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FLUID MECHANICS

Fluid Statics - study of fluids at rest


Fluid Dynamics - fluids in motion and the subsequent
effects of the fluid on the boundaries, which may be
either solid surfaces or other fluids.
Pipe flow
Jet flow
Typical Piping System
WHY STUDY FLUID MECHANICS?
Design of tanks, bridge gates, river gates
Design of transportation vehicles
subsonic, supersonic flights, VTOL, racing cars, automobiles
Design of Fluid Machinery
fans, compressors, turbines, hydraulic
turbines
Flight of birds in air and motion of fish in water
vee-formation flock of 25 birds 70% farther
Recreational endeavors
circulatory system of the body
NOT JUST ACADEMIC PURPOSE BUT AN ENGINEERING NECESSITY
Dam construction in
order to hold large
body of water
Design of gates and tanks
A GENERAL PIPE NETWORK
GEAR PUMP
HEART
COMPRESSOR
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
PELTON TURBINE
Wright Brothers - 1903
Matter Solid and Fluid - Liquid and Gas
SOLID
Hard and not easily deformed
Molecules closely spaced ;
Intermolecular cohesive forces - high
Not easily deformable
LIQUID
Soft and easily deformed
Molecules spaced further apart
Intermolecular cohesive forces are smaller than solids
More freedom of movement easily deformable
Gas
Spaced still further apart
Negligible intermolecular cohesive forces
Very easily deformable
DEFINITION OF FLUID
Solid is hard ; Fluid is soft
A solid can resist a shear stress by a static deflection; a fluid cannot. Any
shear stress applied to fluid, no matter how small, will result in motion of
that fluid. The fluid moves and deforms continuously as long as the shear
stress is applied.
A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by
a shearing stress of any magnitude
SOLID
F
FLUID
F
t
o
t
1
t
2
t
2
> t
1
> t
o
It is necessary to consider the relation between stress and the time
rate of deformation. A fluid deforms at a rate related to the applied
stress [strain rate]
EXCEPTIONS
Liquids - Water, oil, Mercury, alcohol, gasoline
Lead and Asphalt resist shear stress for short periods behave like
liquids after long periods
Colloids and Slurry resist small shear stresses but yield (Rheology)
at large stresses and behave as fluids
Multiphase Flows - liquids and gases; coal and gas
Steam above the critical point ie., 647 K and 219 bar
Gas becomes so dense and there is some resemblance of liquid
Air - ie., N
2
126 K and 34 bar (critical point)
FLUID AS CONTINUUM
Difficult to study the dynamics of fluids at molecular level
Assume that the fluid is continuous (continuous mass)
If matter were truly a continuum, the properties would be
continuous functions space and time
Characterize the fluid behaviour by considering the average, or
macroscopic, value of the quantity of interest, where the
average is evaluated over a small volume containing a large
number of molecules.
The volume is small compared with the physical dimensions of the
systemof interest, but large compared with the average
distance between molecules
Definition of Density at a Point
Below oV - molecular variations are important
Above oV aggregate variations are important
oV ~ 10
-9
mm
3
for gas and liquids at atmospheric pressure (3 10
7
molecules)
Diameter of the oxygen molecule = 3 10
-10
m
Mass of the oxygen molecule = 5.3 10
-26
kg
Mean free path of oxygen at 1 atmpressure and 20C 6.3 10
-8
m (200 times its diameter)
2.5 10
16
molecules of oxygen in the tiny volume of 1 mm
3
at 1 atmpressure and 20C
Knudsen Number
L
Kn

=
01 . 0 s Kn
8
6
10 4
25
10

= = =
L
Kn

For continuum
Gas flow in a pipe of 25 mm
diameter
Fluid characteristics (pressure, velocity etc.,) vary continuously
throughout the fluid that is we treat the fluid as continuum
Conditions
Molecular mean free path small
Elapsed time between collisions small so that the random statistical
nature of molecular activity is preserved
CONTINUUM VS FREE MOLECULE FLOW
Flow over a body
d
- Mean free path molecule travels between collisions
If <<< d (0.01d)
Flow appears to body Continuous substance;
Molecules hit the body so frequently that body cannot distinguish the
individual molecular collisions
Surface feels fluid as continuous medium CONTINUUM FLOW
FREE MOLECULE FLOW:
~ d body feels each molecular impact
Density heaviness of the fluid
V
m
=
g =
Specific weight
Specific Gravity
C
o
O H
SG
4 @
2


