;^.

"^"t^

'Ji v.

ji V'l. 'ci^""^'! J jca'ii Jt,li

oy/j ^^-j^i

;.i'y

302

Lesson 128. NUN OF CORROBORATION.


1.

Having now completed our study


(o^*)
of both

of the accidence or inflection


all

sound and non-sound verbs,

we have

to

stud)^- before completing

Syntax

(j^)

is

the remainder of

Broken Plurals and of Derived Nouns.


there remain two lessons, the
first

But, before

doing

this,

of

which

will be occupied

with the "Nun of Corroboration,'* and the second with "Verbs


of Praise and Blame."
2.

What
It is

is

this

Nun

of Corroboration (^>3l) oi^Ul


it

j^

<?

a letter affixed to the verb to render

more emphatic, and


the lam which

thus can often be translated by "verily,"

or, if

should then be prefixed to the verb

is

translated "verily," the

nun may be rendered, "surely."


translate
it,

When
all "

used in the negative,


:

"never," or "not at

In Lesson 29

(c), I

called

this state of the verb the Energetic (or

Emphatic) Mood, that

being the usual term employed by European writers.

The

Arab Grammarians do not speak


study
is
jl5"1:II

of

any "mood," but simply


(This Arabic word

jy

as a sub-section of the verb


*

the

madar of

jS^\

Conj.

II.,

to affirm, or corroborate,

and

is

etymologically
3.

jS'i'

but usually written

jS/

).

What
ative,

parts of the verb can have ai^bl


(incl.

jy

affixed

Only the ^jUil


and only
if

Jussive of Prohibition)
is

and the Imper-

special emphasis

required, as after the use

of an oath.
4.

What two
It

forms
a

may

this

nun take

may have

shadda and fatha ly jJsJ "he


is

will surely strike,"


;

in

which case the nun

said to be

^*

heavy
is

or
'*kJ^

it

may
light

consist of a single nun with sukun, which

called

jy

nun.
5.

How
jiS^yJ\

is it

affixed to the verb

The verb always (except as

in 6

and

8)

takes fatha before


lost a letter

jy

but the apocopated

weak

verb,

which has

before sukun, naturally gets back

its letter

now

that the sukun

303
*

J
vr

has yielded to fatha

thus

O^
;

>

Do

not throw at

all.
?

What happens
(a)
If it is

to

any barrier between the radical and nun


it

an

alif

remains
is

from
left,

jLlSvo
but an

we

get

jLj;5vj

(b)

The feminine nun


t,

also

alif is inserted

before

thus from A^-^^**


of plural,

we

get
is

jUxI^"
this

(c)

The wau

etc.,

dropped before

nun

thus

instead of j_^-.JSwJ
is

we

write ^-^^^^-J

because the

damma

sufficient indication of the plural,

and

to avoid 2 sukuns.

(d)

The

"light

nun cannot be used

after the long alif, etc., in

dual, etc.
7.

What vowel

precedes J^fji^\dy
(a)

Usually fatha, but in 8


8.

and

(b)

we

find

damma, and

kasra.

What happens
(a) It

to the defective

verb taking fatha

in ^ jUll

takes

wau-damma

for the plural

jjl^

retaining

its

fatha over the second radical.


(b)

Ya-kasra for 2nd fem. sing

cX^

retaining

its

fatha

on second
9.

radical.

How

is

^iJdl

jyJ\

vowelled

Usually with fatha, but

it is

given kasra in the dual and in the

feminine plural, both of which we have noticed above.


10.

What
It is

is

the

lam which usually accompanies

it

.?

the lam of qasam (oath) to


is

mean

"verily."

Observe that

its

vowel

fatha, not kasra.

11.

Learn

this

example

^Va\\

:J
.
1

3>3 i>J
.

.0

>

'> > .A

.J

" >

Oj^'
12.

And

these
>

(a)
i

y^S
>

(b)

...:ll

0^

>v,

o>
.

>

Exercise 128
It is
:

304

TJRAlSlSLATION.
related that a worshipper once started to pray
that he

he got as

words "Thee do we worship," the thought then came was worshipping sincerely, but he heard an inner voice [lit. a voice sounded inside) "You are a liar, you only worship created beings." He repented and separated himself from other men and once more started to pray. This time when he reached as far as the words "Thee do we worship," he the voice sounded "It is a lie, for you worship your wife" pray. arose and divorced his wife and once more began to When he got as far as the words "Thee do we worship," the voice sounded "You lie, for you only worship your wealth" he bestowed his wealth (gave it away as voluntary arms) and once more started to pray. When he reached the words " Thee do we worship" the voice sounded "It is a lie, for you worship your clothing" he arose and gave it away except that which was indispensable. Once more he started to pray, and this
far as the
to

him

time

voice sounded

when he reached "You are

the words
right, for

ing this time." Anyhow


true or not].

"Thee do we worship" the you are sincerely worshippGod knows best [whether the story be

Jl

Uj CU riJ J
I

P-^

^' <:>

i V U
li

^j

IV.

^^^ "^A:*
^-^ ^^1^
^^

'Lic'l

4i

J ili^T'^j^ Ul "^^

I!.)

j:.J-x^ j

"^s^y

305

Lesson 129.

VERBS OF PRAISE & BLAME, AND WONDER.


1.

What
'"*JJIj

are the

first

called in Arabic

^JlJI
is

JUi

I.

Now we know
"Ijo
?

the

word

^J<a

and the word

""^S
2.

the madar of
are there
of each
;

"IS

to censure, or

blame.

How many
Only two

the verb expressing approbation


:

is

^5

usually written

with the sukiin as shown


but
is

it

may

take a

feminine
is

^^
(or
is

not otherwise inflected.


is").

It

means, "he

good"

"how good
is

second verb with similar

meaning
3.

ijli which
o

quite indeclinable.
.?

What

verb expresses censure

1j^) which takes

JU-^ but no
is."

other inflection.

This verb
is

may
iC

be
4.

trajislated,

"how bad

An

occasional alternative
?

What Rule

rules govern the use of these verbs


i.

Tlie subject or (agent) of the veib


in

"JiJ

or

'y^>

should either have the article or be

construction with a noun

which has

it,

or
is,

it

may be

the

word U before another word.


Nominative Case.
y

This subject

of course, in the

Exs

Good
Bad
is

is

the slave, Zaid

^ j J,!^
"^1.5^^

"^.J

what you have done


is

f^Jo
in the

Rule

2.

If

an indefinite noun

used, this

must be put

Accusative,

and

is

called

j^^jn to

an understood
explained
Jb

pronoun.

This accusative, tamyiz,

will

be
:

fully
(

in
)

Lesson
-^
;

177.

One example
"Zaid
3.

will suffice
it

now
is

^o^j

3
is

"fJ*>

^^ J "^
I

Sterling translates
it

"He

good man,
59
:

Zaid"

but

render

is

good as-a-man."
subject of
>

io.f.

4, 5).

Rule

The

and^^^^
Jb
'^

may

itself

be

in the

masc.

fem, dual or plural

Jl^^j

0^^}^^^y^,

-^* ^J^ ^siljj


it

Rule

4.

followed by

Ka

combines with

^)L5 U*

1 1

5.

306

What

else

is

to

be studied in this lesson


,

^
'

Verbs of Admiration or Wonder


6.

>^^l

jld

How many measures jV^l (a; II Two


:

are there
4,

^Ji
take this form
:

7-

Measure

I,

can any verb


active

Most

triliteral

verbs can

certainly

those

in

UJ

expressing qualities, but not those signifying colours, because


the form for colour
8.

is

of this measure, c./ jJs>'\ j^>-\

What
is

function

is fulfilled

by the word

This word

an indefinite noun which takes the place of subject, for


J.d
I

the verb

governs the following noun


is

in the accusative.

How
How How

generous
beautiful

Zaid

Ujj
^

^^
^
I

0^0 ^

%,

is

the view
is

^klj

'\^ U
I

good (goodly) he
gentle (kind) she

AlJU
l^ikj

G
T*

How
How
9.

is

excellent his father


is

is

oli

l^i

How

Measure

II.
o

used

That

is

Imperative,

and the

thing-wondered-at

<:^,.^>clll is

put in the genitive after ^^


l^
>
e

How

generous she

is

5
e

How How
How How
10.

good (goodly) he
wise they are
!

is

\,

^ ^iCiJb _^ *Lla5

excellent Zaid

is

strong his father


the verb of

is

<^,

t,

^j^Jil

Can

wonder express wonder


in

in the past
I

fYes by
;

inserting

jlS

Form
!

between
3"*^^'

and J^i

Thus

How

excellent was Zaid

^3

O^^U


Exercise 129
1.

307

how
glorious
is

a.

To Arabic

O Jehovah
name

(Lord) our Lord (God)


!

Thy

in all the earth

How

sweet are thy dwelling places,

O
2.

Lord
the

of

Hosts

And
lifted

Lord

their

God

will save

them

in that day, as a

flock his people,

rather,

as the stone (jewel) of the

crown
is
!

up

(i.e.

as a standard) over his land.

How

good He

And how
3.

beautiful

He

is

(Zech. 9

16, 17).

How

happy would have been

his lot (luck)

had he

died,

having as much
4.
5.

glory as Alexander the great had.

Al-Hariri said in praise of the dinar

'How

precious

it is

!'

And do
of

not count those


[i. e.

who have been

killed in the path


are] alive

God

"Holy War") as dead, rather [they

with their Lord.


6.

The Professor was


tutors

invited to a banquet which a

crowd of

and guests attended.


b.

Exercise 129

To English

^^.-io>

jaiSC^Vjo G ^5^rj ^^
I

4I

oCo y
I

<!i:^ jiiL

ijD

(r)

jL/ji

^J^

IbJj^^'

'

^^5

(t)

^^'^c^j uj*^*^
:

^>

J>^^

U^iz.:^

}^'^

ill*-

.^

(^)

NOTES on (i) (a) ^r-l "^" c^" ^"^y used (b) We have before remarked that the vocative
''^^

before the definite article ^\


is
:

placed in the Accusative


3 (6).

when

it is

the antecedent of the Comtruct.

See l8o

A.

308

130.

EXAMINATION PAPER
To Arabic
1.
:

Said the Khalifa

"Get up and go with

me

to visit the city.*

2.
3.

Repent

and ask forgiveness of God.


take supper with

You must
It is

me

to-night.
I

4.

true that the


to

man
it.

related the story to me, but

did not

pay attention
5.

How

excellent that
the girl

man

is

6.

When

heard Hasan's story,

she cried out and

swooned.
7.
8.

She came
Sell

as for him, he did not come.


hast,

what thou

and give

to the poor, then

come and

follow me.

B,

To English

oi:^^l

S^\ '^V ''4'J'l

(r)

iso

--

-i,

^ ^

Jt.^.Ccijp'OjAj

(V)

C.

Give the Noun of Agent (Jplijl^i) both masc. and


(sing,

fern,
:

and

plural)

and meaning, from the following verbs


(J
ci-?^

L^^^J

f^^

->^->

V^"

309

131.

PART
1.

F//.

-Lesson

ORIENTAL PROVERBS.
Knowledge
to a
2.
3.

in the breast
like a

is

like the

sun

in the sky,

and

'brains*

man

is

crown

to a king.
is

The testimony

of actions

better than the testimony of men.


his

Man
If

(consists) of his

two smaller [organs], his heart and

tongue.
4.

people acted justly the judge would

rest.

