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Question 1 ( 1.0 marks) Which type of unit cell does cinnabar (HgS) correspond to? Question 2 ( 1.

0 marks) Which type of molecular solid can CCl4 be classified into? Question 3 ( 1.0 marks) What is the formula of a compound having a cubic structure formed by elements A and B in which the atoms of A are present at the corner and the atoms of B are present at the face centres of the cube? Question 4 ( 1.0 marks) What is meant by the term 'coordination number'? Question 5 ( 1.0 marks) In corundum, the oxide ions are arranged in hexagonal close-packing, while aluminium ions occupy twothirds of the octahedral voids. What is the formula of corundum? Question 6 ( 2.0 marks) Why does urea exhibit a definite heat of fusion, while glass exhibits an indefinite heat of fusion? Question 7 ( 2.0 marks) Calculate the number of atoms present in a Face-Centred Cubic Lattice (FCC). Question 8 ( 3.0 marks) The density of KBr is 2.75 gcm3. The length of the edge of the unit cell is 654 pm. Predict the type of cubic lattice to which the unit cell of KBr belongs. (NA = 6.023 1023 mol1; atomic mass of K = 39; atomic mass of Br = 80) Question 9 ( 3.0 marks) a. What is the total number of voids present in 1 mole of a compound forming hexagonal close-packed structure? b. Write the coordination number of each ion in CaF2. Question 10 ( 5.0 marks) a. If the atoms of an element in a cubic unit cell have radius r, then calculate the length of the i. Face diagonal ii. Body diagonal b. When is Schottky defect observed in a crystal? Question 11 ( 5.0 marks)

a. AgI crystallizes in the cubic close-packed ZnS structure. What fraction of tetrahedral sites is occupied by Ag+ ions? b. The compound AB2 possesses CaF2-type crystal structure. What is the coordination number of A2+ and B in its crystals? c. CsCl forms a body-centred cubic lattice. Caesium and chloride ions are in contact along the body diagonal of a cell. The length of the side of the unit cell is 412 pm and the Cl ion has a radius of 181 pm. Calculate

the radius of the Cs+ ion.

Answers Question 1 ( 1.0 marks) Which type of unit cell does cinnabar (HgS) correspond to? Solution: Cinnabar (HgS) adopts a hexagonal unit cell. Question 2 ( 1.0 marks) Which type of molecular solid can CCl4 be classified into? Solution: CCl4 can be classified into a covalent molecular solid. Question 3 ( 1.0 marks) What is the formula of a compound having a cubic structure formed by elements A and B in which the atoms of A are present at the corner and the atoms of B are present at the face centres of the cube? Solution: If the atoms of Aare present at the 8 corners of the cube, then the number of atoms present in the unit cell will be .

If the atoms of B are present at the 6 face centres of the cube, then the number of atoms present in the unit cell will be .

Thus, the ratio of the atoms of A to the atoms of B is 1:3. Hence, the formula of the compound is AB3. Question 4 ( 1.0 marks)

What is meant by the term 'coordination number'? Solution: The number of closest (or nearest) neighbours of any constituent particle in the crystal lattice is called the coordination number. Question 5 ( 1.0 marks) In corundum, the oxide ions are arranged in hexagonal close-packing, while aluminium ions occupy twothirds of the octahedral voids. What is the formula of corundum? Solution: Let the number of octahedral voids be N. Accordingly,

Number of octahedral voids occupied by Al3+ ions In H.C.P., there is one octahedral void corresponding to each atom that constitutes the close-packing.

Ratio of Al3+: Hence, the formula of corundum is Al2O3. Question 6 ( 2.0 marks) Why does urea exhibit a definite heat of fusion, while glass exhibits an indefinite heat of fusion? Solution: Urea is a crystalline solid, whereas glass is an amorphous solid. Crystalline solids possess sharp melting points, while amorphous solids gradually soften over a temperature range. It is for this reason that urea has a definite heat of fusion, whereas glass does not. Question 7 ( 2.0 marks) Calculate the number of atoms present in a Face-Centred Cubic Lattice (FCC). Solution: A Face-Centred Cubic Lattice contains 8 atoms at the corner and 6 atoms at the centre of faces.

Contribution by atoms present at the corner

Contribution by atoms present at the faces Thus, the total number of atoms in one unit cell can be calculated as:

8 corner atoms

atom per unit cell + 6 face-centred atoms

atom per unit cell

Number of atoms present in the unit cell = 1 + 3 = 4 Hence, the number of atoms present in a Face-Centred Cubic Lattice (FCC) is 4.

Question 8 ( 3.0 marks) The density of KBr is 2.75 gcm3. The length of the edge of the unit cell is 654 pm. Predict the type of cubic lattice to which the unit cell of KBr belongs. (NA = 6.023 1023 mol1; atomic mass of K = 39; atomic mass of Br = 80) Solution: For cubic crystals, the density of unit cells can be calculated using the following formula:

Hence, KBr crystallizes in a face-centred cubic structure. Question 9 ( 3.0 marks) a. What is the total number of voids present in 1 mole of a compound forming hexagonal close-packed structure? b. Write the coordination number of each ion in CaF2. Solution: a. The number of atoms in the close-packing is 1 mole i.e., 1 6.022 1023 = 6.022 1023 atoms In closed-packing: Number of octahedral voids = Number of atoms = 6.022 1023 Number of tetrahedral voids = 2 Number of atoms in the close-packing = 2 6.022 1023

= 12.044 1023 Thus, total number of voids =6.022 1023 + 12.044 1023 = 18.066 1023 Hence, the total number of voids in 1 mole of a compound forming hexagonal close-packed structure is 18.066 1023. b. In a molecule of CaF2, the coordination number of Ca2+is 8 and that of Fis 4. Question 10 ( 5.0 marks) a. If the atoms of an element in a cubic unit cell have radius r, then calculate the length of the i. Face diagonal ii. Body diagonal b. When is Schottky defect observed in a crystal? Solution: a.

In the given figure, AC represents the face diagonal and CD represents the body diagonal of a cubic unit cell. Now, AB = BC = AD = 2r ABC is right-angled at B.

Now, ACD right-angled at A

b. Schottky defect is observed in a crystal when an equal number of cations and anions are missing from their lattice sites. This is done in order to maintain electrical neutrality. Question 11 ( 5.0 marks)

a. AgI crystallizes in the cubic close-packed ZnS structure. What fraction of tetrahedral sites is occupied by Ag+ ions? b. The compound AB2 possesses CaF2-type crystal structure. What is the coordination number of A2+ and B in its crystals? c. CsCl forms a body-centred cubic lattice. Caesium and chloride ions are in contact along the body diagonal of a cell. The length of the side of the unit cell is 412 pm and the Cl ion has a radius of 181 pm. Calculate the radius of the Cs+ ion. Solution: a. In a face-centred unit cell, there are eight tetrahedral voids. Out of these, half of the voids are occupied by silver cations. b. In compound AB2, the coordination number of A is 8, whereas the coordination number of B is 4. c.

Body diagonal, CD =

Hence, the radius of the Cs+ ion is 175.8 pm.