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MEN Part 1

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1
Agenda
Day 5

Module 6
• BGP and MPLS Overview

Module 7
• MEN Architecture & Services

• Feedback & Test


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Module 6

BGP

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3
Overview Of BGP

• BGP is an exterior routing protocol, used to transmit routing


information between ASs
• It is a kind of distance-vector routing protocol and avoids the
occurrence of loop in design. It provides additional attribute
information for the route
• Transfer protocol: TCP; port No.: 179
• It supports Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
• Route updating: transmit incremental routes only
• Abundant route filtering and routing policies

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Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a dynamic routing protocol. Its basic


function is to automatically exchange the loopless routing information
between Autonomous Systems (AS). By exchanging the path-reachable
information with AS sequence attribute, it can construct the topology map
of the autonomous area, thus removing the route loop and implementing
the routing strategy configured by the user. Compared with protocols like
OSPF and RIP, which run inside the autonomous area, BGP is a kind of
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) while OSPF and RIP are Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP). BGP is usually used between ISPs.
BGP has been put into use since 1989. Its three earliest versions are RFC1105
(BGP-1), RFC1163 (BGP-2) and RFC1267 (BGP-3) respectively. The
current version is RFC1771 (BGP- 4). With the fast development of the
Internet, the volume of the routing table expands quickly as well, and the
amount of routing information exchanged between ASs is also ever
increasing, which affects the network performance. BGP supports
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR), which can effectively reduce the
ever-expanding routing table. BGP-4 is fast turning into the actual
standard of the Internet border routing protocol. Its features are described
as follows:
• BGP is a kind of exterior routing protocol, different from interior routing
protocol like OSPF and RIP. It focuses on the control of route advertising
and the selection of optimal routes, instead of route discovery and
calculation.
• By taking the AS path information, it can thoroughly solve the problem of
route cycle.
• To control the advertising and selection of routes, it provides additional 4
route attribute information
Autonomous System

• What is an Autonomous System


(AS)?
The Autonomous System (AS) refers to a set of routers, which are
managed by the same technical management organization and adopt
the unified routing strategy. Each AS has a unique AS number, which
is allocated by the management organization authorized by the
Internet.

z which routing protocol running inside the AS


IGP routing protocol such as static route, OSPF , IS-IS etc

z Which routing protocol running between ASs


BGP only

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The Autonomous System (AS) refers to a set of routers, which are managed
by the same technical management organization and adopt the unified routing
strategy. Each AS has a unique AS number, which is allocated by the
management organization authorized by the Internet.
The basic concept of introducing the AS is to differentiate different ASs by
different numbers. Thus, when the network administrator does not want his
own communication data to pass some AS, this numbering method becomes
very useful. Maybe the administrator's network can access this AS absolutely.
However, if this AS is managed by his component or lacks enough security
mechanism, he needs to avoid this AS. By adopting the routing protocol and
AS number, the routers can specify the path between them and the method for
routing information exchange.
The AS numbers range from 1 to 65535. Among them, the numbers from 1 to
64511 are the registered Internet number, and those from 64512 to 65535 are
the private network numbers.

Quiz
How many AS number available to the public internet network?
A: 1~64511
B: 1~65525
C: 64512~65535
D: 0~65535

5
Working Mechanism Of BGP

AS1 AS2

AS3

AS4

AS5 AS7

AS6

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As the application layer protocol, the BGP system runs on a special router.
During the first startup of the system, the routing information is exchanged by
sending the whole BGP routing table. Later, for the objectives of updating the
routing table, only the update message is exchanged. During the operation,
the system checks whether the connection is normal by receiving and sending
the keep-alive message.
The router, which sends the BGP message, is called the BGP speaker. It
continuously receives and generates new routing information, and advertises
it to other BGP speakers. When a BGP speaker receives new route
advertisement from other ASs, it will advertise this route to all the other BGP
speakers inside the AS if this route is better than the currently known route,
or currently there is no acceptable route. A BGP speaker calls other BGP
speakers that exchange message with it as peer. Several related peers can
construct a group.
Generally, a route is generated inside the AS. It is discovered and calculated
by some interior routing protocol and transmitted to the boundary of the AS.
Then, The Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) spreads it to other
ASs via the EBGP connection. During the spreading, the route may pass
several ASs, which are called the transitional AS, such as AS5. If this AS has
multiple boundary routers, Information will be exchanged among these
routers by running IBGP. In this case, the internal routers need not know
these exterior routes. They only need to maintain the IP connectivity among
the boundary routers, such as AS2, AS3 and AS4. After the route reaches the
AS boundary, ASBR can redistribute the route into the interior routing
protocol if the interior router needs to know these exterior routes. The
exterior routes have a large amount, which will usually exceed the processing
capability of the interior routers. So, filtering or aggregation shall be done 6
IBGP Neighbor & EBGP Neighbor

RTA RTE
AS100 AS300

EBGP
EBGP
IBGP

RTB RTD
AS200 RTC

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On the router, BGP runs in the following two modes: IBGP (Internal BGP), EBGP
(External BGP)
• If two peers that exchange BGP messages belong to the same AS, they are Internal
BGP (IBGP), such as RTB and RTD.
• If two peers that exchange BGP messages do not belong to the same AS, they are
External BGP (EBGP), such as RTA and RTB.
Although BGP runs between ASs, it is also necessary to establish BGP connection
between different border routers of an AS. Only in this way, can routing information
be transmitted in the entire network, such as RTB and RTD. To establish the
communication between AS100 and AS300, we need to establish IBGP connection
between them.
The direct connection is not necessarily established between IBGP peers physically,
but the full logical connection between them must be ensured (it suffices if TCP
connection can be created).
In most of the cases, there is physically direct link between EBGP peers. However, if it
is hard to realize, remedy can be done by configuring the command "neighbor
neighbor-address ebgp-multihop[ttl]". Here, "ttl" is the maximum hop count. Its
default value is 64 and the value range is 1-255.

Quiz
1. Which of the following statements about IBGP routers are true? (Select one.)
A. They must be fully meshed.
B. They can be in a different AS.
C. They must be directly connected. 7
iBGP & eBGP

• BGP configuration does not define peers as


iBGP or eBGP
• Each router examines its own ASN and
compare with defined neighbor ASN
• If ASN match – peer is iBGP
• If ASN does not match – peer is eBGP

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Route Advertising Principles of BGP

• BGP Speaker only selects the best one for its own use
• BGP Speaker only advertises the routes used by itself to its neighbors
• For the routes obtained from EBGP, the BGP Speaker will advertise them to
all its neighbors (including EBGP and IBGP)
• For the routes obtained from IBGP, the BGP Speaker will not advertise
them to its IBGP neighbors
• For the routes obtained from IBGP, whether the BGP Speaker will advertise
them to its EBGP neighbors depends on the synchronization state of IGP
and BGP
• Once the connection is established, the BGP Speaker will advertise all its
BGP routes to the new neighbors

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Route advertising principles of BGP:


•In the case of multiple paths, the BGP Speaker only selects the best one for
its own use.
•The BGP Speaker only advertises the routes used by itself to its neighbors.
•For the routes obtained from EBGP, the BGP Speaker will advertise them to
all its neighbors (including EBGP and IBGP).
•For the routes obtained from IBGP, the BGP Speaker will not advertise them
to its IBGP neighbors.
•For the routes obtained from IBGP, whether the BGP Speaker will advertise
them to its EBGP neighbors depends on the synchronization state of IGP and
BGP.
•Once the connection is established, the BGP Speaker will advertise all its
BGP routes to the new neighbors.
•These principles were stipulated by the BGP designers when they were
developing the BGP routing protocol. Further study of the reasons is outside
the scope of this document.