Actions are only [reckoned] by intentions (= "Take the will


for the deed").

6.

Do
(

not level the hjgh with the low, but the low with the high
*'Don't level
is

down

but level up").

7.

promise

a debt to the freeman.


to

8.

Cut your coat according

your cloth,

{lit.

According

to

the size of your bed stretch your foot).


9.

"Impossible with

men

is

possible with God."

10.

Most

fire

comes from small sparks ("Despise not small things").

JUJl

l:>\l^

j^ '^^^ JUilt ;:>l^

(y)

^131 7-l^V ^IJI

iJwJl_jl

(t)
(e) (A)
(v)

^Ul DUVl
dl)ip^jjudlj:1^3 !^

Icl

JUL >l^l jL J. ^\}\ JUI ,U H


Jc
(a)
rjj>

i\ xj^

^s^)\

Jj^^ ^^^^A

J\:}\

Jama

(\)

310

Lesson 132.

MORE BROKEN PLURALS,


1.

In

Lessons 132

138,
we

which may be sub-divided

to suit the

student's time,

shall study the rest of the

measures taken
:

by

the "Broken Plural."


I

We
I

said

in
i)L*i

Lesson 49
I

that the

four measures Jd

Ui Jli

and

are called "Plurals

of Paucity," because they

may

be used for things numbering

three to ten, provided that a second form exists for

numbers

above
2.

ten.

If

no second form, then the


?

first

one does for both.

Which
Jl*5
I

of these has been studied

in

Lesson 50

that leaves us Jii

iJL5

and

Uxd

3.

Learn

this vocabulary, Singular


-^^

and Plural

together.
>>** ^>

Form
"^
:.
1

Vi

foot, leg

>v >y
*
>

A>0

month
face,

^'

/Jo

fore-arm

page

>o t

>-

tongue
bucket
J-.i
'^

oU

soul

%
^^
Jo

letter (alphabet)

0^
^^ot:
/^>0

hand
palm
4.
It

Jo

eye
'

cnc-l

cn^

of

hand

^c:^\

t^
ld

line

^j^

will

be observed that the words on the right have their


but two
of

singular on the measure

the others are

on

JUi and one on


o-i.

Ui
?

5.

How
Jb

is Jo

explained

has really lost a

letter,

which

is

restored in the attributive


the

(Lesson 144) thus


a

Is^'^l
is

manual

restored letter being

"weak" one,

it

represented in the plural of "hand" by


indefinite^

tanwin kasra when


defined, thus

but

it

is

written in full

when

^^^i}

(their hands).

6.

311

(palms)
?

How

do you explain

cJl.S

The second and

third radicals being alike,

"doubling"

/^U-^J

takes place and kJaaS


7.

becomes lJl5
?

What

is

the next measure to be learnt

AX-i

There are very few nouns using


could (and often do) take j^jii
^^0
# -

this plural,

and

all

of these

instead.

^
brother
a

youth

\r\
^ ^^0
^f.
.

L^*

>>
A>
.

f'
- >

woman
8.

youth

"(.%

What about
oT^ldoes

S^

not, itself,

make
^^
^
1

a plural

olJ^ or
?

'^C-J

is

used for

it.

9.

Is

the third measure

a)l*5

more used

Very much more.

bed, bedstead

wing
arms, armour a deity
"^li:All

rays (of
a place

un)

shoes
^j;

an example
^^
a loaf
Xa':^^
-i

/>>
I

building

\^,

'

^U.

(^Pj

.^

medicine
1

answer, reply
question
to the final letter of the last four singulars
?

valley
10.

What happens
Take
^l-^>

as an
in

example of the others


Lesson 123 ^x.
to

this last letter is really


to build
it

^
11.

as

we saw

^1

in the

madar

it is

permutated
is
is

hamsa, but
all

in the plural

reverts to ya.
?

What
plural

noticeable in

but one of the above

That

this

used for singulars having a long vowel as penultimate.

^0}
I.

312

Why
and

Lesson 133.
Our next measure
Because
it

l*d

is

easily learnt.

consists entirely of nouns of colour


is

and defect
>^*i

(or

adornment) whose masc. sing,

on

Ui

fern.

Turn

to 58

4 (b) andTevise the examples given.


:

Then
leper

learn the following

'o-V

blue
>

palsied

bald

&
^>'
the plural of ^Jcl\
I

,.0

black
^0
>

\ :>^-a.i

red

'>i
'^c^

crooked

green

2.

What

is

(white)

By our Rule

^^)

should become

^^\

^u^'

^Y ^^y ^^
i^^\

Exception, the yaovercomos the


3.

damma and
Ud

forms

Whence do we
Almost
entirely

get the plural measure

from singulars

in

<)Li

Thus
its

<Ja>-

lecture, or

the Friday mosque-sermon, on dropping

throws

its

fatha

back upon the second


a copy (of book)
^.-^.

radical,

thus

^^!a>-

canal

1/
^^\

chamber
duration, period

^^c.

suspicion

fT

knee
,v>

IT:,
^^
.)^A> -X'

'-ir-,
r}

pearl
^'1
"

sentence

aU^
^-^ >

nation

r'
t)3'^

aJ

picture

J_,^

0^^

dynasty, power
a drop, point

chapter
opportunity

Li;

313
>-

4.

But
to

is

a!j"^

of the measure il3

No

this

word,
1

now used

mean

nation or "power"
is

ie.q.

(^^n-50 Jjii^ The Great


There are a few others
..

Powers)
'^^-'.

an exception
^
fi^'

to the rule.
^ ^

0,
^^'

VJ' r ^jy
5.

^^^'^^

(5^
Is

/T
it

*^0^ ^ village.

The

next plural form


in
4.ii

is

Ij*^

analogous
for plural.

to

\iA ?

Yes

singulars

usually take

ld

manner
service

of life

a piece

wise

maxim

"r^.

tii
^;.'.

division
tale, story

needle

-4

u^
;

pond, pool

-;r-.
and
Ui as plural

6.

Some European grammars now


forms
:

give

\*i

Others do not

why

The Arab grammarians


plurals,

call

these

"Collectives,"

not real
:

and they are

correct, as

we

shall

shew

in

Lesson 139

3.

Lesson 134.
1.

In

this
;

lesson

we
a)Lj3

shall
.

learn

three

new
in

plural

measures
beside
^

aLj^

"A.iA

and

Have they anything


?

common
is

the appearance of their forms

The
the

first

two have, for

their distinctive use

for Jc-UII

-,-*-l

first

for participles of three generally sound radicals, used as


;

descriptive adjectives
participles having a
2.

while

illji is

entirely reserved for active

weak
a)l*3

final letter,

wau

or ya.

(See 122

8).

Some examples
labourer
treasurer

of

y\i
A>

guilty

f'

6J^

student, seeker

ul

Lii'u

seller

scribe

r-r

IJir

3.

314

But

J"

I)

(seller)

has a hamza

Yes, but

it is

permutated ya, from

^^.jo

iU

Similarly,

the

plural of Jol^ (written X.*-

a chief) is o^l**

^
4.

"^.

Study these examples of

<li

adulterer

j'3

raider

>
)

sinner

judge
1

shepherd
pastor

'
jr.
if

archer
inviter, caller

governor

propagandist
rebel

naked
A>

.!>
>

>

'su
if

5,

But

how

is

ol^J on the measure


that
its

Ali

Remember

final radical
Ic-^

was

ya, Ja^^^izS

and

that of
A-^ai

pis was wau,


(in

^c-ol

Instead of writing

S^c^

the plural) the

weak

letter is written alif in

each case.

6.

Is

the third measure,


little

U^i much used


it

Very
a

indeed, but

may be
a cat
;

y ^ ^

A^

noted.
<JL^i 7-

Examples

l^j

-r

:>J

monkey

o^y^'r

Li elephant.

Lesson 135.
I.

What

is

characteristic of the measures

\a and

Jli

Both are plurals of the Noun of Agent Jdill


former
is

^1

but

the

much

less

used than the


e>t,\

latter.

Examples of
-be**

asleep

^
absent

c u
*.

worshipper
kneeling

T'

'^-


2.

315

^,ur

Examples of JUi
ruler

'^\^

reader
leader

4
y^>

r^^L^J^

infidel

artisan

""^

servant
U

rL
t]i^
"'jlk';

deputy, (MP.)
visitor

) * >

workman
overseer

>u

3.

How
'^l^J
->

do you account for the

last four

comes from
>
'^.'

i^? (to read),


^
';.

the last letter being

hamza

^>

^^aj

^15 (to lead), the

med.

letter

being wau

<^

^y:ij^\)
^ > " ^

(to

be deputy) the med. being

wau

^?

4.

Our next form


It

is

\i what

is its

characteristic

is

chiefly used
:

for adjectives
5)

"assimilated to the passive


L*3

participle" (see 58
5.

on some such form as

Examples

of

lJ
^

thrown down
(in wrestling)

wounded
killed
i.

Stung
hired

V'l

sick

LS^y
1 ^^1

dead

Jr
j^^^sC
Alli

prisoner

drunk
6.

^o\j^
:

drowned
?

J>

Measures

and

ii^j

what of these

They

are omitted by the best native


to Jl*3

grammarians as being

merely intensive "supplements"

and J^*j 67 and

49.

Examples

jlic?- r- ^:>c:-

stone

<>^^C'-r-

"Ic paternal uncle.

1.

316

alif

Lesson 136.

We

come

to plural

measures affixing

and nun.

These are
?

ij%i and

j%i
il*^

What

is

the

first

thing to note about j^Ui

That the four words


plural
2.

learnt

in

Lesson 132 as forming one

in

all

take another in j^li

Give examples of these and of others.


^

wall (inclosing)
large fish
rod, stick
>
1

brother

youth

woman
^ u'"^)
'j^

fire

youth
eagle
raven, crow

}*
^
,-'.

crown
^

f^^

neighbour

0'-^^
y

^.U

V^^
?

3.

Is

there any difference between ^^>-[


;

^^id ji^>-l

Yes
4.

2j>-\

means brothers
j'^ni

(jlj>-i

brethren (of a community).

Give examples of

monk
brave
intimate, friend

horseman

tr-/*

trJi

lamb
rod, stick

Si^
^

JC^.^23

,1^
,..^A>^

cross

boy

black
blind
5.

young man

Lu
1;

^'
is
Sij^M

town, country
}

What

noticeable about the last two

:>j^\ takes the plural

for colour, but also (ji^^*

(Sudan

= country

of the blacks)

and ^C'\ takes

^^

and

jL^

317

6.

We

conclude this lesson with jLi which

i..-.

is

a form of quadri-

syllabic plural.

What

is

observable

The shadda upon


concubine
wilderness

the ya in both singular

and

plural.

Exs

chair, throne
y

J,

upper chamber

ll\j^

7-

i*l*^ a

ifra^/,

is

a familiar household

word;

it

is

derived from

Ou^W China, Oriental

trays being of porcelain.

Lesson 137.
1.

We

have

all

but finished our measures of "Broken Plural."


in

There remain a group of three which have much


viz
:

common,

(Ji^(Jt*i and
(a)

JUd

and then

finally Ull-i

2.

JU^

ordinary form, clearly showing the origin, as

^ll)

(b) a special
3.

form as

in
?

bl^*

gifts.

How

is

L|jut

explained
is

The singular

like

<)-X*
is is

that
a
z/a

is,

on the feminine form

A)Ld

but the lam of the root

which coalesces with the

servile
its

ya

in the

singular but

distinct in the plural,

which writes
LVl

alif

maqsura as long

alif to

avoid ,^

c f.