=
kg/m
3
N/m
3
Substance SG
Water 1.0
Blood 1.05
Seawater 1.025
Gasoline 0.7
Ethyl alcohol 0.79
Mercury 13.6
Wood 0.3-0.9
Gold 19.2
Bones 1.7-2.0
Ice 0.92
Air (at atmpressure) 0.0013
Determine the density, specific gravity and mass of the air in a room whose
dimensions are 4 m 5 m 6 mat 100 kPa and 25C
Solution: The density, specific gravity and mass of the air in a room are to be
determined
Assumptions: At specified conditions, air can be treated as ideal gas
Properties: The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K
Analysis: The density of air is determined fromthe ideal gas relation
( )
kg . V m
m V
.
.
SG
m / kg .
. . RT
P
water
140 120 17 1
120 6 5 4
00117 0
1000
17 1
17 1
15 273 25 1000 287 0
1000 100
3
3
= = =
= =
= = =
=
+

= =

Viscosity fluidity of the fluid


a. Deformation of material
placed between two parallel
plates
b. Forces acting on upper
plate
Behavior of a fluid placed between two parallel plates
No slip Condition fluid sticks to the solid boundaries
All fluids, both liquids and gases satisfy this condition
dy
du
o t
dy
du
t =
Dynamic Viscosity Pa.s
1 Poise (dyne.sec/cm
2
) = 0.1 Pa.s
b
a
Tan
o
o| o| = ~
t U a o o =
b
t U o
o| =
t
Lim
0 t
o
o|

o
=
dy
du
b
U
= =
o t
Rate of shearing strain
Linear variation of shearing stress
with the rate of shearing strain for
common fluids
Newtonian Fluid
dy
du
t
dy
du
t
Non- Newtonian Fluid
Variation of shearing stress with the
shearing strain for several types of
fluids, including common non-
Newtonian fluids
Newtonian Fluid

app
const Rate of Shearing Strain l
Shear Thinning Fluid

app
Rate of Shearing Strain l
Paints
Harder the fluid is sheared, the less viscous it
becomes
Shear Thickening Fluid

app
l Rate of Shearing Strain l
Harder the fluid is sheared, more viscous it
becomes
Water sand mixture (quick sand)
Water-corn starch mixture
Bingham Plastic
Tooth paste, Ketch up
Dynamic viscosity of some
common fluids as a function of
temperature
l T l - Gas
T l - Liquid
- mildly dependent on pressure
- sensitive to temperature
of water decreases by 40% for
temperature increase from 15 38
0
C
Decreases only by 1%
Liquid cohesive forces resist relative
motion between layers
T l cohesive force
Gas cohesive forces negligible
Exchange of momentum resist relative
motion between layers
T l Molecular activity l l
T
B
e D =
D and B are constants; T is absolute temperature
Liquids
Gas
S T
T C
2
3
+
=
C and S are empirical constants and T is absolute temperature
Kinematic Viscosity - v

v =
m
2
/s
Stoke cm
2
/s
One stoke = 10
-4
m
2
/s
Andrades equation
Sutherland equation
An infinite plate is moved over a second plate on a layer of liquid as shown in the figure. For
small gap width, we assume a linear velocity distribution in the liquid. The liquid viscosity is
0.65 centipoise and its specific gravity is 0.88. Determine the shear stress on the upper plate,
shear stress on the lower plate
ASSUMPTIONS:
Linear velocity distribution
Steady flow
Viscosity is constant
ANALYSIS:
d y
upper
dy
du
=
= t
1
3
1000
10 3 0
3 0
0
0

= = s
.
.
d
U
y
u
dy
du
A
A
Pa . .
dy
du
d y
upper
65 0 1000 10 65 0
3
= = =

=
t
1 Poise (dyne.sec/cm
2
) = 0.1 Pa.s
1 centipoise = 1/100 Poise = 10
-3
Pa.s
Pa .
upper
65 0 = t
0 =
=
y
lower
dy
du
t
1
3
1000
10 3 0
3 0
0
0

= = s
.
.
d
U
y
u
dy
du
A
A
Pa . .
dy
du
y
lower
65 0 1000 10 65 0
3
0
= = =

=
t
Pa .
lower
65 0 = t
A cylinder of 0.12 m radius rotates concentrically inside a fixed hollow cylinder of 0.13 m
radius. Both cylinders are 0.3 m long. Determine the viscosity of the liquid which fills the
space between the cylinders if a torque of 0.88 N.m is required to maintain an angular
viscoisty of 2t radians/s.
ASSUMPTIONS:
The inner cylinder is completely submerged in oil
The viscous effects on the two ends of the inner cylinder are negligible
ANALYSIS:
The velocity profile is linear only when the curvature effects are negligible and the profile can
be approximated as being linear in this case as l/R<<1
Hence, at any radial location r fromthe axis of rotation
Torque applied = The resisting torque by the fluid = shear stress Surface Area Torque arm
0.88 = t (2tr 0.3)r
t = 0.467/r
2
2
467 0
r
.
dy
dV

t
= =
}
=
}
12 0
13 0
2
467 0
.
.
V
V r
dr .
dV
inner
outer

dr dy =
As the radial distance
decreases, the velocity
increases
}
=
}
12 0
13 0
2
467 0
.
.
V
V r
dr .
dV
inner
outer