Quiz
what would BGP router do when the TCP connection established ?
A: exchange the routing table between the BGP neighbors
B: exchange the BGP routes between the BGP neighbors
C: check the BGP version ,as numbers to form the EBGP/IBGP relationship
D: send a keep-a-live packet to the peer 9
BGP
• BGP advertises only one best path…
• Only incremental updates
– Keep alive messages after initial exchange
between BGP peers – every 60s
– Hold time – 180s
• Triggered updates are batched and rate-limited (every 5
seconds for internal peer, every 30 seconds for external
peer)
• Public AS number from InterNIC (www.internic.net) or RIPE
(www.ripe.net)
• Use private AS numbers (64512 - 65535) if BGP in a private
network
• Only one BGP routing process per router is allowed
• Reliance Public AS - 18101

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BGP Synchronization

E0:10.1.1.1/24
AS100 RTA
AS300

S0 RTF

EBGP EBGP

IBGP
RTB
S1
RTE
RTC
RTD
AS200

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It is stated in the BGP protocol that: a BGP router does not advertise the
routing information learnt from the internal BGP peers to the external peers,
unless this information can also be obtained from IGP. If a router can learn
about this routing information via IGP, then it can be considered that the
route can be broadcast inside AS and the internal connection is ensured.
One of major duties of BGP is to transmit the network reachability
information of this AS to other ASs. As shown in the figure above, RTB will
encapsulate the routing information toward 10.1.1.1/24 into the UPDATE
message, and advertise it to RTE via the TCP connection established by RTC
and RTD. If RTE does not take synchronization into account, it will directly
accept such routing information and report it to RTF, then if RTF or RTE has
the data packet to be sent to 10.1.1.1/24, this packet must pass RTD and RTC
if it wants to reach the destination. As the synchronization was not taken into
account in advance, the routing tables of RTD and RTC have no routing
information to 10.1.1.1/24 and the data packet will be discarded when it
reaches RTD. So, BGP must be synchronous with IGP (e.g., RIP, OSPF, etc.).
Synchronization means that BGP will not advertise the transitional
information to other ASs until IGP broadcasts this routing information
successfully in its AS . That is, after a router receives the update information
of a destination from the IBGP peer, it shall attempt to verify whether this
destination can be reached via the internal AS before advertising it to other
EBGP peers (i.e., verify whether this destination is within IGP, and whether
the non-BGP router can transmit this traffic to this destination). If IGP knows
this destination, it will receive such routing information and then advertise it
to EBGP peers. Otherwise, it will consider that this route is asynchronous
with IGP and thus will not advertise it.
As shown in the figure above, RTE gets the route going to the network 11
Full Dynamic Redistribution

AS200

18.0.0.1/8
OSPF
RTB

• OSPF discovers route 18.0.0.1/8


• Dynamically redistribute the route discovered by IGP (OSPF)
into the BGP routing table of RTB

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The BGP routing protocol runs between ASs. Its major work is to transmit
routing information between ASs, instead of discovering and calculating
routing information. The work of discovering and calculating routing
information is done by the IGP routing protocol, e.g. RIP and OSPF. The
routing information of BGP needs to be redistributed into BGP in the mode of
configuration commands.
According to the redistribution mode, it can be classified into three types:
purely dynamic redistribution, semi-dynamic redistribution and static
redistribution.
Purely dynamic redistribution means that the router gets the routing
information by IGP routing protocol and then dynamically redistributes it into
BGP.
As shown in the figure above, RTB dynamically detects the routes going to
the network 18.0.0.0/8 via OSPF protocol and then dynamically redistributes
it into BGP. We call such a kind of route redistribution mode as purely
dynamic redistribution.
The route leading to the network 18.0.0.0/8 is redistributed from OSPF.
Meanwhile, other routing information of OSPF is also redistributed into BGP.

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Semi Dynamic Redistribution

AS200

18.0.0.1/8

OSPF
RTB

• OSPF discovers the route 18.0.0.1/8


• Semi-dynamically redistribute the route discovered by IGP
(OSPF) into the BGP routing table of RTB

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Semi-dynamic redistribution means that the routing information is


dynamically discovered and calculated by IGP routing protocol. Part of the
specified routing information will be selectively redistributed with the
network command when it is redistributed into the BGP system.
AS shown in the figure above, router B dynamically detects the route going
to the network 18.0.0.0/8 via OSPF protocol and then redistributes it into
BGP statically. Such a kind of route redistribution mode is called semi-
dynamic redistribution.
The route to be redistributed should be be specified with the user interface of
the router. As a result, only one specified OSPF route is redistributed into
the BGP routing table.

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Static Redistribution

AS200

18.0.0.1/8

RTB

• Manually configure the static route 18.0.0.1/8


• Redistribute the static route manually configured into the BGP
routing table of RTB

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Static redistribution means that the routing information obtained by the router
is the static routing information manually configured, which will be statically
redistributed into the BGP system.
As shown in the figure above, router B first establishes a static route going to
the network 18.0.0.0/8 and then redistributes it into BGP. Such kind of route
redistribution mode is called static redistribution.
As a result, a manually configured route is added into the BGP routing table.

How many methods can you use to installed the route to the bgp routing table
?(choose all apply)
A: Full Dynamic Redistribution
B: Semi Dynamic Redistribution
C: Static Redistribution
D: IGP route redistribute

14
BGP Messages

• There are four types of BGP messages:


– Open: greeting--"hello, let's make friends!"
– Keepalive: I'm alive, don't leave me alone
– Update: fresh news...
– Notification: i won't play with you any more!

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BGP has four types of messages:OPEN, UPDATE, NOTIFICATION and


KEEPALIVE.
•Between BGP peers, an OPEN message is transmitted so as to exchange
information such as version, AS number, hold time and BGP identifier for
negotiation.
•What UPDATE message carries is route update information, including route
withdrawal information, reachable information and its path attributes.
•When BGP detects errors (e.g. connection interruption, negotiation error ,
message error), it will send the NOTIFICATION message to shut off the
connection with its peers.
•The KEEPALIVE messages are sent periodically between BGP neighbors ,
so as to ensure the connection is kept alive . The default timer is 60 seconds.
The OPEN message is mainly used to establish the neighborhood (BGP
peers). It is the initial handshake information between BGP routers and shall
occur before all notification information. Others will respond with the
KEEPALIVE message after receiving the OPEN message. Once the
handshake succeeds, these BGP neighbors can exchange messages like
UPDATE, KEEPALIVE and NOTIFICATION.

Quiz
(1) How many BGP messages available for the BGP version 4(choose all
apply)
A: OPEN
B: UPDATE 15
C: NOTIFICATION
Finite State Machine of BGP
Connect-Retry
timer expiry
TCP connection fails Connect-Retry
timer expiry
Active Connect
TCP connection fails

TCP connection setup Others

Others Start
TCP connection setup

Open-sent Idle
Error

Correct OPEN
packet received Error Error

Open-confirm Established 1. KeepAlive


timer expiry
KeepAlive KeepAlive packet 2. Update received
timer expiry received 3. KeepAlive received

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The BGP finite state machine (FSM) has six states. The procedure of
transition between shows the establishment procedure of BGP neighborhood.
The first state is "Idle". Once BGP starts, the state machine enters the
"Connect" state. In this sate, if Connect-Retry timer expires, the BGP state
machine will stay in the "Connect" state. Meanwhile, BGP will attempt to
establish the TCP connection. If the creation of TCP connection fails, the
BGP state machine will enter the "Active" state. If the TCP connection is
established successfully, the BGP state machine will enter the "OpenSent"
state directly. In "Active" state, if the TCP connection cannot be established
yet, the BGP state machine will stay in the "Active" state and will not enter
the "OpenSent" state until the TCP connection is established successfully. In
the "OpenSent" state, once BGP receives a correct Open message, it will
enter the "OpenConfirm" state. In the "OpenConfirm" state, if the KeepAlive
timer expires, the BGP state machine will stay in the "OpenConfirm" state.
And it will not enter the "Established" state until BGP receives the KeepAlive
message. Till now, the BGP connection is really established.
In addition, when any of the five states ("Idle" excluded) has errors, the BGP
state machine will return to the "Idle" state.
Idle: "Idle" is the first state of BGP connection. In this state, BGP is waiting
for a start event. After such an event emerges, BGP will initialize the
resources, reset the Connect-Retry timer, and initiate a TCP connection.
Meanwhile, it will enter the "Connect" state.
Connect: in this state, BGP establishes the first TCP connection. If the
Connect-Retry timer expires, BGP will establish the TCP connection again
and continue to stay in the "Connect" state. If the TCP connection is
established successfully, it will enter the "OpenSent" state. Otherwise, it will
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enter the "Active" state.
Application of Messages in BGP