"he lives,"

which avoids ^V:


4.

(But the sing, of Cljj

angles, is

\j\j)

Examples
sin

of both (a)

and

(b)

(6)

cCu
'ij^

orphan
sorrowful
virgin desert

(a)

J-.

present, gift

J'>
e ^

gift,

offering

t^ji-^

flock, subjects

CiO*^ \y^^
/jisC'

calamity

i%

drunk

-3i85.

What is known
It

of Jli

?
/v?

-0 ^

appears to be a variation of jr*i for the two words

j^LS
It

lazy,

and jl^^C/ intoxicated


a "distributive

which may take


in the

either.

is

used for
one,"
6-

numeral"

case of

^ .^1^

"one by

or,

unique.

What
(a)

singulars form their plural in

JUi
as

Certain words of the measure


-il

^>i

(^^^^

and of

'i%5

as

.>c^

and one or two others


is

all

of these have a

weak

letter for
(h)

which the tanwin kasra


triliteral

a substitute.
IJ
\^
1

Three very common

nouns

and

(j^ j

also adopt this plural without any obvious reason.


7.

Examples

collar-bone

f)
(b)

a claim

(a)

>'.
-"

t5'>'^
0^

night

jg
JUI

y}

judicial opinion

3li

C^^^

people
land, earth
8.

a virgin
a desert
.?

Ji.
1^0

jUw9

What

is

the specially intricate point here


is

That the tanwin kasra

observable only
Indefinite,
is,

in

the Nominative

and Oblique cases of the


the ya.
Tiie defined
:

the Accusative writing

noun

of course, fully declined.

Com-

pare 122

8 but note this difference that the plural in

ij

above

is

quadrisyllabic
Indefinite.

Case.

JQil

Jd

'Nom

ag
jaii

Ace
Obi

jg
if

319

Lesson 138.
SUPPL. TO QUADEISYLLABIC.
I.

What words
(a)

use the measure illUs


originally, even
I

Many words which came

if

centuries ago,

from foreign sources, as ^L**


the Persian
;

a professor, or teacher,

from
if

(b) substantives
letters
letters.
;

and adjectives generally,


relative adjectives,

of of

more than four

(c)

many

when

more than four


Cassar

professor
pupil
A>-

Pharaoh
giant, tyrant
1
A>-

U:>!

philosopher

^
metropolitan bishop
angel

deacon

4*w^L.v*^

tj^\
.0^'

Moor
Nubian, Berber
2.

C?;/.^.

bishop
?

What
The

is

peculiar about this measure

addition of
/^^//

to the usual quadrisyllable


A*

form, and

the

consequent

inflexion

:
it

which

causes

many grammarians

to exclude

from

the quadrisyllabic,

plurals, v^hich are diptotes.


3.

Is

there a "Plural of Plural"

^\
:
^

'1^

Yes, there are quite a number


places

note the following varied ex

O^t"^

r r

hands
sayings

names

(see 136

6)

k''-

'

CC

ifUl.1


What
It is

320

is

the

name

of the final form

called

c^t,4^\,P>llA Ai,.^

Now

Ai-.-^

means

"form" or

"measure," and

9'j-J^^

cJ^-^"^

means

"the last of the plurals.'^

When
name

applied to the real "Plural of P)ural," the reason for the


is

obvious

it

is

however, used

now

in a

general

way

t^

denote what Europeans call the Quadrisyllabic Plural, whether

5.

Can
Yes

the "Plural of Plural" have a regular- ending


;

the regul3.r feminine one,


7-

Tiuis
-r

way, road cl>l?^L

,jj^

^>

^
sings., efc.)

Mention a few quite irregular plurals (from obsolete


Obsolete, or
Plural
fictitious

Sing:

Real Sing:

Meaning.

Obsolete

Aa^
b^b

Lip

))

mouth

tu

))

"^oi;

.c
>>

water

)>

mother
man, person

:.it

>
.1"."

'^IJ

woman
gold coin

^
Fict
:

it

J-./i

5)

ll>"

li'^i

carat
govt, office,

))

i'l^
:

coll.

poems.

Exercise 138^ on the Broken Plural


(1)

Enter up every measure on a distinct page of Vocabulary


note-book
;

some

require several pages.


(not in the

(2)

Take

mixed selection of singulars and plurals


test yourself.

above order) and

Note the singulars which

take two or more plural forms.

321

READING EXERCISE.

jl

I^pU !^^U ol5^j 3^V^

(J^^ (J[
'

*^^V 3 3^,^ J jV

'

\^^

TAe above was

set at

London Univ

TRA.NSLATION.
Exercise 138
:

Al-Rashid's was one of the best of reigns and the fullest of


events

and

the most

maojnificent

and beneficent, besides upon the greater,


of his

covering the greatest extent.


part of
regents.

He

levied taxes
of

the world

and the owner

Egypt was one

No

other Khalifa gathered so


(doctors of canon law)

many

savants, poets

and

legists

Quran-readers, judges,
at the

writers,

boon-companions and singers as gathered

door

of Al-Rashid.
the

Be used
gift

to

bestow upon every one of them


lift

most abundant

and

him up

to the highest rank

also he

was himself

a distinguished taste

man, a

poet, relator of

history

and poetry and sound of


classes

and discrimination, and


!)

was respected by

and masses alikeY^'S'om Original

322

Lesson 139.

THE COLLECTIVE.
1.

What

is

the

meaning
:

of the expression

*>-

^\
^^>.

"noun of plural"

there

is

another
;

name

which

means

"like-plural" (semi-plural)

each of these expressions


is

denotes a "collective," but the latter one


ions from
2.

used for express(see 7 below).

which

"noun of unity" can be formed


?

What

forms

may

the collective take


;

There are three principal ones

\iA

l*dand

l-^i

Some gram-

marians (not the best) even classify these among the "Broken
Plurals."

(Possibly
in

some students have noticed my omission


But see 133
:

of
3.

them

Lessons 132 137.


two.

6).

Take

the

first

Upon measure
Upon
sheep.

\^
\i

we

find

-X&j

a deputation

>^i>

people

>A>.

servants, retinue

and
!

^c
True,

Now

these cannot honestly be called plurals

Ja\j signifies

"One

arriving" as an envoy, but any

number

of single arrivals will not

make up

a deputation

(delegation),

which has altogether


a single

a collective idea

about

it,

Also

^^

\j is

mounted person

or passenger, but
^.^l:^

v_^j

j caravan, has

the collective sense.

Similarly
is

a servant,

has several
is

forms of plural, but aJ^

not one of them.

This word

reserved for the collective idea of "household staff," or "retinue."


4.

The measure

L*^

^^d.5 flour, or fine powder,

is

a collective.

But even

if

this

form were

classified as a plural form, there are only


^j^^>-

two useful

examples : A^c^ slaves and


5.

donkeys.

But

is

there not
I

sort of
}

collective (or plural)


;

formed by
to

adding

to singular

Yes

this

applies principally

the

Noun

ol

Intensity (Lesson

146)

illii

?-

JUi workman

ilU^rJUj> camel-driver;
form
6.
is

^U^tir-

JlV* radish-seller.

This

often used in the colloquial dialects.


is

What
This
is

the ending in

\\

as in

*i^f--^

booksellers?

the collective plural of the attributive in


it

which

is

to

be studied in 144. Suffice


is

to

say here that

when

the attributive

long word
o

it

is

usual to form a "collective" plural by


attributive.
-IJUL-u- 7-

adding
\^
7.
,i

to the
^.1

ya-shadda of the
;

Thus

Moors

^
is

A*

watchmakers

f'Tlc-l^
?

What
it

meant by
that

the *'Noui\ of Unity," or Individuality"


insects,
trees,
fruit,

means

birds,

vegetables,

etg.

generally require
if

no plural but have a collective ?- <J^


kind be required
is
,

a single article of that

is

affixed to the

collective.
Single

This singular
Meaning
figs

called

o-a?-^1'

^o>\
Meanin^g

Collective

A single one

Collective

:P
5^

bees
ants
ostriches

apples

^0
^'

roses
"...

trees

ILj

ducks
pigeons
'

reeds,

sugar-cane

pomegran.
8
If,

0)3
I

leaves of
trees

in

paragraphs
I

and

6,

adding

forms a

collective

and

in

we

learn that

may be

the sign of a simjle one,


'^

how

shall

we

distinguish between the uses of

By remembering
and

that

refers to

the intensive form

JU
of

6 to the relative adjective, as


to "things in

j j^

while the

Noun

Unity applies

groups" such as

trees, birds, etc.

SHEADING LESSON.
(

^^:^^

jO l^^W^i'^>l Ji;> JUUI


xjj^ii;Lil

(n)

^^i?

^^-r"

L^;?^i^*

L>U^I

cnU^lJl jl5^ (r)

^Klij

ij>li

^J,

Vb

>^;ir^^V

^.^;i>i ji;^.

\^^.j ^\A^j

Exercise 140.
1.

TRANSLATION.
proverb
is

The

nights are pregnant, they bring forth wonders (The usual


this

form of
2.

"bring

forth every sort of wonder").

Previous Sultans have had a splendid record (lit. have been owners of white hands) in encouraging benevolent enterprises. There are many examples, e. g. they God have mercy upon them took to visiting the hospitals and refuges in their king-

dom

distributing valuable presents

among

the sick,

wounded

and orphans.
3.

were extremely sad at their deatlis for they were an example to all kings and rulers. The whole of the students struck work and left the institutions
In truth, their subjects

of learning

pedlars, booksellers, labourers

and joined themselves to the mob in the streets, and unemployed workmen, etc.

When
.

the head-masters of the schools issued orders to return


that

firstly,

they refused to return and passed a resolution, was necessary to continue the strike, and secondly, it was incumbent to send a deputation of the inhabitants to have the honour of interviewing the ministers
to their lessons,
it

in their offices.

EXAMIISATION PAPER
A.

140.

Translation to Arabic

Two women had


to the

each a child but one died, and the mothers

then quarrelled (disputed) over the remaining one.

They came

prophet David

(upon him be peace)


(greater)

who decided
as they
still

(sentence) for the elder

woman, but

disputed he sent them to his son Sulaiman (upon him be peace)


to

whom

they related their story.

Sulaiman then

said,

''Bring

me

a knife."

knife was brought to


to

him and then he

said,

"Cut the living boy into two halves,

each mother one half."


not cut him at
all,

But the younger (smaller) one cried


but give the other

out, *'Do

woman my
is

share."

So he said

to the smaller,

"Take him

for he
is

thine."

(The above

one of the various oriental versions of a well-known story).

B.

To English
*^i

3 Ol^^

^^-4 ^ ^-^

^^<p^

V*

^"^

^^

y^^A^

-X>.V "IJ

(s)

oi;;iil Li^Aoj

Cil>i;^>3'^;<j^

(r)

C.

What do you know

of the following

^U

^>i^

(^^^^ Jl^I

'ilj>c,^

l5^^' ow 3

o^^J

f^>'

3^
A^l ^Ij

JUlII ol/^

olJ^U ^Cl

i^^^Cj:

Lcj

326

141.

Lesson

EYE, VOICE & EAR.


