EDUSAT PROGRAMME
LECTURE NOTES
ON
POWER ELECTRONICS
BY
PROF. M. MADHUSUDHAN RAO
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS &
COMMUNICATION ENGG.
M.S. RAMAIAH INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BANGALORE 560 054
2
AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER CIRCUITS
(RMS VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS)
AC voltage controllers (ac line voltage controllers) are employed to vary the RMS
value of the alternating voltage applied to a load circuit by introducing Thyristors
between the load and a constant voltage ac source. The RMS value of alternating voltage
applied to a load circuit is controlled by controlling the triggering angle of the Thyristors
in the ac voltage controller circuits.
In brief, an ac voltage controller is a type of thyristor power converter which is
used to convert a fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac input supply to obtain a variable
voltage ac output. The RMS value of the ac output voltage and the ac power flow to the
load is controlled by varying (adjusting) the trigger angle
AC
Voltage
Controller
V
0(RMS)
f
S
Variable AC
RMSO/P Voltage
AC
Input
Voltage
f
s
V
s
f
s
There are two different types of thyristor control used in practice to control the ac
power flow
OnOff control
Phase control
These are the two ac output voltage control techniques.
In OnOff control technique Thyristors are used as switches to connect the load circuit
to the ac supply (source) for a few cycles of the input ac supply and then to disconnect it
for few input cycles. The Thyristors thus act as a high speed contactor (or high speed ac
switch).
PHASE CONTROL
In phase control the Thyristors are used as switches to connect the load circuit to
the input ac supply, for a part of every input cycle. That is the ac supply voltage is
chopped using Thyristors during a part of each input cycle.
The thyristor switch is turned on for a part of every half cycle, so that input supply
voltage appears across the load and then turned off during the remaining part of input half
cycle to disconnect the ac supply from the load.
By controlling the phase angle or the trigger angle (delay angle), the output
RMS voltage across the load can be controlled.
The trigger delay angle is defined as the phase angle (the value of t) at which
the thyristor turns on and the load current begins to flow.
Thyristor ac voltage controllers use ac line commutation or ac phase commutation.
Thyristors in ac voltage controllers are line commutated (phase commutated) since the
input supply is ac. When the input ac voltage reverses and becomes negative during the
negative half cycle the current flowing through the conducting thyristor decreases and
3
falls to zero. Thus the ON thyristor naturally turns off, when the device current falls to
zero.
Phase control Thyristors which are relatively inexpensive, converter grade
Thyristors which are slower than fast switching inverter grade Thyristors are normally
used.
For applications upto 400Hz, if Triacs are available to meet the voltage and
current ratings of a particular application, Triacs are more commonly used.
Due to ac line commutation or natural commutation, there is no need of extra
commutation circuitry or components and the circuits for ac voltage controllers are very
simple.
Due to the nature of the output waveforms, the analysis, derivations of expressions
for performance parameters are not simple, especially for the phase controlled ac voltage
controllers with RL load. But however most of the practical loads are of the RL type and
hence RL load should be considered in the analysis and design of ac voltage controller
circuits.
TYPE OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS
The ac voltage controllers are classified into two types based on the type of input
ac supply applied to the circuit.
Single Phase AC Controllers.
Three Phase AC Controllers.
Single phase ac controllers operate with single phase ac supply voltage of 230V
RMS at 50Hz in our country. Three phase ac controllers operate with 3 phase ac supply of
400V RMS at 50Hz supply frequency.
Each type of controller may be sub divided into
Unidirectional or half wave ac controller.
Bidirectional or full wave ac controller.
In brief different types of ac voltage controllers are
Single phase half wave ac voltage controller (unidirectional controller).
Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (bidirectional controller).
Three phase half wave ac voltage controller (unidirectional controller).
Three phase full wave ac voltage controller (bidirectional controller).
APPLICATIONS OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS
Lighting / Illumination control in ac power circuits.
Induction heating.
Industrial heating & Domestic heating.
Transformer tap changing (on load transformer tap changing).
Speed control of induction motors (single phase and poly phase ac induction
motor control).
AC magnet controls.
PRINCIPLE OF ONOFF CONTROL TECHNIQUE (INTEGRAL CYCLE
CONTROL)
The basic principle of onoff control technique is explained with reference to a
single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit shown below. The thyristor switches
1
T and
2
T are turned on by applying appropriate gate trigger pulses to connect the input
ac supply to the load for n number of input cycles during the time interval
ON
t . The
4
thyristor switches
1
T and
2
T are turned off by blocking the gate trigger pulses for m
number of input cycles during the time interval
OFF
t . The ac controller ON time
ON
t
usually consists of an integral number of input cycles.
L
R R = = Load Resistance
Fig.: Single phase full wave AC voltage controller circuit
V
s
V
o
i
o
i
g1
i
g2
wt
wt
wt
wt
Gate pulse of T
1
Gate pulse of T
2
n m
Fig.: Waveforms
Example
Referring to the waveforms of ONOFF control technique in the above diagram,
n =Two input cycles. Thyristors are turned ON during
ON
t for two input cycles.
5
m = One input cycle. Thyristors are turned OFF during
OFF
t for one input cycle
Fig.: Power Factor
Thyristors are turned ON precisely at the zero voltage crossings of the input
supply. The thyristor
1
T is turned on at the beginning of each positive half cycle by
applying the gate trigger pulses to
1
T as shown, during the ON time
ON
t . The load current
flows in the positive direction, which is the downward direction as shown in the circuit
diagram when
1
T conducts. The thyristor
2
T is turned on at the beginning of each
negative half cycle, by applying gating signal to the gate of
2
T , during
ON
t . The load
current flows in the reverse direction, which is the upward direction when
2
T conducts.
Thus we obtain a bidirectional load current flow (alternating load current flow) in a ac
voltage controller circuit, by triggering the thyristors alternately.
This type of control is used in applications which have high mechanical inertia
and high thermal time constant (Industrial heating and speed control of ac motors). Due to
zero voltage and zero current switching of Thyristors, the harmonics generated by
switching actions are reduced.
For a sine wave input supply voltage,
sin 2 sin
s m S
v V t V t = =
S
V =RMS value of input ac supply =
2
m
V
= RMS phase supply voltage.
If the input ac supply is connected to load for n number of input cycles and
disconnected for m number of input cycles, then
,
ON OFF
t n T t m T = =
Where
1
T
f
= = input cycle time (time period) and
f = input supply frequency.
ON
t = controller on time = n T .
OFF
t = controller off time = m T .
O
T = Output time period = ( ) ( )
ON OFF
t t nT mT + = + .
6
We can show that,
Output RMS voltage
( ) ( )
ON ON
S O RMS i RMS
O O
t t
V V V
T T
= =
Where
( ) i RMS
V is the RMS input supply voltage =
S
V .
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE RMS VALUE OF OUTPUT
VOLTAGE, FOR ONOFF CONTROL METHOD.
Output RMS voltage
( )
( )
2 2
0
1
.
ON
t
m O RMS
O t
V V Sin t d t
T
=
=
( )
( )
2
2
0
.
ON
t
m
O RMS
O
V
V Sin t d t
T
Substituting for
2
1 2
2
Cos
Sin
=
( )
( )
2
0
1 2
2
ON
t
m
O RMS
O
V Cos t
V d t
T
( )
( ) ( )
2
0 0
2 .
2
ON ON
t t
m
O RMS
O
V
V d t Cos t d t
T
=
( )
( )
2
0 0
2
2 2
ON ON
t t
m
O RMS
O
V Sin t
V t
T
=
( )
( )
2
sin 2 sin 0
0
2 2
m ON
ON O RMS
O
V t
V t
T
=
Now
ON
t = An integral number of input cycles; Hence
, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ,.....
ON
t T T T T T = & 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 ,10 ,......
ON
t =
Where T is the input supply time period (T = input cycle time period). Thus we note that
sin 2 0
ON
t =
( )
2
2 2
m ON m ON
O RMS
O O
V t V t
V
T T
= =
7
( ) ( )
ON ON
S O RMS i RMS
O O
t t
V V V
T T
= =
Where
( )
2
m
S i RMS
V
V V = = = RMS value of input supply voltage;
( )
ON ON
O ON OFF
t t nT n
k
T t t nT mT n m
= = = =
+ + +
= duty cycle (d).
( )
( )
S S O RMS
n
V V V k
m n
= =
+
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS
RMS Output (Load) Voltage
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
2 2
0
sin .
2
m O RMS
n
V V t d t
n m
=
+
( )
( )
( )
2
m
S O RMS i RMS
V n
V V k V k
m n
= = =
+
( ) ( ) S O RMS i RMS
V V k V k = =
Where
( ) S i RMS
V V = = RMS value of input supply voltage.
Duty Cycle
( ) ( )
ON ON
O ON OFF
t t nT
k
T t t m n T
= = =
+ +
Where,
( )
n
k
m n
=
+
= duty cycle (d).
RMS Load Current
( )
( ) ( ) O RMS O RMS
O RMS
L
V V
I
Z R
= = ; for a resistive load
L
Z R = .
Output AC (Load) Power
( )
2
O L O RMS
P I R =
8
Input Power Factor
output load power
input supply volt amperes
O O
S S
P P
PF
VA V I
= = =
( )
( ) ( )
2
L O RMS
i RMS in RMS
I R
PF
V I
;
( ) S in RMS
I I = =RMS input supply current.
The input supply current is same as the load current
in O L
I I I = =
Hence, RMS supply current = RMS load current;
( ) ( ) in RMS O RMS
I I = .
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
L O RMS O RMS i RMS
i RMS in RMS i RMS i RMS
I R V V k
PF k
V I V V
= = = =
n
PF k
m n
= =
+
The Average Current of Thyristor
( ) T Avg
I
( )
( )
( )
0
sin .
2
m T Avg
n
I I t d t
m n
=
+
( )
( )
( )
0
sin .
2
m
T Avg
nI
I t d t
m n
=
+
( )
( )
0
cos
2
m
T Avg
nI
I t
m n
=
+
( )
( )
[ ] cos cos 0
2
m
T Avg
nI
I
m n
= +
+
0
2 3 t
I
m
n
m
i
T
Waveform of Thyristor Current
9
( )
( )
( ) 1 1
2
m
T Avg
nI
I
m n
= +
+
( )
( )
[ ] 2
2
m T Avg
n
I I
m n
=
+
( )
( )
.
m m
T Avg
I n k I
I
m n
= =
+
( ) ( )
duty cycle
ON
ON OFF
t n
k
t t n m
= = =
+ +
( )
( )
.
m m
T Avg
I n k I
I
m n
= =
+
,
Where
m
m
L
V
I
R
= = maximum or peak thyristor current.
RMS Current of Thyristor
( ) T RMS
I
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2 2
0
sin .
2
m T RMS
n
I I t d t
n m
=
+
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
2
0
sin .
2
m
T RMS
nI
I t d t
n m
=
+
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
0
1 cos 2
2 2
m
T RMS
t nI
I d t
n m
=
+
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
2
2
0 0
cos 2 .
4
m
T RMS
nI
I d t t d t
n m
(
=
( `
+
(
)
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
0 0
sin 2
2 4
m
T RMS
nI t
I t
n m
(
=
( `
+
'
(
)
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
sin 2 sin 0
0
4 2
m
T RMS
nI
I
n m
(
=
` (
+
' )
10
( )
( )
{ }
1
2 2
0 0
4
m
T RMS
nI
I
n m
=
+
( )
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2
4 4
m m
T RMS
nI nI
I
n m n m
= =
+ +
( )
( ) 2 2
m m
T RMS
I I n
I k
m n
= =
+
( )
2
m
T RMS
I
I k =
PROBLEM
1. A single phase full wave ac voltage controller working on ONOFF control
technique has supply voltage of 230V, RMS 50Hz, load = 50. The controller is
ON for 30 cycles and off for 40 cycles. Calculate
ON & OFF time intervals.
RMS output voltage.
Input P.F.
Average and RMS thyristor currents.
( )
230
in RMS
V V = , 2 230 325.269
m
V V = = V, 325.269
m
V V = ,
1 1
0.02sec
50
T
f Hz
= = = , 20 T ms = .
n = number of input cycles during which controller is ON; 30 n = .
m = number of input cycles during which controller is OFF; 40 m = .
30 20 600 0.6sec
ON
t n T ms ms = = = =
0.6sec
ON
t n T = = = controller ON time.
40 20 800 0.8sec
OFF
t m T ms ms = = = =
0.8sec
OFF
t m T = = = controller OFF time.
Duty cycle
( ) ( )
30
0.4285
40 30
n
k
m n
= = =
+ +
RMS output voltage
( ) ( )
( )
O RMS i RMS
n
V V
m n
=
+
11
( )
( )
30 3
230 230
30 40 7
O RMS
V V = =
+
( )
230 0.42857 230 0.65465
O RMS
V V = =
( )
150.570
O RMS
V V =
( )
( ) ( )
150.570
3.0114
50
O RMS O RMS
O RMS
L
V V
V
I A
Z R
= = = =
( )
2 2
3.0114 50 453.426498
O L O RMS
P I R W = = =
Input Power Factor . P F k =
( )
30
0.4285
70
n
PF
m n
= = =
+
0.654653 PF =
Average Thyristor Current Rating
( )
m m
T Avg
I k I n
I
m n
= =
+
where
2 230 325.269
50 50
m
m
L
V
I
R
= = =
6.505382
m
I A = = Peak (maximum) thyristor current.
( )
6.505382 3
7
T Avg
I
=
( )
0.88745
T Avg
I A =
RMS Current Rating of Thyristor
( )
( )
6.505382 3
2 2 2 7
m m
T RMS
I I n
I k
m n
= = =
+
( )
2.129386
T RMS
I A =
12
PRINCIPLE OF AC PHASE CONTROL
The basic principle of ac phase control technique is explained with reference to a
single phase half wave ac voltage controller (unidirectional controller) circuit shown in
the below figure.
The half wave ac controller uses one thyristor and one diode connected in parallel
across each other in opposite direction that is anode of thyristor
1
T is connected to the
cathode of diode
1
D and the cathode of
1
T is connected to the anode of
1
D . The output
voltage across the load resistor R and hence the ac power flow to the load is controlled
by varying the trigger angle .
The trigger angle or the delay angle refers to the value of t or the instant at
which the thyristor
1
T is triggered to turn it ON, by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse
between the gate and cathode lead.
The thyristor
1
T is forward biased during the positive half cycle of input ac supply.
It can be triggered and made to conduct by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse only
during the positive half cycle of input supply. When
1
T is triggered it conducts and the
load current flows through the thyristor
1
T , the load and through the transformer
secondary winding.
By assuming
1
T as an ideal thyristor switch it can be considered as a closed switch
when it is ON during the period t = to radians. The output voltage across the load
follows the input supply voltage when the thyristor
1
T is turnedon and when it conducts
from t = to radians. When the input supply voltage decreases to zero at t = , for
a resistive load the load current also falls to zero at t = and hence the thyristor
1
T
turns off at t = . Between the time period t = to 2 , when the supply voltage
reverses and becomes negative the diode
1
D becomes forward biased and hence turns ON
and conducts. The load current flows in the opposite direction during t = to
2 radians when
1
D is ON and the output voltage follows the negative half cycle of input
supply.
Fig.: Halfwave AC phase controller (Unidirectional Controller)
13
Equations
Input AC Supply Voltage across the Transformer Secondary Winding.
sin
s m
v V t =
( )
2
m
S in RMS
V
V V = = = RMS value of secondary supply voltage.
Output Load Voltage
0
o L
v v = = ; for 0 t = to
sin
o L m
v v V t = = ; for t = to 2 .
Output Load Current
sin
o m
o L
L L
v V t
i i
R R
= = = ; for t = to 2 .
0
o L
i i = = ; for 0 t = to .
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR RMS OUTPUT VOLTAGE
( ) O RMS
V
( )
( )
2
2 2
1
sin .
2
m O RMS
V V t d t
( )
( )
2 2
1 cos 2
.
2 2
m
O RMS
V t
V d t
(
=
(
'
14
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1 cos 2 .
4
m
O RMS
V
V t d t
( )
( )
2 2
cos 2 .
2
m
O RMS
V
V d t t d t
=
( )
( )
2 2
sin 2
2 2
m
O RMS
V t
V t
(
=
(
'
( )
( )
2
sin 2
2
2 2
m
O RMS
V t
V
=
( )
( )
sin 4 sin 2
2 ; sin 4 0
2 2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
= =
( )
( )
sin 2
2
2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
= +
( )
( )
sin 2
2
2 2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
= +
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
2 2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
= +
( ) ( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
2 2
O RMS i RMS
V V
= +
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
2 2
S O RMS
V V
= +
Where,
( )
2
m
S i RMS
V
V V = = = RMS value of input supply voltage (across the
transformer secondary winding).
Note: Output RMS voltage across the load is controlled by changing ' ' as indicated by
the expression for
( ) O RMS
V
15
PLOT OF
( ) O RMS
V VERSUS TRIGGER ANGLE FOR A SINGLE PHASE HALF
WAVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER (UNIDIRECTIONAL CONTROLLER)
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
2 2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
= +
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
2 2
S O RMS
V V
= +
By using the expression for
( ) O RMS
V we can obtain the control characteristics,
which is the plot of RMS output voltage
( ) O RMS
V versus the trigger angle . A typical
control characteristic of single phase halfwave phase controlled ac voltage controller is
as shown below
Trigger angle
in degrees
Trigger angle
in radians
( ) O RMS
V
0 0
2
m
S
V
V =
0
30
6
( )
1
;
6
0.992765
S
V
0
60
3
( )
2
;
6
0.949868
S
V
0
90
2
( )
3
;
6
0.866025
S
V
0
120
2
3
( )
4
;
6
0.77314
S
V
0
150
5
6
( )
5
;
6
0.717228
S
V
0
180
( )
6
;
6
0.707106
S
V
V
O(RMS)
Trigger angle in degrees
0 60 120 180
100% V
S
20% V
S
60% V
S
70.7% V
S
Fig.: Control characteristics of single phase halfwave phase controlled ac voltage
controller
16
Note: We can observe from the control characteristics and the table given above that the
range of RMS output voltage control is from 100% of
S
V to 70.7% of
S
V when we vary
the trigger angle from zero to 180 degrees. Thus the half wave ac controller has the
draw back of limited range RMS output voltage control.
TO CALCULATE THE AVERAGE VALUE (DC VALUE) OF OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
( )
( )
2
1
sin .
2
m O dc
V V t d t
( )
( )
2
sin .
2
m
O dc
V
V t d t
( )
2
cos
2
m
O dc
V
V t
=
( )
[ ] cos 2 cos
2
m
O dc
V
V
= + ; cos 2 1 =
[ ] cos 1
2
m
dc
V
V
= ; 2
m S
V V =
Hence ( )
2
cos 1
2
S
dc
V
V
=
When ' ' is varied from 0 to .
dc
V varies from 0 to
m
V
DISADVANTAGES OF SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE AC VOLTAGE
CONTROLLER.
The output load voltage has a DC component because the two halves of the output
voltage waveform are not symmetrical with respect to 0 level. The input supply
current waveform also has a DC component (average value) which can result in
the problem of core saturation of the input supply transformer.
The half wave ac voltage controller using a single thyristor and a single diode
provides control on the thyristor only in one half cycle of the input supply. Hence
ac power flow to the load can be controlled only in one half cycle.
Half wave ac voltage controller gives limited range of RMS output voltage
control. Because the RMS value of ac output voltage can be varied from a
maximum of 100% of
S
V at a trigger angle 0 = to a low of 70.7% of
S
V at
Radians = .
These drawbacks of single phase half wave ac voltage controller can be over come
by using a single phase full wave ac voltage controller.
17
APPLICATIONS OF RMS VOLTAGE CONTROLLER
Speed control of induction motor (polyphase ac induction motor).
Heater control circuits (industrial heating).
Welding power control.
Induction heating.
On load transformer tap changing.
Lighting control in ac circuits.
Ac magnet controls.
Problem
1. A single phase halfwave ac voltage controller has a load resistance 50 R = ,
input ac supply voltage is 230V RMS at 50Hz. The input supply transformer has a
turns ratio of 1:1. If the thyristor
1
T is triggered at
0
60 = . Calculate
RMS output voltage.
Output power.
RMS load current and average load current.
Input power factor.
Average and RMS thyristor current.
Given,
0
S
230 , primary supply voltage.
Input supply frequency = 50Hz.
50
60 radians.
3
V RMS secondary voltage.
p
L
V V RMS
f
R
=
=
=
= =
=
1
1
1
p p
S S
V N
V N
= = =
Therefore 230
p S
V V V = =
Where,
p
N = Number of turns in the primary winding.
S
N = Number of turns in the secondary winding.
18
RMS Value of Output (Load) Voltage
( ) O RMS
V
( )
( )
2
2 2
1
sin .
2
m O RMS
V V t d t
We have obtained the expression for
( ) O RMS
V as
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
2 2
S O RMS
V V
= +
( )
0
1 sin120
230 2
2 3 2
O RMS
V
(
= +
(
'
( )
[ ]
1
230 5.669 230 0.94986
2
O RMS
V
= =
( )
218.4696 218.47
O RMS
V V V =
RMS Load Current
( ) O RMS
I
( )
( )
218.46966
4.36939
50
O RMS
O RMS
L
V
I Amps
R
= = =
Output Load Power
O
P
( )
( )
2
2
4.36939 50 954.5799
O L O RMS
P I R Watts = = =
0.9545799
O
P KW =
Input Power Factor
O
S S
P
PF
V I
=
S
V = RMS secondary supply voltage = 230V.
S
I = RMS secondary supply current = RMS load current.
( )
4.36939
S O RMS
I I Amps = =
( )
954.5799 W
0.9498
230 4.36939 W
PF = =
19
Average Output (Load) Voltage
( )
( )
2
1
sin .
2
m O dc
V V t d t
We have obtained the expression for the average / DC output voltage as,
( )
[ ] cos 1
2
m
O dc
V
V
=
( )
( ) [ ]
0
2 230 325.2691193
cos 60 1 0.5 1
2 2
O dc
V
= =
( )
[ ]
325.2691193
0.5 25.88409 Volts
2
O dc
V
= =
Average DC Load Current
( )
( )
25.884094
0.51768 Amps
50
O dc
O dc
L
V
I
R
= = =
Average & RMS Thyristor Currents
I
m
i
T1
2
(2 + )
3
t
Fig.: Thyristor Current Waveform
Referring to the thyristor current waveform of a single phase halfwave ac voltage
controller circuit, we can calculate the average thyristor current
( ) T Avg
I as
( )
( )
1
sin .
2
m T Avg
I I t d t
( )
( ) sin .
2
m
T Avg
I
I t d t
20
( )
( ) cos
2
m
T Avg
I
I t
=
( )
( ) cos cos
2
m
T Avg
I
I
= +
( )
[ ] 1 cos
2
m
T Avg
I
I
= +
Where,
m
m
L
V
I
R
= = Peak thyristor current = Peak load current.
2 230
50
m
I
=
6.505382 Amps
m
I =
( )
[ ] 1 cos
2
m
T Avg
L
V
I
R
= +
( )
( )
0
2 230
1 cos 60
2 50
T Avg
I
= +
( )
[ ]
2 230
1 0.5
100
T Avg
I
= +
( )
1.5530 Amps
T Avg
I =
RMS thyristor current
( ) T RMS
I can be calculated by using the expression
( )
( )
2 2
1
sin .
2
m T RMS
I I t d t
( )
( )
( )
2
1 cos 2
.
2 2
m
T RMS
t I
I d t
( )
( ) ( )
2
cos 2 .
4
m
T RMS
I
I d t t d t
=
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2 4
m T RMS
t
I I t
(
=
(
'
21
( )
( )
1 sin 2 sin 2
4 2
m T RMS
I I
(
=
`
(
)
( )
( )
1 sin 2
4 2
m T RMS
I I
= +
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2 2 2
m
T RMS
I
I
= +
( )
( )
0
sin 120
6.50538 1
2 3 2 2
T RMS
I
(
( = +
' (
( )
1 2 0.8660254
4.6
2 3 2
T RMS
I
(
= +
(
'
( )
4.6 0.6342 2.91746
T RMS
I A = =
( )
2.91746 Amps
T RMS
I =
SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER (AC
REGULATOR) OR RMS VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH RESISTIVE LOAD
Single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using two SCRs or a single
triac is generally used in most of the ac control applications. The ac power flow to the
load can be controlled in both the half cycles by varying the trigger angle ' ' .
The RMS value of load voltage can be varied by varying the trigger angle ' ' .
The input supply current is alternating in the case of a full wave ac voltage controller and
due to the symmetrical nature of the input supply current waveform there is no dc
component of input supply current i.e., the average value of the input supply current is
zero.
A single phase full wave ac voltage controller with a resistive load is shown in the
figure below. It is possible to control the ac power flow to the load in both the half cycles
by adjusting the trigger angle ' ' . Hence the full wave ac voltage controller is also
referred to as to a bidirectional controller.
22
Fig.: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (Bidirectional Controller) using
SCRs
The thyristor
1
T is forward biased during the positive half cycle of the input
supply voltage. The thyristor
1
T is triggered at a delay angle of ' ' ( ) 0 radians .
Considering the ON thyristor
1
T as an ideal closed switch the input supply voltage
appears across the load resistor
L
R and the output voltage
O S
v v = during t = to
radians. The load current flows through the ON thyristor
1
T and through the load
resistor
L
R in the downward direction during the conduction time of
1
T from t = to
radians.
At t = , when the input voltage falls to zero the thyristor current (which is
flowing through the load resistor
L
R ) falls to zero and hence
1
T naturally turns off . No
current flows in the circuit during t = to ( ) + .
The thyristor
2
T is forward biased during the negative cycle of input supply and
when thyristor
2
T is triggered at a delay angle ( ) + , the output voltage follows the
negative halfcycle of input from ( ) t = + to 2 . When
2
T is ON, the load current
flows in the reverse direction (upward direction) through
2
T during ( ) t = + to
2 radians. The time interval (spacing) between the gate trigger pulses of
1
T and
2
T is
kept at radians or 180
0
. At 2 t = the input supply voltage falls to zero and hence the
load current also falls to zero and thyristor
2
T turn off naturally.
Instead of using two SCRs in parallel, a Triac can be used for full wave ac voltage
control.
Fig.: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (Bidirectional Controller) using
TRIAC
23
Fig: Waveforms of single phase full wave ac voltage controller
EQUATIONS
Input supply voltage
sin 2 sin
S m S
v V t V t = = ;
Output voltage across the load resistor
L
R ;
sin
O L m
v v V t = = ;
for to t = and ( ) to 2 t = +
Output load current
sin
sin
O m
O m
L L
v V t
i I t
R R
= = = ;
for to t = and ( ) to 2 t = +
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE RMS VALUE OF OUTPUT (LOAD)
VOLTAGE
The RMS value of output voltage (load voltage) can be found using the expression
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2 2
0
1
2
L O RMS L RMS
V V v d t
= =
;
24
For a full wave ac voltage controller, we can see that the two half cycles of output
voltage waveforms are symmetrical and the output pulse time period (or output pulse
repetition time) is radians. Hence we can also calculate the RMS output voltage by
using the expression given below.
( )
2 2 2
0
1
sin .
m L RMS
V V t d t
( )
( )
2
2 2
0
1
.
2
L L RMS
V v d t
;
sin
L O m
v v V t = = ; For to t = and ( ) to 2 t = +
Hence,
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
1
sin sin
2
m m L RMS
V V t d t V t d t
+
= +
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2
1
sin . sin .
2
m m
V t d t V t d t
+
= +
( ) ( )
2 2
1 cos 2 1 cos 2
2 2 2
m
V t t
d t d t
+
= +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
cos 2 . cos 2 .