• The Open message is sent when establishing a BGP connection via


TCP
• After the connection is established, the UPDATE message is sent
to notify the peer of the routing information if a route needs to be
sent or route change occurs
• After stabilization, it is necessary to send the KEEPALIVE message
periodically to keep the validity of the BGP connection
• When an error is found during the running of local BGP,
NOTIFICATION message shall be sent to notify the BGP peer

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BGP establishes the connection via TCP. The local monitoring port is 179.
The establishment of BGP connection needs a series of dialogs and
handshakes, which is the same as that of TCP connection. TCP uses the
handshake negotiation to advertise parameters like port. The handshake
negotiation parameters of BGP include BGP version, hold time of BGP
connection, local router ID and authorization information. They are included
in the Open message.
After BGP connection is established, the Update message shall be sent to
advertise the routing information to the peer end if there is a route to be sent.
The Update message is mainly used to advertise the routing information,
including failed (withdrawn) route. When the Update message is used to
distribute out the route, the attribute of this route needs to be specified so as
to help the peer BGP protocol select the best route. For the application of
route attribute for BGP to select the route, please refer to the application part
of he BGP protocol route attribute.
When the local BGP route changes, the Update message can also be used to
correct the routing table of the peer BGP.
If, after exchanging the routing information for a period of time both the local
BGP and the peer BGP have no new route advertisement, the condition
becomes stable. Now the KEEPALIVE message shall be sent regularly so as
to make the BGP connection remain valid. For the local BGP, if it receives no
BGP message after the hold time is over, this BGP connection will be
regarded as invalid and disconnection of this BGP will take place.
If, during the running, the local BGP detects an error, for example, the local
BGP does not support the version of the BGP peer or receives the Update
message with illegal structure, it shall send the NOTIFICATION message to 17
notify the BGP peer When the local BGP exits the BGP connection it shall
BGP Path Attributes

• A Path Attribute is a characteristic of an


advertised BGP route.
• Each Path Attribute falls into one of four
categories:
– Well-known mandatory
– Well-known discretionary
– Optional transitive
– Optional nontransitive

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Notes:
Well-known means it must be recognized by all BGP implementations.
Optional means BGP implementation is not required to support the attribute.
Mandatory means the attribute must be included in all BGP Update messages
Discretionary means they may or may not be sent in a specific Update
messages
Transitive means a BGP process should accept the path in which the attribute
is included even if it doesn’t support this attribute and it should pass the path
on to its peers
Nontransitive means a BGP process that does not recognize the attribute can
quietly ignore the Update in which the attribute is included and not advertise
the path to its other peers

The enterprises and service providers are often concerned about such
questions: how to prevent my private network from being advertised out?
How to filter the route update that comes from some neighboring route? how
to make certain that I am using this link instead of any other link?. It is
through the use of route attribute that BGP answers these questions.
BGP route attribute is a set of parameters. It further describes the specific
route so as to enable BGP to filter and select routes. When configuring the
route strategy, we often use the route attribute. However, not all of them will
be involved.
In fact, route attributes are classified into the following categories:
Mandatory attribute: one that is necessary in the route update data message.
In the BGP routing information, this kind of attribute domain has its unique
role that cannot be substituted by any others. If it is not included, something
will be wrong with the routing information. For example, AS-Path is a 18
Path Attribute
Well-known mandatory Optional nontransitive
¾ORIGIN ¾Multi-Exit-Disc (MED)
¾AS-Path ¾ORIGINATOR-ID
¾Next hop ¾Cluster-List

Well-known discretionary
¾Destination Pref (MCI)
¾Local-Preference
¾Advertiser (Baynet)
¾Atomic-Aggregate
¾Rcid-Path (Baynet)
¾MP_Reach_NLRI
Optional transitive
¾MP_Unreach_NLRI
¾Aggregator
¾Extended_Communities
¾Community
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There are six attributes that are commonly used:


Origin: it is used to define the origin of the routing information, indicating
how a route becomes the BGP route, such as IGP, EGP, and Incomplete.
As-Path: it is the sequence of the ASs passed by a route, listing all the ASs
passed by a route before it reaches the notified network. The BGP speaker
puts its own AS preamble to the head of the received AS path, which can
avoid route loop and be used for route filtering and selection.
Next hop: it includes the IP address of the next hop border router that reaches
the network listed in the update information. The next hop of the BGP is
somewhat different from that of IGP. It can be an address of the peer that
notifies this route, such as EBGP, which is similar to the IGP. But in some
other cases, the BGP uses the next hop of the third party. For example, the
IBGP transmits without any change the next hop obtained from the EBGP
peer in the AS. In the multiple access media, the BGP takes the actual origin
of the route as the next hop, even though it is not the BGP peer.
Multi-Exit-Discriminators (MED): when some AS has multiple entries, the
MED attribute can be used to help its external neighboring router select a
better entry path. The smaller the MED value of a route, the higher its
precedence.
Local-Preference: this attribute is used to select in the AS the route reaching
some destination by preference. It reflects the preference level of the BGP
speaker for each external route. The bigger the local-preference value, the
higher the preference level of the route.
Community: this attribute marks a group of routing information that has the
same feature, which is irrelevant with the IP subnet or AS where it is located.
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The accepted community values are NO-EXPORT, NO-ADVERTISE,
ORIGIN Attribute

• ORIGIN specifies the origin of the routing update. When BGP has multiple
routes, it uses ORIGIN as one factor in determining the preferred route.
– IGP NLRI (Network layer Reachability Information) was learned from a protocol
internal to the originating AS. BGP routes are given an origin of IGP if they are
learned from an IGP routing table via the network statement.
– EGP NLRI was learned from the Exterior Gateway Protocol.
– Incomplete NLRI was learned by some other means. Incomplete imply that the
information for determining the origin of the route is incomplete. Routes that BGP
learns through redistribution carry the incomplete origin attribute.
• Which one is preferred? IGP > EGP > Incomplete

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When the BGP makes the route decision, it will take the origin attribute into
account to determine the precedence levels between multiple routes.
Specifically, the BGP will prefer the route with the minimum origin attribute
value, i.e. the IGP has the precedence over EGP, and EGP has the precedence
over INCOMPLETE. We can configure these three origin attributes
manually.
Generally:
If a route is redistributed into the BGP routing table with the specifically, the
origin attribute shall be IGP
If a route is obtained via EGP, the origin attribute shall be EGP
Otherwise, the Origin attribute should be Incomplete
Quiz
(1)When import a route from ospf routing protocol into the BGP routing table
,which origin attribute value would this route to be ?
A: IGP
B: EGP
C: OSPF
D: Incomplete

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AS_PATH Attribute
• AS-PATH uses a sequence of AS numbers to describe the inter-AS path or route to the
destination specified by the NLRI.
• AS-PATH describes all AS it has passed through ,beginning with the most recent AS
and ending with the originating AS.

D(18.0.0.0/8)
AS300
AS200
RTA
AS400 30.0.0.1

D (400 300 200)


30.0.0.2
RTB
AS100 AS500

D (500 200)

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The AS-Path attribute is also a mandatory one. It is the sequence of numbers of all
the ASs passed by a route to a certain destination. The BGP uses the AS-path
attribute as a part of the route update (message update) to ensure a loopless
topology structure over the Internet. The BGP will not accept the route of this AS
number contained in the AS-path attribute, because this route has been processed
by this AS. In this way, route loop is avoided. For this reason, the BGP will add its
own AS number to the AS-path attribute when advertising a route to the EBGP
peer, so as to record the information on the AS area passed by the route.
Meanwhile, the AS-path attribute acts on route selection. In case other factors are
the same, the route with shorter AS path will be selected. As shown in the figure
above, the path for the network segment D18.0.0.0/8 in AS200 to reach AS100 by
passing AS200, AS300, and AS400 is d1 (400 300 200) and that for it to reach
AS100 by passing AS200 and AS500 is d2 (500 200). In this case, the BGP will
select the shorter path d2 by precedence.
Note: when the AS-Path field of a route records the AS-number, it will always put
the new AS-number in front. As shown in the figure above, the route first passes
AS200 and records d2 (200); then it passes AS500 and records: d2 (500 200).
We can increase the path length by adding the pseudo AS number, so as to act on
route selection, We can configure RTA to add two AS element ‘200, 200’ to the
AS-Path list carried by the route it sent to 30.0.0.2. After such a configuration, the
path d2 will change into 500 200 200 200, which is longer than the path d1. So now
the BGP will select the shorter path d1 by precedence.

