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Hydraulic Turbines

Hydraulic machines converts Hydraulic energy to mechanical energy

Layout of Hydro-Electric power plant.

i) Dam store water ii) Pipes or penstock carry water under pressure from reservoir to turbines iii) Turbines combination of runner and vanes iv) Tail race carry away water from the turbine

Head and Efficiencies

Gross Head (Hg) Difference between head race level to tail race level, when no water is flowing. Net Head (H) also called as effective head. It is the head available at the inlet of the tubine. H = Hg hf where, hf = 4fLV / (D 2g)

Efficiencies of a Turbine: Hydraulic efficiency: h = Power delivered to runner / Power supplied at inlet = Runner Power (R.P) / Water Power (W.P)
WC1 C2 u R.P = g
WC1u1 C2 u 2 = g

for pelton wheel

for radial flow turbine

Where, C1, C2 whirl velocity at inlet and outlet u tangential velocity of vane W weight of water striking the vanes

W.P = W X H
Where, W = weight of water striking the vanes per sec. H = Net head of the turbine W=gQH, Q volume of water per sec.

Mechanical Efficiency: m = Power at the shaft of the turbine / power delivered by water to turbine
i.e., = Shaft Power (S.P) / Runner Power (R.P)

Volumetric Efficiency: v = Volume of water actually striking runner /

volume of water supplied to the turbine

Overall efficiency: v = Power available at the shaft / Power supplied to the turbine = S.P / W.P o = P / g Q H Also, o = m X h

Classification of Hydraulic turbines

1. According to the type of energy at inlet
a. Impulse turbine b. Reaction turbine

2. According to the direction of flow thro runner

a. Radial flow turbine b. Axial flow turbine c. Mixed flow turbine

3. According to the head at the inlet of turbine,

a. High head turbine b. Medium head turbine c. Low head turbine

4. According to the specific speed of the turbine

a. Low specific speed b. Medium specific speed c. High specific speed

Pelton Wheel
Tangential flow, impulse turbine The pressure at the inlet and outlet of the turbine is atmosphere Main Parts of Pelton turbine are,
Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement Runner and buckets Casing Breaking jet

Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement

Runner and buckets


Velocity triangle and work done for Pelton wheel

Francis Turbine
Inward flow, reaction turbine Head ranges from 10 - 650 m Power O/P: 10 - 750 MW Speed: 83 - 1000 rpm Turbine mounted vertically keep away water from generator

Kaplan Turbine
Axial flow, reaction turbine head ranges from 1070 m Power output from 5 to 120 MW Runner diameters are between 2 and 8 meters range of the turbine is from 79 to 429 rpm

Characteristic curves of turbines

Operating characteristic:

Constant efficiency curve:

Centrifugal pump

Axial Flow pump

Rotary pumps:

Scroll pump

Screw pump

Rotary Vane Pump

Positive displacement pumps

Simple hand pump

Gear Pump

Cavity Pump

Peristaltic Pump

Main Parts: Impeller Casing Suction pipe, foot valve Delivery pipe

Types of casing
Volute casing Area of cross-section gradually increases towards the delivery pipe. The velocity of liquid decreases as area increases along the path of flow. This arrangement converts K.E. into pressure energy. The efficiency of this casing is less than others. Larger amount of energy is lost due to formation of eddies.

Vortex casing A circular chamber is introduced between the impeller and casing. In this case, the liquid from the impeller enters into the vortex chamber and then through the volute chamber The eddy loss is considerably reduced and the efficiency of conversion from K.E. into pressure energy is increased as compared with volute casing.

Casing with Guide Blades The impeller is surrounded by a series of guide vanes mounted on a ring known as diffuser The area of guide vane increases, thus reducing the velocity of flow through guide vanes and increases the pressure

Velocity triangles at inlet and outlet

Work done in the centrifugal pump per sec. per unit weight w = C2 u2 / g Workdone by impeller on water per sec. w = W C2 u2 / g W weight of water

Definition of Head
Suction Head (hs)
Vertical height of the centre line of the centrifugal pump above the water surface in the tank

Delivery Head (hd)

Vertical distance between the centre line of the pump and the water surface in the tank to which water is delivered

Static Head
The sum of suction head and delivery head Hs = hs+hd

Manometric Head
The head against the centrifugal pump has to work.

Efficiencies of Centrifugal pump

Manometric Efficiency : Manometric head Hm man Head imparted by impeller to water Vw 2u 2 g Mechanical Efficiency : Vw 2u2 W Power at the impeller g man S .P power at the shaft Overall efficiency : Power output of the pump W H m o Power input to the pump S .P

Multi stage centrifugal pump

Reciprocating Pump

Double acting pump

Slip of the pump

It is defined as the difference between the theoretical discharge and actual discharge. Slip = Qth-Qact

Performance curves