2 2
m
V
d t t d t d t t d t
+ +
= +
( ) ( )
2 2 2
sin 2 sin 2
4 2 2
m
V t t
t t
+ +
= +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1
sin 2 sin 2 sin 4 sin 2
4 2 2
m
V
= + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1
2 0 sin 2 0 sin 2
4 2 2
m
V
= +
( )
( )
2
sin 2 sin 2
2
4 2 2
m
V
+
= + +
( )
( )
2
sin 2 2 sin 2
2
4 2 2
m
V
+
= + +
25
( ) ( )
2
sin 2 1
2 sin 2 .cos 2 cos 2 .sin 2
4 2 2
m
V
= + + +
sin 2 0 & cos 2 1 = =
Therefore,
( )
( )
2
2
sin 2 sin 2
2
4 2 2
m
L RMS
V
V
= + +
( )
2
2 sin 2
4
m
V
= +
( )
( )
2
2
2 2 sin 2
4
m
L RMS
V
V
= +
Taking the square root, we get
( )
( ) 2 2 sin 2
2
m
L RMS
V
V
= +
( )
( ) 2 2 sin 2
2 2
m
L RMS
V
V
= +
( )
( )
1
2 2 sin 2
2 2
m
L RMS
V
V
= +
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
2 2 2
m
L RMS
V
V
(
= +
`
(
)
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2 2
m
L RMS
V
V
= +
( ) ( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
L RMS i RMS
V V
= +
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
S L RMS
V V
= +
Maximum RMS voltage will be applied to the load when 0 = , in that case the
full sine wave appears across the load. RMS load voltage will be the same as the RMS
supply voltage
2
m
V
= . When is increased the RMS load voltage decreases.
26
( )
( )
0
1 sin 2 0
0
2 2
m
L RMS
V
V
=
= +
( )
( )
0
1 0
2 2
m
L RMS
V
V
=
= +
( ) ( )
0
2
m
S L RMS i RMS
V
V V V
=
= = =
The output control characteristic for a single phase full wave ac voltage controller
with resistive load can be obtained by plotting the equation for
( ) O RMS
V
CONTROL CHARACTERISTIC OF SINGLE PHASE FULLWAVE AC
VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH RESISTIVE LOAD
The control characteristic is the plot of RMS output voltage
( ) O RMS
V versus the
trigger angle ; which can be obtained by using the expression for the RMS output
voltage of a fullwave ac controller with resistive load.
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
S O RMS
V V
= +
;
Where
2
m
S
V
V = =RMS value of input supply voltage
Trigger angle
in degrees
Trigger angle
in radians
( ) O RMS
V
%
0 0
S
V 100%
S
V
0
30
6
( )
1
;
6
0.985477
S
V
98.54%
S
V
0
60
3
( )
2
;
6
0.896938
S
V
89.69%
S
V
0
90
2
( )
3
;
6
0.7071
S
V
70.7%
S
V
0
120
2
3
( )
4
;
6
0.44215
S
V
44.21%
S
V
0
150
5
6
( )
5
;
6
0.1698
S
V
16.98%
S
V
0
180
( )
6
;
6
0
S
V
0
S
V
27
V
O(RMS)
Trigger angle in degrees
0 60 120 180
V
S
0.2 V
S
0.6V
S
We can notice from the figure, that we obtain a much better output control
characteristic by using a single phase full wave ac voltage controller. The RMS output
voltage can be varied from a maximum of 100%
S
V at 0 = to a minimum of 0 at
0
180 = . Thus we get a full range output voltage control by using a single phase full
wave ac voltage controller.
Need For Isolation
In the single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using two SCRs or
Thyristors
1
T and
2
T in parallel, the gating circuits (gate trigger pulse generating circuits)
of Thyristors
1
T and
2
T must be isolated. Figure shows a pulse transformer with two
separate windings to provide isolation between the gating signals of
1
T and
2
T .
G
1
K
1
G
2
K
2
Gate
Trigger
Pulse
Generator
Fig.: Pulse Transformer
SINGLE PHASE FULLWAVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH
COMMON CATHODE
It is possible to design a single phase full wave ac controller with a common
cathode configuration by having a common cathode point for
1
T and
2
T & by adding two
diodes in a full wave ac controller circuit as shown in the figure below
28
Fig.: Single phase full wave ac controller with common cathode
(Bidirectional controller in common cathode configuration)
Thyristor
1
T and diode
1
D are forward biased during the positive half cycle of
input supply. When thyristor
1
T is triggered at a delay angle , Thyristor
1
T and diode
1
D conduct together from t = to during the positive half cycle.
The thyristor
2
T and diode
2
D are forward biased during the negative half cycle
of input supply, when trigged at a delay angle , thyristor
2
T and diode
2
D conduct
together during the negative half cycle from ( ) t = + to 2 .
In this circuit as there is one single common cathode point, routing of the gate
trigger pulses to the thyristor gates of
1
T and
2
T is simpler and only one isolation circuit
is required.
But due to the need of two power diodes the costs of the devices increase. As
there are two power devices conducting at the same time the voltage drop across the ON
devices increases and the ON state conducting losses of devices increase and hence the
efficiency decreases.
SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER USING A
SINGLE THYRISTOR
R
L
T
1
AC
Supply

D
1
D
4
D
3
D
2
+
29
A single phase full wave ac controller can also be implemented with one thyristor
and four diodes connected in a full wave bridge configuration as shown in the above
figure. The four diodes act as a bridge full wave rectifier. The voltage across the thyristor
1
T and current through thyristor
1
T are always unidirectional. When
1
T is triggered at
t = , during the positive half cycle ( ) 0 , the load current flows through
1
D ,
1
T ,
diode
2
D and through the load. With a resistive load, the thyristor current (flowing
through the ON thyristor
1
T ) , the load current falls to zero at t = , when the input
supply voltage decreases to zero at t = , the thyristor naturally turns OFF.
In the negative half cycle, diodes
3 4
& D D are forward biased during
to 2 t = radians. When
1
T is triggered at ( ) t = + , the load current flows in the
opposite direction (upward direction) through the load, through
3
D ,
1
T and
4
D . Thus
3
D ,
4
D and
1
T conduct together during the negative half cycle to supply the load power. When
the input supply voltage becomes zero at 2 t = , the thyristor current (load current)
falls to zero at 2 t = and the thyristor
1
T naturally turns OFF. The waveforms and the
expression for the RMS output voltage are the same as discussed earlier for the single
phase full wave ac controller.
But however if there is a large inductance in the load circuit, thyristor
1
T may not
be turned OFF at the zero crossing points, in every half cycle of input voltage and this
may result in a loss of output control. This would require detection of the zero crossing of
the load current waveform in order to ensure guaranteed turn off of the conducting
thyristor before triggering the thyristor in the next half cycle, so that we gain control on
the output voltage.
In this full wave ac controller circuit using a single thyristor, as there are three
power devices conducting together at the same time there is more conduction voltage
drop and an increase in the ON state conduction losses and hence efficiency is also
reduced.
The diode bridge rectifier and thyristor (or a power transistor) act together as a
bidirectional switch which is commercially available as a single device module and it has
relatively low ON state conduction loss. It can be used for bidirectional load current
control and for controlling the RMS output voltage.
SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER
(BIDIRECTIONAL CONTROLLER) WITH RL LOAD
In this section we will discuss the operation and performance of a single phase full
wave ac voltage controller with RL load. In practice most of the loads are of RL type. For
example if we consider a single phase full wave ac voltage controller controlling the
speed of a single phase ac induction motor, the load which is the induction motor winding
is an RL type of load, where R represents the motor winding resistance and L represents
the motor winding inductance.
30
A single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit (bidirectional controller)
with an RL load using two thyristors
1
T and
2
T (
1
T and
2
T are two SCRs) connected in
parallel is shown in the figure below. In place of two thyristors a single Triac can be used
to implement a full wave ac controller, if a suitable Traic is available for the desired RMS
load current and the RMS output voltage ratings.
Fig: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL load
The thyristor
1
T is forward biased during the positive half cycle of input supply.
Let us assume that
1
T is triggered at t = , by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse to
1
T during the positive half cycle of input supply. The output voltage across the load
follows the input supply voltage when
1
T is ON. The load current
O
i flows through the
thyristor
1
T and through the load in the downward direction. This load current pulse
flowing through
1
T can be considered as the positive current pulse. Due to the inductance
in the load, the load current
O
i flowing through
1
T would not fall to zero at t = , when
the input supply voltage starts to become negative.
The thyristor
1
T will continue to conduct the load current until all the inductive
energy stored in the load inductor L is completely utilized and the load current through
1
T
falls to zero at t = , where is referred to as the Extinction angle, (the value of t )
at which the load current falls to zero. The extinction angle is measured from the point
of the beginning of the positive half cycle of input supply to the point where the load
current falls to zero.
31
The thyristor
1
T conducts from t = to . The conduction angle of
1
T is
( ) = , which depends on the delay angle and the load impedance angle . The
waveforms of the input supply voltage, the gate trigger pulses of
1
T and
2
T , the thyristor
current, the load current and the load voltage waveforms appear as shown in the figure
below.
Fig.: Input supply voltage & Thyristor current waveforms
is the extinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value.
Fig.: Gating Signals
32
Waveforms of single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL load for > .
Discontinuous load current operation occurs for > and ( ) < + ;
i.e., ( ) < , conduction angle < .
Fig.: Waveforms of Input supply voltage, Load Current, Load Voltage and
Thyristor Voltage across
1
T
Note
The RMS value of the output voltage and the load current may be varied by
varying the trigger angle .
This circuit, AC RMS voltage controller can be used to regulate the RMS voltage
across the terminals of an ac motor (induction motor). It can be used to control the
temperature of a furnace by varying the RMS output voltage.
33
For very large load inductance L the SCR may fail to commutate, after it is
triggered and the load voltage will be a full sine wave (similar to the applied input
supply voltage and the output control will be lost) as long as the gating signals are
applied to the thyristors
1
T and
2
T . The load current waveform will appear as a
full continuous sine wave and the load current waveform lags behind the output
sine wave by the load power factor angle .
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE OUTPUT (INDUCTIVE LOAD)
CURRENT, DURING to t = WHEN THYRISTOR
1
T CONDUCTS
Considering sinusoidal input supply voltage we can write the expression for the
supply voltage as
sin
S m
v V t = = instantaneous value of the input supply voltage.
Let us assume that the thyristor
1
T is triggered by applying the gating signal to
1
T
at t = . The load current which flows through the thyristor
1
T during t = to can
be found from the equation
sin
O
O m
di
L Ri V t
dt
+ =
;
The solution of the above differential equation gives the general expression for the
output load current which is of the form
( )
1
sin
t
m
O
V
i t Ae
Z
= + ;
Where 2
m S
V V = = maximum or peak value of input supply voltage.
( )
2
2
Z R L = + = Load impedance.
1
tan
L
R
=
= Load impedance angle (power factor angle of load).
L
R
= = Load circuit time constant.
Therefore the general expression for the output load current is given by the
equation
( )
1
sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i t Ae
Z
= + ;
34
The value of the constant
1
A can be determined from the initial condition. i.e.
initial value of load current 0
O
i = , at t = . Hence from the equation for
O
i equating
O
i to zero and substituting t = , we get
( )
1
0 sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i Ae
Z
= = +
Therefore ( )
1
sin
R
t
m L
V
Ae
Z
=
( )
1
1
sin
m
R
t
L
V
A
Z
e
=
( )
1
sin
R
t
m L
V
A e
Z
+
=
( )
( )
1
sin
R t
m L
V
A e
Z
=
By substituting t = , we get the value of constant
1
A as
( )
( )
1
sin
R
m L
V
A e
Z
=
Substituting the value of constant
1
A from the above equation into the expression for
O
i ,
we obtain
( )
( )
( ) sin sin
R R
t
m m L L
O
V V
i t e e
Z Z
= +
;
( )
( ) ( )
( ) sin sin
R t R
m m L L
O
V V
i t e e
Z Z
= +
( )
( )
( ) sin sin
R
t
m m L
O
V V
i t e
Z Z
= +
Therefore we obtain the final expression for the inductive load current of a single
phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL load as
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i t e
Z
=
; Where t .
35
The above expression also represents the thyristor current
1 T
i , during the
conduction time interval of thyristor
1
T from to t = .
To Calculate Extinction Angle
The extinction angle , which is the value of t at which the load current
O
i falls to zero and
1
T is turned off can be estimated by using the condition that
0
O
i = , at t =
By using the above expression for the output load current, we can write
( ) ( )
( )
0 sin sin
R
m L
O
V
i e
Z
= =
As 0
m
V
Z
we can write
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin 0
R
L
e
=
Therefore we obtain the expression
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
L
e
=
The extinction angle can be determined from this transcendental equation by
using the iterative method of solution (trial and error method). After is calculated, we
can determine the thyristor conduction angle ( ) = .
is the extinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value.
Conduction angle increases as is decreased for a known value of .
For < radians, i.e., for ( ) < radians, for ( ) + > the load current
waveform appears as a discontinuous current waveform as shown in the figure. The
output load current remains at zero during t = to ( ) + . This is referred to as
discontinuous load current operation which occurs for ( ) < + .
When the trigger angle is decreased and made equal to the load impedance
angle i.e., when = we obtain from the expression for ( ) sin ,
( ) sin 0 = ; Therefore ( ) = radians.
Extinction angle ( ) ( ) = + = + ; for the case when =
Conduction angle ( )
0
radians 180 = = = ; for the case when =
Each thyristor conducts for 180
0
( radians ) .
1
T conducts from t = to
( ) + and provides a positive load current.
2
T conducts from ( ) + to ( ) 2 + and
provides a negative load current. Hence we obtain a continuous load current and the
36
output voltage waveform appears as a continuous sine wave identical to the input supply
voltage waveform for trigger angle and the control on the output is lost.
v
O
2
t
V
m
0
I
m
t
v =v
O S
i
O
Fig.: Output voltage and output current waveforms for a single phase full wave ac
voltage controller with RL load for
Thus we observe that for trigger angle , the load current tends to flow
continuously and we have continuous load current operation, without any break in the
load current waveform and we obtain output voltage waveform which is a continuous
sinusoidal waveform identical to the input supply voltage waveform. We loose the control
on the output voltage for as the output voltage becomes equal to the input supply
voltage and thus we obtain
( )
2
m
S O RMS
V
V V = = ; for
Hence,
RMS output voltage = RMS input supply voltage for
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR RMS OUTPUT VOLTAGE
( ) O RMS
V OF A
SINGLE PHASE FULLWAVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH RL
LOAD.
37
When O > , the load current and load voltage waveforms become discontinuous
as shown in the figure above.
( )
( )
1
2
2 2
1
sin .
m O RMS
V V t d t
Output sin
o m
v V t = , for to t = , when
1
T is ON.
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
1 cos 2
2
m
O RMS
t V
V d t
( )
( ) ( )
1
2
2
cos 2 .
2
m
O RMS
V
V d t t d t
(
=
( `
(
)
( )
( )
1
2
2
sin 2
2 2
m
O RMS
V t
V t
(
=
( `
'
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
sin 2 sin 2
2 2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
(
= +
`
(
)
( )
( )
1
2
1 sin 2 sin 2
2 2 2
m O RMS
V V
(
= +
`
(
)
( )
( )
1
2
1 sin 2 sin 2
2 2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
(
= +
`
(
)
The RMS output voltage across the load can be varied by changing the trigger
angle .
For a purely resistive load 0 L = , therefore load power factor angle 0 = .
1
tan 0
L
R
= =
;
Extinction angle
0
radians 180 = =
38
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE AC
VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH RESISTIVE LOAD
RMS Output Voltage
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
= +
;
2
m
S
V
V = = RMS
input supply voltage.
( )
( ) O RMS
O RMS
L
V
I
R
= = RMS value of load current.
( ) S O RMS
I I = = RMS value of input supply current.
Output load power
( )
2
O L O RMS
P I R =
Input Power Factor
( )
( )
( )
2
L L O RMS O RMS
O
S S S S O RMS
I R I R
P
PF
V I V I V
= = =
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2
O RMS
S
V
PF
V
= = +
Average Thyristor Current,
I
m
i
T1
2
(2 + )
3
t
Fig.: Thyristor Current Waveform
( )
( ) ( )
1 1
sin .
2 2
T m T Avg
I i d t I t d t
= =
( )
( ) sin . cos
2 2
m m
T Avg
I I
I t d t t
= =
( )
[ ] [ ] cos cos 1 cos
2 2
m m
T Avg
I I
I
= + = +
39
Maximum Average Thyristor Current, for 0 = ,
( )
m
T Avg
I
I
=
RMS Thyristor Current
( )
( )
2 2
1
sin .
2
m T RMS
I I t d t
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2 2 2
m
T RMS
I
I
= +
Maximum RMS Thyristor Current, for 0 = ,
( )
2
m
T RMS
I
I =
In the case of a single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using a Triac
with resistive load, the average thyristor current
( )
0
T Avg
I = . Because the Triac conducts in
both the half cycles and the thyristor current is alternating and we obtain a symmetrical
thyristor current waveform which gives an average value of zero on integration.
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE AC
VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH RL LOAD
The Expression for the Output (Load) Current
The expression for the output (load) current which flows through the thyristor,
during to t = is given by
( ) ( )
( )
1
sin sin
R
t
m L
O T
V
i i t e
Z
= =
; for t
Where,
2
m S
V V = = Maximum or peak value of input ac supply voltage.
( )
2
2
Z R L = + = Load impedance.
1
tan
L
R
=
= Load impedance angle (load power factor angle).
= Thyristor trigger angle = Delay angle.
= Extinction angle of thyristor, (value of t ) at which the thyristor (load)
current falls to zero.
is calculated by solving the equation
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
L
e
=
40
Thyristor Conduction Angle ( ) =
Maximum thyristor conduction angle ( ) = = radians = 180
0
for .
RMS Output Voltage
( )
( )
1 sin 2 sin 2
2 2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
= +
The Average Thyristor Current
( )
( )
1
1
2
T T Avg
I i d t
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
sin sin
2
R
t
m L
T Avg
V
I t e d t
Z
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) sin . sin
2
R
t
m L
T Avg
V
I t d t e d t
Z
=
Maximum value of
( ) T Avg
I occur at 0 = . The thyristors should be rated for
maximum
( )
m
T Avg
I
I
=
, where
m
m
V
I
Z
= .
RMS Thyristor Current
( ) T RMS
I
( )
( )
1
2
1
2
T T RMS
I i d t
Maximum value of
( ) T RMS
I occurs at 0 = . Thyristors should be rated for
maximum
( )
2
m
T RMS
I
I
=
When a Triac is used in a single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL
type of load, then
( )
0
T Avg
I = and maximum
( )
2
m
T RMS
I
I =
41
PROBLEMS
1. A single phase full wave ac voltage controller supplies an RL load. The input
supply voltage is 230V, RMS at 50Hz. The load has L = 10mH, R = 10, the
delay angle of thyristors
1
T and
2
T are equal, where
1 2
3
= = . Determine
a. Conduction angle of the thyristor
1
T .
b. RMS output voltage.
c. The input power factor.
Comment on the type of operation.
Given
230
s
V V = , 50 f Hz = , 10 L mH = , 10 R = ,
0
60 = ,
1 2
3
= = = radians, .
2 2 230 325.2691193
m S
V V V = = =
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
Load Impedance 10 Z R L L = = + = +
( ) ( )
3
2 2 50 10 10 3.14159 L fL
= = = =
( ) ( )
2 2
10 3.14159 109.8696 10.4818 Z = + = =
2 230
31.03179
10.4818
m
m
V
I A
Z
= = =
Load Impedance Angle
1
tan
L
R
=
( )
1 1 0
tan tan 0.314159 17.44059
10
= = =
Trigger Angle > . Hence the type of operation will be discontinuous load
current operation, we get
( ) < +
( ) 180 60 < + ;
0
240 <
Therefore the range of is from 180 degrees to 240 degrees.
( )
0 0
180 240 < <
42
Extinction Angle is calculated by using the equation
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
L
e
=
In the exponential term the value of and should be substituted in
radians. Hence
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
Rad Rad
R
L
e
= ;
3
Rad
=
( ) ( )
0
60 17.44059 42.5594 = =
( ) ( )
( )
10
0
0
sin 17.44 sin 42.5594 e
=
( )
( )
0
3.183
sin 17.44 0.676354e
=
0
180 radians,
0
0
180
Rad
=
Assuming
0
190 = ;
0 0
0
190
3.3161
180 180
Rad
= = =
L.H.S: ( ) ( )
0
sin 190 17.44 sin 172.56 0.129487 = =
R.H.S:
3.183 3.3161
4 3
0.676354 4.94 10 e
=
Assuming
0
183 = ;
0 0
0
183
3.19395
180 180
Rad
= = =
( ) 3.19395 2.14675
3
= =
L.H.S: ( ) ( )
0
sin sin 183 17.44 sin165.56 0.24936 = = =
R.H.S:
( ) 3.183 2.14675 4
0.676354 7.2876 10 e
=
Assuming
0
180
0 0
0
180
180 180
Rad
= = =
( )
2
3 3
= =
43
L.H.S: ( ) ( ) sin sin 180 17.44 0.2997 = =
R.H.S:
3.183
4 3
0.676354 8.6092 10 e
=
Assuming
0
196 =
0 0
0
196
3.420845
180 180
Rad
= = =
L.H.S: ( ) ( ) sin sin 196 17.44 0.02513 = =
R.H.S:
3.183 3.420845
4 3
0.676354 3.5394 10 e
=
Assuming
0
197 =
0 0
0
197
3.43829
180 180
Rad
= = =
L.H.S: ( ) ( )
3
sin sin 197 17.44 7.69 7.67937 10
= = =
R.H.S:
3.183 3.43829
4 3
0.676354 4.950386476 10 e
=
Assuming
0
197.42 =
0
0
197.42
3.4456
180 180
Rad
= = =
L.H.S: ( ) ( )
4
sin sin 197.42 17.44 3.4906 10
= =
R.H.S:
3.183 3.4456
4 3
0.676354 3.2709 10 e
=
Conduction Angle ( ) ( )
0 0 0
197.42 60 137.42 = = =
RMS Output Voltage
( )
( )
1 sin 2 sin 2
2 2
S O RMS
V V
= +
( )
( ) ( )
0 0
sin 2 60 sin 2 197.42
1
230 3.4456
3 2 2
O RMS
V
(
( = +
' (
( )
( )
1
230 2.39843 0.4330 0.285640
O RMS
V
= +
( )
230 0.9 207.0445 V
O RMS
V = =
44
Input Power Factor
O
S S
P
PF
V I
=
( )
( )
207.0445
19.7527 A
10.4818
O RMS
O RMS
V
I
Z
= = =
( )
( )
2
2
19.7527 10 3901.716 W
O L O RMS
P I R = = =
( )
230 , 19.7527
S S O RMS
V V I I = = =
3901.716
0.8588
230 19.7527
O
S S
P
PF
V I
= = =
2. A single phase full wave controller has an input voltage of 120 V (RMS) and a
load resistance of 6 ohm. The firing angle of thyristor is 2 . Find
a. RMS output voltage
b. Power output
c. Input power factor
d. Average and RMS thyristor current.
Solution
0
90 , 120 V, 6
2
S
V R
= = = =
RMS Value of Output Voltage
1
2
1 sin 2
2
O S
V V
(
= +
(
'
1
2
1 sin180
120
2 2
O
V
(
= +
(
'
84.85 Volts
O
V =
RMS Output Current
84.85
14.14 A
6
O
O
V
I
R
= = =
Load Power
2
O O
P I R =
( )
2
14.14 6 1200 watts
O
P = =
45
Input Current is same as Load Current
Therefore 14.14 Amps
S O
I I = =
Input Supply VoltAmp 120 14.14 1696.8
S S
V I VA = = =
Therefore
Input Power Factor = ( )
Load Power 1200
0.707
Input VoltAmp 1696.8
lag = =
Each Thyristor Conducts only for half a cycle
Average thyristor current
( ) T Avg
I
( )
( )
1
sin .
2
m T Avg
I V t d t
R
( )
m
1 cos ; V 2
2
m
S
V
V
R
= + =
[ ]
2 120
1 cos90 4.5 A
2 6
= + =
RMS thyristor current
( ) T RMS
I
( )
( )
2 2
2
sin 1
2
m
T RMS
V t
I d t
R
( )
( )
2
2
1 cos 2
2 2
m
t V
d t
R
1
2
1 sin 2
2 2
m
V
R
(
= +
(
'
1
2
2 1 sin 2
2 2
S
V
R
(
= +
(
'
1
2
2 120 1 sin180
10 Amps
2 6 2 2
(
= + =
(
'
46
3. A single phase half wave ac regulator using one SCR in antiparallel with a diode
feeds 1 kW, 230 V heater. Find load power for a firing angle of 45
0
.
Solution
0
45 , 230 V
4
S
V
= = = ; 1 1000
O
P KW W = =
At standard rms supply voltage of 230V, the heater dissipates 1KW of output
power
Therefore
2
O O O
O O O
V V V
P V I
R R
= = =
Resistance of heater
( )
2
2
230
52.9
1000
O
O
V
R
P
= = =
RMS value of output voltage
1
2
1 sin 2
2
2 2
O S
V V
(
= +
(
'
; for firing angle
0
45 =
1
2
1 sin90
230 2 224.7157 Volts
2 4 2
O
V
(
= + =
(
'
RMS value of output current
224.9
4.2479 Amps
52.9
O
O
V
I
R
= = =
Load Power
( )
2
2
4.25 52.9 954.56 Watts
O O
P I R = = =
4. Find the RMS and average current flowing through the heater shown in figure.
The delay angle of both the SCRs is 45
0
.
SCR2
SCR1
i
o
+
1 kW, 220V
heater
1
220V
ac
47
Solution
0
45 , 220 V
4
S
V
= = =
Resistance of heater
( )
2
2
220
48.4
1000
V
R
R
= = =
Resistance value of output voltage
1 sin 2
2
O S
V V
(
= +
(
'
1 sin90
220
4 2
O
V
(
= +
(
'
1 1
220 209.769 Volts
4 2
O
V
(
= + =
(
'
RMS current flowing through heater
209.769
4.334 Amps
48.4
O
V
R
= = =
Average current flowing through the heater 0
Avg
I =
5. A single phase voltage controller is employed for controlling the power flow from
220 V, 50 Hz source into a load circuit consisting of R = 4 and L = 6 .
Calculate the following
a. Control range of firing angle
b. Maximum value of RMS load current
c. Maximum power and power factor
d. Maximum value of average and RMS thyristor current.
Solution
For control of output power, minimum angle of firing angle is equal to the
load impedance angle
, load angle =
1 1 0
6
tan tan 56.3
4
L
R
= = =
Maximum possible value of is
0
180
Therefore control range of firing angle is
0 0
56.3 180 < <
48
Maximum value of RMS load current occurs when
0
56.3 = = . At this value
of the Maximum value of RMS load current
2 2
220
30.5085 Amps
4 6
S
O
V
I
Z
= = =
+
Maximum Power ( )
2
2
30.5085 4 3723.077 W
O O
P I R = = =
Input VoltAmp 220 30.5085 6711.87 W
S O
V I = = =
Power Factor
3723.077
0.5547
6711.87
O
P
Input VA
= = =
Average thyristor current will be maximum when = and conduction
angle
0
180 = .
Therefore maximum value of average thyristor current
( )
( ) ( )
1
sin
2
m
T Avg
V
I t d t
Z
+
=
Note: ( ) ( )
( )
1
sin sin
R
t
m L
O T
V
i i t e
Z
= =
At 0 = ,
( )
1
sin
m
T O
V
i i t
Z
= =
( )
( ) cos
2
m
T Avg
V
I t
Z
+
=
( )
( ) ( ) cos cos
2
m
T Avg
V
I
Z
= + +
But = ,
( )
( ) ( ) [ ] cos cos 0 2
2 2
m m m
T Avg
V V V
I
Z Z Z
= + = =
( )
2 2
2 220
13.7336 Amps
4 6
m
T Avg
V
I
Z
= = =
+
Similarly, maximum RMS value occurs when 0 = and = .