Quiz
(1) When a route is passing AS100 from other AS, where the AS 100 value would 21
be put in the as-path field ?
AS_PATH Attribute

• The Function of AS-PATH


– AS can influence its incoming traffic by changing the AS_PATH of its
advertising route
– AS_PATH can be used for loop avoidance

D(18.0.0.0/8)
AS300
AS200
RTA
AS400 30.0.0.1
D (200 200 200)
D (400 300 200)
30.0.0.2
RTB
AS100 AS500

D (500 200,200,200)

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22
Next Hop Attribute

AS200
RTC
RTA 10.0.0.1
18.0.0.0/8
AS100 21.0.0.2
10.0.0.2 IBGP
EBGP
IBGP
20.0.0.0/8
21.0.0.1 10.0.0.3
RTD
19.0.0.0/8

RTB
RTA
I can reach 18.0.0.0/8 via the next hop10.0.0.2
I can reach 20.0.0.0/8 via the next hop 10.0.0.3
RTC
I can reach 19.0.0.0/8 via the next hop 21.0.0.1
I can reach 19.0.0.0/8 via the next hop 10.0.0.1
RTB I can reach 20.0.0.0/8 via the next hop 10.0.0.3
I can reach 18.0.0.0/8 via the next hop 10.0.0.2
I can reach 20.0.0.0/8 via the next hop 10.0.0.3
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The next hop attribute is also an accepted mandatory attribute. The next hop
in the BGP is different from that in the IGP. The concept of the next hop in
the BGP is a little complicated. It can be one of the following three types:
When the BGP notifies the IBGP of the route obtained from other EBGPs, it
does not change the next hop attribute of the route. The local BGP directly
transmits the next hop attribute obtained from the EBGP to the IBGP. As
shown in the figure above, the next hop attribute is 10.0.0.2 when the RTA
notifies the route 18.0.0.0 to RTB via the IBGP.
When the BGP notifies the EBGP peer of the route, the next hop attribute is
the port address of the connection between the BGP and its peer. As shown
in the figure above, the next hop attribute is 10.0.0.2 when the RTC
notifies the RTA of the route 18.0.0.0/8. And when it notifies the RTC of
the route 19.0.0.0/8, the next hop attribute is 10.0.0.1.
For the multi-access network (e.g. Ethernet or frame relay), something is
different with the next hop. As shown in the figure above, when RTC is
advertising the route 20.0.0.0/8 to the EBGP router RTA, it finds that the
local port 10.0.0.2 and the next hop 10.0.0.3 of this route are the same
shared subnet. So, it uses 10.0.0.3 as the next hop to advertise the route to
the EBGP, instead of 10.0.0.2.

Quiz
(1)select the following statement which are true
A: When the BGP notifies the IBGP of the route obtained from other EBGPs,
it does not change the next hop attribute of the route
B: When the BGP notifies the IBGP of the route obtained from other EBGPs, 23
it h th th tt ib t t th l l i dd
LOCAL_PREF Attribute

• LOCAL_PREF is used to communicate a BGP router’s


degree of preference for an advertised route.
• LOCAL_PREF is only in updates between internal BGP
peers and it is not passed to other AS.
• If an internal BGP speaker receives multiple routes to
the same destination, it compares the LOCAL_PREF
attribute of the routes. The route with highest
LOCAL_PREF is selected.
• The LOCAL_PREF attribute affects only traffic leaving
the AS.

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The local precedence attribute is an optional attribute. It represents the


precedence level assigned to a route, with which we can compare different
routes that have the same destination. The bigger the attribute value, the
higher the precedence level of the route. This attribute is used only inside
the AS and exchanged between IBGP peers, but not notified to the EBGP
peer. In short, the local precedence attribute is used to help the router
inside the AS select the optimal egress for it to go out, i.e. select the egress
with higher local precedence level.
What shall be noted is: configuring the attribute value of local precedence
level will only affect the traffic that leaves this AS, but not the traffic that
enters this AS. By default, the value of local precedence attribute is 100.

Quiz
(1)A BGP speaker received the same route from its two IBGP peer with
different preference ,which route the BGP speaker will use by default ?
A: the route with the bigger preference value
B: the route with the smaller preference value
C: the route with the bigger router-id
D: the route with the smaller router-id

24
LOCAL_PREF Attribute
AS400
D (18.0.0.0/8)

RTF

AS200 AS300
RTD 30.0.0.1 20.0.0.1 RTE

30.0.0.2 AS100 20.0.0.2


RTB RTC
D,local-pref1 100 D,local-pref2 200

RTA
• D,local-pref1 100
• D,local-pref2 200 RTA will select local-pref2 that has higher local preference

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As shown in the figure above, the RTB sets the local precedence level of the
route received via the RTD as local-pref1 100, and the RTC sets the local
precedence level of the route received via the RTE as local-pref2 200. In this
way, the RTA will prefer local-pref2 which has a higher precedence level.

25
MULTI-EXIT-DISC (MED) Attribute

• MED is carried in EBGP updates and allows an AS to inform another AS of


its preferred ingress points. It is meant only for a single AS to demonstrate a
degree of preference when it has multiple ingress points.
• MED attribute affects only the incoming traffic to the AS.
• If all else is equal , an AS receiving multiple routes to the same destination
compare the MED of the routes. The lowest MED value is prefered. MEDs
are not compared if two routes to the same destination are received from
two different AS.
• The MED is passed between internal peers of the receiving AS but not
passed beyond the receiving AS. MED is used only to influence traffic
between two directly connected AS.

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The MED attribute is optional, used to indicate the preferable path for the
external neighbor router to enter some AS that has multiple entries. When
some AS has multiple entries, the MED attribute can be used to help its
external neighbor router select a better entry path. That is, select the entry
path with smaller MED value by precedence.

A BGP speaker received the same route from its two EBGP peer with
different MED value ,which route the BGP speaker will use by default ?
A: the route with the bigger MED value
B: the route with the smaller MED value
C: use tow for backup
D: the route with the smaller router-id

26
MULTI-EXIT-DISC (MED) Attribute

AS100

D,metric1 10
D,metric2 20
RTA

30.0.0.1 20.0.0.1

RTA will select the lower metric

D,metric1 10 D,metric2 20
30.0.0.2 20.0.0.2
RTB RTC
IBGP
D(18.0.0.0/8)
AS200

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As shown in the figure above, we can set the metric value of the network D
notified by the RTB as metric 1 10 and that of the network D notified by the
RTC as metric 2 20. In this way, the RTA will select the metric 1 that has
smaller metric value by precedence.
Generally, the router only compares the MED values of respective EBGP
neighbor paths from the same AS, but not those from different ASs. If
comparison is required, the Quidway series routers offer the one user
interface command to change this default behavior.
Note: By default, it is not allowed to compare the MED attribute values of
paths from different AS neighbors, unless it can be confirmed that different
ASs adopt the same IGP and route selection method.

27
Community Attribute

• Community is designed to simplify policy


enforcement. It identifies a destination as a
member of some community of destinations that
share one or more common properties.

• The COMMUNITY attribute is a set of four octets


values AA:NN. AA is AS number. NN is an
administratively defined identifier.

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In the range of the BGP, a community is a group of destinations that have the
same nature. It is not limited to a network or an AS and has no physical
boundary.

28
Well-known Community

– NO_EXPORT
• Routes received carrying this value cannot be advertised to EBGP peers and outside of
the confederation

– NO_ADVERTISE
• Routes received carrying this value cannot be advertised at all to either EBGP or IBGP
peers.

– LOCAL_AS
• Routes received carrying this value cannot be advertised to EBGP peers including
peers in other AS within a confederation.