\^
>

^ "^

^\

-1**''

'^

"^

^'''''

Suratul-Fatiha (the Opening)


In the

name

of God, the Very-Merciful, the Merciful.^

Praise to God, Lord of the

Worlds

The

Very-Merciful, the

Merciful Ruler (King) of the Day of Judgment Thee do we

worship, and Thee do

we beg

to

help

Guide

us to the straight

path The path

of those

whom Thou

hast been gracious to

Not those angered with

Nor the erring ones.


U'l
O )AAM

fr'J

Suratun-Nas (People).
(This
is

Chapter

14 of Al-Qui'an,

l.e,

the last one).

In the

name

of God, the Very-Merciful, the Merciful.

Say,

take refuge in the Lord of the people

The king of the


of the

people

The

God

of the people
t

From the mischief

whisperer, the withdrawer

Who whispers in people's breasts And from the jinn and men.
Note that Tlakman
is

rather stronger than Ilaherm, a point overlooked in

The whisperer

is

Satan,

who withdraws at

the mention of God).

327

Lesson 142.

OTHER DERIVED NOVNS.


1.

Which
(a)

of the Derived

Nouns have we

so far studied

jJ^J\ Noun
Ji^Ui

of Action (Lesson 68).

(b)

^1 Noun

of

Agent (Lesson

23).

(c)

J^aJ) ^^\

Noun

of Patient, or Object (Lesson 23).


of Place

(d)

(jUjl^'j jlSCil^l Nouns


o^rCSol
is

and Time (Lessan

62).

(e)

^
in

Noun

of

Abundance = Place where an object


(Sufficient

found
:

abundance

examples were given


asterisks).

in

62
(f)

see the
.^^i

words marked with

y VI ^1 Noun
OS;

of Instrument (Lesson 63).


of Superiority (Lesson 59).
<i^|l

(g)

J^ixJl

Noun

(h)

JcUk^L

A^^JI

"Adjective assimilated to the Partiits

ciple" (Lesson 58

This includes among


and defect 58 4
:

measures that

of J-i
o

for colour

b).

(i)

o-b-^l

^-u.1

Noun

of Unity

a single object (139


?

7).

2.

What
(a)

other Derived
^**l
lit.

Nouns

are yet to be studied


i.

o^Jl

"Noun
"Noun

of Once,"

e.

doing the action once.

(b) p-^^i ^oj\

lit.

of Kind, or (Species)," expresses

manner

of doing the action,


(c)

^l'(^^I^J
this

/iY.

"Noun

of Vessel" ^.r.'
in the

^\k

milkpail.
its

But

noun

is

included

Noun
:

of Instrument,

measures

being the same (Revise 63

2).

(d)^^'JI ^J^\

lit.

"the Diminished

Noun" (Lesson

143).

(e)Lwlll^^l
(Lesson

lit.

"Noun

of Attribution" or Relative Adjective

144).

i^A*5ol

328

e.

^\

lit.

Noun

of How-ness,
:

g.

<i

"^

freedom

this is the real Abstract. (Lesson 145


(g)

57.

4^lpl i;^^
(d)

//Y

"Form

of Exaggeration" Intensive (146).

Note that

and

(e)

are derived from other nouns, not directly

from verbs.
3.

Taking S^J'

^\

first,

give an illustration
;

of

its

use.

^j'^ means
r>.

'act of striking"

affix

to

this

madar and
/^>

0^

you get

A)j^

act of striking o?ice."

Similarly

lJ<

"act of

sitting-down once"
Aj^/

fj

a single flight

l>\t one draught

dying once
general

-K^ly-

one session.
to affix S to the

4.

Is that a

RULE
;

masdar

It is

not universal

o^Jl
;

^1

from the

tri-literal

verb

is

always
it

on the form

Ui

but

from the derived conjugations


madar, whatever
aTUiI
I

is

formed by adding
from oUll
5.
I

to the

its

measure

thus

act of turning round

a single turn.

But suppose the madar already has


In

that case,

the

word

oJ<^\j

(one),

may be

written

e.g.

d-U'j <A\i\ (a single stay).


6.

What
To

is

c^yJl ^^1

used

for.?

express the manner of doing the action


killed in a

^^

UxJ

llJ

"he

was
7.

bad way,"
this

lit,

"he was killed an evil killing."


of

What form does


Always
*^**

"Noun

Kind" (Manner) take


*^^-^

no

other.

Thus

manner

of dying.

The

Arabic name
thing
y.:5
(in

is a little

confusing

it

does not refer to a kind of

the sense of "a sort") but to a '^manner of action"


dMLZej

y.M

We

will kill

you by the worst form of murder.

"

329

Lesson 143.

THE DIMINUTIVE
1.

'1^'ji ^-"^ ^ "


\

How

is

the Arabic Diminutive formed


a

By adding

ya-sukun after the second


letter
0.

letter of the

word and
first

vowelling that second

with fatha, and the

with
9,}

(Jamma.
If
2.

Example

\^ ^

little

man,

is

on the measure

^*

there are four radicals, a kasra


is

is

taken by the third and so on.

How
(a) to

the Diminutive used

express smallness or fewness OU^^. j^ a few coins

(b)

insignificance \<^^y^ a petty poet

(c)

nearness

j>^^\

UJ

./ws^

before the dawn. ^G>6i^l and


L->Ij

3.

Form

the diminutives of^^ftj

iSJ^"^ ^^y-^
^rv.*,^
-il

These are respectively j^^ j^j


4.

^^.a,^ ^l>c-.*^
?

and

What

is

deduced from these examples

That feminine endings,

etc, remain as they were,

and sub-

stituted letters (such as alif in place of


to the oricjinal
5.

wau) are changed hack

before forming the diminutive.

What nouns may


All, except (a)

be thus "diminished"

indeclinables, such as personal pronouns


;

(b)

the

name
*^

of

God

(c)

words already accidentally on the

form
6.

L3

How

is

the diminutive of

compounds formed
first

.?

Follow the rule with the


thus the diminutive of
7.
4jil

half
is

and leave the other alone


4il Jc^-.t

J<^

How

from

a quadriliteral singular

As shown above.
8.

From

^*j^ we
?

get

(t^^j^

Suppose there are


Cut
off the last.

live letters

From

\>-

1^ we

get

-r j^'a-^


9.

330

What

is

done

in the case of a
is

broken plural

The diminutive

formed

direct

from

the singular

if

the plural
(if

of the diminutive be desired, the rational beings

males)

take the regular masculine plural, while the females, and also
tlip - >

non-7'ationals,

Oj'^t^J and
10.

regular feminine plural. Examples ' > ^ <^V^^j:> also OUj^I-j (small books).

take

tlie

--

Nouns which

are defective words

RULE

Go back to the original


:

^ of
;

in the

case of ^y}

we have

to omit the alif,

as well as to restore the wau.

The following
little girl
;

should be learnt

^> my
;

little

son

*^-->^>

^\

my
11.

little

brother

^-^

'

little sister
?

^-^

'

my

little sister.

Words

metaphorically feminine
o

These take
12.

with the diminutive


letter

thus

<>^^^^ a small sun.

Suppose

a
?

of prolongation

occurs after the

ya of

diminutive

Then

it

coalesces with that ya.

Thus wi-^-J

is

the diminu-

tive of V^'^'j^

(used in contempt).
v--^)

Do

not confuse this with

^^1j

<P

diminutive of

(a favourite
is

way

of sneering at
in

a rival newspaper-writer

His paper

similarly called,

contempt,
Exercise 14S^

Aijj^jj

"little

leaflet").

To

English, then back to Arabic

a;

^0
/fi

ii
^rV-*

--

(Last two words=Society).


''5-

((

LcU:>.Vl il^Ji

Ul

/fUfr

O^^O^^^

'^-0^

>u
:

:)(>

(r)

di uTiik diiiitC ^js di;. oi;;yx


0^

The

lam-alif in the last

word

is

the end of a line of poetry.

The Relative
1.

331

144.
(

Lesson

Adjective.

L'-^r^

'

r^-^')

What
L^ll

is

the Relative Adjective called in Arabic

^\

(Noun of Attribution), also


(N. B. Distinguish
?

v-j^*lJi

ft--^/

th6

relative noun.
2.

^^wJ^

from

^^lj

How

is it

formed
i^
jg

Ya-shadda

affixed
it,

to

the

primal

noun

to

show some
;

special relationship to

as

iSj^

an Egyptian
(^ is

from

^oa

Egypt.
3.

Note that the vowel before the


o

always kasra.

Suppose the original word has


In that case,

remove the

before affixing [^
l

but

if

a femi-

nine relative adjective be wished, re-affix the

after the

Study the following table :


Meaning of Relative
scientific

Rel.

Fem. Rel.Masc

Original

Meaning of
science

Original.

.^

solar

sun

religious

Ur.?

religion

Nazarene

Turkish

^
tsC
'-

Nazareth

Turkey

Meccan
Basran

Makka (Mecca)
Basra

s:;^i
<r^^ii

vulgar (slang)
Pertaining to M.

!>>-

I.UI
ul'-'/l

common

people

&

Medina
2aitun-ite (native of

i/>

"The 2 Harams" (Mecca and Medina)


Zaitftn
(

a place)

Zaitdn)

4.

332

to the

Looking
(the

at the table,

what has happened

wordj^/-'

two holy

cities of

Mecca and Medina)


is

The mark

of the dual (or of the plural)

dropped before form-

ing the relative adjective.


attributes derived
5.

This must not be confused with


;

from names of places

cf. Zaidaniy, Midaniy.


?

Suppose the original word has


That must be restored
in all the
{c.f.

lost a letter
5,

48

6) or

replaced by wau, which,

following examples, makes up the iMrd radical.


A>5;

^^

'

-^

A>-

manual
sanguinary
paternal
fraternal

\3\

<S3\

Jo

hand
blood

^1

father

brother
**

J-

'"

filial

son
\^
AjLwtf

annual
linguistic

Isi-^

a:.^

year

language
slave-girl

of-slave-origin.

Omaiyid
6i

Suppose the original word has


That 1$
is

(J

rejected

when adding
;

the relative [$ so that, in the


rel
:

result, there is

no change

^^y

^j^y

But,

if

preceded

by one

letter

only as in [f-

(living), the first

ya

is

marked with

fatha and the second changed to wau


7.

iSj-f^ (vital).
to

If

the original has

this is

changed

wau

if it

occurs as 3rd

This

is

the origin of the


the tribe
:

word "Omeyyad"

in histories of the Khalifas.

The

nameof
(See 143

was BaniUmaiya <.l

^,=

children of the

little
is

slave girl

3, 4).

The

usual relative adjective for things Islamic

^^^'.-.l

or 4th
is

letter,

(thus from

^*

youth, (Jj^^j but in long words

it

apocopated altogether.
in

Thus from (A^^^ we get ^^^^^


^'

8.

From nouns ending


The hamza
'l'^*>t^
is

alif-madda

usually

changed
-^^^^i-l

to

wau

(r./.

48

4).

From
'

C^j^j^*--^
is

and from
giving
ij or

Alham(b)ra
heavenly.

Is^ j-"^

very

similar
9.

^[^\

ls3^^
"^ "
if it is
^

Noun ending

in in

These change ya
from
take

to wau,

the second or third letter, thus

j^ii

we

get

([^^7^

prophetical

but (j^U a judge,

may

(5 ^^15
j^j^

or

^^^^

%*

'*

-^

i ^

From

second,

we

get

l^y^^

secondary (compare
end, limit.

^j'

primary) but ^J
If it is

fi'^^l,

from

*^j^I^*

the fifth or sixth letter


?

it is

apocopated.

10.