Therefore maximum value of RMS thyristor current
( ) ( )
2
1
sin
2
m
TM
V
I t d t
Z
+
=
49
( )
( )
2
2
1 cos 2 2
2 2
m
TM
t V
I d t
Z
+
=
( )
2
2
sin 2 2
4 2
m
TM
t V
I t
Z
+
=
[ ]
2
2
0
4
m
TM
V
I
Z
= +
2 2
2 220
21.57277 Amps
2
2 4 6
m
TM
V
I
Z
= = =
+
50
CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
(Line Commutated AC to DC converters)
INTRODUCTION TO CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
Controlled rectifiers are line commutated ac to dc power converters which are
used to convert a fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac power supply into variable dc output
voltage.
Line
Commutated
Converter
+

DC Output
V
0(dc)
AC
Input
Voltage
Type of input: Fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac power supply.
Type of output: Variable dc output voltage
The input supply fed to a controlled rectifier is ac supply at a fixed rms voltage
and at a fixed frequency. We can obtain variable dc output voltage by using controlled
rectifiers. By employing phase controlled thyristors in the controlled rectifier circuits we
can obtain variable dc output voltage and variable dc (average) output current by varying
the trigger angle (phase angle) at which the thyristors are triggered. We obtain a uni
directional and pulsating load current waveform, which has a specific average value.
The thyristors are forward biased during the positive half cycle of input supply
and can be turned ON by applying suitable gate trigger pulses at the thyristor gate leads.
The thyristor current and the load current begin to flow once the thyristors are triggered
(turned ON) say at t = . The load current flows when the thyristors conduct from
t = to . The output voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage through
the conducting thyristor. At t = , when the load current falls to zero, the thyristors
turn off due to AC line (natural) commutation.
In some bridge controlled rectifier circuits the conducting thyristor turns off, when
the other thyristor is (other group of thyristors are) turned ON.
The thyristor remains reverse biased during the negative half cycle of input
supply. The type of commutation used in controlled rectifier circuits is referred to AC line
commutation or Natural commutation or AC phase commutation.
When the input ac supply voltage reverses and becomes negative during the
negative half cycle, the thyristor becomes reverse biased and hence turns off. There are
several types of power converters which use ac line commutation. These are referred to as
line commutated converters.
Different types of line commutated converters are
Phase controlled rectifiers which are AC to DC converters.
AC to AC converters
AC voltage controllers, which convert input ac voltage into
variable ac output voltage at the same frequency.
Cyclo converters, which give low output frequencies.
51
All these power converters operate from ac power supply at a fixed rms input
supply voltage and at a fixed input supply frequency. Hence they use ac line commutation
for turning off the thyristors after they have been triggered ON by the gating signals.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIODE RECTIFIERS AND PHASE CONTROLLED
RECTIFIERS
The diode rectifiers are referred to as uncontrolled rectifiers which make use of
power semiconductor diodes to carry the load current. The diode rectifiers give a fixed dc
output voltage (fixed average output voltage) and each diode rectifying element conducts
for one half cycle duration (T/2 seconds), that is the diode conduction angle = 180
0
or
radians.
A single phase half wave diode rectifier gives (under ideal conditions) an average
dc output voltage
( )
m
O dc
V
V
= and single phase full wave diode rectifier gives (under ideal
conditions) an average dc output voltage
( )
2
m
O dc
V
V
= , where
m
V is maximum value of
the available ac supply voltage.
Thus we note that we can not control (we can not vary) the dc output voltage or
the average dc load current in a diode rectifier circuit.
In a phase controlled rectifier circuit we use a high current and a high power
thyristor device (silicon controlled rectifier; SCR) for conversion of ac input power into
dc output power.
Phase controlled rectifier circuits are used to provide a variable voltage output dc
and a variable dc (average) load current.
We can control (we can vary) the average value (dc value) of the output load
voltage (and hence the average dc load current) by varying the thyristor trigger angle.
We can control the thyristor conduction angle from 180
0
to 0
0
by varying the
trigger angle from 0
0
to 180
0
, where thyristor conduction angle ( ) =
APPLICATIONS OF PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
DC motor control in steel mills, paper and textile mills employing dc motor
drives.
AC fed traction system using dc traction motor.
Electrochemical and electrometallurgical processes.
Magnet power supplies.
Reactor controls.
Portable hand tool drives.
Variable speed industrial drives.
Battery charges.
High voltage DC transmission.
Uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS).
Some years back ac to dc power conversion was achieved using motor generator
sets, mercury arc rectifiers, and thyratorn tubes. The modern ac to dc power converters
are designed using high power, high current thyristors and presently most of the acdc
power converters are thyristorised power converters. The thyristor devices are phase
controlled to obtain a variable dc output voltage across the output load terminals. The
52
phase controlled thyristor converter uses ac line commutation (natural commutation) for
commutating (turning off) the thyristors that have been turned ON.
The phase controlled converters are simple and less expensive and are widely used
in industrial applications for industrial dc drives. These converters are classified as two
quadrant converters if the output voltage can be made either positive or negative for a
given polarity of output load current. There are also single quadrant acdc converters
where the output voltage is only positive and cannot be made negative for a given polarity
of output current. Of course single quadrant converters can also be designed to provide
only negative dc output voltage.
The two quadrant converter operation can be achieved by using fully controlled
bridge converter circuit and for single quadrant operation we use a half controlled bridge
converter.
CLASSIFICATION OF PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
The phase controlled rectifiers can be classified based on the type of input power
supply as
Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers which operate from single phase ac input
power supply.
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers which operate from three phase ac input power
supply.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SINGLE PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers are further subdivided into different types
Half wave controlled rectifier which uses a single thyristor device (which
provides output control only in one half cycle of input ac supply, and it provides
low dc output).
Full wave controlled rectifiers (which provide higher dc output)
o Full wave controlled rectifier using a center tapped transformer (which
requires two thyristors).
o Full wave bridge controlled rectifiers (which do not require a center tapped
transformer)
Single phase semiconverter (half controlled bridge converter,
using two SCRs and two diodes, to provide single quadrant
operation).
Single phase full converter (fully controlled bridge converter which
requires four SCRs, to provide two quadrant operation).
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers are of different types
Three phase half wave controlled rectifiers.
Three phase full wave controlled rectiriers.
o Semi converter (half controlled bridge converter).
o Full converter (fully controlled bridge converter).
PRINCIPLE OF PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER OPERATION
The basic principle of operation of a phase controlled rectifier circuit is explained
with reference to a single phase half wave phase controlled rectifier circuit with a
resistive load shown in the figure.
53
Load Resistance
L
R R = =
Fig.: Single Phase HalfWave Thyristor Converter with a Resistive Load
A single phase half wave thyristor converter which is used for acdc power
conversion is shown in the above figure. The input ac supply is obtained from a main
supply transformer to provide the desired ac supply voltage to the thyristor converter
depending on the output dc voltage required.
P
v represents the primary input ac supply
voltage.
S
v represents the secondary ac supply voltage which is the output of the
transformer secondary.
During the positive half cycle of input supply when the upper end of the
transformer secondary is at a positive potential with respect to the lower end, the
thyristor anode is positive with respect to its cathode and the thyristor is in a forward
biased state. The thyristor is triggered at a delay angle of t = , by applying a suitable
gate trigger pulse to the gate lead of thyristor. When the thyristor is triggered at a delay
angle of t = , the thyristor conducts and assuming an ideal thyristor, the thyristor
behaves as a closed switch and the input supply voltage appears across the load when the
thyristor conducts from t = to radians. Output voltage
O S
v v = , when the thyristor
conducts from to t = .
For a purely resistive load, the load current
O
i (output current) that flows when
the thyristor
1
T is on, is given by the expression
, for
O
O
L
v
i t
R
=
The output load current waveform is similar to the output load voltage waveform
during the thyristor conduction time from to . The output current and the output
voltage waveform are in phase for a resistive load. The load current increases as the input
supply voltage increases and the maximum load current flows at
2
t
= , when the input
supply voltage is at its maximum value.
The maximum value (peak value) of the load current is calculated as
( ) max
m
m O
L
V
i I
R
= = .
54
Note that when the thyristor conducts (
1
T is on) during to t = , the thyristor
current
1 T
i , the load current
O
i through
L
R and the source current
S
i flowing through the
transformer secondary winding are all one and the same.
Hence we can write
1
sin
; for
O m
S T O
v V t
i i i t
R R
= = = =
m
I is the maximum (peak) value of the load current that flows through the
transformer secondary winding, through
1
T and through the load resistor
L
R at the instant
2
t
= , when the input supply voltage reaches its maximum value.
When the input supply voltage decreases the load current decreases. When the
supply voltage falls to zero at t = , the thyristor and the load current also falls to zero
at t = . Thus the thyristor naturally turns off when the current flowing through it falls
to zero at t = .
During the negative half cycle of input supply when the supply voltage reverses
and becomes negative during to 2 t = radians, the anode of thyristor is at a negative
potential with respect to its cathode and as a result the thyristor is reverse biased and
hence it remains cutoff (in the reverse blocking mode). The thyristor cannot conduct
during its reverse biased state between to 2 t = . An ideal thyristor under reverse
biased condition behaves as an open switch and hence the load current and load voltage
are zero during to 2 t = . The maximum or peak reverse voltage that appears across
the thyristor anode and cathode terminals is
m
V .
The trigger angle (delay angle or the phase angle ) is measured from the
beginning of each positive half cycle to the time instant when the gate trigger pulse is
applied. The thyristor conduction angle is from to , hence the conduction angle
( ) = . The maximum conduction angle is radians (180
0
) when the trigger angle
0 = .
Fig: Quadrant Diagram
The waveforms shows the input ac supply voltage across the secondary winding
of the transformer which is represented as
S
v , the output voltage across the load, the
output (load) current, and the thyristor voltage waveform that appears across the anode
and cathode terminals.
55
Fig: Waveforms of single phase halfwave controlled rectifier with resistive load
EQUATIONS
sin
s m
v V t = = the ac supply voltage across the transformer secondary.
m
V = max. (peak) value of input ac supply voltage across transformer secondary.
2
m
S
V
V = = RMS value of input ac supply voltage across transformer secondary.
O L
v v = = the output voltage across the load ;
O L
i i = = output (load) current.
56
When the thyristor is triggered at t = (an ideal thyristor behaves as a closed
switch) and hence the output voltage follows the input supply voltage.
sin
O L m
v v V t = = ; for to t = , when the thyristor is on.
O
O L
v
i i
R
= = = Load current for to t = , when the thyristor is on.
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE (DC) OUTPUT VOLTAGE
ACROSS THE LOAD
If
m
V is the peak input supply voltage, the average output voltage
dc
V can be
found from
( )
( )
1
.
2
dc O O dc
V V v d t
= =
( )
( )
1
sin .
2
dc m O dc
V V V t d t
= =
( )
( )
1
sin .
2
m O dc
V V t d t
( )
( ) sin .
2
m
O dc
V
V t d t
( )
cos
2
m
O dc
V
V t
=
( )
[ ] cos cos
2
m
O dc
V
V
= + ; cos 1 =
( )
[ ] 1 cos
2
m
O dc
V
V
= + ; 2
m S
V V =
The maximum average (dc) output voltage is obtained when 0 = and the
maximum dc output voltage
( ) max
m
dm dc
V
V V
= = .
The average dc output voltage can be varied by varying the trigger angle from
0 to a maximum of ( )
0
180 radians .
We can plot the control characteristic, which is a plot of dc output voltage versus
the trigger angle by using the equation for
( ) O dc
V .
57
CONTROL CHARACTERISTIC OF SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE PHASE
CONTROLLED RECTIFIER WITH RESISTIVE LOAD
The average dc output voltage is given by the expression
( )
[ ] 1 cos
2
m
O dc
V
V
= +
We can obtain the control characteristic by plotting the expression for the dc
output voltage as a function of trigger angle
Trigger angle
in degrees
( ) O dc
V
%
0
m
dm
V
V
= 100%
dm
V
0
30
0.933
dm
V 93.3 %
dm
V
0
60
0.75
dm
V 75 %
dm
V
0
90
0.5
dm
V 50 %
dm
V
0
120
0.25
dm
V 25 %
dm
V
0
150
0.06698
dm
V 6.69 %
dm
V
0
180
0 0
( ) max
m
dm dc
V
V V
= =
V
O(dc)
Trigger angle in degrees
0 60 120 180
V
dm
0.2 V
dm
0.6V
dm
Fig.: Control characteristic
Normalizing the dc output voltage with respect to
dm
V , the normalized output
voltage
( )
( )
max
O dc
dc
dcn
dm dc
V
V
V
V V
= =
58
( ) 1 cos
2
m
dc
dcn n
m
dm
V
V
V V
V
V
+
= = =
( )
1
1 cos
2
dc
n dcn
dm
V
V V
V
= = + =
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE RMS VALUE OF OUTPUT
VOLTAGE OF A SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER
WITH RESISTIVE LOAD
The rms output voltage is given by
( )
( )
2
2
0
1
.
2
O O RMS
V v d t
Output voltage sin ; for to
O m
v V t t = =
( )
( )
1
2
2 2
1
sin .
2
m O RMS
V V t d t
By substituting
2
1 cos 2
sin
2
t
t
= , we get
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
1 cos 2 1
.
2 2
m O RMS
t
V V d t
( )
( ) ( )
1
2
2
1 cos 2 .
4
m
O RMS
V
V t d t
( )
( ) ( )
1
2 2
cos 2 .
4
m
O RMS
V
V d t t d t
(
=
( `
(
)
( )
( )
1
2
1 sin 2
2 2
m
O RMS
V t
V t
(
=
( `
'
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2
sin 2 sin 2 1
2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
(
=
(
( '
; sin 2 0 =
59
Hence we get,
( )
( )
1
2
1 sin 2
2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
(
= +
(
'
( )
( )
1
2
sin 2
2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
= +
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
Output dc power (average or dc output power delivered to the load)
( ) ( ) ( ) O dc O dc O dc
P V I = ; i.e.,
dc dc dc
P V I =
Where
( ) dc O dc
V V = = average or dc value of output (load) voltage.
( ) dc O dc
I I = = average or dc value of output (load) current.
Output ac power
( ) ( ) ( ) O ac O RMS O RMS
P V I =
Efficiency of Rectification (Rectification Ratio)
( )
( )
Efficiency
O dc
O ac
P
P
= ;
( )
( )
% Efficiency 100
O dc
O ac
P
P
=
The output voltage can be considered as being composed of two components
The dc component
( ) O dc
V = DC or average value of output voltage.
The ac component or the ripple component
( ) ac r rms
V V = =RMS value of all
the ac ripple components.
The total RMS value of output voltage is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
O RMS O dc r rms
V V V = +
Therefore
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
ac r rms O RMS O dc
V V V V = =
60
Form Factor (FF) which is a measure of the shape of the output voltage is given by
( )
( )
( )
( )
RMS output load voltage
DC output load voltage
O RMS
O dc
V
FF
V
= =
The Ripple Factor (RF) which is a measure of the ac ripple content in the output
voltage waveform. The output voltage ripple factor defined for the output voltage
waveform is given by
( )
( )
r rms
ac
v
dc O dc
V
V
r RF
V V
= = =
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
1
O RMS O dc O RMS
v
O dc O dc
V V V
r
V V
= =
Therefore
2
1
v
r FF =
Current Ripple Factor defined for the output (load) current waveform is given by
( )
( )
r rms
ac
i
dc O dc
I
I
r
I I
= =
Where
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
ac r rms O RMS O dc
I I I I = =
Some times the peak to peak output ripple voltage is also considered to express
the peak to peak output ripple voltage as
( )
peak to peak ac ripple output voltage
r pp
V =
The peak to peak ac ripple load current is the difference between the maximum
and the minimum values of the output load current.
( ) ( ) ( ) max min r pp O O
I I I =
Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)
( ) O dc
S S
P
TUF
V I
=
Where
S
V = RMS value of transformer secondary output voltage (RMS supply
voltage at the secondary)
61
S
I = RMS value of transformer secondary current (RMS line or supply
current).
Supply voltage at the transformer secondary side
S
v = .
Input supply current (transformer secondary winding current)
S
i = .
1
Fundamental component of the input supply current
S
i = .
Peak value of the input supply current
P
I = .
= Phase angle difference between (sine wave components) the fundamental
components of input supply current and the input supply voltage.
= Displacement angle (phase angle)
For an RL load Displacement angle = Load impedance angle =
1
tan for an RL load
L
R
=
Displacement Factor (DF) or Fundamental Power Factor
DF Cos =
Harmonic Factor (HF) or Total Harmonic Distortion Factor (THD)
The harmonic factor is a measure of the distortion in the output waveform and is
also referred to as the total harmonic distortion (THD)
1
1
2
2
2 2
2
1
2
1 1
1
S S S
S S
I I I
HF
I I
(
(
( = =
(
(
'
Where
S
I = RMS value of input supply current.
1 S
I = RMS value of fundamental component of the input supply current.
62
Input Power Factor (PF)
1 1
cos cos
S S S
S S S
V I I
PF
V I I
= =
The Crest Factor (CF)
( )
Peak input supply current
RMS input supply current
S peak
S
I
CF
I
= =
For an Ideal Controlled Rectifier
1 FF = ; which means that
( ) ( ) O RMS O dc
V V = .
Efficiency 100% = ; which means that
( ) ( ) O dc O ac
P P = .
( )
0
ac r rms
V V = = ; so that 0
v
RF r = = ; Ripple factor = 0 (ripple free converter).
1 TUF = ; which means that
( ) S S O dc
P V I =
0 HF THD = = ; which means that
1 S S
I I =
1 PF DPF = = ; which means that 0 =
SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER WITH AN RL
LOAD
In this section we will discuss the operation and performance of a single phase
half wave controlled rectifier with RL load. In practice most of the loads are of RL type.
For example if we consider a single phase controlled rectifier controlling the speed of a
dc motor, the load which is the dc motor winding is an RL type of load, where R
represents the motor winding resistance and L represents the motor winding inductance.
A single phase half wave controlled rectifier circuit with an RL load using a
thyristor
1
T (
1
T is an SCR) is shown in the figure below.
63
The thyristor
1
T is forward biased during the positive half cycle of input supply.
Let us assume that
1
T is triggered at t = , by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse to
1
T during the positive half cycle of input supply. The output voltage across the load
follows the input supply voltage when
1
T is ON. The load current
O
i flows through the
thyristor
1
T and through the load in the downward direction. This load current pulse
flowing through
1
T can be considered as the positive current pulse. Due to the inductance
in the load, the load current
O
i flowing through
1
T would not fall to zero at t = , when
the input supply voltage starts to become negative. A phase shift appears between the
load voltage and the load current waveforms, due to the load inductance.
The thyristor
1
T will continue to conduct the load current until all the inductive
energy stored in the load inductor L is completely utilized and the load current through
1
T
falls to zero at t = , where is referred to as the Extinction angle, (the value of t )
at which the load current falls to zero. The extinction angle is measured from the point
of the beginning of the positive half cycle of input supply to the point where the load
current falls to zero.
The thyristor
1
T conducts from t = to . The conduction angle of
1
T is
( ) = , which depends on the delay angle and the load impedance angle . The
waveforms of the input supply voltage, the gate trigger pulse of
1
T , the thyristor current,
the load current and the load voltage waveforms appear as shown in the figure below.
Fig.: Input supply voltage & Thyristor current waveforms
1 O S
i i i = =
64
is the extinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value.
Fig.: Output (load) voltage waveform of a single phase half wave controlled
rectifier with RL load
From to 2 , the thyristor remains cutoff as it is reverse biased and behaves as
an open switch. The thyristor current and the load current are zero and the output voltage
also remains at zero during the non conduction time interval between to 2 . In the
next cycle the thyristor is triggered again at a phase angle of ( ) 2 + , and the same
operation repeats.
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE OUTPUT (INDUCTIVE LOAD)
CURRENT, DURING to t = WHEN THYRISTOR
1
T CONDUCTS
Considering sinusoidal input supply voltage we can write the expression for the
supply voltage as
sin
S m
v V t = = instantaneous value of the input supply voltage.
Let us assume that the thyristor
1
T is triggered by applying the gating signal to
1
T
at t = . The load current which flows through the thyristor
1
T during t = to can
be found from the equation
sin
O
O m
di
L Ri V t
dt
+ =
;
The solution of the above differential equation gives the general expression for the
output load current which is of the form
( )
1
sin
t
m
O
V
i t Ae
Z
= + ;
Where 2
m S
V V = = maximum or peak value of input supply voltage.
( )
2
2
Z R L = + = Load impedance.
65
1
tan
L
R
=
= Load impedance angle (power factor angle of load).
L
R
= = Load circuit time constant.
Therefore the general expression for the output load current is given by the
equation
( )
1
sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i t Ae
Z
= + ;
The value of the constant
1
A can be determined from the initial condition. i.e.
initial value of load current 0
O
i = , at t = . Hence from the equation for
O
i equating
O
i to zero and substituting t = , we get
( )
1
0 sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i Ae
Z
= = +
Therefore ( )
1
sin
R
t
m L
V
Ae
Z
=
( )
1
1
sin
m
R
t
L
V
A
Z
e
=
( )
1
sin
R
t
m L
V
A e
Z
+
=
( )
( )
1
sin
R t
m L
V
A e
Z
=
By substituting t = , we get the value of constant
1
A as
( )
( )
1
sin
R
m L
V
A e
Z
=
Substituting the value of constant
1
A from the above equation into the expression for
O
i ,
we obtain
( )
( )
( ) sin sin
R R
t
m m L L
O
V V
i t e e
Z Z
= +
;
( )
( ) ( )
( ) sin sin
R t R
m m L L
O
V V
i t e e
Z Z
= +
66
( )
( )
( ) sin sin
R
t
m m L
O
V V
i t e
Z Z
= +
Therefore we obtain the final expression for the inductive load current of a single
phase half wave controlled rectifier with RL load as
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i t e
Z
=
; Where t .
The above expression also represents the thyristor current
1 T
i , during the
conduction time interval of thyristor
1
T from to t = .
TO CALCULATE EXTINCTION ANGLE
The extinction angle , which is the value of t at which the load current
O
i falls to zero and
1
T is turned off can be estimated by using the condition that
0
O
i = , at t =
By using the above expression for the output load current, we can write
( ) ( )
( )
0 sin sin
R
m L
O
V
i e
Z
= =
As 0
m
V
Z
, we can write
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin 0
R
L
e
=
Therefore we obtain the expression
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
L
e
=
The extinction angle can be determined from this transcendental equation by
using the iterative method of solution (trial and error method). After is calculated, we
can determine the thyristor conduction angle ( ) = .
is the extinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value.
Conduction angle increases as is decreased for a specific value of .
Conduction angle ( ) = ; for a purely resistive load or for an RL load
when the load inductance L is negligible the extinction angle = and the conduction
angle ( ) =
67
Equations
sin Input supply voltage
s m
v V t = =
sin Output load voltage for to
O L m
v v V t t = = = = ,
when the thyristor
1
T conducts (
1
T is on).
Expression for the load current (thyristor current): for to t =
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i t e
Z
=
; Where t .
Extinction angle can be calculated using the equation
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
L
e
=
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR AVERAGE (DC) LOAD VOLTAGE
( )
( )
2
0
1
.
2
L O O dc
V V v d t
= =
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0
1
. . .
2
L O O O O dc
V V v d t v d t v d t
= = + +
;
0 for 0 to & for to 2
O
v t t = = = ;
( )
( )
1
. ; sin for to
2
L O O m O dc
V V v d t v V t t
= = = =
( )
( )
1
sin .
2
L m O dc
V V V t d t
= =
( )
( ) cos cos cos
2 2
m m
L O dc
V V
V V t
= = =
( )
( ) cos cos
2
m
L O dc
V
V V
= =
Note: During the period to t = , we can see from the output load voltage waveform
that the instantaneous output voltage is negative and this reduces the average or the dc
output voltage when compared to a purely resistive load.
68
Average DC Load Current
( ) ( )
( )
( ) cos cos
2
O dc
m
O dc L Avg
L L
V
V
I I
R R
= = =
SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER WITH RL LOAD
AND FREE WHEELING DIODE
V
0
i
0
T
R
L
V
s ~
+
+
FWD
Fig. : Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier with RL Load and Free
Wheeling Diode (FWD)
With a RL load it was observed that the average output voltage reduces. This
disadvantage can be overcome by connecting a diode across the load as shown in figure.
The diode is called as a Free Wheeling Diode (FWD). The waveforms are shown below.
2
2
3
3
0
0
0
0
V
s
i
G
V
O
t
t
t
t
Supply voltage
Load current
Load voltage
t=
2+
Gate pulses
V
m
V
m
2
i
O
69
At t = , the source voltage
S
v falls to zero and as
S
v becomes negative, the
free wheeling diode is forward biased. The stored energy in the inductance maintains the
load current flow through R, L, and the FWD. Also, as soon as the FWD is forward
biased, at t = , the SCR becomes reverse biased, the current through it becomes zero
and the SCR turns off. During the period to t = , the load current flows through
FWD (free wheeling load current) and decreases exponentially towards zero at t = .
Also during this free wheeling time period the load is shorted by the conducting
FWD and the load voltage is almost zero, if the forward voltage drop across the
conducting FWD is neglected. Thus there is no negative region in the load voltage wave
form. This improves the average output voltage.
The average output voltage [ ] 1 cos
2
m
dc
V
V
L
E
+
v
O
i
O
In the half wave controlled rectifier circuit shown in the figure, the load circuit
consists of a dc source E in addition to resistance and inductance. When the thyristor is
in the cutoff state, the current in the circuit is zero and the cathode will be at a voltage
equal to the dc voltage in the load circuit i.e. the cathode potential will be equal to E.
The thyristor will be forward biased for anode supply voltage greater than the load dc
voltage.
When the supply voltage is less than the dc voltage E in the circuit the thyristor
is reverse biased and hence the thyristor cannot conduct for supply voltage less than the
load circuit dc voltage.
The value of t at which the supply voltage increases and becomes equal to the
load circuit dc voltage can be calculated by using the equation sin
m
V t E = . If we
assume the value of t is equal to then we can write sin
m
V E = . Therefore is
calculated as
1
sin
m
E
V
=
.
For trigger angle < , the thyristor conducts only from to t = .
For trigger angle > , the thyristor conducts from to t = .
The waveforms appear as shown in the figure
71
0
0
i
O
t
t
Load current
E
v
O
Load voltage
2
2+
V
m
I
m
2+
2+
Equations
sin Input supply voltage
S m
v V t = = .
sin Output load voltage for to
O m
v V t t = = =
for 0 to & for to 2
O
v E t t = = =
Expression for the Load Current
When the thyristor is triggered at a delay angle of , the equation for the circuit
can be written as
sin +E ;
O
m O
di
V t i R L t
dt
= +
The general expression for the output load current can be written as
( ) sin
t
m
O
V E
i t Ae
Z R
= +
Where
( )
2
2
= Load Impedance Z R L = +
1
tan Load impedance angle
L
R
= =
Load circuit time constant
L
R
= =
The general expression for the output load current can be written as
72
( ) sin
R
t
m L
O
V E
i t Ae
Z R
= +
To find the value of the constant A apply the initial condition at t = , load
current 0
O
i = . Equating the general expression for the load current to zero at t = , we
get
( ) 0 sin
R
m L
O
V E
i Ae
Z R
= = +
We obtain the value of constant A as
( ) sin
R
m L
V E
A e
R Z
=
Substituting the value of the constant A in the expression for the load current,
we get the complete expression for the output load current as
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
t
m m L
O
V V E E
i t e
Z R R Z
= +
The Extinction angle can be calculated from the final condition that the output
current 0
O
i = at t = . By using the above expression we get,
( ) ( )
( )
0 sin sin
R
m m L
O
V V E E
i e
Z R R Z
= = +
To derive an expression for the average or dc load voltage
( )
( )
2
0
1
.
2
O O dc
V v d t
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0
1
. . .