– INTERNET
• All routes belong to this community by default. Received routes belonging to this
community are advertised freely

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The community attribute is an optional transitional attribute. Some communities


are accepted, i.e. they have the global meaning. These communities are:
•NO_EXPORT: after a route with such a community attribute value is received, it
shall not be notified to the peers outside an confederation.
•NO_ADVERTISE: after a route with such a community attribute value is
received, it shall not be notified to any BGP peers.
•LOCAL-AS: after a route with such a community attribute value is received, it
shall be notified to the peers inside the local AS, but not to any EBGP peers
(including the EBGP peers inside the confederation).
•INTERNET: After a route with such a community attribute value is received, it
shall be notified to all other routers.
•Besides these accepted community attribute values, the private community
attribute values can also be used for special objectives. These attribute values are
marked with some numbers.
One route can have multiple community attribute values, which is similar to the
case where a route can have multiple AS numbers in its AS path attribute. The BGP
router, which sees multiple community attribute values in one route, can take
action according to one or more or all of these attribute values. The router can add
or modify the community attribute values before it transmits the route to other
peers.

29
BGP Route Selection Procedure

• In general, the procedure of local BGP route selection is:


– 1. If the next hop of this route is unreachable, this route is not selected.
– 2. Select the route with a higher local preference.
– 3. Select the originated route by the local router (same local precedence).
– 4. Select the route with shortest AS path.
– 5. Select the route with lowest origin code (IGP lower than EGP, EGP lower than Incomplete
).
– 6. Select the route with smallest MED .
– 7.Performing load sharing on multiple routes according to the configured number of routes (in
case load sharing is configured and there are multiple external routes to the same AS)
– 8. Select the route with smallest Router ID .

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Generally, the procedure of local BGP route selection is:


(1)If the next hop of this route is unreachable, then drop this route.
(2)Select the route with a higher local precedence level.
(3)Select the originated route by the local router (the same local precedence level).
(4)Select the route whose AS path is shortest.
(5)Select the route whose origin type is IGP, EGP, and Incomplete in turn.
(6)Select the route whose MED is smallest.
(7)performing load sharing on multiple routes according to the configured number of routes
(in case load sharing is configured and there are multiple external routes to the same AS)
(8)Select the route whose Router ID is smallest.

Select the best answer for the BGP route selection ( )


(1)Select the route with a higher local precedence level.
(2)Select the route whose AS path is shortest.
(3)Select the route whose MED is smallest
(4)If the next hop of this route is unreachable, then drop this route.
A: 4-1-2-3
B: 4-1-3-2
C: 1-2-3-4
D: 1-3-2-4

30
Module 6

MPLS

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31
Chapter 1 MPLS Overview

Chapter 2 Label and Label Stack

Chapter 3 Label Forwarding and Allocation

Network
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32
MPLS

• MPLS——Multi-Protocol Label
Switching
– Multi-Protocol
– Support multiple Layer-3 protocols,
such as IP, IPv6, IPX, SNA
– Label Switching
– Label packets, and replace IP
forwarding with label switching

Network
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MPLS is the abbreviation of Multi-Protocol Label Switching. MP means


it support more than one protocol, such as IP, IPv6, IPX, SNA, etc. as we
know, in IP network, the routers forwarding packets by using packet’s
destination IP address and looking for the IP routing table to get the next hop,
while in MPLS network, we using label to forward the packets, named label
switching. MPLS uses a short label of fixed length to encapsulate packets.
MPLS use FEC (Forwarding Equivalent Class) to classify the forwarding
packets. The packets of the same FEC are treated the same in the MPLS
network. later we will introduce the FEC.

By adding a label to the packet at the entrance of MPLS network, the


packet is forwarded by label switching, some thing like ATM Switching. And
when leaving the MPLS network, the label added is removed and the label
packet is restored to original protocol packet.

For more details about MPLS, refer to RFC 3031 (Multi-protocol Label
Switching Architecture).

33
Origin: To Integrate IP with ATM

IP MPLS ATM

Connectionless Connectionless
control plane control plane Connection-oriented
control plane

Connectionless Connection-oriented Connection-oriented


forwarding plane forwarding plane forwarding plane

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MPLS originates from the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). Before MPLS
generation, IP network forwarding packets with IP routing table, by looking for the
IP routing table with packet’s destination IP address and get the next hop, as each
forwarded packet need to look for the IP routing table, the efficiency is low.
Another packet forwarding technology is ATM, forward packet by VPI/VCI
switching, a type of label switching, the efficiency is higher than IP forwarding. IP
network, its control plane is connectionless, and forwarding plane also is
connectionless, just hop by hop, each hop decide to choose the next hop. while
ATM, its control plane is connection-oriented, if many device need to set up the
connection with each other, the configuration is very heavy, and with label
switching, the forwarding plane is connection-oriented, the packet forwarding path
is defined before.

MPLS integrates both of the two forwarding technologies. Its control plane is
connectionless, easy to widen its network, and forwarding plane is connection-
oriented, before data forwarding, LSP need to be set up, and is available to manager
and control the setting up.

34
Connection-oriented Features

S2 1 S6 S2 S6

1 1
S1 S8 S1 S3 S5 S8

S3 S5 VC
2 2

S4 2 S7 S4 S7

Connectionless: packet route connection-oriented: cell switching


z VC = S1, S4, S7, S8
z Path 1 = S1, S2, S6, S8
z The data reach their destination in
z Path 2 = S1, S4, S7, S8
order along the same connection
z The data reach their destination
z Fixed time delay, easy to control
out of order along different
paths z Connection types: PVC SVC
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As for connectionless packet forwarding, the data reach their destination out of
order, because each packet choose its forwarding path independently, and usually
the path will be different and the time delay of each packet also will be different, so
the sending sequence and the arriving sequence will be different. While the
connection-oriented packet switching, the forwarding path is fixed and then time
delay is fixed and the sending sequence and arriving sequence are the same. And it
is easy to control. There have two connection type: PVC (Permanent Virtual
Circuit) and SVC (Switched Virtual Circuit)

35
Basic MPLS Concepts
LER
MPLS domain

IP
LER LSR LSR
LER

LSP
LSR
MPLS

LER

• LSR: Label Switch Router


• LER: Label Edge Router
• LSP: Label Switch Path

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Some basic concepts in MPLS:

LSR is the basic component of the MPLS network. The network consisting of
LSRs, is called an MPLS domain. The LSR located at the edge of the domain and
having a neighbor not running MPLS is an edge LSR, also called Labeled Edge
Router (LER).

The LSR located inside the domain is called a core LSR. The core LSR can be
either a router that supports MPLS or an ATM-LSR upgraded from an ATM switch.
MPLS runs between LSRs in the domain, and IP runs between an LER and an router
outside the domain.

The LSRs along which labeled packets are transmitted form an LSP.

36
Basic Working Process of MPLS

Core LSR
Edge LSR Edge LSR

IP IP L1 IP L2 IP L3 IP

Traditional Traditional IP
IP forwarding Label forwarding forwarding

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The slide show the MPLS working process:

1.LDP establishes a label map for desired FECs in each LSR through the
routing table generated by the traditional routing protocols like OSPF and
IS-IS

2.The ingress receives a packet, determines its FEC and adds a label to the
packet. This packet is called the MPLS labeled packet;

3.The Transits forward the packet according to its label and the label
forwarding information base without any Layer 3 processing;

4.The egress rips off the label and continues forwarding for delivery

MPLS is a tunnel technique rather than a service or application. It is a routing


and forwarding platform, combining the label switched forwarding with the
network layer routing. It supports multiple upper layer protocols and services, and
guarantees security during the transmission of information.

37
MPLS Packet Flow

Network Learning Centre 38


Proprietary & Confidential 38
MPLS Advantages

• Replace IP header with short and fixed-


length labels as forwarding basis to
improve forwarding speed
• Better integrate IP with ATM
• Provide value-added service without
prejudice to efficiency:
– VPN
– Traffic engineering
– QOS
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MPLS technology’s original intention is used to replace IP forwarding with


label switching to improve the forwarding efficiency, while with the development of
router technology, software based forwarding mechanism is replaced by hardware
based forwarding mechanism, the speed is higher than software based MPLS label
forwarding, so it is not exact to say that MPLS improve forwarding speed now.