How
from
fJoA

from plural nouns

Restore the noun to

its

singular,
;

and form from


from

that

Thus
;

J^^

ignorant ones, ri-*l.^

J?-lw- ^-X>c*w.

from

religious rites,

j^

Note that

in really old, classical

Arabic the Relative Adjective was always formed from the


singular.
(N. B.
In

Modern Colloquial Arabic, exactly the


If,

reverse is the case).

however, the plural had become a


it

proper name

{e g.

of a tribe, etc.) of course

had

to stand, thus
'

from
11.

j\^'>^

(Companions of Mohammed)

^ jl^

Two
from

interesting exceptions to the above rules


-^l*-^^

are

^^^'>^

(the city)

and ^^j.

from

^^

(the

province),

both in South-West Arabia.


12.

This Relative Adjective

is

of extremely frequent use for titles

of books, patronymics, etc.

Exercise 144
a.

334

ULi

\:y^

^r^ v

31k;

i^ui

9^ *

r. .

r^jj

icl'>.

(n)

c-

^"^J^i]

iUU

A*^j H4

dli i Jlc^JI

LkijlTo Aj^Uft iT.fa

Exercise 144
1.

b.

To Arabic

Abbasid Dynasty the scope of Arabic Literature {lit. Arabic morals, or polite books) extended very greatly, and various sciences were propagated, such as (lit. of) religious, moral (or, literary), linguistic,
In (During) the rule of the

mathematical, medical, philosophical, historical, and so on,


[both] those which the savants (doctors) of Islam originated, and those which they translated from foreign languages. Abraham left the pagan religion in which he had been born and brought up and embraced the true, divine religipn, and, after him by centuries, there appeared Jesus of Nazareth (lit. the Nazarene ) who is (was) the founder of the Christian religion and who explained to us in the prophetical books Then, all the references to the Messiah who was to come. after other 600 years, the Arabian Prophet arose and instituted

2.

the Islamic religion.

Note

Arabic Books

when

not religious
i^lH

are
:>
I

often

called

A./.^i

"Moral or polite," whence


i.e.

Cu>
of

polite-books of

the language,
is

literature.

"The History
^T^.^"

Arabic Literature"

often called

v''^^
3:r^.

J*'' 3*^''

1.

33S

o&mpound expressions
:

Lesson 145.
How
is

the Relative Adj. formed from

Usually from the former half of the word

from

^.J***

we
_j^\
2.

get
^j
i

|^X*j

but use commonsense, for

tlie

former half of
!

Abu

Bakr, will not give us Bakr-ite but "paternal"


are exceptional
;

The following
Hanifite

note for future reference.

(seci)

Abu

Fianifa

<A^I>.

Medinan

(or-ite)

Medina
Quraish
Spirit
(tribe)

Quraish-ite
spiritual

ti->
^
>

ei'^^'JJ

3.

Note that

^1

15

very

commonly used
Li^^y
so

in

the

colloquial,

^ l^S
4.

li

a fruiterer

{jy^^

upper, lower.

What
names
It is

is

the termination <-

frequently

heard

in
?

bazaar-

in the

more native quarters of


(^

oriental cities

a collective of the relative in

and

is

often used for sects


:

as well as colloquially for trades, etc,


Coll.

(See 139

6).

Meaning
a mystic

Singular

Coll.

Meaning

Singular

J^^
M
:

\^j^

c
<

tentmaker
artisan

So'J---

orthodox

i^U

heterodox M:
5.

bookseller
}

-^

Can Relative
Yes
^J
;

adjectives be formed from particles


result
is

and the

sometimes curiously "abstract." From

we

get ^j*-^

(adj)

and

A.^-j

(subst.)
^-jz-j

"HoW-much-ness"=
get
<-a-.:

abstract noun of quantity.


ness."

From

we

"how-

From

ri

a
^::

substantive

A--*-.^'

substantivity.

From

O?^ J an

adjective \-ii^j adjectivity.

From ^^^^>-

particular,

-^>i7

336From

or special,

<^^^>-

particularity.

Ci

What
!)

is

il

i-^U substance or essence (but colloquially, salary


6.

What

is

really the

meaning

of

L>c*^l

Christianity, (as a system, not a collective to denote adherents)

similarly aJI ^aIJI


7.

(Moslem word

for

it)

^t;^)'

Judaism.

Other expressions useful


from

4jl^

to philosophers, etc.

a deity,

we

get

L^jl

or

i^^]

divinity

<w-j

Lord

A-j^>j

Lordship

.,

J3^ J
(jlJl

man
human being

<J^?-j

manhood
humanity
J
understand ableness
intelligibility
I

ijOl
"!."

^.''

,,

^^^'^ understood

'^:*-^('^^

^1^
-X>1

plural

Lju^

plurality

one
being possible

:7

uniqueness
possibility

.,

jl^'

ISC

^ tree

,.

^
iJU
<ol
^r^L^

freedom
finance
/balance-sheet,
r*
I

JC wealth
U^
Ja.>

8.

balance

budget
}

Is

there

any other way of forming the abstract


>

Many

centuries ago the ending


JIjjI

Oj

came

into Arabic either

from the Hebrew

or the

Aramaic

Zj^\
;

There arc now

a few much-used words having this ending


Deity,

among them Cj^pH


;

Godhead

0^-^l>

humanity

O^SC-L kingdom
;

Cjy.S

priesthood,

O^Jl^

crucifixion (a ("optic term)


in Arabic.

Cj^ j^>-

mightiness.

These words are masculine

-- 337

Lesson 148. Ii\ TENSIVE FORMS Wl^Jl^;


1.

What

is

the origin of the Intensive

Forms

They come,

originally, from the verbal adjective


e.g.,

jc-lj

(Active

Participle) but,
a

with an

alif

after the

second radical and


is

shadda over

it,

the idea of (a) intensiveness, or (b) habit,

added
2.

to the primitive signification, as will


is

be seen below.
(

What

the ti/pe-form of the


(the

Noun

of Intensity

iilLJl iL-^)

There are several. Jl^d

common one

referred to above)

J^*

J^

^t*t
I

^^^'

Then
to the

there are the forms <]l*3 etc. (having

an extra
3.

added

ordinary form).

Also

'^ICmiu

Ui-

Taking
(b)

the form Jli

give examples of the two uses


(a) Intensive

Habit (Profession)

J^U

jl.i

baker

3^>
jili
'jCl^

a glutton

J/1
->

JiTi
:LiJr'

perfumer
tithe-collector

great liar

'v-^^J^

very learned
very grateful
very daring

j^sCi

,^;

aviator
tailor

jlll

porter

l}t:^

very patient

'I^

builder

it>
the

chatterbox

y)
in (a)
;

4.

What
Some
a

is

meaning

of the

two columns

verbs have an intensive form J^*i


both, as the

some use

Jli?

but

few use

examples show.
U5

5.

What

of j^mi

and

The most common example

of

tlie first is

ly^-^ "most holy"

(only applied to Deity)


;

338

^SC-

of the second there are the following

useful words ^^)

'"J:

a great

drinker;

drunkard

l)Xa

very truthful, veracious (Joseph's


6.

title).

(Distinguish from (3>^-J^)

Give examples of the extra

(intensive)

great traveller \K>-^j


I

a learned

man

(e.g.

writer)
it

<a^C'

Here we have the


found affixed
7.

affixed to the

form JU3 but

may
2-

also be

to

some

of the other forms given in

!^

Give examples of the forms with


Jl Juk loquacious
;

mim
;

JI^a. honourable

c>SC-*.> poor, miserable.

Exercise 146. A.

P'ully

vowel the following passages:

-r^llJlJli
c-jl^ ^jii

(r)

Jly J$^ Uj
above
:

aLa)

^)\^ JUi J5^ Uj


:

^.

Answer

to the

to

be carefully studied

^Ik
[5a]

>Ll!l Jli (r)

Jly

JS""^

f.j

<Ui) (^jlii

J'uiJ^^J

Translate the above with the aid of the lexicon.

Lesson 147.
,rHE NUMERAL
NOTE
I.

':>J^]\

147 and 148 are difficult lessons

students

may
:

take extra time.

Write the cardinal numbers from one


Fern:

to ten

Masc

Fern
5

Masc:

6
A>

(i;
^0

^0"
7

1'"

j^-w
S^9
^

v": jUJj
ItSit
.>' ~ -0
'J1

di'>[
"
J

^ -^
d J-l^

<

^ ^

9
10

t^X
a7

^
1

^Ic

2.

How
As

are the cardinals

jiUc'*^!

treated in Arabic

substantives

supposing they followed the thing-numbered


"in

:;jJJI they

would be placed
but this
is

apposition" to it, thus

^jl
place

*C

unusual, the usual


^jJi*Ji

method being
will then

to

^:>jJ\

in construction to

which

be put

in the plural genitive

thus

X ^V
I 1

J^Vj

^]

^^^ -^'-^
:

cannot be placed
3.

in construction, Jb-

is

used for

that. (c./. 42

8)

But

is

not

iT,

ji

Feminine

in

form

Yes
that

but one of the greatest curiosities of Arabic


to

is

the fact

numbers from three


in the opposite

ten

take

the thing-numbered

> > :>j-X*^jl

gender

This has caused some gramin that case,

marians
but

to think that
is

A*)jl must,

be masculine,
in

that

inaccurate.

The RULE

stands

Arabic :

'

^j-AiTj
I

340

--

(j-5C^ ^J^J

/The

nunrber

is

the opposite

[gender] of

the thing-numbered."*
two,
*N.B.

(But this does not apply to one and

nor to eleven and twelve which are compounds of them).

Many students

make
to

a slip here.
it

"The opposite gender of the

thing-

numbered" means opposite


ask yourself of what gender
4.

in its original 6'/;f^MZrtr.

(In Broken Plurals

was

the original singular).

How

is ij\*l

declined

when
;

in

construction

Nom. and Gen.


5.

jU

Accus.

^ LJ

Ex
?

^U ^ \J ^i

How may
By

this rule

be best remembered

illustrative

examples.

Memorise
.?

"4

men," and "8 women."

6.

How may
There
is

''several" be translated

/^

a special

word

for this

4.*.^)

^^

which means "a


in construction

few," namely, "from three to ten"


just as the

it is

placed
i

numerals
i*>l*

o a^j

;t*^)

.a.*-;

^.^^) -^j

(Note that
7.
It is

<JC*

are sometimes written


1

aA*

i^-**)

important to remember that jl:l*

jUH

follow the rules

of the Dual (Lessons 47, 48).


8.

Write the Cardinals from


6

II to 19.
^
i-

j-^^ /WW ."^

.C

A^^:^

15

o^lC'^J>-l

j-^^

-^

'

II

16
^
-''

o ^
;.

.
''

.
1

.0
~

^:t

'

.'..
.C
A*^-;>

U)

12

17
^ o
^
^
ft
.

^
c-

<J*!A*

13

-o^^
9.

How

can these compounds (13 19) be memorised


that while
3,

By remembering
:>j-VJi (j-'^^'

the

first
is

half

of the

word

is

as in

yet the o^ic-

:>jaJI

^& j (agreeing

with the thing-numbered),


wise.

But note that II and 12 are other-

Why

Because

and

2 are.

These compounds
for
10.

34i

but in Algeria (J^\S)\

are-

greatly contracted in the colloquials, eg.

^Ic

U*

they say in Egypt ^l*oi


?