2
O O O O dc
V v d t v d t v d t
= + +
sin Output load voltage for to
O m
v V t t = = =
for 0 to & for to 2
O
v E t t = = =
( )
( ) ( )
2
0
1
. sin .
2
m O dc
V E d t V t E d t
= + +
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0
1
cos
2
m O dc
V E t V t E t
= + +
73
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1
0 cos cos 2
2
m O dc
V E V E
= +
( )
( ) ( ) cos cos 2
2 2
m
O dc
V E
V
= + +
( )
( )
( ) 2
cos cos
2 2
m
O dc
V
V E
= +
Conduction angle of thyristor ( ) =
RMS Output Voltage can be calculated by using the expression
( )
( )
2
2
0
1
.
2
O O RMS
V v d t
DISADVANTAGES OF SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE CONTROLLED
RECTIFIERS
Single phase half wave controlled rectifier gives
Low dc output voltage.
Low dc output power and lower efficiency.
Higher ripple voltage & ripple current.
Higher ripple factor.
Low transformer utilization factor.
The input supply current waveform has a dc component which can result in dc
saturation of the transformer core.
Single phase half wave controlled rectifiers are rarely used in practice as they give
low dc output and low dc output power. They are only of theoretical interest.
The above disadvantages of a single phase half wave controlled rectifier can be
over come by using a full wave controlled rectifier circuit. Most of the practical converter
circuits use full wave controlled rectifiers.
SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
Single phase full wave controlled rectifier circuit combines two half wave
controlled rectifiers in one single circuit so as to provide two pulse output across the load.
Both the half cycles of the input supply are utilized and converted into a unidirectional
output current through the load so as to produce a two pulse output waveform. Hence a
full wave controlled rectifier circuit is also referred to as a two pulse converter.
Single phase full wave controlled rectifiers are of various types
Single phase full wave controlled rectifier using a center tapped
transformer (two pulse converter with mid point configuration).
Single phase full wave bridge controlled rectifier
Half controlled bridge converter (semi converter).
Fully controlled bridge converter (full converter).
74
SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER USING A CENTER
TAPPED TRANSFORMER
AC
Supply
O
A
B
T
1
T
2
R L
v
O
+
FWD
i
O
i
S
v
S
S
v = Supply Voltage across the upper half of the transformer secondary winding
sin
S AO m
v v V t = =
sin
BO AO m
v v V t = = = supply voltage across the lower half of the transformer
secondary winding.
This type of full wave controlled rectifier requires a center tapped transformer and
two thyristors
1
T and
2
T . The input supply is fed through the mains supply transformer,
the primary side of the transformer is connected to the ac line voltage which is available
(normally the primary supply voltage is 230V RMS ac supply voltage at 50Hz supply
frequency in India). The secondary side of the transformer has three lines and the center
point of the transformer (center line) is used as the reference point to measure the input
and output voltages.
The upper half of the secondary winding and the thyristor
1
T along with the load
act as a half wave controlled rectifier, the lower half of the secondary winding and the
thyristor
2
T with the common load act as the second half wave controlled rectifier so as to
produce a full wave load voltage waveform.
There are two types of operations possible.
Discontinuous load current operation, which occurs for a purely resistive
load or an RL load with low inductance value.
Continuous load current operation which occurs for an RL type of load
with large load inductance.
Discontinuous Load Current Operation (for low value of load inductance)
Generally the load current is discontinuous when the load is purely resistive or
when the RL load has a low value of inductance.
During the positive half cycle of input supply, when the upper line of the
secondary winding is at a positive potential with respect to the center point O the
thyristor
1
T is forward biased and it is triggered at a delay angle of . The load current
75
flows through the thyristor
1
T , through the load and through the upper part of the
secondary winding, during the period to , when the thyristor
1
T conducts.
The output voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage that appears
across the upper part of the secondary winding from to t = . The load current
through the thyristor
1
T decreases and drops to zero at t = , where > for RL type
of load and the thyristor
1
T naturally turns off at t = .
v
O
V
m
0
2 3
( ) + ( ) +
i
O
t
t
0
Fig.: Waveform for Discontinuous Load Current Operation without FWD
During the negative half cycle of the input supply the voltage at the supply line
A becomes negative whereas the voltage at line B (at the lower side of the secondary
winding) becomes positive with respect to the center point O. The thyristor
2
T is
forward biased during the negative half cycle and it is triggered at a delay angle of
( ) + . The current flows through the thyristor
2
T , through the load, and through the
lower part of the secondary winding when
2
T conducts during the negative half cycle the
load is connected to the lower half of the secondary winding when
2
T conducts.
For purely resistive loads when L = 0, the extinction angle = . The load
current falls to zero at t = = , when the input supply voltage falls to zero at t = .
The load current and the load voltage waveforms are in phase and there is no phase shift
between the load voltage and the load current waveform in the case of a purely resistive
load.
For low values of load inductance the load current would be discontinuous and the
extinction angle > but ( ) < + .
For large values of load inductance the load current would be continuous and does
not fall to zero. The thyristor
1
T conducts from ( ) to + , until the next thyristor
2
T
is triggered. When
2
T is triggered at ( ) t = + , the thyristor
1
T will be reverse biased
and hence
1
T turns off.
76
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE DC OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF A
SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER WITH RL LOAD
(WITHOUT FREE WHEELING DIODE (FWD))
The average or dc output voltage of a fullwave controlled rectifier can be
calculated by finding the average value of the output voltage waveform over one output
cycle (i.e., radians) and note that the output pulse repetition time is
2
T
seconds where T
represents the input supply time period and
1
T
f
= ; where f = input supply frequency.
Assuming the load inductance to be small so that > , ( ) < + we obtain
discontinuous load current operation. The load current flows through
1
T form
to t = , where is the trigger angle of thyristor
1
T and is the extinction angle
where the load current through
1
T falls to zero at t = . Therefore the average or dc
output voltage can be obtained by using the expression
( )
( )
2
.
2
dc O O dc
t
V V v d t
=
= =
( )
( )
1
.
dc O O dc
t
V V v d t
=
= =
( )
( )
1
sin .
dc m O dc
V V V t d t
= =
( )
cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V t
= =
( )
( ) cos cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V
= =
Therefore
( )
( ) cos cos
m
O dc
V
V
= ; cos 1 =
( )
( ) ( )
cos 1
m
O dc
V
V
=
77
( )
( ) 1 cos
m
O dc
V
V
2 3
( ) + ( ) +
i
O
t
t
0
Fig.: Waveform for Discontinuous Load Current Operation with FWD
EXPRESSION FOR THE DC OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL
WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER WITH RL LOAD AND FWD
( )
( )
0
1
.
dc O O dc
t
V V v d t
=
= =
Thyristor
1
T is triggered at t = .
1
T conducts from to t =
78
Output voltage sin ; for
O m
v V t t to = =
FWD conducts from to t = and 0
O
v during discontinuous load current
Therefore
( )
( )
1
sin .
dc m O dc
V V V t d t
= =
( )
cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V t
= =
( )
[ ] cos cos ; cos 1
m
dc O dc
V
V V
= = + =
Therefore
( )
( ) 1 cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V
= = +
The DC output voltage
dc
V is same as the DC output voltage of a single phase full
wave controlled rectifier with resistive load. Note that the dc output voltage of a single
phase full wave controlled rectifier is two times the dc output voltage of a half wave
controlled rectifier.
CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE
CONTROLLED RECTIFIER WITH R LOAD OR RL LOAD WITH FWD
The control characteristic can be obtained by plotting the dc output voltage
dc
V
versus the trigger angle .
The average or dc output voltage of a single phase full wave controlled rectifier
circuit with R load or RL load with FWD is calculated by using the equation
( )
( ) 1 cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V
= = +
dc
V can be varied by varying the trigger angle from
0
0 to 180 . (i.e., the range
of trigger angle is from 0 to radians).
Maximum dc output voltage is obtained when 0 =
( )
( )
max
2
1 cos 0
m m
dc dc
V V
V V
= = + =
Therefore
( ) max
2
m
dc dc
V
V V
+
= = = +
Therefore ( )
1
1 cos
2
dc
dcn n
dm
V
V V
V
= = + =
( )
1
1 cos
2
dc dm
V V = +
Trigger angle
in degrees
( ) O dc
V
Normalized
dc output voltage V
n
0
2
0.636619
m
dm m
V
V V
= = 1
0
30
0.593974
m
V 0.9330
0
60
0.47746
m
V 0.75
0
90
0.3183098
m
V 0.5
0
120
0.191549
m
V 0.25
0
150
0.04264
m
V 0.06698
0
180
0
0
V
O(dc)
Trigger angle in degrees
0 60 120 180
V
dm
0.2 V
dm
0.6V
dm
Fig.: Control characteristic of a single phase full wave controlled rectifier with R
load or RL load with FWD
80
CONTINUOUS LOAD CURRENT OPERATION (WITHOUT FWD)
For large values of load inductance the load current flows continuously without
decreasing and falling to zero and there is always a load current flowing at any point of
time. This type of operation is referred to as continuous current operation.
Generally the load current is continuous for large load inductance and for low
trigger angles.
The load current is discontinuous for low values of load inductance and for large
values of trigger angles.
The waveforms for continuous current operation are as shown.
v
O
V
m
0
2
3
( ) +
i
O
t
t
0
( ) 2+
T ON
1
T ON
2
T ON
1
Fig.: Load voltage and load current waveform of a single phase full wave controlled
rectifier with RL load & without FWD for continuous load current operation
In the case of continuous current operation the thyristor
1
T which is triggered at a
delay angle of , conducts from ( ) to t = + . Output voltage follows the input
supply voltage across the upper half of the transformer secondary winding
sin
O AO m
v v V t = = .
The next thyristor
2
T is triggered at ( ) t = + , during the negative half cycle
input supply. As soon as
2
T is triggered at ( ) t = + , the thyristor
1
T will be reverse
biased and
1
T turns off due to natural commutation (ac line commutation). The load
current flows through the thyristor
2
T from ( ) ( ) to 2 t = + + . Output voltage
across the load follows the input supply voltage across the lower half of the transformer
secondary winding sin
O BO m
v v V t = = .
Each thyristor conducts for
( )
0
radians 180 in the case of continuous current
operation.
81
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OR DC OUTPUT
VOLTAGE OF SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER
WITH LARGE LOAD INDUCTANCE ASSUMING CONTINUOUS LOAD
CURRENT OPERATION.
( )
( )
( )
1
.
dc O O dc
t
V V v d t
+
=
= =
( )
( )
( )
1
sin .
dc m O dc
V V V t d t
+
= =
( )
( )
cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V t
+
= =
( )
( ) cos cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V
= = +
; ( ) cos cos + =
( )
[ ] cos cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V
= = +
( )
2
cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V
= =
The above equation can be plotted to obtain the control characteristic of a single
phase full wave controlled rectifier with RL load assuming continuous load current
operation.
Normalizing the dc output voltage with respect to its maximum value, the
normalized dc output voltage is given by
( )
( )
max
2
cos
cos
2
m
dc
dcn n
m
dc
V
V
V V
V
V
= = = =
Therefore cos
dcn n
V V = =
82
Trigger angle
in degrees
( ) O dc
V
Remarks
0
2
m
dm
V
V
=
Maximum dc output voltage
( ) max
2
m
dm dc
V
V V
= =
0
30
0.866
dm
V
0
60
0.5
dm
V
0
90
0
dm
V
0
120
0.5
dm
V
0
150
0.866
dm
V
0
180
2
m
dm
V
V
=
V
O(dc)
Trigger angle in degrees
0
30 60
90
V
dm
0.2 V
dm
0.6V
dm
0.6 V
dm
0.2V
dm
V
dm
+
=
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2 2
1
sin .
m O RMS
V V t d t
+
=
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
2
sin .
m
O RMS
V
V t d t
+
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2
1 cos 2
.
2
m
O RMS
t V
V d t
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
2
1
cos 2 .
2
m O RMS
V V d t t d t
+ +
(
( =
`
(
)
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
2
1 sin 2
2 2
m O RMS
t
V V t
+ +
(
=
( `
'
(
)
( )
( )
( )
1
2
sin 2 sin 2 1
2 2
m O RMS
V V
( +
= + ( `
( ' )
( )
( )
1
2
1 sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 sin 2
2 2
m O RMS
V V
( +
=
` (
' )
( )
( )
1
2
1 0 sin 2 sin 2
2 2
m O RMS
V V
( +
=
` (
' )
( )
( )
1
2
1
2 2
m
m O RMS
V
V V
= =
Therefore
( )
2
m
O RMS
V
V = ; The rms output voltage is same as the input rms supply voltage.
84
SINGLE PHASE SEMICONVERTERS
Errata: Consider diode
2
D as
1
D in the figure and diode
1
D as
2
D
Single phase semiconverter circuit is a full wave half controlled bridge converter
which uses two thyristors and two diodes connected in the form of a full wave bridge
configuration.
The two thyristors are controlled power switches which are turned on one after the
other by applying suitable gating signals (gate trigger pulses). The two diodes are
uncontrolled power switches which turnon and conduct one after the other as and when
they are forward biased.
The circuit diagram of a single phase semiconverter (half controlled bridge
converter) is shown in the above figure with highly inductive load and a dc source in the
load circuit. When the load inductance is large the load current flows continuously and
we can consider the continuous load current operation assuming constant load current,
with negligible current ripple (i.e., constant and ripple free load current operation).
The ac supply to the semiconverter is normally fed through a mains supply
transformer having suitable turns ratio. The transformer is suitably designed to supply the
required ac supply voltage (secondary output voltage) to the converter.
During the positive half cycle of input ac supply voltage, when the transformer
secondary output line A is positive with respect to the line B the thyristor
1
T and the
diode
1
D are both forward biased. The thyristor
1
T is triggered at t = ; ( ) 0
by applying an appropriate gate trigger signal to the gate of
1
T . The current in the circuit
flows through the secondary line A, through
1
T , through the load in the downward
direction, through diode
1
D back to the secondary line B.
1
T and
1
D conduct together from to t = and the load is connected to the
input ac supply. The output load voltage follows the input supply voltage (the secondary
output voltage of the transformer) during the period to t = .
At t = , the input supply voltage decreases to zero and becomes negative
during the period ( ) to t = + . The free wheeling diode
m
D across the load
becomes forward biased and conducts during the period ( ) to t = + .
85
Fig:. Waveforms of single phase semiconverter for RLE load and constant load
current for > 90
0
86
The load current is transferred from
1
T and
1
D to the FWD
m
D .
1
T and
1
D are
turned off. The load current continues to flow through the FWD
m
D . The load current
free wheels (flows continuously) through the FWD during the free wheeling time period
( ) to + .
During the negative half cycle of input supply voltage the secondary line A
becomes negative with respect to line B. The thyristor
2
T and the diode
2
D are both
forward biased.
2
T is triggered at ( ) t = + , during the negative half cycle. The FWD
is reverse biased and turnsoff as soon as
2
T is triggered. The load current continues to
flow through
2
T and
2
D during the period ( ) to 2 t = +
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OR DC OUTPUT
VOLTAGE OF A SINGLE PHASE SEMICONVERTER
The average output voltage can be found from
( )
2
sin .
2
dc m
V V t d t
[ ]
2
cos
2
m
dc
V
V t
=
[ ] cos cos ; cos 1
m
dc
V
V
= + =
Therefore [ ] 1 cos
m
dc
V
V
= +
dc
V can be varied from
2
m
V
to 0 by varying from 0 to .
The maximum average output voltage is
( ) max
2
m
dm dc
V
V V
= =
Normalizing the average output voltage with respect to its maximum value
( ) 0.5 1 cos
dc
dcn n
dm
V
V V
V
= = = +
The output control characteristic can be plotted by using the expression for
dc
V
88
during the time period ( ) to + , for a time duration of radians (conduction angle
of each thyristor =
0
180 )
During the negative half cycle of input supply voltage for to 2 t = the
thyristors
3
T and
4
T are forward biased.
3
T and
4
T are triggered at ( ) t = + . As
soon as the thyristors
3
T and
4
T are triggered a reverse voltage appears across the
thyristors
1
T and
2
T and they naturally turnoff and the load current is transferred from
1
T and
2
T to the thyristors
3
T and
4
T . The output voltage across the load follows the
supply voltage and sin
O m
v V t = during the time period ( ) ( ) to 2 t = + + . In
the next positive half cycle when
1
T and
2
T are triggered,
3
T and
4
T are reverse biased
and they turnoff. The figure shows the waveforms of the input supply voltage, the output
load voltage, the constant load current with negligible ripple and the input supply current.
89
During the time period to t = , the input supply voltage
S
v and the input
supply current
S
i are both positive and the power flows from the supply to the load. The
converter operates in the rectification mode during to t = .
During the time period ( ) to t = + , the input supply voltage
S
v is negative
and the input supply current
S
i is positive and there will be reverse power flow from the
load circuit to the input supply. The converter operates in the inversion mode during the
time period ( ) to t = + and the load energy is fed back to the input source.
The single phase full converter is extensively used in industrial applications up to
about 15kW of output power. Depending on the value of trigger angle , the average
output voltage may be either positive or negative and two quadrant operation is possible.
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE (DC) OUTPUT VOLTAGE
The average (dc) output voltage can be determined by using the expression
( )
( )
2
0
1
. ;
2
dc O O dc
V V v d t
= =
The output voltage waveform consists of two output pulses during the input
supply time period between 0 & 2 radians . In the continuous load current operation of
a single phase full converter (assuming constant load current) each thyristor conduct for
radians (180
0
) after it is triggered. When thyristors
1
T and
2
T are triggered at t =
1
T and
2
T conduct from ( ) to + and the output voltage follows the input supply
voltage. Therefore output voltage sin
O m
v V t = ; for ( ) to t = +
Hence the average or dc output voltage can be calculated as
( )
( )
2
sin .
2
dc m O dc
V V V t d t
+
= =
( )
( )
1
sin .
dc m O dc
V V V t d t
+
= =
( )
( ) sin .
m
dc O dc
V
V V t d t
+
= =
( )
[ ] cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V t
+
= =
( )
( ) cos cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V
= = + +
; ( ) cos cos + =
Therefore
( )
2
cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V
= =
90
The dc output voltage
dc
V can be varied from a maximum value of
0
2
for 0 to
m
V
= a
minimum value of
0
2
for radians 180
m
V
= =
The maximum average dc output voltage is calculated for a trigger angle
0
0 =
and is obtained as
( )
( )
max
2 2
cos 0
m m
dm dc
V V
V V
= = =
Therefore
( ) max
2
m
dm dc
V
V V
= =
The normalized average output voltage is given by
( )
( ) max
O dc
dc
dcn n
dm dc
V
V
V V
V V
= = =
2
cos
cos
2
m
dcn n
m
V
V V
V
= = =
Therefore cos
dcn n
V V = = ; for a single phase full converter assuming continuous
and constant load current operation.
CONTROL CHARACTERISTIC OF SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER
The dc output control characteristic can be obtained by plotting the average or dc
output voltage
dc
V versus the trigger angle
For a single phase full converter the average dc output voltage is given by the
equation
( )
2
cos
m
dc O dc
V
V V
= =
Trigger angle
in degrees
( ) O dc
V
Remarks
0
2
m
dm
V
V
=
Maximum dc output voltage
( ) max
2
m
dm dc
V
V V
= =
0
30
0.866
dm
V
0
60
0.5
dm
V
0
90
0
dm
V
0
120
0.5
dm
V
0
150
0.866
dm
V
0
180
2
m
dm
V
V
=
91
V
O(dc)
Trigger angle in degrees
0
30 60
90
V
dm
0.2 V
dm
0.6V
dm
0.6 V
dm
0.2V
dm
V
dm
The single phase full converter gives two output voltage pulses during the input
supply time period and hence the single phase full converter is referred to as a two pulse
converter. The rms output voltage can be calculated as
( )
( )
2
2
.
2
O O RMS
V v d t
+
=
( )
( )
2 2
1
sin .
m O RMS
V V t d t
+
=
( )
( )
2
2
sin .
m
O RMS
V
V t d t
+
=
( )
( )
( )
2
1 cos 2
.
2
m
O RMS
t V
V d t
+
=
( )
( ) ( )
2
cos 2 .
2
m
O RMS
V
V d t t d t
+ +
=
( )
( )
2
sin 2
2 2
m
O RMS
V t
V t
+ +
(
=
(
'
93
( )
( )
( )
2
sin 2 sin 2
2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
( +
= +
(
( '
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
sin 2 2 sin 2
; sin 2 2 sin 2
2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
( +
= + =
(
( '
( )
( )
2
sin 2 sin 2
2 2
m
O RMS
V
V
(
=
(
'
( )
( )
2 2
0
2 2 2
m m m
O RMS
V V V
V
= = =
Therefore
( )
2
m
S O RMS
V
V V = =
Hence the rms output voltage is same as the rms input supply voltage
The rms thyristor current can be calculated as
Each thyristor conducts for radians or
0
180 in a single phase full converter
operating at continuous and constant load current.
Therefore rms value of the thyristor current is calculated as
( ) ( ) ( )
1
2 2
T RMS O RMS O RMS
I I I
= =
( )
( )
2
O RMS
T RMS
I
I =
The average thyristor current can be calculated as
( ) ( ) ( )
1
2 2
T Avg O dc O dc
I I I
= =
( )
( )
2
O dc
T Avg
I
I =
94
SINGLE PHASE DUAL CONVERTER
95
We have seen in the case of a single phase full converter with inductive loads the
converter can operate in two different quadrants in the versus
dc dc
V I operating diagram.
If two single phase full converters are connected in parallel and in opposite direction
(connected in back to back) across a common load four quadrant operation is possible.
Such a converter is called as a dual converter which is shown in the figure.
The dual converter system will provide four quadrant operation and is normally
used in high power industrial variable speed drives. The converter number 1 provides a
positive dc output voltage and a positive dc load current, when operated in the
rectification mode.
The converter number 2 provides a negative dc output voltage and a negative dc
load current when operated in the rectification mode. We can thus have bidirectional
load current and bidirectional dc output voltage. The magnitude of output dc load voltage
and the dc load current can be controlled by varying the trigger angles
1 2
& of the
converters 1 and 2 respectively.
Fig.: Four quadrant operation of a dual converter
There are two modes of operations possible for a dual converter system.
Non circulating current mode of operation (circulating current free mode
of operation).
Circulating current mode of operation.
NON CIRCULATING CURRENT MODE OF OPERATION (CIRCULATING
CURRENT FREE MODE OF OPERATION)
In this mode of operation only one converter is switched on at a time while the
second converter is switched off. When the converter 1 is switched on and the gate trigger
signals are released to the gates of thyristors in converter 1, we get an average output
voltage across the load, which can be varied by adjusting the trigger angle
1
of the
converter 1. If
1
is less than 90
0
, the converter 1 operates as a controlled rectifier and
converts the input ac power into dc output power to feed the load.
dc
V and
dc
I are both
positive and the operation occurs in the first quadrant. The average output power
dc dc dc
P V I = is positive. The power flows from the input ac supply to the load. When
1
is increased above 90
0
converter 1 operates as a line commutated inverter and
dc
V
becomes negative while
dc
I is positive and the output power
dc
P becomes negative. The
power is fed back from the load circuit to the input ac source through the converter 1. The
load current falls to zero when the load energy is utilized completely.
The second converter 2 is switched on after a small delay of about 10 to 20 mill
seconds to allow all the thyristors of converter 1 to turn off completely. The gate signals
96
are released to the thyristor gates of converter 2 and the trigger angle
2
is adjusted such
that
0
2
0 90 so that converter 2 operates as a controlled rectifier. The dc output
voltage
dc
V and
dc
I are both negative and the load current flows in the reverse direction.
The magnitude of
dc
V and
dc
I are controlled by the trigger angle
2
. The operation
occurs in the third quadrant where
dc
V and
dc
I are both negative and output power
dc
P is
positive and the converter 2 operates as a controlled rectifier and converts the ac supply
power into dc output power which is fed to the load.
When we want to reverse the load current flow so that
dc
I is positive we have to
operate converter 2 in the inverter mode by increasing the trigger angle
2
above
0
90 .
When
2
is made greater than
0
90 , the converter 2 operates as a line commutated
inverter and the load power (load energy) is fed back to ac mains. The current falls to zero
when all the load energy is utilized and the converter 1 can be switched on after a short
delay of 10 to 20 milli seconds to ensure that the converter 2 thyristors are completely
turned off.
The advantage of non circulating current mode of operation is that there is no
circulating current flowing between the two converters as only one converter operates and
conducts at a time while the other converter is switched off. Hence there is no need of the
series current limiting inductors between the outputs of the two converters. The current
rating of thyristors is low in this mode.
But the disadvantage is that the load current tends to become discontinuous and
the transfer characteristic becomes non linear. The control circuit becomes complex and
the output response is sluggish as the load current reversal takes some time due to the
time delay between the switching off of one converter and the switching on of the other
converter. Hence the output dynamic response is poor. Whenever a fast and frequent
reversal of the load current is required, the dual converter is operated in the circulating
current mode.
CIRCULATING CURRENT MODE OF OPERATION
In this mode of operation both the converters 1 and 2 are switched on and
operated simultaneously and both the converters are in a state of conduction. If converter
1 is operated as a controlled rectifier by adjusting the trigger angle
1
between 0 to 90
0
the second converter 2 is operated as a line commutated inverter by increasing its trigger
angle
2
above 90
0
. The trigger angles
1
and
2
are adjusted such that they produce the
same average dc output voltage across the load terminals.
The average dc output voltage of converter 1 is
1 1
2
cos
m
dc
V
V
=
The average dc output voltage of converter 2 is
2 2
2
cos
m
dc
V
V
=
97
In the dual converter operation one converter is operated as a controlled rectifier
with
0
1
90 < and the second converter is operated as a line commutated inverter in the
inversion mode with
0
2
90 > .
1 2 dc dc
V V =
( )
1 2 2
2 2 2
cos cos cos
m m m
V V V
= =
Therefore ( )
1 2 2 1 1
cos cos or cos cos cos = = =
Therefore ( )
2 1
= or ( )
1 2
radians + =
Which gives ( )
2 1
=
When the trigger angle
1
of converter 1 is set to some value the trigger angle
2
of the second converter is adjusted such that
( )
0
2 1
180 = . Hence for circulating
current mode of operation where both converters are conducting at the same time
( )
0
1 2
180 + = so that they produce the same dc output voltage across the load.
When
0
1
90 < (say
0
1
30 = ) the converter 1 operates as a controlled rectifier
and converts the ac supply into dc output power and the average load current
dc
I is
positive. At the same time the converter 2 is switched on and operated as a line
commutated inverter, by adjusting the trigger angle
2
such that
( )
0
2 1
180 = , which
is equal to 150
0
, when
0
1
30 = . The converter 2 will operate in the inversion mode and
feeds the load energy back to the ac supply. When we want to reverse the load current
flow we have to switch the roles of the two converters.
When converter 2 is operated as a controlled rectifier by adjusting the trigger
angle
2
such that
0
2
90 < , the first converter1 is operated as a line commutated
inverter, by adjusting the trigger angle
1
such that
0
1
90 > . The trigger angle
1
is
adjusted such that
( )
0
1 2
180 = for a set value of
2
.
In the circulating current mode a current builds up between the two converters
even when the load current falls to zero. In order to limit the circulating current flowing
between the two converters, we have to include current limiting reactors in series between
the output terminals of the two converters.
The advantage of the circulating current mode of operation is that we can have
faster reversal of load current as the two converters are in a state of conduction
simultaneously. This greatly improves the dynamic response of the output giving a faster
dynamic response. The output voltage and the load current can be linearly varied by
adjusting the trigger angles
1 2
& to obtain a smooth and linear output control. The
control circuit becomes relatively simple. The transfer characteristic between the output
voltage and the trigger angle is linear and hence the output response is very fast. The load
current is free to flow in either direction at any time. The reversal of the load current can
be done in a faster and smoother way.