Now the most charm of MPLS is that it can provide many value-added service
such as follows:

1.MPLS VPN

2.MPLS Traffic Engineering

3.MPLS Qos

39
MPLS Encapsulation Format and Label

0 20 23 24 31

Label EXP S TTL 32 bits

Layer 2
MPLS header IP header Data
header

Network
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A label is a short, fixed length, locally significant identifier which is used to


identify a FEC. The label which is put on a particular packet represents the
Forwarding Equivalence Class to which that packet is assigned.

Most commonly, a packet is assigned to a FEC based (completely or partially)


on its network layer destination address. However, the label is never an encoding of
that address.

A label contains four fields:

•Label: 20 bits, represents label value, and used as the pointer for
forwarding.

•Exp: 3 bits, reserved, used for experiments, and generally used as Class of
Service (CoS).

•S: 1 bit, represents label stack. The value 1 refers to the bottom layer label.
Just 0 means next head is MPLS header and 1 means next header is IP
header.

•TTL: 8 bits, represents time to live, and has the same meaning as the TTL
in the IP packet.

40
A value of 0 represents the "IPv4 Explicit NULL Label". This label value is
only legal at the bottom of the label stack. It indicates that the label stack must be
popped, and the forwarding of the packet must then be based on the IPv4 header.

A value of 1 represents the "Router Alert Label". This label value is legal
anywhere in the label stack except at the bottom. When a received packet contains
this label value at the top of the label stack, it is delivered to a local software
module for processing. The actual forwarding of the packet is determined by the
label beneath it in the stack. However, if the packet is forwarded further, the Router
Alert Label should be pushed back onto the label stack before forwarding. The use
of this label is analogous to the use of the "Router Alert Option" in IP packets .
Since this label cannot occur at the bottom of the stack, it is not associated with a
particular network layer protocol.

A value of 2 represents the "IPv6 Explicit NULL Label". This label value is
only legal at the bottom of the label stack. It indicates that the label stack must be
popped, and the forwarding of the packet must then be based on the IPv6 header.

A value of 3 represents the "Implicit NULL Label". This is a label that an LSR
may assign and distribute, but which never actually appears in the encapsulation.
When an LSR would otherwise replace the label at the top of the stack with a new
label, but the new label is "Implicit NULL", the LSR will pop the stack instead of
doing the replacement. Although this value may never appear in the encapsulation,
it needs to be specified in the Label Distribution Protocol, so a value is reserved. 41
A label space refers to the value range of labels that can be allocated to LDP
peers. You can specify a label space for each interface of an LSR (per interface
label space) or for the entire LSR (per platform label space).

Platform-wide means the label should be unique with all the interfaces on the
device; interface-specific means the label should be unique with one interface,
while different interface of the device, the label value could be the same.

LDP is the protocol used to distribute the label, how can we identify the type
of generated label. LDP choose the < LSR ID> :< Label Space ID >, LSR ID—
Globally unique value of an LSR (4 octets); Label space ID—Zero for platform-
wide label space (2 octets). For example, identifier 192.168.1.1:0 means platform-
wide, identifier 192.168.1.1:5 means interface-specific.

With different encapsulation mode, MPLS based device choose different


label space:

•MPLS based frame mode use Platform-wide label space, such as IP,
Ethernet.

•MPLS based cell mode use Per-interface label space, such as ATM

42
MPLS TTL Processing

Consider the entire MPLS domain as one hop

IP TTL --
MPLS TTL=255 MPLS TTL -- IP TTL --

Ingress LER LSR Egress LER

Include IP TTL in MPLS TTL

IP TTL -- MPLS TTL --


MPLS TTL=IP TTL MPLS TTL -- IP TTL=MPLS TTL

Ingress LER LSR Egress LER


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The MPLS label comprises an 8-bit TTL field, which is similar to that in an IP
header. TTL is also used in the trace route function. As described in RFC 3031, an
LSR node needs to copy the TTL value of the IP packet or that of the upper layer
label to the TTL field of the added label. When LSR forwards a labeled packet, the
TTL value of the label at the top of the label stack decrements by 1. When the label
is out of the label stack, the LSR copies the TTL value at the top of the stack to the
IP packet or lower layer label.

Before the LSP transverses the non-TTL LSP segment formed by ATM-LSRs
or FR-LSRs, the TTL should be processed uniformly because the LSRs within that
domain cannot process the TTL field. That is, the value of the length in this non-
TTL LSP segment should be decremented by 1 on entering the segment.

In MPLS VPN applications, you can hide the MPLS backbone network
structure for security. The VRP supports different TTL propagation settings for
VPN packets and public packets.

43
Label Stack

Layer2 MPLS MPLS


header header header IP header Data

• Theoretically, label stack enables


limitless nesting to provide infinite
service support. This is simply the
greatest advantage of MPLS
technology.
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Theoretically, label stack enables limitless nesting to provide infinite service


support. This is simply the greatest advantage of MPLS technology. In real use, up
to now there usually no more than four labels in packet. Each label use S bit to mark
the bottom label. The value 1 means the bottom layer label.

In layer2 header how to identify the higher layer’s protocol? In PPP there add a
new type of NCP called MPLSCP, identified with 0x8281. while in Ethernet 0x8847
means unicast MPLS, 0x8848 means multicast and 0x0800 means IP packet.

The label stack follow FIFO, label process from the top stack. When executing
MPLS forwarding, only use the outer side label.

44
MPLS Architecture

Control Plane
OSPF
OSPF: 10.0.0.0/8 OSPF: 10.0.0.0/8

LDP: 10.0.0.0/8 LDP LDP: 10.0.0.0/8


Label 17 Label 4

Data Plane
Labeled packet LFIB Labeled packet
Label 17 4Æ17 Label 4

• Router functionality is divided into two major parts: control


plane and data plane
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Basic Concepts of Label Forwarding

• FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class): Import the packets


with identical characteristics into the same LSP
• NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry): Describe
label operations
– next hop
– label operation types: push/pop/swap/null
– Link layer encapsulation types
• FTN (FEC to NHLFE): Map FEC to NHLFE
• ILM (Incoming Label Map): Map MPLS label to NHLFE

Network
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MPLS is a high-performance forwarding technology that takes the packets with


the same forwarding mode as a class. This kind of class is called Forwarding
Equivalent Class (FEC). The packets of the same FEC are treated the same in the
MPLS network. The source address, destination address, source port, destination
port, protocol type, Virtual Private Network (VPN) or any of these combinations
can determine an FEC. For example, packets transmitted to the same destination
through the longest matching algorithm belong to an FEC.

Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry (NHLFE): indicates the action to be


performed on a label, such as push, pop and swap.

FEC to NHLFE map (FTN): indicates the mapping for an FEC to NHLFE on
the ingress.

Incoming Label Map (ILM): indicates the mapping process of the received label
to NHLFE on the transits and egress.

46
Label Forwarding
label operation: pop

Label operation: push ILM->NHLFE


Parse IP header Label operation: swap Label operation: swap Parse IP header
FEC bound with LSP distribute FEC
ILM->NHLFE ILM->NHLFE mapped to next hop
FTN->NHLFE

A B C D
Ingress LER LSR LSR Egress LER

• The traditional routing protocol and Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) serve to create routing
table and label mapping table (FEC-Label mapping) in each LSR for FECs with service
requirement, i.e. create LSP successfully.
• Ingress LER receives a packet, determines the FEC that the packet belongs to, and label the
packet
• In MPLS domain, packets are forwarded in accordance with labels and label forwarding table via
the forwarding unit
• Egress LER removes the label and continues forwarding the packet

Network
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On the ingress, the packets entering the network are classified into various
FECs by their characteristics. Usually, FEC classification is done based on the
destination IP address prefix or host address. The packets belonging to the same
FEC will have the same label and pass through the same path in the MPLS domain.
LSR assigns a label for an incoming packet, and then forwards it through a specified
interface.

On the transits along the LSP, the mapping table of the incoming and outgoing
labels is established. The element of this table is referred to as NHLFE. When a
labeled packet arrives, LSR only needs to find the corresponding NHLFE from the
table according to the incoming label and replace the original label with the new
outgoing label, and then forward the labeled packet. This process is called ILM.
Therefore, this method is much simpler, and the forwarding is faster.

On the LER, it removes the label and continues forwarding the packet .