12 0
13 0
1 467 0
.
.
outer inner
r
.
V V
(

( )
(

=
13 0
1
12 0
1 467 0
0 12 0 2
. .
.
.

t
s . Pa .397 0 =
COMMENTS
Viscosity is a strong function of temperature and viscosity value without a
corresponding temperature is of little value. Therefore, the temperature of
the fluid should have also been measured during this experiment, and
reported with this calculation.
COMPRESSIBILITY OF FLUIDS - BULK MODULUS

d
dp
V
dV
dp
Ev = =
At Atmospheric pressure and temperature of 15.6 C
215 Bar Compress a unit volume of water by 1%
Water - Incompressible - 2.15 X 10
9
Pa
How easily can the volume (density) of a given mass of the fluid be changed
when there is a change in pressure ?
Pa
Large values of E
v
- Fluid is incompressible
Small values of E
v
- Fluid is compressible
Air, Standard atmospheric conditions 1.42 10
5
Pa
E
v
of water 15000 times that of E
v
of air
COMPRESSION AND EXPANSION OF GASES
Isothermal process -
Const
p
=

Isentropic process -
Const
p
=

v
p
C
C
=
p E
v
=
p E
v
=
E
v
- PROPERTY TO DESCRIBE COMPRESSIBLITY IN LIQUIDS
const
d
dp
const p
=
=

const
d
dp
d
dp
Ev

= = =
p Ev =
const
d
dp
const p
1
=
=

const
d
dp
d
dp
Ev
1
= = =

p const
d
dp
d
dp
Ev


= = = =
COEFFICIENT OF COMPRESSIBILITY
T
v
T
v
dp
d
E d
dp
E
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

1 1
The isothermal compressibility of the fluid represents the fractional change in
volume or density corresponding to a unit change in pressure
Coefficient of volume expansion is a measure of change in volume of the substance
with temperature at constant pressure
P P
dT
d 1
dT
dV
V
1
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
20C
100
kPa
1 kg
21C
100
kPa
1 kg
P
v
T
c | |
|
c
\ .
20C
100
kPa
1 kg
21C
100
kPa
1 kg
P
v
T
c | |
|
c
\ .
b) A Substance with a small
a) A Substance with a large
COEFFICIENT OF VOLUME EXPANSION
T T
1
dT
d 1
dT
dV
V
1
P P

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
( )

= T T |
The combined effects of pressure and temperature changes on the volume change of
a fluid can be determined by taking the specific volume to be a function of T and P
( ) P , T V V =
( ) dP dT V dP
dP
dV
dT
dT
dV
dV
T P
o | =
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
The fractional change in volume or density due to changes in pressure and
temperature
dP dT
V
V
o |

A A
= =
Consider water initially at 20C and 1 atm. Determine the final density of the water (a) if it is
heated to 50C at a constant pressure of 1 atm, and (b) if it is compressed to 100 atmpressure
at a constant temperature of 20C. Take the isothermal compressibility of water to be
o= 4.8 10
-5
atm
-1
m
Solution: water at a given temperature and pressure is considered. The densities of water
after it is heated and after it is compressed are to be determined.
Assumptions: 1. The coefficient of volume expansion and the isothermal compressibilitly of
water are constant at agiven temperature range.
2. An approximate analysis is perfromed by replacing the differential changes in quantities by
finite changes.
Properties: The densit of water at 20C and 1 atm pressure is
1
= 998 kg/m
3
. The coefficient
of volume expansion at the average temeperature of 35 C is | = 0.337 10
-3
K
-1.
The
isothermal compressibility of water is given by o = 4.8 10
-5
atm
-1
Analysis: The density of air is determined fromthe ideal gas relation
dP dT
V
V
o |

A A
= =
( ) dT dP | o A =
dT dP | o A =
The change in the density due to the change of temperature from 20C to 50C at
constant pressure is
( ) ( )
3
3
10
20 50 998 10 337 0
m / kg
. T
=
= =

A | A
3
2
1 2 1 2
988
10 998
m / kg =
= + = =

A A
The change in the density due to the change of pressure from 1 atmto 100 atmat
constant temperature is
( ) ( )
3
5
7 4
1 100 998 10 8 4
m / kg .
. P
=
= =

A o A
Density of water at 100 atmand 20C is
3
2
1 2 1 2
7 1002
7 4 988
m / kg .
.
=
+ = + = =