98
The disadvantage of the circulating current mode of operation is that a current
flows continuously in the dual converter circuit even at times when the load current is
zero. Hence we should connect current limiting inductors (reactors) in order to limit the
peak circulating current within specified value. The circulating current flowing through
the series inductors gives rise to increased power losses, due to dc voltage drop across the
series inductors which decreases the efficiency. Also the power factor of operation is low.
The current limiting series inductors are heavier and bulkier which increases the cost and
weight of the dual converter system.
The current flowing through the converter thyristors is much greater than the dc
load current. Hence the thyristors should be rated for a peak thyristor current of
( ) ( ) ( ) max max max T dc r
I I i = + , where
( ) max dc
I is the maximum dc load current and
( ) max r
i is the
maximum value of the circulating current.
TO CALCULATE THE CIRCULATING CURRENT
Fig.: Waveforms of dual converter
99
As the instantaneous output voltages of the two converters are out of phase, there
will be an instantaneous voltage difference and this will result in circulating current
between the two converters. In order to limit the circulating current, current limiting
reactors are connected in series between the outputs of the two converters. This
circulating current will not flow through the load and is normally limited by the current
reactor L
r
.
If v
O1
and v
O2
are the instantaneous output voltages of the converters 1 and 2,
respectively the circulating current can be determined by integrating the instantaneous
voltage difference (which is the voltage drop across the circulating current reactor L
r
),
starting from t = (2 
1
). As the two average output voltages during the interval t =
(+
1
) to (2 
1
) are equal and opposite their contribution to the instantaneous
circulating current i
r
is zero.
( )
( )
( )
1
1 2
2
1
. ;
t
r r r O O
r
i v d t v v v
L
= =
As the output voltage
2 O
v is negative
( )
1 2 r O O
v v v = +
Therefore ( ) ( )
( )
1
1 2
2
1
. ;
t
r O O
r
i v v d t
L
= +
( )
1 1
sin for 2 to
O m
v V t t =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2
sin . sin .
t t
m
r
r
V
i t d t t d t
L
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1
2 2
cos cos
t t
m
r
r
V
i t t
L
= +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
cos cos 2 cos cos 2
m
r
r
V
i t t
L
= +
( )
1
2cos 2cos 2
m
r
r
V
i t
L
=
( )
1
2
cos cos
m
r
r
V
i t
L
=
The instantaneous value of the circulating current depends on the delay angle.
100
For trigger angle (delay angle)
1
= 0, its magnitude becomes minimum when
, 0, 2, 4,.... t n n = = and magnitude becomes maximum when , 1, 3, 5,.... t n n = =
If the peak load current is
p
I , one of the converters that controls the power flow
may carry a peak current of
4
m
p
r
V
I
L
+ ,
Where
( ) ( ) max max
4
, &
m m
p L r
L r
V V
I I i
R L
= = =
Problems
1. What will be the average power in the load for the circuit shown, when
4
= .
Assume SCR to be ideal. Supply voltage is 330 sin314t. Also calculate the RMS
power and the rectification efficiency.
T
100 R
330
Sin314t
~
+
The circuit is that of a single phase half wave controlled rectifier with a resistive load
( ) 1 cos ;
2 4
m
dc
V
V radians
= + =
330
1 cos
2 4
dc
V
= +
89.66 Volts
dc
V =
Average Power
2 2
89.66
80.38 Watts
100
dc
V
R
= = =
89.66
0.8966 Amps
100
dc
dc
V
I
R
= = =
1
2
1 sin 2
2 2
m
RMS
V
V
(
= +
(
'
101
1
2
sin 2
330 1
4
2 4 2
RMS
V
(
= +
(
(
(
'
157.32
RMS
V V =
RMS Power (AC power)
2 2
157.32
247.50 Watts
100
RMS
V
R
= = =
Rectification Efficiency
Average power
RMS power
=
80.38
0.3248
247.47
= =
2. In the circuit shown find out the average voltage across the load assuming that the
conduction drop across the SCR is 1 volt. Take = 45
0
.
100 R
330
Sin314t
~
+
V
AK
The wave form of the load voltage is shown below (not to scale).
2 3
0
V
m
V
AK
t
Voltage across
resistance
L
o
a
d
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
It is observed that the SCR turns off when t = , where ( ) = because the
SCR turnsoff for anode supply voltage below 1 Volt.
sin 1 volt (given)
AK m
V V = =
102
Therefore ( )
1 1 0
1
sin sin 0.17 0.003 radians
330
AK
m
V
V
= = =
( )
0
180 = ; By symmetry of the curve.
0
179.83 = ; 3.138 radians.
( ) ( )
1
sin
2
dc m AK
V V t V d t
( ) ( )
1
sin .
2
dc m AK
V V t d t V d t
=
( ) ( )
1
cos
2
dc m AK
V V t V t
=
( ) ( )
1
cos cos
2
dc m AK
V V V
=
( ) ( )
0 0
1
330 cos 45 cos179.83 1 3.138 0.003
2
dc
V
=
89.15 Volts
dc
V =
Note: and values should be in radians
3. In the figure find out the battery charging current when
4
= . Assume ideal
SCR.
24V
(V )
B
200 V
50 Hz
~
+
10
R
Solution
It is obvious that the SCR cannot conduct when the instantaneous value of the
supply voltage is less than 24 V, the battery voltage. The load voltage waveform is as
shown (voltage across ion).
103
2 3
0
V
m
V
B
t
Voltage across
resistance
sin
B m
V V =
24 200 2 sin =
1 0
24
sin 4.8675 0.085 radians
200 2
= = =
3.056 radians = =
Average value of voltage across 10
( ) ( )
1
sin .
2
m B
V t V d t
(The integral gives the shaded area)
( )
( )
3.056
4
1
200 2 sin 24 .
2
t d t
1
200 2 cos cos3.056 24 3.056
2 4 4
(
=
(
' '
68 Vots =
Therefore charging current
Average voltage across R
R
=
68
6.8 Amps
10
= =
Note: If value of is more than , then the SCR will trigger only at t = ,
(assuming that the gate signal persists till then), when it becomes forward biased.
104
Therefore ( ) ( )
1
sin .
2
dc m B
V V t V d t
4. In a single phase full wave rectifier supply is 200 V AC. The load resistance is
10,
0
60 = . Find the average voltage across the load and the power consumed
in the load.
Solution
In a single phase full wave rectifier
( ) 1 cos
m
dc
V
V
= +
( )
0
200 2
1 cos 60
dc
V
= +
135 Volts
dc
V =
Average Power
2 2
135
1.823
10
dc
V
kW
R
= = =
5. In the circuit shown find the charging current if the trigger angle
0
90 = .
R = 10
+
200 V
50 Hz
~
+
10V
(V )
B
Solution
With the usual notation
sin
B m
V V =
10 200 2 sin =
Therefore
1
10
sin 0.035 radians
200 2
= =
105
0
90 radians
2
= = ; ( ) 3.10659 = =
Average voltage across ( ) ( )
2
10 sin .
2
m B
V t V d t
( )
1
cos
m B
V t V t
=
( ) ( )
1
cos cos
m B
V V
=
1
200 2 cos cos3.106 10 3.106
2 2
(
=
(
' '
85 V =
Note that the values of & are in radians.
Charging current
dc voltage across resistance
resistance
=
85
8.5 Amps
10
= =
6. A single phase full wave controlled rectifier is used to supply a resistive load of
10 from a 230 V, 50 Hz, supply and firing angle of 90
0
. What is its mean load
voltage? If a large inductance is added in series with the load resistance, what will
be the new output load voltage?
Solution
For a single phase full wave controlled rectifier with resistive load,
( ) 1 cos
m
dc
V
V
= +
230 2
1 cos
2
dc
V
= +
103.5 Volts
dc
V =
When a large inductance is added in series with the load, the output voltage wave
form will be as shown below, for trigger angle
0
90 = .
106
2
3
0
V
0
t
2
cos
m
dc
V
V
=
Since
2
= ; cos 0
2
cos
= =
Therefore 0
dc
V = and this is evident from the waveform also.
7. The figure shows a battery charging circuit using SCRs. The input voltage to the
circuit is 230 V RMS. Find the charging current for a firing angle of 45
0
. If any
one of the SCR is open circuited, what is the charging current?
Solution
10
+
V
s
V
L
~
+
100V
With the usual notations
sin
S m
V V t =
2 230sin
S
V t =
sin
m B
V V = , the battery voltage
2 230sin 100 =
107
Therefore
1
100
sin
2 230
=
0
17.9 or 0.312 radians =
( ) ( ) 0.312 = =
2.829 radians =
Average value of voltage across load resistance
( ) ( )
2
sin
2
m B
V t V d t
( )
1
cos
m B
V t V t
=
( ) ( )
1
cos cos
m B
V V
=
1
230 2 cos cos 2.829 100 2.829
4 4
(
=
(
' '
( )
1
230 2 0.707 0.9517 204.36
= +
106.68 Volts =
Charging current
Voltage across resistance
R
=
106.68
10.668 Amps
10
= =
If one of the SCRs is open circuited, the circuit behaves like a half wave rectifier.
The average voltage across the resistance and the charging current will be half of that of a
full wave rectifier.
Therefore Charging Current
10.668
5.334 Amps
2
= =
108
THREE PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
INTRODUCTION TO 3PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
Single phase half controlled bridge converters & fully controlled bridge converters
are used extensively in industrial applications up to about 15kW of output power. The
single phase controlled rectifiers provide a maximum dc output of
( ) max
2
m
dc
V
V
= .
The output ripple frequency is equal to the twice the ac supply frequency. The
single phase full wave controlled rectifiers provide two output pulses during every input
supply cycle and hence are referred to as two pulse converters.
Three phase converters are 3phase controlled rectifiers which are used to convert
ac input power supply into dc output power across the load.
Features of 3phase controlled rectifiers are
Operate from 3 phase ac supply voltage.
They provide higher dc output voltage and higher dc output power.
Higher output voltage ripple frequency.
Filtering requirements are simplified for smoothing out load voltage and load
current
Three phase controlled rectifiers are extensively used in high power variable
speed industrial dc drives.
3PHASE HALF WAVE CONVERTER
Three single phase halfwave converters are connected together to form a three
phase halfwave converter as shown in the figure.
109
THEE PHASE SUPPLY VOLTAGE EQUATIONS
We define three line neutral voltages (3 phase voltages) as follows
sin ;
RN an m
v v V t = = Max. Phase Voltage
m
V =
2
sin
3
YN bn m
v v V t
= =
( )
0
sin 120
YN bn m
v v V t = =
2
sin
3
BN cn m
v v V t
= = +
( )
0
sin 120
BN cn m
v v V t = = +
( )
0
sin 240
BN cn m
v v V t = =
V
AN
V
CN
V
BN
120
0
120
0
120
0
Vector diagram of 3phase supply voltages
110
The 3phase half wave converter combines three single phase half wave controlled
rectifiers in one single circuit feeding a common load. The thyristor
1
T in series with one
of the supply phase windings ' ' a n acts as one half wave controlled rectifier. The
second thyristor
2
T in series with the supply phase winding ' ' b n acts as the second half
wave controlled rectifier. The third thyristor
3
T in series with the supply phase winding
' ' c n acts as the third half wave controlled rectifier.
The 3phase input supply is applied through the star connected supply transformer
as shown in the figure. The common neutral point of the supply is connected to one end
of the load while the other end of the load connected to the common cathode point.
When the thyristor
1
T is triggered at
( )
0
30
6
t
= + = +
, the phase voltage
an
v appears across the load when
1
T conducts. The load current flows through the supply
phase winding ' ' a n and through thyristor
1
T as long as
1
T conducts.
When thyristor
2
T is triggered at
( )
0
5
150
6
t
= + = +
,
1
T becomes reverse
biased and turnsoff. The load current flows through the thyristor
2
T and through the
supply phase winding ' ' b n . When
2
T conducts the phase voltage
bn
v appears across the
load until the thyristor
3
T is triggered .
When the thyristor
3
T is triggered at
( )
0
3
270
2
t
= + = +
,
2
T is reversed
biased and hence
2
T turnsoff. The phase voltage
cn
v appears across the load when
3
T
conducts.
When
1
T is triggered again at the beginning of the next input cycle the thyristor
3
T
turns off as it is reverse biased naturally as soon as
1
T is triggered. The figure shows the
3phase input supply voltages, the output voltage which appears across the load, and the
load current assuming a constant and ripple free load current for a highly inductive load
and the current through the thyristor
1
T .
For a purely resistive load where the load inductance L = 0 and the trigger angle
6
>
, the load current appears as discontinuous load current and each thyristor is
naturally commutated when the polarity of the corresponding phase supply voltage
reverses. The frequency of output ripple frequency for a 3phase half wave converter is
3
S
f , where
S
f is the input supply frequency.
The 3phase half wave converter is not normally used in practical converter
systems because of the disadvantage that the supply current waveforms contain dc
components (i.e., the supply current waveforms have an average or dc value).
111
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF
A 3PHASE HALF WAVE CONVERTER FOR CONTINUOUS LOAD CURRENT
The reference phase voltage is sin
RN an m
v v V t = = . The trigger angle is
measured from the cross over points of the 3phase supply voltage waveforms. When the
phase supply voltage
an
v begins its positive half cycle at 0 t = , the first cross over point
appears at
0
30
6
t radians
= =
.
The trigger angle for the thyristor
1
T is measured from the cross over point at
0
30 t = . The thyristor
1
T is forward biased during the period
0 0
30 to 150 t = , when the
phase supply voltage
an
v has a higher amplitude than the other phase supply voltages.
Hence
1
T can be triggered between
0 0
30 to 150 . When the thyristor
1
T is triggered at a
trigger angle , the average or dc output voltage for continuous load current is calculated
using the equation
( )
5
6
6
3
.
2
dc O
V v d t
+
+
=
Output voltage
( ) ( )
0 0
sin for 30 to 150
O an m
v v V t t = = = + +
( )
5
6
6
3
sin .
2
dc m
V V t d t
+
+
=
As the output load voltage waveform has three output pulses during the input
cycle of 2 radians
( )
5
6
6
3
sin .
2
m
dc
V
V t d t
+
+
=
( )
5
6
6
3
cos
2
m
dc
V
V t
+
+
=
112
3 5
cos cos
2 6 6
m
dc
V
V
(
= + + +
(
' '
Note from the trigonometric relationship
( ) ( ) cos cos .cos sin .sin A B A B A B + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 5 5
cos cos sin sin cos .cos sin sin
2 6 6 6 6
m
dc
V
V
(
= + +
(
' ' ' '
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0 0
3
cos 150 cos sin 150 sin cos 30 .cos sin 30 sin
2
m
dc
V
V
= + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0 0 0 0
3
cos 180 30 cos sin 180 30 sin cos 30 .cos sin 30 sin
2
m
dc
V
V
= + +
Note:
( ) ( )
0 0 0
cos 180 30 cos 30 =
( ) ( )
0 0 0
sin 180 30 sin 30 =
Therefore
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0 0
3
cos 30 cos sin 30 sin cos 30 .cos sin 30 sin
2
m
dc
V
V
= + + +
( ) ( )
0
3
2cos 30 cos
2
m
dc
V
V
=
( )
3 3
2 cos
2 2
m
dc
V
V
=
( ) ( )
3 3 3
3 cos cos
2 2
m m
dc
V V
V
= =
113
( )
3
cos
2
Lm
dc
V
V
=
Where
3 Max. line to line supply voltage
Lm m
V V = = for a 3phase star connected transformer.
The maximum average or dc output voltage is obtained at a delay angle = 0 and
is given by
( ) max
3 3
2
m
dm dc
V
V V
= =
Where
m
V is the peak phase voltage.
And the normalized average output voltage is
cos
dc
dcn n
dm
V
V V
V
= = =
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE RMS VALUE OF THE OUTPUT
VOLTAGE OF A 3PHASE HALF WAVE CONVERTER FOR CONTINUOUS
LOAD CURRENT
The rms value of output voltage is found by using the equation
( )
( )
1
5
2
6
2 2
6
3
sin .
2
m O RMS
V V t d t
+
+
=
and we obtain
( )
1
2
1 3
3 cos 2
6 8
m O RMS
V V
= +
114
3 PHASE HALF WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER OUTPUT VOLTAGE
WAVEFORMS FOR DIFFERENT TRIGGER ANGLES WITH RL LOAD
0
0
0
30
0
30
0
30
0
60
0
60
0
60
0
90
0
90
0
90
0
120
0
120
0
120
0
150
0
150
0
150
0
180
0
180
0
180
0
210
0
210
0
210
0
240
0
240
0
240
0
270
0
270
0
270
0
300
0
300
0
300
0
330
0
330
0
330
0
360
0
360
0
360
0
390
0
390
0
390
0
420
0
420
0
420
0
V
an
V
0
V
0
V
0
V
an
V
an
=30
0
=60
0
=90
0
V
bn
V
bn
V
bn
V
cn
V
cn
V
cn
t
t
t
115
3 PHASE HALF WAVE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER OUTPUT VOLTAGE
WAVEFORMS FOR DIFFERENT TRIGGER ANGLES WITH R LOAD
0
0
0
0
30
0
30
0
30
0
30
0
60
0
60
0
60
0
60
0
90
0
90
0
90
0
90
0
120
0
120
0
120
0
120
0
150
0
150
0
150
0
150
0
180
0
180
0
180
0
180
0
210
0
210
0
210
0
210
0
240
0
240
0
240
0
240
0
270
0
270
0
270
0
270
0
300
0
300
0
300
0
300
0
330
0
330
0
330
0
330
0
360
0
360
0
360
0
360
0
390
0
390
0
390
0
390
0
420
0
420
0
420
0
420
0
V
s
V
0
V
an
=0
=15
0
V
bn
V
cn
t
V
an
V
bn
V
cn
t
V
0
=30
0
V
an
V
bn
V
cn
t
V
0
=60
0
V
an
V
bn
V
cn
t
116
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OR DC OUTPUT
VOLTAGE OF A 3 PHASE HALF WAVE CONVERTER WITH RESISTIVE
LOAD OR RL LOAD WITH FWD.
In the case of a threephase half wave controlled rectifier with resistive load, the
thyristor
1
T is triggered at
( )
0
30 t = + and
1
T conducts up to
0
180 t = = radians.
When the phase supply voltage
an
v decreases to zero at t = , the load current falls to
zero and the thyristor
1
T turns off. Thus
1
T conducts from
( ) ( )
0 0
30 to 180 t = + .
Hence the average dc output voltage for a 3pulse converter (3phase half wave
controlled rectifier) is calculated by using the equation
( )
0
0
180
30
3
.
2
dc O
V v d t
+
=
( ) ( )
0 0
sin ; for 30 to 180
O an m
v v V t t = = = +
( )
0
0
180
30
3
sin .
2
dc m
V V t d t
+
=
( )
0
0
180
30
3
sin .
2
m
dc
V
V t d t
+
=
0
0
180
30
3
cos
2
m
dc
V
V t
+
=
( )
0 0
3
cos180 cos 30
2
m
dc
V
V
= + +
Since
0
cos180 1, =
We get
( )
0
3
1 cos 30
2
m
dc
V
V
= + +
117
THREE PHASE SEMICONVERTERS
3phase semiconverters are three phase half controlled bridge controlled rectifiers
which employ three thyristors and three diodes connected in the form of a bridge
configuration. Three thyristors are controlled switches which are turned on at appropriate
times by applying appropriate gating signals. The three diodes conduct when they are
forward biased by the corresponding phase supply voltages.
3phase semiconverters are used in industrial power applications up to about
120kW output power level, where single quadrant operation is required. The power factor
of 3phase semiconverter decreases as the trigger angle increases. The power factor of
a 3phase semiconverter is better than three phase half wave converter.
The figure shows a 3phase semiconverter with a highly inductive load and the
load current is assumed to be a constant and continuous load current with negligible
ripple.
Thyristor
1
T is forward biased when the phase supply voltage
an
v is positive and
greater than the other phase voltages
bn
v and
cn
v . The diode
1
D is forward biased when
the phase supply voltage
cn
v is more negative than the other phase supply voltages.
Thyristor
2
T is forward biased when the phase supply voltage
bn
v is positive and
greater than the other phase voltages. Diode
2
D is forward biased when the phase supply
voltage
an
v is more negative than the other phase supply voltages.
Thyristor
3
T is forward biased when the phase supply voltage
cn
v is positive and
greater than the other phase voltages. Diode
3
D is forward biased when the phase supply
voltage
bn
v is more negative than the other phase supply voltages.
The figure shows the waveforms for the three phase input supply voltages, the
output voltage, the thyristor and diode current waveforms, the current through the free
wheeling diode
m
D and the supply current
a
i . The frequency of the output supply
waveform is 3
S
f , where
S
f is the input ac supply frequency. The trigger angle can be
varied from
0 0
0 to 180 .
During the time period
7
6 6
t
i.e., for
0 0
30 210 t , thyristor
1
T is
forward biased. If
1
T is triggered at
6
t
= +
,
1
T and
1
D conduct together and the
118
line to line supply voltage
ac
v appears across the load. At
7
6
t
=
,
ac
v starts to
become negative and the free wheeling diode
m
D turns on and conducts. The load current
continues to flow through the free wheeling diode
m
D and thyristor
1
T and diode
1
D are
turned off.
If the free wheeling diode
m
D is not connected across the load, then
1
T would
continue to conduct until the thyristor
2
T is triggered at
5
6
t
= +
and the free
wheeling action is accomplished through
1
T and
2
D , when
2
D turns on as soon as
an
v
becomes more negative at
7
6
t
=
. If the trigger angle
3
each thyristor
conducts for
2
3
radians
( )
0
120 and the free wheeling diode
m
D does not conduct. The
waveforms for a 3phase semiconverter with
3
is shown in figure
119
120
We define three line neutral voltages (3 phase voltages) as follows
sin ;
RN an m
v v V t = = Max. Phase Voltage
m
V =
2
sin
3
YN bn m
v v V t
= =
( )
0
sin 120
YN bn m
v v V t = =
2
sin
3
BN cn m
v v V t
= = +
( )
0
sin 120
BN cn m
v v V t = = +
( )
0
sin 240
BN cn m
v v V t = =
The corresponding linetoline voltages are
( ) 3 sin
6
RB ac an cn m
v v v v V t
= = =
( )
5
3 sin
6
YR ba bn an m
v v v v V t
= = =
( ) 3 sin
2
BY cb cn bn m
v v v v V t
= = = +
( ) 3 sin
6
RY ab an bn m
v v v v V t
= = = +
Where
m
V is the peak phase voltage of a star (Y) connected source.
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF
THREE PHASE SEMICONVERTER FOR
3
>
AND DISCONTINUOUS
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
For
3
+
=
121
( )
7
6
6
3
3 sin
2 6
dc m
V V t d t
+
=
( )
3 3
1 cos
2
m
dc
V
V
= +
( )
3
1 cos
2
mL
dc
V
V
= +
The maximum average output voltage that occurs at a delay angle of 0 = is
3 3
m
dm
V
V
=
The normalized average output voltage is
( ) 0.5 1 cos
dc
n
dm
V
V
V
= = +
The rms output voltage is found from
( )
( )
1
7
2
6
2 2
6
3
3 sin
2 6
m O RMS
V V t d t
+
(
(
=
(
'
( )
1
2
3 1
3 sin 2
4 2
m O RMS
V V
(
= +
(
'
For
3
= = +
; for to
6 2
t
= +
Output voltage 3 sin
6
O ac m
v v V t
= =
; for
5
to
2 6
t
= +
The average or dc output voltage is calculated by using the equation
( ) ( )
5
6 2
6 2
3
. .
2
dc ab ac
V v d t v d t
+
+
= +
122
( )
3 3
1 cos
2
m
dc
V
V
= +
( ) 0.5 1 cos
dc
n
dm
V
V
V
= = +
The RMS value of the output voltage is calculated by using the equation
( )
( ) ( )
1
5
2
6 2
2 2
6 2
3
. .
2
ab ac O RMS
V v d t v d t
+
+
= +
( )
1
2
2
3 2
3 3 cos
4 3
m O RMS
V V
(
= +
(
'
THREE PHASE FULL CONVERTER
Three phase full converter is a fully controlled bridge controlled rectifier using six
thyristors connected in the form of a full wave bridge configuration. All the six thyristors
are controlled switches which are turned on at a appropriate times by applying suitable
gate trigger signals.
The three phase full converter is extensively used in industrial power applications
upto about 120kW output power level, where two quadrant operation is required. The
figure shows a three phase full converter with highly inductive load. This circuit is also
known as three phase full wave bridge or as a six pulse converter.
The thyristors are triggered at an interval of
3
radians (i.e. at an interval of
0
60 ). The frequency of output ripple voltage is 6
S
f and the filtering requirement is less
than that of three phase semi and half wave converters.
123
At
6
t
= +
, thyristor
6
T is already conducting when the thyristor
1
T is
turned on by applying the gating signal to the gate of
1
T . During the time period
to
6 2
t
= + +
, thyristors
1
T and
6
T conduct together and the line to line
supply voltage
ab
v appears across the load.
At
2
t
= +
, the thyristor
2
T is triggered and
6
T is reverse biased
immediately and
6
T turns off due to natural commutation. During the time period
5
to
2 6
t
= + +
, thyristor
1
T and
2
T conduct together and the line to line
supply voltage
ac
v appears across the load.
The thyristors are numbered in the circuit diagram corresponding to the order in
which they are triggered. The trigger sequence (firing sequence) of the thyristors is 12,
23, 34, 45, 56, 61, 12, 23, and so on. The figure shows the waveforms of three phase input
supply voltages, output voltage, the thyristor current through
1
T and
4
T , the supply
current through the line a.
We define three line neutral voltages (3 phase voltages) as follows
sin ; Max. Phase Voltage
RN an m m
v v V t V = = =
( )
0
2
sin sin 120
3
YN bn m m
v v V t V t
= = =
( ) ( )
0 0
2
sin sin 120 sin 240
3
BN cn m m m
v v V t V t V t
= = + = + ==
Where
m
V is the peak phase voltage of a star (Y) connected source.
The corresponding linetoline voltages are
( ) 3 sin
6
RY ab an bn m
v v v v V t
= = = +
( ) 3 sin
2
YB bc bn cn m
v v v v V t
= = =
( ) 3 sin
2
BR ca cn an m
v v v v V t
= = = +
124
i
G1
i
G2
i
G3
i
G4
i
G5
i
G6
(30 + )
0
60
0
60
0
60
0
60
0
60
0
(360 +30 + )
0 0
T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
T
5
T
6
T
1
T
2
T
6
t
t
t
t
t
t
Gating (Control) Signals of 3phase full converter
125
TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF
THREE PHASE FULL CONVERTER WITH HIGHLY INDUCTIVE LOAD
ASSUMING CONTINUOUS AND CONSTANT LOAD CURRENT
The output load voltage consists of 6 voltage pulses over a period of 2 radians,
hence the average output voltage is calculated as
( )
2
6
6
. ;
2
dc O O dc
V V v d t
+
+
= =
3 sin
6
O ab m
v v V t
= = +
2
6
3
3 sin .
6
dc m
V V t d t
+
+
= +
3 3 3
cos cos
m mL
dc
V V
V
= =
Where
mL
V 3 Max. linetoline supply voltage
m
V = =
The maximum average dc output voltage is obtained for a delay angle = 0,
( ) max
3 3 3
m mL
dm dc
V V
V V
= = =
The normalized average dc output voltage is
cos
dc
dcn n
dm
V
V V
V
= = =
The rms value of the output voltage is found from
( )
( )
1
2
2
2
6
6
.
2
O O rms
V v d t
+
+
=
126
( )
( )
1
2
2
2
6
6
.
2
ab O rms
V v d t
+
+
=
( )
( )
1
2
2
2 2
6
3
3 sin .