47
NHLFE
A:
NHLFE
FEC next hop Transmitting interface Label operation Others
10.0.1.0/24 B E1 Add label L1 …

B:

Ingress NHLFE
label Next hop Transmitting interface label operation Others
L1 C E1 Remove the previous label and add L2 …

C:
Ingress NHLFE
label Next hop Transmitting interface Label operation Others
L2 D E1 Remove the previous label and add L3 …

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The "Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry" (NHLFE) is used when forwarding a
labeled packet. It contains the following information:

1. the packet's next hop

2. the operation to perform on the packet's label stack; this is one of the following
operations:

a) replace the label at the top of the label stack with a specified new label

b) pop the label stack

c) replace the label at the top of the label stack with a specified new label, and then
push one or more specified new labels onto the label stack.

48
Creating LSP

• LSP drive modes:


– Driven by stream: incoming packets drive LSP creation
– Driven by topology: topology information (route) drives LSP
creation
– Driven by application: application (like QoS) drives LSP
creation
• Signaling protocol is used to distribute labels between LSRs and
establish LSP:
– LDP: Label Distribution Protocol
– CR-LDP: Constrained Route LDP
– RSVP-TE
– MP-BGP
– PIM
Network
Page 49 Learning Centre 49
Proprietary & Confidential 49

Actually, LSP establishment refers to the process of binding FEC with the
label, and then advertising this binding to the adjacent LSR on LSP. But how to
drive the LSP’s creation, there have several drive modes:

• Driven by stream: incoming packets drive LSP creation

• Driven by topology: topology information (route) drives LSP creation

• Driven by application: application (like QoS) drives LSP creation

And now there have several signaling protocol can be used to distribute
labels such as :

• LDP: Label Distribution Protocol

• CR-LDP: Constrained Route LDP, When LSP establishment is issued at


the Ingress, some constraint information is added to the LSP

• RSVP-TE: resource reservation setup protocol with traffic-engineering


extensions

• MP-BGP:Multiprotocol-BGP

• PIM: Protocol Independent Multicast, Multicast routing architecture that


allows the addition of IP multicast routing on existing IP networks.
PIM is unicast routing protocol independent and can be operated in two
modes: dense and sparse. 49
Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)

1 2 0 2 4
LER LSR 1 LER

128.89.25.4 Data Request for label Request for label

8 12

• LSPs can be defined explicitly for every FEC by network


administrator or dynamically using LDP.

Network Learning Centre 50


1 50
Proprietary & Confidential

LERs assign a label, corresponding to a LSP, to each IP datagram as it is transmitted


towards the destination.
Thereafter, at each corresponding
hop. Two protocols hop,
for label request the and
LDP labelRSVP-TE
is used to forward the packet to its next
Both LDP and RSVP-TE create LSPs
network hop-by-hop to the egress point. by first sending label requests through the
Ingress LER makes a request to upstream router for Label to be used.

50
Label Forwarding Table
IN interface IN label Prefix/MASK OUT interface OUT label
(next hop)
Serial0 50 10.1.1.0/24 Eth0(3.3.3.3) 80

Serial1 51 10.1.1.0/24 Eth0(3.3.3.3) 80

Serial1 62 70.1.2.0/24 Eth0(3.3.3.3) 52

Serial1 52 20.1.2.0/24 Eth1(4.4.4.4) 52

Serial2 77 30.1.2.0/24 Serial3(5.5.5.5) 3(pop)

z The “in” and “out” is correspond to the label swap,not the label
distribution.
> The in label is that I distribute to the others, I will not put it to
the packet
> The out label is the others distribute to me, I will put it to the
packet

Network
Page 51 Learning Centre 51
Proprietary & Confidential 51

Look carefully about the label forwarding table, there have IN interface and IN
label, OUT interface and OUT label. As for IN label, this label means that I (stand
for this router) distribute to the others, the OUT label means that the other routers
distribute to me, I will put it to the packet. As for some special label value such as 3,
the operation is pop, the label will be removed.

From this table we can view that IN label is different (if it is platform-wide),
and OUT label there may have some same values, why?

Perhaps one is that the label is distributed by different next hop device, they
generate the labels independently, the other is the same route item such as
10.1.1.0/24 in this table, there have several different IN interface such as Serial0 and
Serial1.

51
MPLS Operation – Re-Cap
1a. Existing routing protocols (e.g. OSPF, IS-IS) 4. Edge LSR at
establish reachability to destination networks egress removes
label and delivers
1b. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
packet
establishes label to destination
network mappings.

2. Ingress Edge LSR receives


packet, performs Layer 3 value- 3. LSR switches
added services, and “labels” packets using label
packets
Network Learning Centre
swapping 52
52
Proprietary & Confidential

52
Module 7

MEN Architecture & Services

Network Learning Centre 53


Proprietary & Confidential 53
MEN Architecture

Network Learning Centre 54


Proprietary & Confidential 54
Definitions

• MCN - Media Convergence Node is the access node to the Reliance


national backbone network, spread across cities. MCN is a point of
Metro and Core Network integration

• MAN – Metro Aggregation Node – At here multiple BAN rings


terminate. This node acts as high-speed gigabit aggregation.

• BAN -Building Aggregation Node is primarily a high end Gigabit


aggregation switch terminating multiple BA gigabit aggregation rings.

• BN – Building Node - The access element is referred as the BN. This


element is capable of offering various QoS to customers.

Network Learning Centre 55


Proprietary & Confidential 55
Reliance MEN Network today
BN BN BN BN
BN
BAN BN
BAN
BN
MAN
MAN MAN BAN
BAN
MCN1 MCN1 BN

BN MAN MAN
City A City C
RDN IP/MPLS
Backbone
City B MCN2 City D
MAN BN
MAN
MCN1
MCN1 BN
BN BAN
BAN MAN MAN
MAN
BAN
BN
BAN All MCN nodes connect
BN
BN
to RDN with full mesh by
BN BN
L2VPN Virtual Circuit.
BN BN

Network
Page 56 Learning Centre 56
Proprietary & Confidential 56

MCN:Media Convergence Node (Cisco 7609), in Mumbai city and top ten cities
deployed two node for redundancy and other cities only deployed one node.
MAN:Metro Aggregation Node (Cisco 7609), each cities deployed multiple node.
BAN:Building Aggregation Node (Some site are Cisco 7609 acting as layer 3
device, some site are Cisco 3750 acting as layer 2 traffic aggregation device and
will be replaced by CX600).
BN: Building Nodes (Cisco ME3400 and Cisco 3550), act as last mile accessing
customers.
RDN: Reliance Data Network (Juniper T640/T320), is Reliance IP/MPLS backbone
network.

56
Topology of Mumbai City today
SESM
Radius IAG Internet
RDN IP/MPLS
Backbone
DHCP/IPTV TG
ISG CAG1
CAG2
MCN1 MCN2
Reliance Voice
MAN MAN
AG/MGW
MAN
MAN
MAN
BAN •BAN Rings dual homing to
BAN MAN Ring
BAN BAN •Two sets of MCN link to
BN RDN with back up design
BN
BN BN BN
BN
BN BN BN BN
BN BN BN

BN BN
BN
Wimax Base
IP DSLAM Station
IAD CPE
CPE
IAD IAD SS SS

Network
Page 57 Learning Centre 57
Proprietary & Confidential 57

IPTV Head end System: Microsoft IPTV Edition software 1.1


IPTV STB: Tatung corporation (Chinese company and a partner with Microsoft
corporation of IPTV services)
ISG: Internet Service Gateway (Cisco 7301) (BRAS)
IAG: Internet Access Gateway (Juniper M40E)
CAG: Customer Access Gateway (Big enterprise and other ISP ASBR)
SESM: (Cisco policy server)

Each city the MCN nodes connecting the IDC where it is deployed DHCP servers,
AAA servers, IPTV head system, Network Management system, ISG, SESM.
In Mumbai city there are two MCN nodes deployed.

For residential customers, there are three access types on last mile, IP DSLAM and
Lan switch and Wimax, and each customer can be deployed three terminals: PC、
STB、VoIP.
For enterprise customers, each customer deployed a CPE and connected to BN node
of Reliance MEN.