How
The

do we write 21 (one and twenty)


units are written before the tens,

and united by the word

''and''

jj^cj(jU*l
''

'

C3^^3'^^3

^f-

"One and twenty,"


;

etc.

4^)
11.

several, '^

can be similarly treated


to 100, etc.

thus j^^^-^ j

<Jaj

Give the tens from 20


^.
''

'

^0^

U\*^**i

(J^^*-

70
8o

Cf.^-?

ji^
-

20
30

^ ^

-^

CnJl^*
^

uy'^'

'

cnuj

j^*^i

90
100

'.'"\ UUjjl

. >'0^,

o^> J

'

40
50


12.

'^l-

1000
}

cni**

60

What

is

peculiar to the tens

That they have only one


regular masculine plural
13.

cjender,

but being on the form of the


it,

they, like
:

have two

cases.

But what of mi'a-tun (coll


That, like
to gender.
alf,
is fully

mi

a)

declined as

to case,
^^
<I'l-

but not inflected as


(

Their plurals are

il^)

oV

7-

tjJ

14.

iTU

is

peculiar to the Qur'an, but aIa


all

is

the spelling

of the

Arabic Bible and of


15.

modern books.

What
They

is

remarkable about the cases of numerals 13


^
o

19

are quite indeclinable


(a)

Olli^^

l^-r*
it,

Ex.

147.

Copy
-

this without vowels, (b)


<4C.jl
*

vowel

(c)

memorise

it.

1^*3 J ^ ^

4
-^

c^xSCv***

J ^

-^

\^J^ <Si\ ^
.

\1^^ rt^l^\
^^_~

Vi

'

"Christ fed 5000 with

loaves and 2 iishes and they took up

of the fragments (pieces) 12 baskets full."

t.

342

Lesson 148.
What
(a)
is

peculiar to the syntax of the numerals


3

Numerals

ID

place their ^jJ^*Jl in the plural genitivo,


it
:

and are therefore


(b) II

"in construction" to

cf. again Jt>-j

A)

jl

99 take the indefinite singular accusative


^jJi*Ji
is

^\>- j^ii^jG>-

(c)

100 to 1000 place

in the singular genitive

C-**-

'^^

2.

But what
It is

the accusative of ^jaJi

of

1 1

99
of
it

called in Natiu (Syntax)

Ja c

We

shall

study

it

fully
:

in
3.

I77 178,

but

we have already had one form


illustrative sentences
:

in 59

4, 5.

Memorise the following

God

created the world in six days

S,
^jj>-

ix*-.

A.!i

4ji

^l>.

He

leaves the 99 sheep (lambs)


is

C^LJJ

\j <^^x.]

ti

Jii

The century

100 years
jlJ-

200 camels and 2000 donkeys


4.

Uj j
I

l^

Ul

Write the ordinal numbers from


V?-

"first" to "tenth."
^
-i

,.'^^

sixth

i^:>ll
rJ---

^^l5

first

J3I
^-

:)ji
^

seventh
eighth

i*)C

;)

l*A.

second
third

L;ir
z"

^'
^'

J
-

Cr

oi
''

/J'

jju
r}^

''

ninth
Jn

;^0
.

fourth

^0
^
''

1'

tenth

S>Lcis

;;^tu
in this table
"first,"
J""*
1

fifth

'\^a\^

tr-i^

5.

What

observed

That, excepting for


W-lill f^*jS

each ordinal
is

is

on the simple
of Superiority

form, whereas

really the

Noun
j
I

from Jjil thus Jjl which becomes

Jj

hence

Jj

As

the fern, of ^\-il

is

^Lj

so the fern, of

Jjl JsJ^'

/io^

Jj'

6.

343

But what of ^^l**

There
the

is

another form il-- which

is

on the regular form, but

first

one

is

most used (though

in co//.

we may say J^rU)

In forming fractions,
7.

we

take *'one-sixth" ^v-A^ from ij^J^


?

What

are the ordinals from llth. to 2lst., etc.

Fern

Masc
^

Fern

Masc

'^%

11-

17th
i8th

'jLt'

l$i\^

nth

-'

'

^^

"S ^c

:'-,.rr

;>
-o>
,-

ol'

>'-

jlTiith
ijC'iSth
'^1'; 14th

';,^l;

19th
A*.lj
^^

>^
^_lft
- ^
,

Oij^f
> *

03^:^^ 20th

>'

J3^ic.ji^:>U jj^icj^:>U 21st


^.
^
X

C~' <^u
^
^

'_,i^;;^.i^i5th

Ji^-^-^j j^* 22nd


8.

^c^iL?

lOth

How

are

all

ordinals higher than 22nd formed


e.

As 22nd

^.

"the third-and-twentieth" j/t^*)*j

wiU

"the-

seven-and-fortieth"

j^j jVlj

'Vj

-''

Note that ordinals are

usually defined, and then they are declinable. Those given in


(II
9.

19 only) are indeclinable because undefined.


e

But o^jtS'

is

the cardinal for ''twenty"

Yes

there

is

no difference between the cardinal and ordinal


But look out for the
article.
its

of 20, 30, etc,


10.

Does the ordinal numeral agree with


Yes,
it is

^jj^*

not regarded as

^-Xj^

number, but

"kk^

an adjective.
?

11.

What supplementary
(a)

classes of numerals are there


twice,
etc.

Numeral adverbs, such as once,

These, being
usual

adverbs, are written in the accusative.


is

The most
etc.

way

to write o^>

"one time,"

O^ ^j

"twice"

But ;^'JI 1^\

(142
(b)
:

344

two
killings.
in public

3)

may be used

in the dual, c>-l^-5

Another numeral adverb much used


is

announce-

ments, proclamations, discourses


accusative of the ordinal thus

expressed by the indefinite


firstly;

ij\

Ul* secondly

bl*
(c)

thirdly; l^tft tenthly


"
.

^It^^lV
**

iithly ;^1<^

I*

I2lhly.

The J^iil ^^1

^"-^

of Conj.

II.

gives us

^L^
The

triple,

triangular;

>fc>^*

fourfold, square

^\^1a octagonal.

Triliteral verb =^

j^\:)l J*Ajl

the Quadriliteral verb ^^^t^^i Ja!1

Also ^I'U-

five-sided, ef seq.

(Compare

Cl^ll^lj^^i

roughly spelt in English

thus, "i??/6o?'z/^/ of
12.

Omar Khayyam,"
.'

Quatrains of

^lli^l

^)
Jd
)

How

are

Fractions formed
with
small

Fractions

denominators
a third
;

are on

the

form
;

with plural on
a fourth
^Ij j

JQ
1

Thus j^l*

jUl* two-thirds
;

^*!^* three-fourths

^-^^^ a fifth
eJt^ar

^j^'J^ a sixth

jl-lcl AjL)

nine-tenths.

half

is

i.e.

either with
Its

kasra or

damma,
is

the former being


I

more used.

plural

(if

needed)
O-* ^!?V

^l^
(s)

But for large denominators, the expression


is

"part

of"

used; thus

^^

jV

il^'-f
jl^c-i

0'*

^^3^^ ^*'^*

=
13.

three parts out of twenty.

Tithes =

In Arithmetic

^Ui-I
.

'LIp

units, tens

and hundreds are J>UI


;

i;llj'i:;l7-^^j

"Percent" = aLJI

90% =
jL:
; ;

f--^^,

dj^}

Fractions are called ^^-o


fractions
'ki

the plural of

and decimal
"per mensem'*

j[li^\

j^^^

"per mille"

Ji/U

J^ll,
"
^

"per

annum"

ilJl,
^

Triangles
- li
-

}^

i^ll^ Trigonometry ,<


;

- Computation

of Triangles

OUUJi

c-^U^

Squares

OU^

14-

345
?

--

How
(a)

is

the numeral defined

The numeral becomes defined

in the

same ways

as other

nouns

When

the numeral
it is

is,

adjectivally, in apposition to its noun,

as
(b)

iwjVlJlV^II

defined by Jl

numeral may precede a definite noun in the construct

state

and be defined by construction


4

JCs-'^JI

^ j'

the four of

the
(c)

men =

men

Sometimes the numeral and


*-lu)

its

noun

both

have the

article

0^jl1::kJI (oLli]l
(d)
{i.e.

Jl *^ with the seven chosen maidens.


(

The following

is

the modern usage

Ol Jrv->-

^-1* ) Jl
(II
:

-V>.

article prefixed to the

numeral only).

But Wright

244)

suggests that this arose from the case-endings being omitted


in

modern

writing,

which

is

usually unvowelled.

have put
w^ithin are

the article outside a bracket, to imply that the

words

looked upon as a single expression.


(-A)jJ*-l

45Ca;)JI
is

the

"Chemin de

Fer,"

is

similarly explained.

15.

This usage

similar to the compounding of phrases such as

JUllJi the capital invested (from


rose-water (from ^ j j!l -^U
the Indian d^ate
[^-^-^^

JCJI^lj)

also

:>jjljl

and ^^JO^

the tamarind

(/i^.

Ij^dl

16.

Verbal Construction.
grasp the syntax of
(^jji-l s^^j*)
*Llai)iJ

The student should now be


1

able to

4dQ?Vl verbal construction, as


{{S^>-^\

the-strange-of-race
^-^1.3
1

fj^) J

the

noble-of-disposition

^^^

^^U

blessedness

to-the-

pure-of-heart jCx>.Vl
17.

^\X'2^\

^^y^\ the youth-little-of-experience.


?

What

is

to be

noted in these examples of Lki] As\^\


is

That the ''construction"

verbal, not real,

the

antecedent

346

it

being, in every case, an adjective, and the article prefixed to

being placed there after the annexation has been constructed,


so to speak.
18.

Think

of the phrase as a

compound,

(c.f. %

15).

Quadrisyllabic plurals are formed for the following

The

early part of the

month

J^l
ji^\
**

iTIj

The middle

part of the

month

Ja--lj

The

latter part of the

month

*^'

Exercise 148.
Copy
it,

the following without vowels, then insert the vowels in red ink, correct
:

then translate to English

finally translate

back to A rabic.

^61 s>^ JSVl

'cj'

'> alii
I

'>^i 6'

347

"

Lesson 149. THE PARTICLE ^)A


I.

We

have already learned many of the


to

particles, but

there are

more

be studied.

We

had, perhaps, better revise in order

as the recapitulation will be beneficial.

Prepositions are
(a)

(a)

Inseparable

(b)

Separable.

Inseparable
c-->

for).

in,

by,

with.

J
"^

to (sometimes,

C (^
like,

(all particles

of oaths) 4ilj

or ^iT

By God

l]

as (jCi^l5^as (or, like) a

man.

(b)

Separable
jj
in,

:
concerning,
of.

into,

^ away
*y
^1
*l\

from, from, on behalf

of,

from, (see Lesson 34

'3-5

for

^a^ and ^^).

to,

unto

Z.>-

up

to,

as far as.

except.
over,

Ji/^jJ

above, upon, against,


with, or before
(i.e.

etc.

or

j-Vi

in front of).

JlI.*

(in

some books Ju

since.

*^ or

"!

with.
as

(c)

Accusatives of nouns, used in construction


'^U
68.
I

prepositions

X5

Ju> etc. F'or further

examples revise the table on page


is

We may

add

v-->j

which governs the noun (which


S jLc^

the

subject!) in the genitive


sign
is

Jl>

jLi^

Oj

"Many

more eloquent than an expression" uya

\^
ask)

^^J

''Perhaps a questioner

may say"

(i. e.

Someone may

2.