A A
Discussion: The density of water decreases while being heated and increases while
being compressed as expected. This problem can be solved more accurately using
differential analysis when functional forms of properties are available.
SPEED OF SOUND
d
dp
c =

d
dp
E
v
=

v
E
c =
For an isentropic process
Air 340 m/s; Water - 1481 m/s
For an ideal incompressible fluid the speed of the sound in that ideal
incompressible fluid is infinite
T R c =
Disturbances introduced at some point in the fluid propagate at a finite
velocity
Pipe and Valve; Loud speaker diaphragm
VAPOUR PRESSURE
a. Evaporation
b. Vapour exerts a partial pressure in the space above the liquid - vapour pressure
Water or
gasoline
Water or
gasoline
Water or
gasoline
c. confined space will contain more vapour molecules few of which will revert back
to liquid
d. Equilibrium condition: Rate at which number of vapour molecules striking back
the liquid surface and condensing = Rate at which vapour molecules leave
the surface
Saturated vapour
Pressure that vapour exerts on liquid surface VAPOUR PRESSURE
Vapour pressure of a given liquid is a function of temperature only and is
equal to saturation pressure for boiling corresponding to that temperature
Vapour pressure pressure at which the liquid boils and is in equilibrium
with its own vapour
Boiling formation of bubbles within a fluid mass
Boiling occurs
- By raising the temperature at a given pressure
- By lowering the pressure at a given fluid temperature
Zero elevation - 101.325 kPa boiling occurs at 100
o
C
3048 m above - 69.64 kPa - boiling occurs at 89.4
o
C
Cavitation - Liquid pressure drops below vapor pressure
Water 0 to 15 m/s, pressure drops by 1.16 bar - cavitation
In flowing liquids, it is possible for the pressure in localised regions to reach vapour
pressure thereby causing cavitation.
Cavitation damage of an impeller in a pump
In flowing liquids, it is possible for the pressure in localised regions to reach vapour
pressure thereby causing cavitation.
SURFACE TENSION
Wetted surface - contact angle is less than 90, the liquid is said to wet the solid
Non-wetted surface - contact angle is greater than 90, the liquid is said to be
nonwetting
Ex: Water wets soap but does not wet wax.
Water is extremely wetting to a clean glass surface, with u = 0
SURFACE TENSION OF LIQUIDS arises due to
Cohesion - force of attraction between molecules of a liquid
Adhesion force of attraction between two unlike molecules
A
B
Liquid
C
D
A & B Equal attraction in all directions by
neighbouring molecules
C & D - Net force acts on the molecule towards
the interior of the liquid
In order to balance this force, there is a
stretching effect.
Like a imaginary membrane stretched over fluid
mass because of tension developed in the
hypothetical skin.
Free surface
SURFACE TENSION o
R
p p p
e i
o 2
= = A
e i
p p >
2t Ro = Ap tR
2
Intensity of the molecular attraction per unit length along any line in
the surface N/m
tR
2
h = 2t Ro cos u
R
h

u o cos 2
=
For water u = 0
0
For mercury u = 130
0
Adhesion >> Cohesion
Cohesion >> Adhesion
Liquid Specific
gravity
SG
Bulk
modulus of
elasticity
(GPa)
Vapour
pressure
P
v
(kPa)
Surface
tension
o(N/m)
In contact with
air
Ethyl alcohol 0.79 1.21 5.86 0.0223
Benzene 0.88 1.03 10.0 0.0289
Carbon
tetrachloride
1.59 1.10 13.1 0.0267
Mercury 13.57 26.2 0.00017 0.51
Kerosene 0.81 - - 0.023-0.038
Crude oil 0.85-0.93 - - 0.023-0.038
Lubricating oil 0.85-0.88 - - 0.035-0.038
Water 1.00 2.07 2.45 0.074
Approximate properties of common liquids at 20C
and standard atmospheric pressure
R
h

u o cos 2
=
Capillary rise
Capillary fall
CAPILLARITY IN CIRCULAR GLASS TUBES
A spherical water drop of 1 mm in diameter splits up in air into 64 smaller drops of equal size.
Find the work required in splitting up the drop. The surface tension of water in air is 0.073
N.m.
Analysis:
Work required = Surface tension Increase in the surface area
Conservation of mass
( )
mm . m . d
d
25 0 10 5 2
6
10 1
6
64
4
3
3 3
= =

t t
Initial surface area due to single drop = t (1 10
-3
)
2
= t 10
-6
Final surface area due to 64 drops = 64t (0.25 10
-3
)
2
= 4t 10
-6
Increase in surface area = (4-1)t 10
-6
= 3t 10
-6
Work required = o A
in
= 0.073 3t 10
-6
= 0.688 10
-6
J

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