2 6
m O rms
V V t d t
+
+
(
(
= +
(
'
(
( )
1
2
1 3 3
3 cos 2
2 4
m O rms
V V
= +
127
THREE PHASE DUAL CONVERTERS
In many variable speed drives, the four quadrant operation is generally required
and three phase dual converters are extensively used in applications up to the 2000 kW
level. Figure shows three phase dual converters where two three phase full converters are
connected back to back across a common load. We have seen that due to the
instantaneous voltage differences between the output voltages of converters, a circulating
current flows through the converters. The circulating current is normally limited by
circulating reactor,
r
L . The two converters are controlled in such a way that if
1
is the
delay angle of converter 1, the delay angle of converter 2 is ( )
2 1
= .
The operation of a three phase dual converter is similar that of a single phase dual
converter system. The main difference being that a three phase dual converter gives much
higher dc output voltage and higher dc output power than a single phase dual converter
system. But the drawback is that the three phase dual converter is more expensive and the
design of control circuit is more complex.
The figure below shows the waveforms for the input supply voltages, output
voltages of converter1 and conveter2 , and the voltage across current limiting reactor
(inductor)
r
L . The operation of each converter is identical to that of a three phase full
converter.
During the interval
1
6
+
to
1
2
+
, the line to line voltage
ab
v appears
across the output of converter 1 and
bc
v appears across the output of converter 2
We define three line neutral voltages (3 phase voltages) as follows
sin ;
RN an m
v v V t = = Max. Phase Voltage
m
V =
( )
0
2
sin sin 120
3
YN bn m m
v v V t V t
= = =
( )
0
2
sin sin 120
3
BN cn m m
v v V t V t
= = + = +
( )
0
sin 240
m
V t =
128
The corresponding linetoline supply voltages are
( ) 3 sin
6
RY ab an bn m
v v v v V t
= = = +
( ) 3 sin
2
YB bc bn cn m
v v v v V t
= = =
( ) 3 sin
2
BR ca cn an m
v v v v V t
= = = +
129
TO OBTAIN AN EXPRESSION FOR THE CIRCULATING CURRENT
If
1 O
v and
2 O
v are the output voltages of converters 1 and 2 respectively, the
instantaneous voltage across the current limiting inductor during the interval
1 1
6 2
t
+ +
is
( ) ( )
1 2 r O O ab bc
v v v v v = + =
3 sin sin
6 2
r m
v V t t
(
= +
(
' '
3 cos
6
r m
v V t
=
The circulating current can be calculated by using the equation
( ) ( )
1
6
1
.
t
r r
r
i t v d t
L
+
=
( ) ( )
1
6
1
3 cos .
6
t
r m
r
i t V t d t
L
+
=
( )
1
3
sin sin
6
m
r
r
V
i t t
L
(
=
(
'
( ) max
3
m
r
r
V
i
L
= = maximum value of the circulating current.
There are two different modes of operation of a three phase dual converter system.
Circulating current free (non circulating) mode of operation
Circulating current mode of operation
CIRCULATING CURRENT FREE (NONCIRCULATING) MODE OF
OPERATION
In this mode of operation only one converter is switched on at a time when the
converter number 1 is switched on and the gate signals are applied to the thyristors the
average output voltage and the average load current are controlled by adjusting the trigger
angle
1
and the gating signals of converter 1 thyristors.
The load current flows in the downward direction giving a positive average load
current when the converter 1 is switched on. For
0
1
90 < the converter 1 operates in the
rectification mode
dc
V is positive,
dc
I is positive and hence the average load power
dc
P is
positive.
130
The converter 1 converts the input ac supply and feeds a dc power to the load.
Power flows from the ac supply to the load during the rectification mode. When the
trigger angle
1
is increased above
0
90 ,
dc
V becomes negative where as
dc
I is positive
because the thyristors of converter 1 conduct in only one direction and reversal of load
current through thyristors of converter 1 is not possible.
For
0
1
90 > converter 1 operates in the inversion mode & the load energy is
supplied back to the ac supply. The thyristors are switchedoff when the load current
decreases to zero & after a short delay time of about 10 to 20 milliseconds, the
converter 2 can be switched on by releasing the gate control signals to the thyristors of
converter 2.
We obtain a reverse or negative load current when the converter 2 is switched ON.
The average or dc output voltage and the average load current are controlled by adjusting
the trigger angle
2
of the gate trigger pulses supplied to the thyristors of converter 2.
When
2
is less than
0
90 , converter 2 operates in the rectification mode and converts
the input ac supply in to dc output power which is fed to the load.
When
2
is less than
0
90 for converter 2,
dc
V is negative &
dc
I is negative,
converter 2 operates as a controlled rectifier & power flows from the ac source to the load
circuit. When
2
is increased above 90
0
, the converter 2 operates in the inversion mode
with
dc
V
positive and
dc
I negative and hence
dc
P is negative, which means that power
flows from the load circuit to the input ac supply.
The power flow from the load circuit to the input ac source is possible if the load
circuit has a dc source of appropriate polarity.
When the load current falls to zero the thyristors of converter 2 turnoff and the
converter 2 can be turned off.
CIRCULATING CURRENT MODE OF OPERATION
Both the converters are switched on at the same time in the mode of operation.
One converter operates in the rectification mode while the other operates in the inversion
mode. Trigger angles
1
&
2
are adjusted such that ( )
0
1 2
180 + =
When
0
1
90 < , converter 1 operates as a controlled rectifier. When
2
is made
greater than
0
90 , converter 2 operates in the inversion mode.
dc
V ,
dc
I ,
dc
P are positive.
When
0
2
90 < , converter 2 operates as a controlled rectifier. When
1
is made
greater than
0
90 , converter 1 operates as an Inverter.
dc
V and
dc
I are negative while
dc
P
is positive.
131
Problems
1. A 3 phase fully controlled bridge rectifier is operating from a 400 V, 50 Hz
supply. The thyristors are fired at
4
=
0
3 2 400
cos 45 382 Volts
dc
V
= =
For
0
75 = ,
( )
0
6
1 cos 60
2
m
dc
V
V
= + +
( )
0 0
6 2 400
1 cos 60 75
2
dc
V
= + +
158.4 Volts
dc
V =
2. A 6 pulse converter connected to 415 V ac supply is controlling a 440 V dc motor.
Find the angle at which the converter must be triggered so that the voltage drop in
the circuit is 10% of the motor rated voltage.
Solution
+
+
440 V
44V
R
a
L
a
3 phase
Full Wave
Rectifier
A
B
C
484
V=V
0
a
R  Armature resistance of motor.
a
L  Armature Inductance.
If the voltage across the armature has to be the rated voltage i.e., 440 V, then the
output voltage of the rectifier should be 440 + drop in the motor
That is 440 01 440 484 Volts + = .
132
Therefore
3 cos
484
m
O
V
V
= =
That is
3 2 415 cos
484
=
Therefore
0
30.27 =
3. A 3 phase half controlled bridge rectifier is feeding a RL load. If input voltage is
400 sin314t and SCR is fired at
4
Therefore [ ]
3
1 cos
2
m
dc
V
V
= +
0
3 400
1 cos 45
2
dc
V
= +
326.18 Volts
dc
V =
If any one supply line is disconnected, the circuit behaves like a single phase half
controlled rectifies with RL load.
[ ] 1 cos
m
dc
V
V
= +
0
400
1 cos 45
dc
V
= +
217.45 Volts
dc
V =
133
EDUSAT PROGRAMME
LECTURE NOTES
ON
POWER ELECTRONICS
BY
PROF. T.K. ANANTHA KUMAR
DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG.
M.S. RAMAIAH INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BANGALORE 560 054
134
THYRISTOR COMMUTATION TECHNIQUES
INTRODUCTION
In practice it becomes necessary to turn off a conducting thyristor. (Often
thyristors are used as switches to turn on and off power to the load). The process of
turning off a conducting thyristor is called commutation. The principle involved is that
either the anode should be made negative with respect to cathode (voltage commutation)
or the anode current should be reduced below the holding current value (current
commutation).
The reverse voltage must be maintained for a time at least equal to the turnoff
time of SCR otherwise a reapplication of a positive voltage will cause the thyristor to
conduct even without a gate signal. On similar lines the anode current should be held at a
value less than the holding current at least for a time equal to turnoff time otherwise the
SCR will start conducting if the current in the circuit increases beyond the holding current
level even without a gate signal. Commutation circuits have been developed to hasten the
turnoff process of Thyristors. The study of commutation techniques helps in
understanding the transient phenomena under switching conditions.
The reverse voltage or the small anode current condition must be maintained for a
time at least equal to the TURN OFF time of SCR; Otherwise the SCR may again start
conducting. The techniques to turn off a SCR can be broadly classified as
Natural Commutation
Forced Commutation.
NATURAL COMMUTATION (CLASS F)
This type of commutation takes place when supply voltage is AC, because a
negative voltage will appear across the SCR in the negative half cycle of the supply
voltage and the SCR turns off by itself. Hence no special circuits are required to turn off
the SCR. That is the reason that this type of commutation is called Natural or Line
Commutation. Figure 1.1 shows the circuit where natural commutation takes place and
figure 1.2 shows the related waveforms.
c
t is the time offered by the circuit within which
the SCR should turn off completely. Thus
c
t should be greater than
q
t , the turn off time
of the SCR. Otherwise, the SCR will become forward biased before it has turned off
completely and will start conducting even without a gate signal.
~
T
+
v
o
v
s
R
Fig. 1.1: Circuit for Natural Commutation
135
Fig. 1.2: Natural Commutation Waveforms of Supply and Load Voltages
(Resistive Load)
This type of commutation is applied in ac voltage controllers, phase controlled
rectifiers and cyclo converters.
FORCED COMMUTATION
When supply is DC, natural commutation is not possible because the polarity of
the supply remains unchanged. Hence special methods must be used to reduce the SCR
current below the holding value or to apply a negative voltage across the SCR for a time
interval greater than the turn off time of the SCR. This technique is called FORCED
COMMUTATION and is applied in all circuits where the supply voltage is DC  namely,
Choppers (fixed DC to variable DC), inverters (DC to AC). Forced commutation
techniques are as follows:
Self Commutation
Resonant Pulse Commutation
Complementary Commutation
Impulse Commutation
External Pulse Commutation.
Load Side Commutation.
t
t
t
t
Supply voltage v
s
Sinusoidal
Voltage across SCR
Load voltage v
o
Turn off
occurs here
0
0
2
2
3
3
t
c
136
Line Side Commutation.
SELF COMMUTATION OR LOAD COMMUTATION OR CLASS A
COMMUTATION: (COMMUTATION BY RESONATING THE LOAD)
In this type of commutation the current through the SCR is reduced below the
holding current value by resonating the load. i.e., the load circuit is so designed that even
though the supply voltage is positive, an oscillating current tends to flow and when the
current through the SCR reaches zero, the device turns off. This is done by including an
inductance and a capacitor in series with the load and keeping the circuit underdamped.
Figure 1.3 shows the circuit.
This type of commutation is used in Series Inverter Circuit.
V
R
L
V (0)
c
C
T
i
Load
+ 
Fig. 1.3: Circuit for Self Commutation
EXPRESSION FOR CURRENT
At 0 t = , when the SCR turns ON on the application of gate pulse assume the
current in the circuit is zero and the capacitor voltage is ( ) 0
C
V .
Writing the Laplace Transformation circuit of figure 1.3 the following circuit is
obtained when the SCR is conducting.
V
S
R
sL
1
CS
V (0)
S
C
C
T
I(S)
+ +  
Fig.: 1.4.
137
( )
( ) 0
1
C
S
V V
S
I S
R sL
C
=
+ +
( )
2
0
1
S C
C V V
S
RCs s LC
=
+ +
( )
2
0
1
C
C V V
R
LC s s
L LC
=
+ +
( )
2
0
1
C
V V
L
R
s s
L LC
=
+ +
( ) ( )
2 2
2
0
1
2 2
C
V V
L
R R R
s s
L LC L L
=
+ + +
( ) ( )
2
2 2
0
1
2 2
C
V V
L
R R
s
L LC L
=
(
( + +
' ' (
( )
2
2
A
s
=
+ +
,
Where
( ) ( )
2
0
1
, ,
2 2
C
V V
R R
A
L L LC L
= = =
is called the natural frequency
( )
( )
2
2
A
I S
s
=
+ +
138
Taking inverse Laplace transforms
( ) sin
t
A
i t e t
=
Therefore expression for current
( )
( )
2
0
sin
R
t
C
L
V V
i t e t
L
=
Peak value of current
( ) ( )
0
C
V V
L
=
Expression for voltage across capacitor at the time of turn off
Applying KVL to figure 1.3
c R L
v V v V =
c
di
v V iR L
dt
=
Substituting for i,
sin sin
t t
c
A d A
v V R e t L e t
dt
=
( )
sin cos sin
t t t
c
A A
v V R e t L e t e t
=
[ ] sin cos sin
t
c
A
v V e R t L t L t
= +
sin cos sin
2
t
c
A R
v V e R t L t L t
L
= +
sin cos
2
t
c
A R
v V e t L t
= +
Substituting for A,
( )
( ) ( )
0
sin cos
2
C t
c
V V
R
v t V e t L t
L
= +
( )
( ) ( )
0
sin cos
2
C t
c
V V
R
v t V e t t
L
= +
139
SCR turns off when current goes to zero. i.e., at t = .
Therefore at turn off
( ) ( )
( )
0
0 cos
C
c
V V
v V e
= +
( ) 0
c C
v V V V e
= +
Therefore ( )
2
0
R
L
c C
v V V V e
= +
Note: For effective commutation the circuit should be under damped.
That is
2
1
2
R
L LC
<
With R = 0, and the capacitor initially uncharged that is ( ) 0 0
C
V =
sin
V t
i
L LC
=
But
1
LC
=
Therefore sin sin
V t C t
i LC V
L L LC LC
= =
and capacitor voltage at turn off is equal to 2V.
Figure 1.5 shows the waveforms for the above conditions. Once the SCR turns off
voltage across it is negative voltage.
Conduction time of SCR
= .
140
Current i
Capacitor voltage
Gate pulse
Voltage across SCR
0 /2
t
t
t
t
V
V
2V
C
V
L
Fig. 1.5: Self Commutation Wave forms of Current and Capacitors Voltage
Problem 1.1 : Calculate the conduction time of SCR and the peak SCR current that flows
in the circuit employing series resonant commutation (self commutation or class A
commutation), if the supply voltage is 300 V, C = 1F, L = 5 mH and R
L
= 100 .
Assume that the circuit is initially relaxed.
V
=300V
R
L
L
1 F 100
5 mH
C
T
+
Fig. 1.6.
141
Solution:
2
1
2
L
R
LC L
=
2
3 6 3
1 100
5 10 1 10 2 5 10
=
10, 000 rad/sec =
Since the circuit is initially relaxed, initial voltage across capacitor is zero as also
the initial current through L and the expression for current i is
sin
t
V
i e t
L
= , where
2
R
L
= ,
Therefore peak value of
V
i
L
=
3
300
6
10000 5 10
i A
= =
Conducting time of SCR 0.314msec
10000
= = =
Problem 1.2 : Figure 1.7 shows a self commutating circuit. The inductance carries an
initial current of 200 A and the initial voltage across the capacitor is V, the supply
voltage. Determine the conduction time of the SCR and the capacitor voltage at turn off.
V
=100V
L
50 F
10 H
C
T
+
i(t)
I
O
V
C
(0)=V
Fig. 1.7.
142
Solution :
The transformed circuit of figure 1.7 is shown in figure 1.8.
sL
V
S
V (0)
S
C
I L
O
+
+
+
1
CS
I(S)
=V
Fig.1.8: Transformed Circuit of Fig. 1.7
The governing equation is
( )
( )
( )
0 1
C
O
V V
I S sL I L I S
s s Cs
= + +
Therefore ( )
( ) 0
1
C
O
V V
I L
s s
I S
sL
Cs
+
=
+
( )
( )
2 2
0
1 1
C
O
V V
Cs
s s
I LCs
I S
s LC s LC
= +
+ +
( )
( )
2 2
0
1 1
C
O
V V C
I LCs
I S
LC s LC s
LC LC
= +
+ +
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
0
C O
V V sI
I S
s L s
= +
+ +
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
0
C
O
V V
sI
I S
s L s
= +
+ +
where
1
LC
=
Taking inverse LT
( ) ( ) 0 sin cos
C O
C
i t V V t I t
L
= +
143
The capacitor voltage is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
0
1
0
t
c C
v t i t dt V
C
= +
( ) ( ) ( )
0
1
0 sin cos 0
t
c C O C
C
v t V V t I t dt V
C L
= + + (
`
)
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0
1
cos sin 0
C
O
c C
V V t t
I C
v t t t V
o o C L
= + +
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0
1
1 cos sin 0
C
O
c C
V V
I C
v t t t V
C L
= + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
sin 0 1 cos 0
O
c C C
I C
v t LC t V V LC t V
C C L
= + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) sin cos 0 0 cos 0
c O C C C
L
v t I t V V t V V t V
C
= + + +
( ) ( ) ( )
sin 0 cos
c O C
L
v t I t V V t V
C
= +
In this problem ( ) 0
C
V V =
Therefore we get, ( ) cos
O
i t I t = and
( ) sin
c O
L
v t I t V
C
= +
144
The waveforms are as shown in figure 1.9
I
0
i(t)
/2
/2
t
t
v
c
(t)
V
Fig.: 1.9
Turn off occurs at a time to so that
2
O
t
=
Therefore
0.5
0.5
O
t LC
= =
6 6
0.5 10 10 50 10
O
t
=
6
0.5 10 500 35.1 seconds
O
t
= =
and the capacitor voltage at turn off is given by
( ) sin
c O O O
L
v t I t V
C
= +
( )
6
0
6
10 10
200 sin90 100
50 10
c O
v t
= +
( )
35.12
200 0.447 sin 100
22.36
c O
v t
= +
( ) 89.4 100 189.4
c O
v t V = + =
145
Problem 1.3: In the circuit shown in figure 1.10. V = 600 volts, initial capacitor voltage
is zero, L = 20 H, C = 50F and the current through the inductance at the time of SCR
triggering is I
o
= 350 A. Determine (a) the peak values of capacitor voltage and current
(b) the conduction time of T
1
.
V
L
i(t)
I
0
C
T
1
Fig. 1.10
Solution:
(Refer to problem 1.2).
The expression for ( ) i t is given by
( ) ( ) 0 sin cos
C O
C
i t V V t I t
L
= +
It is given that the initial voltage across the capacitor, ( )
C
V O is zero.
Therefore ( ) sin cos
O
C
i t V t I t
L
= +
( ) i t can be written as
( ) ( )
2 2
sin
O
C
i t I V t
L
= + +
where
1
tan
O
L
I
C
V
=
and
1
LC
=
The peak capacitor current is
2 2
O
C
I V
L
+
Substituting the values, the peak capacitor current
6
2 2
6
50 10
350 600 1011.19
20 10
A
= + =
146
The expression for capacitor voltage is
( ) ( ) ( )
sin 0 cos
c O C
L
v t I t V V t V
C
= +
with ( ) ( ) 0 0, sin cos
C c O
L
V v t I t V t V
C
= = +
This can be rewritten as
( ) ( )
2 2
sin
c O
L
v t V I t V
C
= + +
Where
1
tan
O
C
V
L
I
=
The peak value of capacitor voltage is
2 2
O
L
V I V
C
= + +
Substituting the values, the peak value of capacitor voltage
6
2 2
6
20 10
600 350 600
50 10
= + +
639.5 600 1239.5V = + =
To calculate conduction time of
1
T
The waveform of capacitor current is shown in figure 1.11. When the capacitor
current becomes zero the SCR turns off.
t
Capacitor
current
0
Fig. 1.11.
147
Therefore conduction time of SCR
=
1
tan
1
O
L
I
C
V
LC
=
Substituting the values
1
tan
O
L
I
C
V
=
6
1
6
350 20 10
tan
600 50 10
0
20.25 i.e., 0.3534 radians =
6 6
1 1
31622.8 rad/sec
20 10 50 10
LC
= = =
Therefore conduction time of SCR
0.3534
88.17 sec
31622.8
= =
RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION (CLASS B COMMUTATION)
The circuit for resonant pulse commutation is shown in figure 1.12.
L
C
V
Load
FWD
a
b
i
T
I
L
Fig. 1.12: Circuit for Resonant Pulse Commutation
148
This is a type of commutation in which a LC series circuit is connected across the
SCR. Since the commutation circuit has negligible resistance it is always underdamped
i.e., the current in LC circuit tends to oscillate whenever the SCR is on.
Initially the SCR is off and the capacitor is charged to V volts with plate a being
positive. Referring to figure 1.13 at
1
t t = the SCR is turned ON by giving a gate pulse. A
current
L
I flows through the load and this is assumed to be constant. At the same time
SCR short circuits the LC combination which starts oscillating. A current i starts
flowing in the direction shown in figure. As i reaches its maximum value, the capacitor
voltage reduces to zero and then the polarity of the capacitor voltage reverses b becomes
positive). When i falls to zero this reverse voltage becomes maximum, and then
direction of i reverses i.e., through SCR the load current
L
I and i flow in opposite
direction. When the instantaneous value of i becomes equal to
L
I , the SCR current
becomes zero and the SCR turns off. Now the capacitor starts charging and its voltage
reaches the supply voltage with plate a being positive. The related waveforms are shown
in figure 1.13.
Gate pulse
of SCR
Capacitor voltage
v
ab
t
1
V
t
t
t
t
t
I
p
i
Voltage across
SCR
I
L
t
C
t
I
SCR
Fig. 1.13: Resonant Pulse Commutation Various Waveforms
149
EXPRESSION FOR
c
t , THE CIRCUIT TURN OFF TIME
Assume that at the time of turn off of the SCR the capacitor voltage
ab
v V and
load current
L
I is constant.
c
t is the time taken for the capacitor voltage to reach 0 volts
from V volts and is derived as follows.
0
1
c
t
L
V I dt
C
=
L c
I t
V
C
=
seconds
c
L
VC
t
I
=
For proper commutation
c
t should be greater than
q
t , the turn off time of T. Also,
the magnitude of
p
I , the peak value of i should be greater than the load current
L
I and
the expression for i is derived as follows
The LC circuit during the commutation period is shown in figure 1.14.
i
L
C
T
+
V
C
(0)
=V
Fig. 1.14.
The transformed circuit is shown in figure 1.15.
I(S)
sL
T 1
Cs
V
s
+
Fig. 1.15.
150
( )
1
V
s
I S
sL
Cs
=
+
( )
2
1
V
Cs
s
I S
s LC
=
+
( )
2
1
VC
I S
LC s
LC
=
+
( )
2
1
1
V
I S
L
s
LC
=
+
( )
2
1
1
1
1
V LC
I S
L
s
LC
LC
=
+
( )
2
1
1
C LC
I S V
L
s
LC
=
+
Taking inverse LT
( ) sin
C
i t V t
L
=
Where
1
LC
=
Or ( ) sin sin
p
V
i t t I t
L
= =
Therefore amps
p
C
I V
L
= .
151
EXPRESSION FOR CONDUCTION TIME OF SCR
For figure 1.13 (waveform of i), the conduction time of SCR
t
= +
1
sin
L
p
I
I
= +
ALTERNATE CIRCUIT FOR RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION
The working of the circuit can be explained as follows. The capacitor C is
assumed to be charged to ( ) 0
C
V with polarity as shown,
1
T is conducting and the load
current
L
I is a constant. To turn off
1
T ,
2
T is triggered. L, C,
1
T and
2
T forms a resonant
circuit. A resonant current ( )
c
i t flows in the direction shown, i.e., in a direction opposite
to that of load current
L
I .
( )
c
i t = sin
p
I t (refer to the previous circuit description). Where ( ) 0
p C
C
I V
L
=
& and the capacitor voltage is given by
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
.
1
0 sin .
0 cos
c C
c C
c C
v t i t dt
C
C
v t V t dt
C L
v t V t
=
=
=
.
V
L
O
A
D
FWD
L
T
1 I
L
T
3
T
2
i
C
(t)
i
C
(t)
V
C
(0)
a b
+
C
Fig. 1.16: Resonant Pulse Commutation An Alternate Circuit
152
When ( )
c
i t becomes equal to
L
I (the load current), the current through
1
T
becomes zero and
1
T turns off. This happens at time
1
t such that
1
sin
L p
t
I I
LC
=
( ) 0
p C
C
I V
L
=
( )
1
1
sin
0
L
C
I L
t LC
V C
=
and the corresponding capacitor voltage is
( ) ( )
1 1 1
0 cos
c C
v t V V t = =
Once the thyristor
1
T turns off, the capacitor starts charging towards the supply
voltage through
2
T and load. As the capacitor charges through the load capacitor current
is same as load current
L
I , which is constant. When the capacitor voltage reaches V, the
supply voltage, the FWD starts conducting and the energy stored in L charges C to a still
higher voltage. The triggering of
3
T reverses the polarity of the capacitor voltage and the
circuit is ready for another triggering of
1
T . The waveforms are shown in figure 1.17.
EXPRESSION FOR
c
t
Assuming a constant load current
L
I which charges the capacitor
1
seconds
c
L
CV
t
I
=
Normally ( )
1
0
C
V V
For reliable commutation
c
t should be greater than
q
t , the turn off time of SCR
1
T .
It is to be noted that
c
t depends upon
L
I and becomes smaller for higher values of load
current.
153
t
t
t
C
t
1
V
1
V
V
C
(0)
Capacitor
voltage v
ab
Current i
C
(t)
Fig. 1.17: Resonant Pulse Commutation Alternate Circuit Various Waveforms
RESONANT PULSE COMMUTATION WITH ACCELERATING DIODE
V
L
O
A
D
FWD
L C
T
1
I
L
T
3
T
2
i
C
(t)
V
C
(0)
+ 
D
2
i
C
(t)
Fig. 1.17(a)
154
Fig. 1.17(b)
A diode
2
D is connected as shown in the figure 1.17(a) to accelerate the
discharging of the capacitor C. When thyristor
2
T is fired a resonant current ( )
C
i t
flows through the capacitor and thyristor
1
T . At time
1
t t = , the capacitor current ( )
C
i t
equals the load current
L
I and hence current through
1
T is reduced to zero resulting in
turning off of
1
T . Now the capacitor current ( )
C
i t continues to flow through the diode
2
D
until it reduces to load current level
L
I at time
2
t . Thus the presence of
2
D has
accelerated the discharge of capacitor C. Now the capacitor gets charged through the
load and the charging current is constant. Once capacitor is fully charged
2
T turns off by
itself. But once current of thyristor
1
T reduces to zero the reverse voltage appearing across
1
T is the forward voltage drop of
2
D which is very small. This makes the thyristor
recovery process very slow and it becomes necessary to provide longer reverse bias time.
From figure 1.17(b)
2 1
t LC t =
( ) ( )
2 2
cos
C C
V t V O t =
Circuit turnoff time
2 1 C
t t t =
Problem 1.4 : The circuit in figure 1.18 shows a resonant pulse commutation circuit. The
initial capacitor voltage
( )
200
C O
V V = , C = 30F and L = 3H. Determine the circuit
turn off time
c
t , if the load current
L
I is (a) 200 A and (b) 50 A.
I
L
0
V
C
0
V
1
V (O)
C
i
C
t
t
t
1
t
2
t
C
155
V
L
O
A
D
FWD
L C
T
1
I
L
T
3
T
2
i
C
(t)
V
C
(0)
+
Fig. 1.18.
Solution
(a) When 200
L
I A =
Let
2
T be triggered at 0 t = .
The capacitor current ( )
c
i t reaches a value
L
I at
1
t t = , when
1
T turns off
( )
1
1
sin
0
L
C
I L
t LC
V C
=
6
6 6 1
1 6
200 3 10
3 10 30 10 sin
200 30 10
t
1
3.05 sec t = .
6 6
1 1
3 10 30 10
LC
= =
6
0.105 10 / sec rad = .
At
1
t t = , the magnitude of capacitor voltage is ( )
1 1
0 cos
C
V V t =
That is
6 6
1
200cos 0.105 10 3.05 10 V
=
1
200 0.9487 V =
1
189.75 Volts V =
and
1
c
L
CV
t
I
=
156
6
30 10 189.75
28.46 sec
200
c
t
= = .