348

is

Adverbial Particles. The number of these


tion the really important ones, omitting
^0

great

we

will

men-

some already studied


\^^^A

not at

ail

^^S^
IA$Ot>

whilst

f^Ixj

only, but

lo,

behold

liy^

thus

nay rather

\
L
^^

tnat

IS, I.e.

^
1

1 1

lo,behold(^^)lil

not yet (with jussive)


there

l^

^"^ yes (after neg:)

whence

ry

v^^

not (Qur

:)

j|

i]l>
dlSJS^

only

JaS

whither ^'^

'

J[
truly,
-^-l
3
1

likewise

at all, ever

\^

wherever

C.l)

verily

^)

'

(J^

Note the lam-fatha


affirmation
;

J which

is

much used

as a particle of
jl

it is

attached to the predicate

when

precedes

the subject.
3.

Also after

when hypothetical

(see

9).

How do you explain

such words as

Z^

J^ -^

(with

damma)

We

explained on page 68 that words given in Vocabulary 26

as construct

nouns used as prepositions and vowelled with

fatha, can also be nsed as adverbs

and are then vowelled with


a*j

damma and
beneath"
cheques
4.
;

are indeclinable

exs

"yet"

C^
is

ry*

"from

^y

''above"

C^l>-

"where", ^jj^"^

written on

to

prevent fraud, and means "no more", "only."


?

But

if

these words are used as prepositions

Then, as we have shown, they take fatha and govern their

noun
5.

in the genitive case.


it is

But suppose
(>>

needed

to use

them before a verb

IJ

-Xi^

(and several others) can take an affixed


is

as a
;

"cushion" before the verb, which


thus

not affected by them

^^ilU-XiTi

"after
j\.*j\

go"

(This

may
I

also

be written
travelling.
1

^"ftSljlj*))
6.

C^:>.

Clxj

whilst

was

What
A.n

other

compounded adverbial expressions can be formed


9

Adverb

of

Time compounded with

il

places

ij^

in

the

genitive.

Several very frequent expressions are thus formed.

at that time,

349

at that time

n
^3
day
hour

then >
9-

after that, afterwards

J^J.*

at that

^Vi

before that, previously

^-5

at that

accusatives
not at
all

(with neg

gratuitously
illi-'^

\>%
1#0

decidedly (no escape)


(he) alone

except, but

-^1

0-A>-J

perhaps

Q'.
;>-

(they) alone
(she) alone

j^j
UjI;

one time (occasion)

(another) time, occasion Ij^U

oj\j

and

Ij^L? are thus

used tomean* one time. ..another time...".

^^^p5^i

I)

means, on the contrary,

or, vice versa.

Cairo to Alex, and vice versa.


8.

/j^SCl*!

Ij

j i

j-Xl5s.*^

Vl jl

oj^Ult^

The Conjunctions

Name
^sCl

the principal conjunctions, accord-

ing to the order of -Arabic grammars.

y-.H:
We
have used
all

\\

/l

li

',
:

these

but the student should notice the


is

difference between

^ which

simply "and",

and

.i

which

denotes order, and has often the meaning of ''then."


Since both conjunctions and adverbs are classified as peptides
in Arabic,
it is

difficult

(and un-Arabic) to distinguish one from


I

the other.
o

In fact,
it

Wright

classifies

Jj

as usually an adverb,

while others call


9.

a conjunction.

S[

is

a Quranic
^1

word meaning "when",


have seen them. jlcV
Ij

or since

(Conj.)

>0 ^

*(^I)

Since

\j

/j^^ -^
'

i|

"Since
etc.

we have been

justified

by

faith," -etc.

Note that j

jV

are

used before verbs, but

j jV
1

before nouns.


KA^

350

means
iSPj

"either,"

and

is

followed by j

or,

or else

1^1

j thus
1^1

i.;l

y>

i;i

"either he or thou";

'^M;;jJ

jl j^^l

"either the

man

or his wife".
;

)
J
i
.

is

the hypothetical particle

it

is

generally used with the


non-existent
SI *'if

past tense and always


.
.

supposes

condition
it is".

ol5

)
J

''had

it

been, then"; but jlS^t


of
it.

(when)

and

are
it

compounds

V*^t

"but for",
letters

"j

"^1

li^ (j^^ "had


state
(jl j)

not been thus".

Begging

usually

the

mimimum

request

with
that
it

^3

"even"

(as little as),

:>jij:^^i "I

was wishing

had been possible


interjection
is
is

even"...

10.

The

Interjections:

The commonest
t

before

nouns

-^^ \

O Mohammed,
^^
as

sometimes shortened,

particularly before

^^

O my

son.

V
ij?

'

o*"

^-^- ^Vi'
" alas "

must be used before the Definite


takes
is
tf\

Article,

meaning

after the

noun which

it

precedes. This form of speech

called
i.*

\xS\ "lament". Ex:


have been inflected

ll^t^^^l j
in

O
;

the atrocity

OC*

and
"

Lesson 87
is in

we may add

^
wide

come! " the special use of which

the "call to prayer" by

j^^^J' thus
far
is

ty^^ J^^ IV

'

come
as

to

prayer "

Also

oC^*-Ji

from

it!

O^^ "how

far!

in

C^lJ^ jll^

"How

the difference between them".


l^n^i^
*

ClU.!

"0
I

that..."! as in
bird, then

Ojai
^

C---5
".

(^^! "Would
^-^

that

had been a
(or.

had
Cil

flown away

LiU- "

God

forbid !"

Never

).

and ^1 "ugh"! *4^ (with finger on

lips)

Silence

The Egyptian

colloquial corruption of this

is

*\

II.

351

of Sound.

Then

there

is

0*^4]!
;

J***

Noun

Exs

^U

sound of

a stone falling

(jlc-

a crow's croak.

These Nouns of Sounds

(onomatopoeia)

are, of course, not subject to rule.

BEADING LESSON

150.

4JI

^ixL

is 4.;A>

oUlj

iiAiil ^-x.4j j^[z.]\

^\y

_^\

L^U

J>-.5

i.^]U- ^c. jIc-

pU? Lj

5njI

^^

(Jj'^

9'^ -^
<->^-

w^y ^S

l^^

^^

^^'^- ^"^^

-^""'-^

J^"^ r*^'

*^-^

((

^U

))

Jail

^ 0^j[\

jA

en*]!

*Jl^ 1^ V^r'^O^

^^ y^^

^^*

^*.i)l

^;;_^

ftr-^-^^

J^j

/"j^

Jl^ ^jMj ^"^ ^r-^


((

^.^^^^
fiU^c.

^^li

c^Ai

NOTES
1.

Abu Nawas was


His
first effort

a witty poet of Rashid's reign.

2.

read

"My

poetry

is lost

on you as a necklace on

(black) Khalisa^
3.

His second attempt read,

"My

poetry shines on

(is

adorned by)

you as a necklace shines on Khalisa".


4.

There

is

a smart 'play on words' in the remark of the bystander

that this

was poetry which "saw (shone) best when


were plucked out".

its

eyes

(letter *ain)

A.

352

150.

EXAMINATION PAPER
Vowel the following and Translate
:

^J^\j y\}^\

0}i

jU-:

(n)

oJc^lj <*1

^IjJI J,i-

.U j!

(r)

^Ir^ilJ^l^l Dj^I

c>v*:J

iJUj

ju;

i!U

(o)

S.

Translate to Arabic
1.

cannot say exactly when


you, but perhaps
I

it

will

be possible for

me

to

visit

will
if

come on one

of the early

days of next (coming) month,


2.

God

will.

We

do not wish
I

to

pay the amount of the subscription


(

1)1^^^
it

*uJ

to

your monthly magazine

aI^
is

because

does not arrive; the last number

(^-^c- )

here (found)
us).

but the tenth and the eleventh did not turn up (reach
3.

That poor fellah has not yet sold more than three-fourths
of his cotton

^kJ
said to his

4.

The Messiah

twelve disciples at that time

Freely (gratuitously) ye have received (taken), freely give.

He
5.

also said
will

"Repent

ye,

and believe the Gospel".

There

be more joy among the angels of

God

over

one sinner repenting than over 99 righteous who

need

no repentance.
C.

Translate, to

EngUsh, Exercise

146.

ARABIC
IN

353

(SYNTAX)

NAHU

FIFTY LESSONS.

Lesson
1.

151.
?

Into

what two parts

is

Arabic Grammar nominally divided


is

The nominal
Inflexion,

division

into

^^^^ which

means,

literally,

and _^^ pronounced Nahu, or Syntax. But

this latter

word

is

very often used to denote

GRAMMAR,

in general,

and
best
in

the author of

ARABIC SIMPLIFIED has followed

the

orientalists in declining to totally isolate

^j^

from

practical study.

Hence

the student has already studied some


I

of the most important rules of syntax in Lessons


to

150.

But,

master the remainder, and, above


into

all

that those studied shoiild

fall

their correct relative position,

Syntax must now be

systematically studied as a whole, and in the Arabic order.


2.

But

why need we study

in

Oriental

order
in

Wright,

for

example, did not write his second volume


True, but that

Oriental order!

was very

largely translated from the

German

of

Caspari, and, in any case,


the student to

my aim

is

quite differentI

want

THINK ORIENTALLY.

The

necessity for this

may be

best

shown by

a quotation

froiii

Prof. E. H. Palmer,

Lord Almoner's Reader and Professor of


p.

Arabic
If

at

Cambridge, who says on

287 of his
rules of

grammar

we analyse Arabic sentences by


full

the

European

syntax we shall find them

of anomalies.

But

if

we

discard

our preconceived notions as to the concord of substantive and


adjective, nominative case

and

verb, etc,

and look

at the question

from an
and
3.

ARABIC

point of

vieiv,

we

shall find

them consistent

logical".
is

What

the special Oriental order of Lessons

151 200

.?

Definition of

354

_^J^ ^V=^
ON

Nahu
its

The Sentence and

Parts

*^>

v^Oh

^j ^^IsCji
11
*

ox

Indeclinable and Declinable OR Uninflected and Inflected


Indefinite

|
I

^-^ ^
<&^J.Ij

^^

11

00

and Definite

l^'^\

oY

nominatives
'

oWy^i

Accusatives
Genitives, etc.
^

ol ^il
oU^i^i
^\^\
<-lr^^^

Ar
Ao

Appositives

(or,

Sequents)

Imperfectly Declined Nouns

A^
^^

Subjunctive and Jussive Particles ^^j^^lj^^^^yH

Verbs of Wonder etc

/iS'j ^-xilj

^.^^xli

JUl

^o

Classification of the Particles

ciji-i
ili^l

(Examples of Parsing
4.

c-^[;CJ

The above

table should

now be memorised

in order to give

a ''bird's eye view" of the order of the subjects dealt with.


It

has been prepared, with great care, from cUlU ^1 (most


all

famous of

Arabic grammarians)

^lx*vjjl

and

j>-3UI

(two

of the most capable

modern Syrian

writers) with reference to the

commentary

of ^Ll^

^1 on cUiU ^i and more recent works.


!

N. B. Memorise the Arabic terms rather than the English

5.

How
is
* I

do Arab grammarians define Sarf and Nahu


definition,

The following

quoted from

my ARABIC AMPLIFIED,*

essentially a "native" definition.


have here quoted many of the examples which I had already given in wiiich had been previously vtrritten though not published.

Arabic Amplified,

355

Literal translation
initial,

Sarf

is

the Rules by which are

known

the

medial or

final characters of

words, as single words,


the states of the /?ia/

Nahu

is

the Rules by which are

known

characters of words, ivhen compounded


or phrases).
6.

(i.e.

when

in sentences

(This example of exposition

may be memorised)cil^ j ill) ^j


'

From Sarf we

learn that the

hamsa

of

*jS

is

(not wala)

and must be marked by fatha and the

ra with kasra while the

mim

has a sukun.
i.

But from

Nahu we

learn

why

IjJ

and

tS

are

Accusative,

e.

from the influence of the Transitive verb.


translated to English, then back to Arabic

Exercise 151.
(see

To be

Reader).

Lesson 152.

THE SENTENCE AND

ITS

PARTS

1.

What
It

is

meant by

\^

(a

word)

is

a single expression indicating meaning,

e. g.

each of the

words j|
2.

and

i^l?-

and

Jo

j
?

What

is

A^AS^or

il?-

(sentence)

A
3.

compound expression conveying complete information,


^

as

the sentence Jijjtl>-

Of what may an Arabic sentence be formed


Of two words
verb and
a

or

more

e.g.

of

two nouns, as

i*;?-

^^11

or of a

noun, as

Jo j iX>-

and as the verb and implied

(understood) pronoun in
as
4.
,

356

Jis-1

or of a particle

and two nouns


^
rf
.

L:?-

jC^\

ji or particle, verb
:

and noun, as j^Si

j-^ -^3

There are three parts of speech

Verb, Noun, Particle.


?

5.

What

is

the Arabic definition of a verb


that

verb

is

which indicates meaning independently

(i. e.

in
'^?

itself)

and
,li

in relation to

time (Past, Present or Future) as

and
6.

to and Ti

What
A

are the distinctive features of a verb


(?.<r.

verb can receive

be affected by) certain special particles

such as the Subjunctive (Na^b-ating) and Jussive (Jazm-ating)


particles,

also

it

can take Ji and

^v-

and ^5^* also

it

can

take affixes such as


also the
7.

of the Agents,

and the feminine

or

j and

the ^^ of 2nd. fern,

What

is

the definition of a
is

noun

noun

that

which indicates independent meaning without

relation to time, as
8.

Ju^ and

iSC*

and

^]
?

What
It

are the distinctive

marks

of a

noun

can take the prepositional

particles, also Jl
in

also the tanwin

it

can also be ''annexed" (placed

Construct State) and can


lit.

be a 4ji -VI_^ Subject of a sentence,


cated-to).
9.

that-which-is-predi-

Translate the Arabic definition of a particle

particle indicates

meaning but not

in itself (i.e.

it

cannot be
It is

used independently of verb or noun) Exs

and

dis-

tinguished by the absence of the distinctive features of verb

and noun.
Exercise 152.

(See READER).

357

153.
J-i)l
^->-3^

Lesson

^TENSES OF VERBS
1.

How many
Three
:

distinct tenses (or states) lias the verb

^lii

Past

c-jUkl^

(///.

the

resembler) and

y^\

Imperative.
2.

Then

jjS\

is

not called a
;

Mood

Certainly not

Arabic knows nothing of the European idea of


In fact, the three so-called

moods and
tive,

tenses.

moods

(Indica-

Subjunctive and Jussive) are called ''States"


is

\i!l

Jl^>l

while the chapter

headed

lJilic>-;iy>l

Declension of the Verb


is

Even

the expression

Ua]I 'k:AJ\

"Tenses of the Verb,"

not

often used.

The Arabic
^a'J\

calls these ''Divisions of the

Verb"

(in respect to time)

^^>?

'.a

Uill

aLJI

3.

How

is

^li' distinguished

By the

of the agent (doer)

sZ^^- C-)^=^

Jl^^l?-

also the

O
4It

of feminine ^^\.>-

is

said that

^^li' indicates

either

"actions actually

completed, or mentally conceived as completed."


j^lll
(a)

Give

details.
^

may be used
historic past

to

denote

The

{c.f.

the Greek Aorist


at

and English

Preterite)

which represents an act completed


when
it

some past time

as to

was completed must be determined by the context.

They

sat

down
to

to table

S-Atlll

Ai' \^Ji^>-

God spoke
(b)

Moses
"perfect"

lS^J"^

^^

)^
which,
at

The English

representing

an act

the

moment

of speaking, has been completed.

-358%

Those

to

whom

thou hast shown favour


us by your presence

^-r-^

vl^*^*'

'

J/-'^'

You have honoured


N.B.
(l)
-^5

ilj^s? i:;/0

as a particle of (J-^^ (assurance) assures the perfect.

Verily

we have placed
-^5

the line of prophecy in the seed of Jacob.

B. (2)

plus

jo

gives the sense of the English pluperfect


it

to the preterite.
(c)

''But

had slipped them


)

...

^^A Si

j\Sj

An

optative

therefore future
like'^

meaning

in

prayers, curses,

benedictions and the

God have mercy on

her
-J-i-ii

'^'

W-*^J
P-h]

God

perpetuate your existence


preserve

<AJI

The Sultan God

him

^^

*^!^>-

jlU^JI c^
'-
^l '^^

May God

curse you!
,^
.

^-i

May God
they

be exalted above whatl associate " with Him J


is

^'
^
-

^-7

^^

^) JC^L?

N.B. This optative tense


If

negated by

^
...

not
...

U
4i)i

you were

to

die may God forbid

rt^^^i sZ^a bi

(d)

continuous meaning; as in sayings of current value.


(are)

The commentators have

agreed

03j^^^^ ^Ai\
(*^*-)^'

The sheikh
(e)

said (says)

^^

An
I

action performed by the very act of speaking.

sell

you

this (on the instant)

i-^*

^x*)

[agree, now, to]

give

it

to

you
it

w J <^x..Lcl
be as

Wright suggests

that the use of


it

^lil here may signify "If


for him.

wish,

God

has already done

to him,

o;-

Athanasius and Gairdner speak

of this use of ^^U' as the action being "mentally conceived as completed".


5-

359

Why

is

P-jUaW

usually called

in

English

the Imperfect

Because

it

generally indicates an uncompleted action.

Man

arranges,

God

disposes

;-X^^ 4i)lj

jJi^ o^*^y
'i'i

God knows
6.

^'

What
It

distinguishes

^j'^laii

always commences with one of these four

letters

CA.il also
\*

it

should be capable of receiving the negative particle

7.

C'j Uall

may be used

to

denote

(a)

Present Tense, as

^^
to

a:>J

Li

How
By

can

it

be restricted

mean

the present only?


'^liVl

the use of

J
or,

of a^S^lll

as ^^xl

jj Truly the days


Uj

are passing

as

O^

(j^ji

^l> ^^aJ ^^j-XT

And no

one knows
(h)

in

what land he
It

will die.

Future Tense.
(i)cr'

is

limited to

the

future

by the use of

or

<~^

^^

as

i^J^ ^\J
''^
.

"^i ^j** Your


(ii)

Lord

will

give to you and ye shall be satisfied, as

The

particles of <_^^>

'

and ^1

^}

iO
J

^rv-:i-

\y^^s j

|j

(c)

Pas/ Tense when preceded by

or

did not hear what

you said <tXjy^ ^J\


(N.B. This

U (not yet)

is

not

much used

to

day; do not confuse

it

with the ordinary one

^^-^ IJ when he comes.

^^

(Jazmated)=he's not
[d)

yet come).

The Greek and Latin

Imperfect, with

o^

He (upon him be
It

36o

prayers and peace) used to say*


i!l>

ji-^)J^^)

jo

used to be there

Oj^^

d^
?

8.

What
It

does the Imperative denote

denotes a request for the performance of an action.


it

9.

Has
It

any distinctive mark


r/6/e to

must be

take -^o^xll

jj and
(It

it

must

contain

the

meaning

of a

command

or request.

does not follow that the


it

Imp

often does take

-^-'^-^l

oy

but

must be able

to

do

so).

Exercise 153.

To

English, then back to Arabic.

Lesson 154.
INTERJECTIONAL VERB.
1.

V^W ^J\

If

word has

the meaning of a verb but shews none of the

distinctive signs of a verb,


It is

what

is it

called

called Ji

^\

which some

have

proposed
it

to

call in

English "Nominal verb", but Sterling calls


function of a verb",
force".
I

"Adverb with the

and Wright, "Interjection with verbal


it

agree with the latter; some call


ive

"Semi-verb" or
proper Arabic

"Quasi-verb", but

ought

to call

it

by

its

name only Ism


2.

fi'l.

What
(j^U

classes
J5
;^J\

is it

divided into

(a)

has a past-tense signification.


it

Examples

Far be
it

(from me)
dlli Jlx^

"-^Vt*^

God

forbid that
is

be said
!

Ol^^*

Great

the difference

ju^
them
<i)l
!

How
^.I^

wide
is

is

the difference between

'^-^tHH

O^^^

a technical abbreviation of

}^^

A.lc

l^

Upon him

(the prophet)

be God's benedictions and peace.

Or, roughly,

"God

bless him."

(b)

361

f-jlja*

U^

^*^\

has a present signification


dear
e>\

c^_5

Wonderful

ugh
(c)

li

Oh

j\

J.*3

^^\ has an imperative signification Exs

Be quiet

<^

So
3.

let it

be

C>^\
-i-^^L^ (by usage) or
^-^^^-^

Are the above

(by rule)

The above
formed on

are all

i-i^W^

but there

is

one kind of y\ J* ^J\


triliteral

a definite

model from the regular


:

declinable

verb can be formed a

j>\

j^ ^^

on the form

JU

Exs

J-^*-

Mind

JV

After him
this

J^3 Catch him


to

Examples upon

form are said

be

'^^*^^

^
4.

NOUN OF SOUND 0^]i ^J


connection between
latter is
'i)l

)
and
<1jj^]\ ^s^

What

is

the

^1

Merely that the

considered as a sub-section of the

former, for treatment.


5.

Give examples of the two classes of

0^i

^^--^

(a)

Sounds addressed

to animals, etc.

To sheep To camels
(6)

^^
Jl>

Imitations of various noises (onomatopoeia).

Sound made by
Sound. made by

a falling stone
a

^jU
^Jlc-

crow
to

These are

all

\jX^^ being subject

no

rule.

Unimportant,

Exercise 154.

To English and back

to x^rabic.

^62

Lesson 155.
DECLENSION AND INDECLENSION

1.

How

do you define

's^^iJpVl

and

^^^j^a

^j<;^y\
final

(declension or case-inflection)
a

is

the

change

in the

vowel of
(as,
e.(j.

word caused by J-*U

a regent,

or governing
<^j**

word
2.

a particle).
-UJl

The word

is

then said to be

Then what
A'^]\

is

(Indeclension)

is

the opposite of

^l^^il

viz,

the retention
is

(or

unchangeableness) of the ending of a word, which


"jj.-^^

then

said to be

Uninflected.
as well as the

3.

Can the verb be declined

noun

The Arabic verb

is,

in origin,

^^a

but parts of

it

are

^j^a
.

where as the noun

is,

in general, <~^j^ but parts of

it

are ^->

The
4.

particle

is

always quite ^^-^

State what parts of the verb are indeclinable.

^111
to

is

J--^also jVl
(see

butP-jUll

is

only

^.a whenattached
nun of feminine
;

^S^]\ jy

Lesson
is

128), or to the

otherwise ^j^^i
5.

Vj*^

declinable.
?

What

is

the litera