(b) When 50
L
I A =
6
6 6 1
1 6
50 3 10
3 10 30 10 sin
200 30 10
t
1
0.749 sec t = .
6 6
1
200cos 0.105 10 0.749 10 V
=
1
200 1 200 Volts V = = .
1
c
L
CV
t
I
=
6
30 10 200
120 sec
50
c
t
= = .
It is observed that as load current increases the value of
c
t reduces.
Problem 1.4a : Repeat the above problem for 200
L
I A = , if an antiparallel diode
2
D is
connected across thyristor
1
T as shown in figure 1.18a.
V
L
O
A
D
FWD
L C
T
1
I
L
T
3
T
2
i
C
(t)
V
C
(0)
+ 
D
2
i
C
(t)
Fig. 1.18(a)
157
Solution
200
L
I A =
Let
2
T be triggered at 0 t = .
Capacitor current ( )
C
i t reaches the value
1 1
at , when turns off
L
I t t T =
Therefore
( )
1
1
sin
L
C
I L
t LC
V O C
=
6
6 6 1
1 6
200 3 10
3 10 30 10 sin
200 30 10
t
`
1
3.05 sec t = .
6 6
1 1
3 10 30 10
LC
= =
6
0.105 10 radians/sec =
1
At t t =
( ) ( )
1 1 1
cos
C C
V t V V O t = =
( ) ( )
6 6
1
200cos 0.105 10 3.05 10
C
V t
=
( )
1
189.75
C
V t V =
( )
C
i t flows through diode
2
D after
1
T turns off.
( )
C
i t current falls back to
2
at
L
I t
2 1
t LC t =
6 6 6
2
3 10 30 10 3.05 10 t
=
2
26.75 sec t = .
6 6
1 1
3 10 30 10
LC
= =
6
0.105 10 rad/sec. =
158
2
At t t =
( )
6 6
2 2
200cos 0.105 10 26.75 10
C
V t V
+
= =
( )
2 2
189.02
C
V t V V = =
Therefore
6 6
2 1
26.75 10 3.05 10
C
t t t
= =
23.7 secs
C
t =
Problem 1.5: For the circuit shown in figure 1.19 calculate the value of L for proper
commutation of SCR. Also find the conduction time of SCR.
V
=30V
L
i
4 F
R
L
I
L 30
Fig. 1.19.
Solution:
The load current
30
1 Amp
30
L
L
V
I
R
= = =
For proper SCR commutation
p
I , the peak value of resonant current i, should be
greater than
L
I ,
Let 2
p L
I I = , Therefore 2 Amps
p
I = .
Also
1
p
V V C
I V
L L
L
LC
= = =
Therefore
6
4 10
2 30
L
=
Therefore 0.9 L mH = .
3 6
1 1
16666 rad/sec
0.9 10 4 10
LC
= = =
159
Conduction time of SCR =
1
sin
L
p
I
I
+
1
1
sin
2
16666 16666
= +
0.523
radians
16666
+
=
0.00022 seconds =
0.22 msec =
Problem 1.6: For the circuit shown in figure 1.20 given that the load current to be
commutated is 10 A, turn off time required is 40sec and the supply voltage is 100 V.
Obtain the proper values of commutating elements.
V
=100V
L
i I
L
I
L
C
Fig. 1.20.
Solution
p
I peak value of
C
i V
L
= and this should be greater than
L
I . Let 1.5
p L
I I = .
Therefore ( ) 1.5 10 100 ...
C
a
L
=
Also, assuming that at the time of turn off the capacitor voltage is approximately
equal to V, (and referring to waveform of capacitor voltage in figure 1.13) and the load
current linearly charges the capacitor
seconds
c
L
CV
t
I
=
and this
c
t is given to be 40 sec.
Therefore
6
100
40 10
10
C
=
160
Therefore 4 C F =
Substituting this in equation (a)
6
4 10
1.5 10 100
L
=
4 6
2 2
10 4 10
1.5 10
L
=
Therefore
4
1.777 10 L H
=
0.177 L mH = .
Problem 1.7 : In a resonant commutation circuit supply voltage is 200 V. Load current is
10 A and the device turn off time is 20s. The ratio of peak resonant current to load
current is 1.5. Determine the value of L and C of the commutation circuit.
Solution
Given 1.5
p
L
I
I
=
Therefore 1.5 1.5 10 15
p L
I I A = = = .
That is ( ) 15 ...
p
C
I V A a
L
= =
It is given that the device turn off time is 20 sec. Therefore
c
t , the circuit turn off
time should be greater than this,
Let 30 sec
c
t = .
And
c
L
CV
t
I
=
Therefore
6
200
30 10
10
C
=
Therefore 1.5 C F = .
Substituting in (a)
6
1.5 10
15 200
L
=
161
6
2 2
1.5 10
15 200
L
=
Therefore 0.2666 mH L =
COMPLEMENTARY COMMUTATION (CLASS C COMMUTATION,
PARALLEL CAPACITOR COMMUTATION)
In complementary commutation the current can be transferred between two loads.
Two SCRs are used and firing of one SCR turns off the other. The circuit is shown in
figure 1.21.
V
R
1
R
2
T
1
T
2
I
L
i
C
C
a b
Fig. 1.21: Complementary Commutation
The working of the circuit can be explained as follows.
Initially both
1
T and
2
T are off; Now,
1
T is fired. Load current
L
I flows
through
1
R . At the same time, the capacitor C gets charged to V volts through
2
R and
1
T
(b becomes positive with respect to a). When the capacitor gets fully charged, the
capacitor current
c
i becomes zero.
To turn off
1
T ,
2
T is fired; the voltage across C comes across
1
T and reverse biases
it, hence
1
T turns off. At the same time, the load current flows through
2
R and
2
T . The
capacitor C charges towards V through
1
R and
2
T and is finally charged to V volts with
a plate positive. When the capacitor is fully charged, the capacitor current becomes
zero. To turn off
2
T ,
1
T is triggered, the capacitor voltage (with a positive) comes across
2
T and
2
T turns off. The related waveforms are shown in figure 1.22.
EXPRESSION FOR CIRCUIT TURN OFF TIME
c
t
From the waveforms of the voltages across
1
T and capacitor, it is obvious that
c
t
is the time taken by the capacitor voltage to reach 0 volts from V volts, the time
constant being RC and the final voltage reached by the capacitor being V volts. The
equation for capacitor voltage ( )
c
v t can be written as
162
( ) ( )
t
c f i f
v t V V V e
= +
Where
f
V is the final voltage,
i
V is the initial voltage and is the time constant.
At
c
t t = , ( ) 0
c
v t = ,
1
RC = ,
f
V V = ,
i
V V = ,
Therefore ( )
1
0
c
t
R C
V V V e
= +
1
0 2
c
t
R C
V Ve
=
Therefore
1
2
c
t
R C
V Ve
=
1
0.5
c
t
R C
e
=
Taking natural logarithms on both sides
1
ln 0.5
c
t
RC
=
1
0.693
c
t RC =
This time should be greater than the turn off time
q
t of
1
T .
Similarly when
2
T is commutated
2
0.693
c
t R C =
And this time should be greater than
q
t of
2
T .
Usually
1 2
R R R = =
163
Gate pulse
of T
1
Gate pulse
of T
2
Current through R
1
p
I
L
V
t
t
t
t
t
t
Current through T
1
Voltage across
capacitor v
ab
Voltage across T
1
Current through T
2
t
C
t
C
t
C
V
 V
2
2
V
R
2
1
V
R
V
R
1
V
R
2
2
1
V
R
V
R
1
Fig. 1.22
164
Problem 1.8 : In the circuit shown in figure 1.23 the load resistances
1 2
5 R R R = = =
and the capacitance C = 7.5 F, V = 100 volts. Determine the circuit turn off time
c
t .
V
R
1
R
2
T
1
T
2
C
Fig. 1.23.
Solution
The circuit turnoff time 0.693 RC seconds
c
t =
6
0.693 5 7.5 10
c
t
=
26 sec
c
t = .
Problem 1.9: Calculate the values of
L
R and C to be used for commutating the main SCR
in the circuit shown in figure 1.24. When it is conducting a full load current of 25 A flows.
The minimum time for which the SCR has to be reverse biased for proper commutation is
40sec. Also find
1
R , given that the auxiliary SCR will undergo natural commutation
when its forward current falls below the holding current value of 2 mA.
V
=100V
R
1
R
L
Main
SCR
Auxiliary
SCR
i
C
C
I
L
i
1
Fig. 1.24.
Solution
In this circuit only the main SCR carries the load and the auxiliary SCR is used to
turn off the main SCR. Once the main SCR turns off the current through the auxiliary
SCR is the sum of the capacitor charging current
c
i and the current
1
i through
1
R ,
c
i
reduces to zero after a time
c
t and hence the auxiliary SCR turns off automatically after a
time
c
t ,
1
i should be less than the holding current.
165
Given 25
L
I A =
That is
100
25
L L
V
A
R R
= =
Therefore 4
L
R =
40 sec 0.693
c L
t R C = =
That is
6
40 10 0.693 4 C
=
Therefore
6
40 10
4 0.693
C
14.43 C F =
1
1
V
i
R
= should be less than the holding current of auxiliary SCR.
Therefore
1
100
R
should be < 2mA.
Therefore
1 3
100
2 10
R
>
That is
1
50 R K >
IMPULSE COMMUTATION (CLASS D COMMUTATION)
The circuit for impulse commutation is as shown in figure 1.25.
V
L
O
A
D
FWD
C
T
1
T
3
I
L
T
2
V
C
(O)
+
L
Fig. 1.25: Circuit for Impulse Commutation
166
The working of the circuit can be explained as follows. It is assumed that initially
the capacitor C is charged to a voltage ( )
C
V O with polarity as shown. Let the thyristor
1
T
be conducting and carry a load current
L
I . If the thyristor
1
T is to be turned off,
2
T is
fired. The capacitor voltage comes across
1
T ,
1
T is reverse biased and it turns off. Now
the capacitor starts charging through
2
T and the load. The capacitor voltage reaches V
with top plate being positive. By this time the capacitor charging current (current through
2
T ) would have reduced to zero and
2
T automatically turns off. Now
1
T and
2
T are both
off. Before firing
1
T again, the capacitor voltage should be reversed. This is done by
turning on
3
T , C discharges through
3
T and L and the capacitor voltage reverses. The
waveforms are shown in figure 1.26.
Gate pulse
of T
2
Gate pulse
of T
3
Voltage across T
1
Capacitor
voltage
Gate pulse
of T
1
V
S
t
t
t
t
C
V
C
V
C
Fig. 1.26: Impulse Commutation Waveforms of Capacitor Voltage, Voltage
across
1
T .
167
EXPRESSION FOR CIRCUIT TURN OFF TIME (AVAILABLE TURN OFF
TIME)
c
t
c
t depends on the load current
L
I and is given by the expression
0
1
c
t
C L
V I dt
C
=
(assuming the load current to be constant)
L c
C
I t
V
C
=
seconds
C
c
L
V C
t
I
=
For proper commutation
c
t should be >
q
t , turn off time of
1
T .
Note:
1
T is turned off by applying a negative voltage across its terminals. Hence this is
voltage commutation.
c
t depends on load current. For higher load currents
c
t is small. This is a
disadvantage of this circuit.
When
2
T is fired, voltage across the load is
C
V V + ; hence the current through
load shoots up and then decays as the capacitor starts charging.
AN ALTERNATIVE CIRCUIT FOR IMPULSE COMMUTATION
Is shown in figure 1.27.
V
C
D
T
1
I
T1
I
L
i
T
2
L
R
L
V
C
(O)
+
_
Fig. 1.27: Impulse Commutation An Alternate Circuit
168
The working of the circuit can be explained as follows:
Initially let the voltage across the capacitor be ( )
C
V O with the top plate positive.
Now
1
T is triggered. Load current flows through
1
T and load. At the same time, C
discharges through
1
T , L and D (the current is i) and the voltage across C reverses i.e.,
the bottom plate becomes positive. The diode D ensures that the bottom plate of the
capacitor remains positive.
To turn off
1
T ,
2
T is triggered; the voltage across the capacitor comes across
1
T .
1
T is reverse biased and it turns off (voltage commutation). The capacitor now starts
charging through
2
T and load. When it charges to V volts (with the top plate positive), the
current through
2
T becomes zero and
2
T automatically turns off.
The related waveforms are shown in figure 1.28.
Gate pulse
of T
1
Gate pulse
of T
2
Current through SCR
Load current
This is due to i
Voltage across T
1
Capacitor
voltage
t
t
t
t
t
t
C
t
C
V
C
I
L
I
L
V
I
T
1
V
V
R
L
2V
R
L
Fig. 1.28: Impulse Commutation (Alternate Circuit) Various Waveforms
169
Problem 1.10: An impulse commutated thyristor circuit is shown in figure 1.29.
Determine the available turn off time of the circuit if V = 100 V, R = 10 and C = 10
F. Voltage across capacitor before
2
T is fired is V volts with polarity as shown.
C
T
1
T
2
V (0)
C
V
+
+


R
Fig. 1.29.
Solution
When
2
T is triggered the circuit is as shown in figure 1.30.
C
i(t)
T
2
V
+
+


R
V (O)
C
Fig. 1.30.
Writing the transform circuit, we obtain
V
s
V (0)
s
C
+
+
I(s)
1
Cs
R
Fig. 1.31.
170
We have to obtain an expression for capacitor voltage. It is done as follows:
( )
( ) ( )
1
0
1
C
V V
s
I S
R
Cs
+
=
+
( )
( ) ( )
0
1
C
C V V
I S
RCs
+
=
+
( )
( ) ( )
0
1
C
V V
I S
R s
RC
+
=
+
Voltage across capacitor ( ) ( )
( ) 0 1
C
C
V
V s I s
Cs s
=
( )
( ) ( ) 0 0 1
1
C C
C
V V V
V s
RCs s
s
RC
+
=
+
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 0
1
C C C
C
V V V V V
V s
s s
s
RC
+ +
=
+
( )
( ) 0
1 1
C
C
V
V V
V s
s
s s
RC RC
=
+ +
( )
( )
( ) 1 0
t t
RC RC
c C
v t V e V e
=
In the given problem ( ) 0
C
V V =
Therefore ( )
( )
1 2
t
RC
c
v t V e
=
The waveform of ( )
c
v t is shown in figure 1.32.
171
t
t
C
V
V (0)
C
v (t)
C
Fig. 1.32.
At
c
t t = , ( ) 0
c
v t =
Therefore 0 1 2
c
t
RC
V e
=
1 2
c
t
RC
e
=
1
2
c
t
RC
e
=
Taking natural logarithms
1
log
2
c
e
t
RC
=
( ) ln 2
c
t RC =
( )
6
10 10 10 ln 2
c
t
=
69.3 sec
c
t = .
Problem 1.11 : In the commutation circuit shown in figure 1.33. C = 20 F, the input
voltage V varies between 180 and 220 V and the load current varies between 50 and 200
A. Determine the minimum and maximum values of available turn off time
c
t .
C
T
1
T
2
I
0
I
0
V (0)=
C
V
+
V
Fig. 1.33.
172
Solution
It is given that V varies between 180 and 220 V and
O
I varies between 50 and
200 A.
The expression for available turn off time
c
t is given by
c
O
CV
t
I
=
c
t is maximum when V is maximum and
O
I is minimum.
Therefore
max
max
min
c
O
CV
t
I
=
6
max
220
20 10 88 sec
50
c
t
= =
and
min
min
max
c
O
CV
t
I
=
6
min
180
20 10 18 sec
200
c
t
= =
EXTERNAL PULSE COMMUTATION (CLASS E COMMUTATION)
V
S
V
AUX
L
C
T
1
T
3
T
2
R
L
2V
AUX
+
Fig. 1.34: External Pulse Commutation
In this type of commutation an additional source is required to turnoff the
conducting thyristor. Figure 1.34 shows a circuit for external pulse commutation.
S
V is
the main voltage source and
AUX
V is the auxiliary supply. Assume thyristor
1
T is
conducting and load
L
R is connected across supply
S
V . When thyristor
3
T is turned ON at
0 t = ,
AUX
V ,
3
T , L and C from an oscillatory circuit. Assuming capacitor is initially
uncharged, capacitor C is now charged to a voltage 2
AUX
V with upper plate positive at
t LC = . When current through
3
T falls to zero,
3
T gets commutated. To turnoff the
173
main thyristor
1
T , thyristor
2
T is turned ON. Then
1
T is subjected to a reverse voltage
equal to 2
S AUX
V V . This results in thyristor
1
T being turnedoff. Once
1
T is off capacitor
C discharges through the load
L
R
LOAD SIDE COMMUTATION
In load side commutation the discharging and recharging of capacitor takes place
through the load. Hence to test the commutation circuit the load has to be connected.
Examples of load side commutation are Resonant Pulse Commutation and Impulse
Commutation.
LINE SIDE COMMUTATION
In this type of commutation the discharging and recharging of capacitor takes
place through the supply.
L
O
A
D
FWD
L
r
C
T
3
I
L
L
T
2
V
S
T
1
+
_
+
_
Fig.: 1.35 Line Side Commutation Circuit
Figure 1.35 shows line side commutation circuit. Thyristor
2
T is fired to charge
the capacitor C. When C charges to a voltage of 2V,
2
T is self commutated. To
reverse the voltage of capacitor to 2V, thyristor
3
T is fired and
3
T commutates by itself.
Assuming that
1
T is conducting and carries a load current
L
I thyristor
2
T is fired to turn
off
1
T . The turning ON of
2
T will result in forward biasing the diode (FWD) and applying
a reverse voltage of 2V across
1
T . This turns off
1
T , thus the discharging and recharging
of capacitor is done through the supply and the commutation circuit can be tested without
load.
174
DC CHOPPERS
INTRODUCTION
A chopper is a static device which is used to obtain a variable dc voltage from a
constant dc voltage source. A chopper is also known as dctodc converter. The thyristor
converter offers greater efficiency, faster response, lower maintenance, smaller size and
smooth control. Choppers are widely used in trolley cars, battery operated vehicles,
traction motor control, control of large number of dc motors, etc.. They are also used in
regenerative braking of dc motors to return energy back to supply and also as dc voltage
regulators.
Choppers are of two types
Stepdown choppers
Stepup choppers.
In stepdown choppers, the output voltage will be less than the input voltage
whereas in stepup choppers output voltage will be more than the input voltage.
PRINCIPLE OF STEPDOWN CHOPPER
V
i
0
V
0
Chopper
R
+
Fig. 2.1: Stepdown Chopper with Resistive Load
Figure 2.1 shows a stepdown chopper with resistive load. The thyristor in the
circuit acts as a switch. When thyristor is ON, supply voltage appears across the load and
when thyristor is OFF, the voltage across the load will be zero. The output voltage and
current waveforms are as shown in figure 2.2.
175
V
dc
v
0
V
V/R
i
0
I
dc
t
t
t
ON
T
t
OFF
Fig. 2.2: Stepdown choppers output voltage and current waveforms
dc
V = average value of output or load voltage
dc
I = average value of output or load current
ON
t = time interval for which SCR conducts
OFF
t = time interval for which SCR is OFF.
ON OFF
T t t = + = period of switching or chopping period
1
f
T
= = frequency of chopper switching or chopping frequency.
Average output voltage
( ) ... 2.1
ON
dc
ON OFF
t
V V
t t
=
+
( ) . ... 2.2
ON
dc
t
V V V d
T
= =
but ( ) duty cycle ... 2.3
ON
t
d
t
= =
Average output current,
( ) ... 2.4
dc
dc
V
I
R
=
( ) ... 2.5
ON
dc
t V V
I d
R T R
= =
176
RMS value of output voltage
2
0
1
ON
t
O o
V v dt
T
=
But during ,
ON o
t v V =
Therefore RMS output voltage
2
0
1
ON
t
O
V V dt
T
=
( )
2
. ... 2.6
ON
O ON
t V
V t V
T T
= =
( ) . ... 2.7
O
V d V =
Output power
O O O
P V I =
But
O
O
V
I
R
=
Therefore output power
2
O
O
V
P
R
=
( )
2
... 2.8
O
dV
P
R
=
Effective input resistance of chopper
( ) ... 2.9
i
dc
V
R
I
=
( ) ... 2.10
i
R
R
d
=
The output voltage can be varied by varying the duty cycle.
METHODS OF CONTROL
The output dc voltage can be varied by the following methods.
Pulse width modulation control or constant frequency operation.
Variable frequency control.
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION
In pulse width modulation the pulse width ( )
ON
t of the output waveform is varied
keeping chopping frequency f and hence chopping period T constant. Therefore output
voltage is varied by varying the ON time,
ON
t . Figure 2.3 shows the output voltage
waveforms for different ON times.
177
V
0
V
V
V
0
t
t
t
ON
t
ON
t
OFF
t
OFF
T
Fig. 2.3: Pulse Width Modulation Control
VARIABLE FREQUENCY CONTROL
In this method of control, chopping frequency f is varied keeping either
ON
t or
OFF
t constant. This method is also known as frequency modulation.
Figure 2.4 shows the output voltage waveforms for a constant
ON
t and variable
chopping period T.
In frequency modulation to obtain full output voltage, range frequency has to be
varied over a wide range. This method produces harmonics in the output and for large
OFF
t load current may become discontinuous.
v
0
V
V
v
0
t
t
t
ON
t
ON
T
T
t
OFF
t
OFF
Fig. 2.4: Output Voltage Waveforms for Time Ratio Control
178
STEPDOWN CHOPPER WITH RL LOAD
Figure 2.5 shows a stepdown chopper with RL load and free wheeling diode.
When chopper is ON, the supply is connected across the load. Current flows from the
supply to the load. When chopper is OFF, the load current
O
i continues to flow in the
same direction through the freewheeling diode due to the energy stored in the inductor L.
The load current can be continuous or discontinuous depending on the values of L and
duty cycle, d. For a continuous current operation the load current is assumed to vary
between two limits
min
I and
max
I .
Figure 2.6 shows the output current and output voltage waveforms for a
continuous current and discontinuous current operation.
V
i
0
V
0
Chopper
R
L
FWD
E
+
Fig. 2.5: Step Down Chopper with RL Load
Output
voltage
Output
current
v
0
V
i
0
I
max
I
min
t
t
t
ON
T
t
OFF
Continuous
current
Output
current
t
Discontinuous
current
i
0
Fig. 2.6: Output Voltage and Load Current Waveforms (Continuous Current)
179
When the current exceeds
max
I
the chopper is turnedoff and it is turnedon when
current reduces to
min
I .
EXPRESSIONS FOR LOAD CURRENT
O
i FOR CONTINUOUS CURRENT
OPERATION WHEN CHOPPER IS ON ( ) 0
ON
t t
V
i
0
V
0
R
L
E
+

Fig. 2.5 (a)
Voltage equation for the circuit shown in figure 2.5(a) is
( ) ... 2.11
O
O
di
V i R L E
dt
= + +
Taking Laplace Transform
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . 0 ... 2.12
O O O
V E
RI S L S I S i
S S
= + +
At 0 t = , initial current
( )
min
0
O
i I
=
( ) ( )
min
... 2.13
O
I V E
I S
R R
S LS S
L L
= +
+ +
Taking Inverse Laplace Transform
( ) ( )
min
1 ... 2.14
R R
t t
L L
O
V E
i t e I e
R
= +
This expression is valid for 0
ON
t t . i.e., during the period chopper is ON.
At the instant the chopper is turned off, load current is
( )
max O ON
i t I =
180
When Chopper is OFF ( ) 0
OFF
t t
i
0
R
L
E
Fig. 2.5 (b)
Voltage equation for the circuit shown in figure 2.5(b) is
( ) 0 ... 2.15
O
O
di
Ri L E
dt
= + +
Taking Laplace transform
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
O O O
E
RI S L SI S i
S
= + +
Redefining time origin we have at 0 t = , initial current
( )
max
0
O
i I
=
Therefore ( )
max
O
I E
I S
R R
S LS S
L L
=
+ +
Taking Inverse Laplace Transform
( ) ( )
max
1 ... 2.16
R R
t t
L L
O
E
i t I e e
R
=
The expression is valid for 0
OFF
t t , i.e., during the period chopper is OFF. At
the instant the chopper is turned ON or at the end of the off period, the load current is
( )
min O OFF
i t I =
181
TO FIND
max
I AND
min
I
From equation (2.14),
At ( )
max
,
ON O
t t dT i t I = = =
Therefore ( )
max min
1 ... 2.17
dRT dRT
L L
V E
I e I e
R
= +
From equation (2.16),
At ( )
min
,
OFF ON O
t t T t i t I = = =
( ) 1
OFF
t t d T = =
Therefore
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
min max
1 ... 2.18
d RT d RT
L L
E
I I e e
R
=
Substituting for
min
I in equation (2.17) we get,
( )
max
1
... 2.19
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e E
I
R R
e
=
Substituting for
max
I in equation (2.18) we get,
( )
min
1
... 2.20
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e E
I
R R
e
( )
max min
I I is known as the steady state ripple.
Therefore peaktopeak ripple current
max min
I I I =
Average output voltage
( ) . ... 2.21
dc
V d V =
Average output current
( )
( )
max min
... 2.22
2
dc approx
I I
I
+
=
182
Assuming load current varies linearly from
min
I to
max
I instantaneous load current is
given by
( )
( )
min
.
0
O ON
I t
i I for t t dT
dT
= +
( )
max min
min
... 2.23
O
I I
i I t
dT
= +
RMS value of load current
( )
2
0
0
1
dT
O RMS
I i dt
dT
=
( )
( )
2
max min
min
0
1
dT
O RMS
I I t
I I dt
dT dT
= +
( )
( )
2
min max min 2 2 max min
min
0
2 1
dT
O RMS
I I I t I I
I I t dt
dT dT dT
(
= + +
(
'
(
RMS value of output current
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
2
2
max min 2
min min max min
... 2.24
3
O RMS
I I
I I I I I
= + +
RMS chopper current
2
0
0
1
dT
CH
I i dt
T
=
2
max min
min
0
1
dT
CH
I I
I I t dt
T dT
(
= +
(
'
( )
( )
1
2
2
max min 2
min min max min
3
CH
I I
I d I I I I
= + +
( )
( ) ... 2.25
CH O RMS
I d I =
Effective input resistance is
i
S
V
R
I
=
183
Where
S
I = Average source current
S dc
I dI =
Therefore ( ) ... 2.26
i
dc
V
R
dI
=
PRINCIPLE OF STEPUP CHOPPER
+
V
O
V
Chopper
C
L
O
A
D
D L I
+
Fig. 2.13: Stepup Chopper
Figure 2.13 shows a stepup chopper to obtain a load voltage
O
V higher than the
input voltage V. The values of L and C are chosen depending upon the requirement of
output voltage and current. When the chopper is ON, the inductor L is connected across
the supply. The inductor current I rises and the inductor stores energy during the ON
time of the chopper,
ON
t . When the chopper is off, the inductor current I is forced to flow
through the diode D and load for a period,
OFF
t . The current tends to decrease resulting in
reversing the polarity of induced EMF in L. Therefore voltage across load is given by
( ) . ., ... 2.27
O O
dI
V V L i e V V
dt
= + >
If a large capacitor C is connected across the load then the capacitor will provide
a continuous output voltage
O
V . Diode D prevents any current flow from capacitor to the
source. Step up choppers are used for regenerative braking of dc motors.
EXPRESSION FOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE
Assume the average inductor current to be I during ON and OFF time of Chopper.
When Chopper is ON
Voltage across inductor L V =
184
Therefore energy stored in inductor = ( ) . . ... 2.28
ON
V I t ,
where
ON
t ON = period of chopper.
When Chopper is OFF (energy is supplied by inductor to load)
Voltage across
O
L V V =
Energy supplied by inductor ( )
O OFF
L V V It = , where
OFF
t OFF = period of
Chopper.
Neglecting losses, energy stored in inductor L = energy supplied by inductor L
Therefore ( )
ON O OFF
VIt V V It =
[ ]
ON OFF
O
OFF
V t t
V
t
+
=
O
ON
T
V V
T t
=
Where T = Chopping period or period of switching.
ON OFF
T t t = +
1
1
O
ON
V V
t
T
=
Therefore ( )
1
... 2.29
1
O
V V
d
=
Where duty cyle
ON
t
d
T
= =
For variation of duty cycle d in the range of 0 1 d < < the output voltage
O
V will vary
in the range
O
V V < < .
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
The thyristor requires a certain minimum time to turn ON and turn OFF. Hence
duty cycle d can be varied only between a minimum and a maximum value, limiting the
minimum and maximum value of the output voltage. Ripple in the load current depends
inversely on the chopping frequency, f. Therefore to reduce the load ripple current,
frequency should be as high as possible.
185
CLASSIFICATION OF CHOPPERS
Choppers are classified as follows
Class A Chopper
Class B Chopper
Class C Chopper
Class D Chopper
Class E Chopper
CLASS A CHOPPER
V
Chopper
FWD
+
v
0
v
0
i
0
i
0
L
O
A
D
V
Fig. 2.14: Class A Chopper and
O O
v i Characteristic
Figure 2.14 shows a Class A Chopper circuit with inductive load and free
wheeling diode. When chopper is ON, supply voltage V is connected across the load i.e.,
O
v V = and current i
0
flows as shown in figure. When chopper is OFF, v
0
= 0 and the
load current
O
i continues to flow in the same direction through the free wheeling diode.
Therefore the average values of output voltage and current i.e.,
O
v and
O
i are always
positive. Hence, Class A Chopper is a first quadrant chopper (or single quadrant chopper).
Figure 2.15 shows output voltage and current waveforms for a continuous load current.
186
Output current
Thyristor
gate pulse
Output voltage
i
g
i
0
v
0
t
t
t
t
ON
T
CH ON
FWD Conducts
Fig. 2.15: First quadrant Chopper  Output Voltage and Current Waveforms
Class A Chopper is a stepdown chopper in which power always flows from
source to load. It is used to control the speed of dc motor. The output current equations
obtained in step down chopper with RL load can be used to study the performance of
Class A Chopper.
CLASS B CHOPPER
V
Chopper
+
v
0
v
0
i
0
i
0
L
E
R
D
Fig. 2.16: Class B Chopper
Fig. 2.16 shows a Class B Chopper circuit. When chopper is ON, 0
O
v = and E
drives a current
O
i through L and R in a direction opposite to that shown in figure 2.16.
During the ON period of the chopper, the inductance L stores energy. When Chopper is
OFF, diode D conducts,
O
v V = and part of the energy stored in inductor L is returned to
the supply. Also the current
O
i continues to flow from the load to source. Hence the
average output voltage is positive and average output current is negative. Therefore Class
187
B Chopper operates in second quadrant. In this chopper, power flows from load to source.
Class B Chopper is used for regenerative braking of dc motor. Figure 2.17 shows the
output voltage and current waveforms of a Class B Chopper.
The output current equations can be obtained as follows. During the interval diode
D conducts (chopper is off) voltage equation is given by
V
i
0
V
0
R
L
E
+

D
Conducting
O
O
Ldi
V Ri E
dt
= + +
For the initial condition i.e., ( )
min O
i t I = at 0 t = .
The solution of the above equation is obtained along similar lines as in stepdown
chopper with RL load
Therefore ( )
min
1 0
R R
t t
L L
O OFF
V E
i t e I e t t
R
= + < <
At
OFF
t t =
( )
( )
max O
i t I =
max min
1
OFF OFF
R R
t t
L L
V E
I e I e
R
= +
During the interval chopper is ON voltage equation is given by
i
0
V
0
R
L
E
+

Chopper
ON
0
O
O
Ldi
Ri E
dt
= + +
188
Redefining the time origin, at 0 t = ( )
max O
i t I = .
The solution for the stated initial condition is
( )
max
1 0
R R
t t
L L
O ON
E
i t I e e t t
R
= < <
At ( )
min ON O
t t i t I = =
Therefore
min max
1
ON ON
R R
t t
L L
E
I I e e
R
=
Output current
D
conducts
Chopper
conducts
Thyristor
gate pulse
Output voltage
i
g
i
0
v
0
t
t
t
I
min
I
max
T
t
ON
t
OFF
Fig. 2.17: Class B Chopper  Output Voltage and Current Waveforms
CLASS C CHOPPER
Class C Chopper is a combination of Class A and Class B Choppers. Figure 2.18
shows a Class C two quadrant Chopper circuit. For first quadrant operation,
1
CH is ON
or
2
D conducts and for second quadrant operation,
2
CH is ON or
1
D conducts. When
1
CH is ON, the load current
O
i is positive. i.e.,
O
i flows in the direction as shown in
figure 2.18.
The output voltage is equal to ( )
O
V v V = and the load receives power from the
source.
189
V
Chopper
+
v
0
D
1
D
2
CH
2
CH
1
v
0
i
0
i
0
L
E
R
Fig. 2.18: Class C Chopper
When
1
CH is turned OFF, energy stored in inductance L forces current to flow
through the diode
2
D and the output voltage 0
O
v = , but
O
i continues to flow in positive
direction. When
2
CH is triggered, the voltage E forces
O
i to flow in opposite direction
through L and
2
CH . The output voltage 0
O
v = . On turning OFF
2
CH , the energy stored
in the inductance drives current through diode
1
D and the supply; output voltage
O
v V =
the input current becomes negative and power flows from load to source.
Thus the average output voltage
O
v is positive but the average output current
O
i can take both positive and negative values. Choppers
1
CH and
2
CH should not be
turned ON simultaneously as it would result in short circuiting the supply. Class C
Chopper can be used both for dc motor control and regenerative braking of dc motor.
Figure 2.19 shows the output voltage and current waveforms.
Gate pulse
of CH
2
Gate pulse
of CH
1
Output current
Output voltage
i
g1
i
g2
i
0
V
0
t
t
t
t
D
1
D
1
D
2
D
2
CH
1
CH
2
CH
1
CH
2
ON ON ON ON
Fig. 2.19: Class C Chopper  Output Voltage and Current Waveforms
190
CLASS D CHOPPER
V
+
v
0
D
2
D
1
CH
2
CH
1
v
0
i
0
L E
R i
0
Fig. 2.20: Class D Chopper
Figure 2.20 shows a class D two quadrant chopper circuit. When both
1
CH and
2
CH are triggered simultaneously, the output voltage
O
v V = and output current
O
i flows
through the load in the direction shown in figure 2.20. When
1
CH and
2
CH are turned
OFF, the load current
O
i continues to flow in the same direction through load,
1
D and
2
D ,
due to the energy stored in the inductor L, but output voltage
O
v V = . The average load
voltage
O
v is positive if chopper ONtime ( )
ON
t is more than their OFFtime ( )
OFF
t and
average output voltage becomes negative if
ON OFF
t t < . Hence the direction of load current
is always positive but load voltage can be positive or negative. Waveforms are shown in
figures 2.21 and 2.22.
Gate pulse
of CH
2
Gate pulse
of CH
1
Output current
Output voltage
Average v
0
i
g1
i
g2
i
0
v
0
V
t
t
t
t
CH ,CH
ON
1 2
D1,D2 Conducting
Fig. 2.21: Output Voltage and Current Waveforms for
ON OFF
t t >
191
Gate pulse
of CH
2
Gate pulse
of CH
1
Output current
Output voltage
Average v
0
i
g1
i
g2
i
0
v
0
V
t
t
t
t
CH
CH
1
2
D , D
1 2
Fig. 2.22: Output Voltage and Current Waveforms for
ON OFF
t t <
CLASS E CHOPPER
V
v
0
i
0
L E
R
CH
2
CH
4
D
2
D
4
D
1
D
3
CH
1
CH
3
+
Fig. 2.23: Class E Chopper
192
v
0
i
0
CH  CH ON
CH  D Conducts
1 4
4 2
D D
2 3
 Conducts
CH  D Conducts
4 2
CH  CH ON
CH  D Conducts
3 2
2 4
CH  D Conducts
D  D Conducts
2 4
1 4
Fig. 2.23(a): Four Quadrant Operation
Figure 2.23 shows a class E 4 quadrant chopper circuit. When
1
CH and
4
CH are
triggered, output current
O
i flows in positive direction as shown in figure 2.23 through
1
CH and
4
CH , with output voltage
O
v V = . This gives the first quadrant operation. When
both
1
CH and
4
CH are OFF, the energy stored in the inductor L drives
O
i through
3
D
and
2
D in the same direction, but output voltage
O
v V = . Therefore the chopper
operates in the fourth quadrant. For fourth quadrant operation the direction of battery
must be reversed. When
2
CH and
3
CH are triggered, the load current
O
i flows in
opposite direction and output voltage
O
v V = .
Since both
O
i and
O
v are negative, the chopper operates in third quadrant. When
both
2
CH and
3
CH are OFF, the load current
O
i continues to flow in the same direction
through
1
D and
4
D and the output voltage
O
v V = . Therefore the chopper operates in
second quadrant as
O
v is positive but
O
i is negative. Figure 2.23(a) shows the devices
which are operative in different quadrants.
EFFECT OF SOURCE AND LOAD INDUCTANCE
In choppers, the source inductance should be as small as possible to limit the
transient voltage. Usually an input filter is used to overcome the problem of source
inductance. Also source inductance may cause commutation problem for the chopper.
The load ripple current is inversely proportional to load inductance and chopping
frequency. Therefore the peak load current depends on load inductance. To limit the load
ripple current, a smoothing inductor is connected in series with the load.
Problem 2.1 : For the first quadrant chopper shown in figure 2.24, express the following
variables as functions of V, R and duty cycle d in case load is resistive.
Average output voltage and current
Output current at the instant of commutation
Average and rms free wheeling diode current.
RMS value of output voltage
RMS and average thyristor currents.
193
V
i
0
v
0
Chopper
FWD
+
L
O
A
D
Fig. 6.24.
Solution
Average output voltage,
ON
dc
t
V V dV
T
= =
Average output current,
dc
dc
V dV
I
R R
= =
The thyristor is commutated at the instant
ON
t t = .
Therefore output current at the instant of commutation is
V
R
, since V is the output
voltage at that instant.
Free wheeling diode (FWD) will never conduct in a resistive load. Therefore
average and RMS free wheeling diode currents are zero.
RMS value of output voltage
( )
2
0
0
1
ON
t
O RMS
V v dt
T
=
But
O
v V = during
ON
t
( )
2
0
1
ON
t
O RMS
V V dt
T
=
( )
2 ON
O RMS
t
V V
T
=
( ) O RMS
V dV =
Where duty cycle,
ON
t
d
T
=
194
RMS value of thyristor current
= RMS value of load current
( ) O RMS
V
R
=
dV
R
=
Average value of thyristor current
= Average value of load current
dV
R
=
Problem 2.2 : A Chopper circuit is operating on TRC at a frequency of 2 kHz on a 460 V
supply. If the load voltage is 350 volts, calculate the conduction period of the thyristor in
each cycle.
Solution
V = 460 V,
dc
V = 350 V, f = 2 kHz
Chopping period
1
T
f
=
3
1
0.5 sec
2 10
T m
= =
Output voltage
ON
dc
t
V V
T
=
Conduction period of thyristor
dc
ON
T V
t
V
=
3
0.5 10 350
460
ON
t
=
0.38 msec
ON
t =
Problem 2.3 : Input to the step up chopper is 200 V. The output required is 600 V. If the
conducting time of thyristor is 200 ssec. Compute
Chopping frequency,
If the pulse width is halved for constant frequency of operation, find the new
output voltage.
195
Solution
V = 200 V, 200
ON
t s = , 600
dc
V V =
dc
ON
T
V V
T t
=
6
600 200
200 10
T
T
=
Solving for T
300 T s =
Chopping frequency
1
f
T
=
6
1
3.33
300 10
f KHz
= =
Pulse width is halved
Therefore
6
200 10
100
2
ON
t s
= =
Frequency is constant
Therefore 3.33 f KHz =
1
300 T s
f
= =
Therefore output voltage =
ON
T
V
T t
( )
6
6
300 10
200 300 Volts
300 100 10
= =
Problem 2.4: A dc chopper has a resistive load of 20 and input voltage 220
S
V V = .
When chopper is ON, its voltage drop is 1.5 volts and chopping frequency is 10 kHz. If
the duty cycle is 80%, determine the average output voltage and the chopper on time.
196
Solution
220
S
V V = , 20 R = , f = 10 kHz
0.80
ON
t
d
T
= =
ch
V = Voltage drop across chopper = 1.5 volts
Average output voltage
( )
ON
dc S ch
t
V V V
T
=
( ) 0.80 220 1.5 174.8 Volts
dc
V = =
Chopper ON time,
ON
t dT =
Chopping period,
1
T
f
=
3
3
1
0.1 10 secs 100 secs
10 10
T
= = =
Chopper ON time,
ON
t dT =
3
0.80 0.1 10
ON
t
=
3
0.08 10 80 secs
ON
t
= =
Problem 2.5: In a dc chopper, the average load current is 30 Amps, chopping frequency
is 250 Hz. Supply voltage is 110 volts. Calculate the ON and OFF periods of the chopper
if the load resistance is 2 ohms.
Solution
30 Amps
dc
I = , f = 250 Hz, V = 110 V, 2 R =
Chopping period,
3
1 1
4 10 4 msecs
250
T
f
= = = =
dc
dc
V
I
R
= and
dc
V dV =
Therefore
dc
dV
I
R
=
197
30 2
0.545
110
dc
I R
d
V
= = =
Chopper ON period,
3
0.545 4 10 2.18 msecs
ON
t dT
= = =
Chopper OFF period,
OFF ON
t T t =
3 3
4 10 2.18 10
OFF
t
=
3
1.82 10 1.82 msec
OFF
t
= =
Problem 2.6: A dc chopper in figure 2.25 has a resistive load of 10 R = and input
voltage of V = 200 V. When chopper is ON, its voltage drop is 2 V and the chopping
frequency is 1 kHz. If the duty cycle is 60%, determine
Average output voltage
RMS value of output voltage
Effective input resistance of chopper
Chopper efficiency.
V
i
0
Chopper
+
R
v
0
Fig. 2.25
Solution
V = 200 V, 10 R = , Chopper voltage drop, 2
ch
V V = , d = 0.60, f = 1 kHz.
Average output voltage
( )
dc ch
V d V V =
[ ] 0.60 200 2 118.8 Volts
dc
V = =
RMS value of output voltage
( )
O ch
V d V V =
( ) 0.6 200 2 153.37 Volts
O
V = =
198
Effective input resistance of chopper is
i
S dc
V V
R
I I
= =
118.8
11.88 Amps
10
dc
dc
V
I
R
= = =
200
16.83
11.88
i
S dc
V V
R
I I
= = = =
Output power is
2
0
0
1
dT
O
v
P dt
T R
=
( )
2
0
1
dT
ch
O
V V
P dt
T R
( )
2
ch
O
d V V
P
R
=
[ ]
2
0.6 200 2
2352.24 watts
10
O
P
= =
Input power,
0
1
dT
i O
P Vi dt
T
=
( )
0
1
dT
ch
O
V V V
P dt
T R
( ) [ ] 0.6 200 200 2
2376 watts
10
ch
O
dV V V
P
R
= = =
Chopper efficiency,
100
O
i
P
P
=
2352.24
100 99%
2376
= =
Problem 2.7: A chopper is supplying an inductive load with a freewheeling diode. The
load inductance is 5 H and resistance is 10. The input voltage to the chopper is 200
199
volts and the chopper is operating at a frequency of 1000 Hz. If the ON/OFF time ratio is
2:3. Calculate
Maximum and minimum values of load current in one cycle of chopper operation.
Average load current
Solution:
L = 5 H, R = 10 , f = 1000 Hz, V = 200 V, : 2: 3
ON OFF
t t =
Chopping period,
1 1
1 msecs
1000
T
f
= = =
2
3
ON
OFF
t
t
=
2
3
ON OFF
t t =
ON OFF
T t t = +
2
3
OFF OFF
T t t = +
5
3
OFF
T t =
3
5
OFF
t T =
3
3
1 10 0.6 msec
5
T
= =
ON OFF
t T t =
( )
3
1 0.6 10 0.4 msec
ON
t
= =
Duty cycle,
3
3
0.4 10
0.4
1 10
ON
t
d
T
= = =
Refer equations (2.19) and (2.20) for expressions of
max
I and
min
I .
Maximum value of load current [equation (2.19)] is
max
1
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e E
I
R R
e
200
Since there is no voltage source in the load circuit, E = 0
Therefore
max
1
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e
I
R
e
=
3
3
0.4 10 1 10
5
max
10 1 10
5
200 1
10
1
e
I
e
3
3
0.8 10
max
2 10
1
20
1
e
I
e
max
8.0047A I =
Minimum value of load current from equation (2.20) with E = 0 is
min
1
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e
I
R
e
=
3
3
0.4 10 1 10
5
min
10 1 10
5
200 1
7.995 A
10
1
e
I
e
= =
Average load current
max min
2
dc
I I
I
+
=
8.0047 7.995
8 A
2
dc
I
+
=
Problem 2.8 : A chopper feeding on RL load is shown in figure 2.26. With V = 200 V, R =
5, L = 5 mH, f = 1 kHz, d = 0.5 and E = 0 V. Calculate
Maximum and minimum values of load current
Average value of load current
RMS load current
Effective input resistance as seen by source
RMS chopper current.
Solution
V = 200 V, R = 5 , L = 5 mH, f = 1kHz, d = 0.5, E = 0
201
Chopping period is
3
3
1 1
1 10 secs
1 10
T
f
= = =
i
0
v
0
Chopper
R
L
FWD
E
+
Fig.: 2.26
Refer equations (2.19) and (2.20) for expressions of
max
I and
min
I .
Maximum value of load current
max
1
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e E
I
R R
e
3
3
3
3
0.5 5 1 10
5 10
max
5 1 10
5 10
200 1
0
5
1
e
I
e
0.5
max 1
1
40 24.9 A
1
e
I
e
= =
Minimum value of load current is
min
1
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e E
I
R R
e
=
3
3
3
3
0.5 5 1 10
5 10
min
5 1 10
5 10
200 1
0
5
1
e
I
e
0.5
min 1
1
40 15.1 A
1
e
I
e
= =
Average value of load current is
1 2
2
dc
I I
I
+
= for linear variation of currents
202
Therefore
24.9 15.1
20 A
2
dc
I
+
= =
Refer equations (2.24) and (2.25) for RMS load current and RMS chopper current.
RMS load current from equation (2.24) is
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
max min 2
min min max min
3
O RMS
I I
I I I I I
= + +
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
2
24.9 15.1
15.1 15.1 24.9 15.1
3
O RMS
I
= + +
( )
1
2
96.04
228.01 147.98 20.2 A
3
O RMS
I
= + + =
RMS chopper current from equation is (2.25) is
( )
0.5 20.2 14.28 A
ch O RMS
I d I = = =
Effective input resistance is
i
S
V
R
I
=
S
I = Average source current
S dc
I dI =
0.5 20 10 A
S
I = =
Therefore effective input resistance is
200
20
10
i
S
V
R
I
= = =
Problem 2.9: A 200 V dc motor fed by a chopper, runs at 1000 rpm with a duty ratio of
0.8. What must be the ON time of the chopper if the motor has to run at 800 rpm. The
chopper operates at 100 Hz.
Solution
Speed of motor
1
N = 1000 rpm
Duty ratio
1
0.8 d = , f = 100 Hz
203
We know that back EMF of motor
b
E is given by
60
b
ZNP
E
A
=
Where N = speed in rpm
= flux/pole in wbs
Z = Number of Armature conductors
P = Number of poles
A = Number of parallel paths
Therefore
b
E N
if flux is constant
b
E N
V
I
a
Chopper
R
a
E
b
+
+
V
dc
M
Fig. 2.27
b dc a a
E V I R =
where
a
I = Armature current
a
R = Armature Resistance
Since
a
R is not given,
a a
I R drop is neglected.
Therefore
1 1
200 volts
b dc
E V = =
1
1 dc
V d V =
Supply,
1
1
dc
V
V
d
=
200
0.8
V =
250 Volts V =
204
1
1
b
E N
( ) 200 1000 ... 2.30
Now speed changes hence d also changes.
Given
2
800 N = rpm
2
?
b
E =
2 2
b
E N
( )
2
800 ... 2.31
b
E
Dividing equation (2.30) by equation (2.31) we get
2
200 1000
800
b
E
=
2
800 200
160 V
1000
b
E
=
=
But
2 2
2 b dc
E V d V = =
2
2
160
0.64
250
dc
V
d
V
= = =
Chopping frequency f = 100 Hz
1 1
0.01 sec
100
T
f
= = =
10 msecs T =
2
ON
t
d
T
=
ON time of chopper
2 ON
t d T =
3
0.64 10 10
ON
t
=
6.4 msecs
ON
t =
205
IMPULSE COMMUTATED CHOPPER
Impulse commutated choppers are widely used in high power circuits where load
fluctuation is not large. This chopper is also known as parallel capacitor turnoff chopper
or voltage commutated chopper or classical chopper.
Fig. 2.28 shows an impulse commutated chopper with two thyristors T
1
and T
2
.
We shall assume that the load current remains constant at a value I
L
during the
commutation process.
L
O
A
D
L
C
I
L
L
S
V
S
+
_
+
_
T
2
T
1
D
1
a
b
i
C
i
T1
v
O
+
_
FWD
Fig. 2.28
To start the circuit, capacitor C is initially charged with polarity (with plate a
positive) as shown in the fig. 2.28 by triggering the thyristor T
2
. Capacitor C gets
charged through V
S
, C, T
2
and load. As the charging current decays to zero thyristor T
2
will be turnedoff. With capacitor charged with plate a positive the circuit is ready for
operation. For convenience the chopper operation is divided into five modes.
MODE 1
Thyristor T
1
is fired at t = 0
.
The supply voltage comes across the load. Load
current I
L
flows through T
1
and load. At the same time capacitor discharges through T
1
,
D
1
, L
1
, and C and the capacitor reverses its voltage. This reverse voltage on capacitor is
held constant by diode D
1
. Fig. 2.29 shows the equivalent circuit of Mode 1.
L
O
A
D
L
C
I
L
L
S
V
S
+
_
+
_
T
1
D
1
V
C
i
C
Fig. 2.29
206
Capacitor Discharge Current
( ) sin
C
C
i t V t
L
=
( ) sin
C P
i t I t = ; where
P
C
I V
L
=
Where
1
LC
=
& Capacitor Voltage
( ) cos
C
V t V t =
MODE 2
Thyristor T
2
is now fired to commutate thyristor T
1
. When T
2
is ON capacitor
voltage reverse biases T
1
and turns it off. Now the capacitor discharges through the load
from V
S
to 0 and the discharge time is known as circuit turnoff time.
Circuit turnoff time is given by
C
C
L
V C
t
I
=
Where I
L
is load current.
Since t
C
depends on load current, it must be designed for the worst case condition
which occur at the maximum value of load current and minimum value of capacitor
voltage.
Then the capacitor recharges back to the supply voltage (with plate a positive).
This time is called the recharging time and is given by
S
d
L
V C
t
I
=
The total time required for the capacitor to discharge and recharge is called the
commutation time and it is given by
r C d
t t t = +
At the end of Mode2 capacitor has recharged to V
S
and the free wheeling diode
starts conducting. The equivalent circuit for Mode2 is shown in fig. 2.30.
207
L
O
A
D
C
L
S
V
S
+
_ +
_
T
2
V
C
I
L
I
L
Fig. 2.30.
MODE 3
Free wheeling diode FWD starts conducting and the load current decays. The
energy stored in source inductance L
S
is transferred to capacitor. Instantaneous current is
( ) cos
L
i t I t = Hence capacitor charges to a voltage higher than supply voltage.
2
T
naturally turnsoff.
The instantaneous capacitor voltage is
( ) sin
S
C S L S
L
V t V I t
C
= +
Where
1
S
S
L C
=
Fig. 2.31 shows the equivalent circuit of Mode 3.
L
O
A
D
C
L
S
V
S
+
_
+
_
T
2
V
S
FWD
I
L
I
L
Fig. 2.31
MODE 4
Since the capacitor has been overcharged i.e. its voltage is above supply voltage it
starts discharging in reverse direction. Hence capacitor current becomes negative. The
capacitor discharges through L
S
, V
S
, FWD, D
1
and L. When this current reduces to zero
D
1
will stop conducting and the capacitor voltage will be same as the supply voltage fig.
2.32 shows in equivalent circuit of Mode 4.
208
L
O
A
D
C
L
S
V
S
+
_
+
_
D
1
L
FWD
I
L
V
C
Fig. 2.32
MODE 5
In mode 5 both thyristors are off and the load current flows through the free
wheeling diode (FWD). This mode will end once thyristor T
1
is fired. The equivalent
circuit for mode 5 is shown in fig. 2.33
L
O
A
D
I
L
FWD
Fig. 2.33
Fig. 2.34 shows the current and voltage waveforms for a voltage commutated
chopper.
209
Capacitor Current
I
L
t
t
t
t
t
I
p
Current through T
1
Voltage across T
1
Output Voltage
Capacitor Voltage
t
c
t
d
i
c
0
I
p
i
T1
0
v
T1
V
c
0
v
o
V
s c
+V
V
s
v
c
V
c
V
c
I
L
Fig. 2.34
Though voltage commutated chopper is a simple circuit it has the following
disadvantages.
A starting circuit is required and the starting circuit should be such that it triggers
thyristor T
2
first.
Load voltage jumps to twice the supply voltage when the commutation is initiated.
The discharging and charging time of commutation capacitor are dependent on the
load current and this limits high frequency operation, especially at low load
current.
Chopper cannot be tested without connecting load.
Thyristor T
1
has to carry load current as well as resonant current resulting in
increasing its peak current rating.
210
Jones Chopper
C
D
+
V
+
L
FWD
R
T
1
T
2
L
2
L
1
v
0
Fig. 2.35: Jones Chopper
Figure 2.35 shows a Jones Chopper circuit for an inductive load with free
wheeling diode. Jones Chopper is an example of class D commutation. Two thyristors
are used, T
1
is the main thyristor and T
2
is the auxiliary thyristor. Commutating circuit
for T
1
consists of thyristor T
2
, capacitor C, diode D and autotransformer (L
1
and L
2
).
Initially thyristor T
2
is turned ON and capacitor C is charged to a voltage V with a
polarity as shown in figure 2.35. As C charges, the charging current through thyristor T
2
decays exponentially and when current falls below holding current level, thyristor T
2
turns OFF by itself. When thyristor T
1
is triggered, load current flows through thyristor
T
1
, L
2
and load. The capacitor discharges through thyristor T
1
, L
1
and diode D. Due to
resonant action of the auto transformer inductance L
2
and capacitance C, the voltage
across the capacitor reverses after some time.
It is to be noted that the load current in L
1
induces a voltage in L
2
due to
autotransformer action. Due to this voltage in L
2
in the reverse direction, the capacitor
charges to a voltage greater than the supply voltage. (The capacitor now tries to discharge
in opposite direction but it is blocked by diode D and hence capacitor maintains the
reverse voltage across it). When thyristor T
1
is to be commutated, thyristor T
2
is turned
ON resulting in connecting capacitor C directly across thyristor T
1
. Capacitor voltage
reverse biases thyristor T
1
and turns it off. The capacitor again begins to charge through
thyristor T
2
and the load for the next cycle of operation.
The various waveforms are shown in figure 2.36
211
Gate pulse of T
2
Gate pulse of T
1
Gate pulse of T
2
Capacitor Voltage
Capacitor
discharge current
Current of T
1
Voltage across T
1
Auto transformer action
Resonant action
I
g
I
L
I
L
V
C
+V
V
t
t
t
t
t
C
t
C
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