57
Topology of Top Ten Cities today
SESM
Radius IAG Internet
RDN IP/MPLS
Backbone
DHCP/IPTV
ISG TG
CAG1
CAG2
MCN1 MCN2
MAN Reliance Voice
MAN
AG/MGW
MAN MAN
MAN
•BAN rings single homing
BAN to MAN ring
BAN
BAN BAN •Two sets of MCN link to
BN
BN RDN with back up design
BN BN BN
BN
BN BN BN BN
BN BN BN

BN BN
BN
Wimax Base
IP DSLAM Station
IAD CPE
CPE
IAD IAD SS SS

Network
Page 58 Learning Centre 58
Proprietary & Confidential 58

IPTV Head end System: Microsoft IPTV Edition software 1.1


IPTV STB: Tatung corporation (Chinese company and a partner with Microsoft
corporation of IPTV services)
ISG: Internet Service Gateway (Cisco 7301) (BRAS)
IAG: Internet Access Gateway (Juniper M40E)
CAG: Customer Access Gateway (Big enterprise and other ISP ASBR)
SESM: (Cisco policy server)

Each city the MCN nodes connecting the IDC where it is deployed DHCP servers,
AAA servers, IPTV head system, Network Management system, ISG, SESM.
In Mumbai city there are two MCN nodes deployed.

For residential customers, there are three access types on last mile, IP DSLAM and
Lan switch and Wimax, and each customer can be deployed three terminals: PC、
STB、VoIP.
For enterprise customers, each customer deployed a CPE and connected to BN node
of Reliance MEN.

58
Topology of Normal City today
SESM IAG
Radius Internet
RDN IP/MPLS
Backbone
DHCP/IPTV
ISG TG
CAG1
CAG2
MCN1
Reliance Voice
MAN MAN
AG/MGW
MAN
BAN BAN

BN BN BN BN

BN BN BN BN
BN
BN
BN BN

Wimax Base
IP DSLAM Station
IAD CPE
CPE
IAD IAD SS SS

Network
Page 59 Learning Centre 59
Proprietary & Confidential 59

IPTV Head end System: Microsoft IPTV Edition software 1.1


IPTV STB: Tatung corporation (Chinese company and a partner with Microsoft
corporation of IPTV services)
ISG: Internet Service Gateway (Cisco 7301) (BRAS)
IAG: Internet Access Gateway (Juniper M40E)
CAG: Customer Access Gateway (Big enterprise and other ISP ASBR)

For MCN node, only Mumbai city deployed two nodes and other cities just
deployed one node.

59
building up New BAN and BN Ring

CX600 CX600 CX600

CX200 CX200
CX200 CX200

CX200 CX200

CX200
CX200 CX200
CX200 CX200

CX200

BN ring single homing to BAN BN ring dual homing to BAN

Network
Page 60 Learning Centre 60
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Each BAN has maximum 12 BN rings and each BN ring has maximum 14 BN
nodes on the ring.
Two scenario: one is BN ring single homing to BAN node, the other scenario is BN
ring dual homing to BAN nodes.

60
Adding CX600 or Replacing Cisco
Equipments in MAN/BAN Ring
MCN1 MCN2

C7609
C7609

C7609 C7609

C7609 C7609
MAN Ring
MAN Ring

CX600 MAN Ring CX600

CX600 CX600

Network
Page 61 Learning Centre 61
Proprietary & Confidential 61

adding CX600 as new MAN node in MAN ring.

61
Unused Fiber Route (UFR) Network

Network Learning Centre 62


Proprietary & Confidential 62
Unused Fiber Route (UFR) Network
Single Homed Cisco BN ring
3 7 5 0 S tac k
P ropo s ed
3 7 5 0 S tac k
unus ed fiber

BT S BT S

B TS / B A N

Le vel - 1 3 7 5 0 S tac k

BT S

B TS 3 7 5 0 S tac k
BT S

3 7 5 0 S tac k R ed und ant Aggre gatio n


S witc h at eac h BT S

M E3 4 00
Le ve l - 2

M E3 4 00
Network Learning Centre 63
Proprietary & Confidential 63

In the standard metro ethernet we are using one level for L2 aggregation as The BN
ME3400 ring or IP-DSLAM ring parents to L3/MPLS 7609. As shown in above
figure in the proposed UFR architecture there are two levels of aggregation rings in
the l2 domain.

Figure above shows the UFR-MEN architecture. Cisco ME3400 acting as Layer-2
BN or IP-DSLAM in the MEN will be connected to the Stack C3750 switches via
Gigabit Ethernet trunk ports. This level is referred as level-2 Aggregation.
Aggregation of the C3750 rings traffic will be done at the 7609 MCN/MAN
collocated BAN. This level is referred as the Level-1 Aggregation.
Also some Nodes can be dual homed to two aggregation nodes

63
UFR Network
Dual-Homed Section UFR with IP-DSLAM ring

Network Learning Centre 64


Proprietary & Confidential 64
UFR Network

• 6 number of nodes (stacked 3750)


recommended in the level –1
• 8 numbers of nodes recommended in the level-2
• 12 numbers of nodes in the dual homed
situation

Network Learning Centre 65


Proprietary & Confidential 65
STP in UFR Architecture

• Considering MSTP in all the UFR Layer-2


switches it would result in a exceptionally large
Layer-2 domain which would provide impractical
convergence times in the event of a OFC link or
Device failure
• Rapid PVST is used in the UFR Architecture
• IP-DSLAM will run MSTP or RSTP.

Network Learning Centre 66


Proprietary & Confidential 66
MEN Services

Network Learning Centre 67


Proprietary & Confidential 67
Reliance MEN Services

z Residential Broadband Services


z HSI

z VoIP

z IPTV (BTV&VOD)

z Enterprise Services

z Inter-AS VPN Services

Network
Page 68 Learning Centre 68
Proprietary & Confidential 68

68
Residential Service
Radius SESM
IAG Internet
Reliance RDN
IP/MPLS Backbone

ISG
CAG1 TG
DHCP/IPTV CAG2
MCN1 MCN2

MAN MAN Reliance Voice


MAN AG/MGW
BAN BAN

BN BN BN BN

BN BN BN BN
BN

BN BN

Wimax Base
IP DSLAM Station
IAD CPE
CPE
IAD IAD SS SS

Network
Page 69 Learning Centre 69
Proprietary & Confidential 69

For residential customer there are three types of services HSI, VoIP, IPTV (BTV
(multicast) and VOD).
The HSI service will be terminated on ISG and then forwarding to internet by IAG.
The IPTV services will be terminated on IPTV head end system including BTV
servers and VOD servers,.
The VoIP service will be terminated on AG or MGW and register on TG or soft
switch servers.

69
BIA thru DLC
MCN
RDN ILT
7609 TAG TN

MAN MA Ring(7609) MAN


Ring

TN
MAN
BAN

BAN BAN Rings(7609) Rings

BAN TN
BAN CT

ADSL Card (24 port)


Fa
Fa
Rings
BA Rings
DLC-RT

RJ 11
ADSL Modem

RJ 45
Network Learning Centre 70
Proprietary & Confidential 70
IAD

7 x 8x 9x 1 0x 1 1x 1 2 x 7x 8x 9 x 1 0
x 1 1 x 12 x
Fiber Access Ring

E t h re n e t
C
7 8 91 01 12

A 1 2 3 45 6
1 x 2x 3x A 4 x 5 x 6 x 1x 2x 3 x B 4 x 5 x 6x

Class 5 switch
IAD
Metro E1
7 x 8x 9x 1 0x 1 1x 1 2 x 7x 8x 9 x 1 0
x 1 1 x 12 x

Ethernet

r ne t
C
7 8 91 01 12

Et h e
A 1 2 3 45 6
1 x 2x 3x A 4 x 5 x 6 x 1x 2x 3 x B 4 x 5 x 6x

Network LE
RDT-8v, Telephony
IP DSLAM or Access Gateway, TAG
Cisco 3550 or
7 x 8x 9x 1 0x 1 1x 1 2 x 7x 8x 9 x 1 0
x 1 1 x 12 x

E t h re n e t
C
7 8 91 01 12

A 1 2 3 45 6
1 x 2x 3x A 4 x 5 x 6 x 1x 2x 3 x B 4 x 5 x 6x

4/8 port L2 switch

Internet

Microsoft IP TV
server

Network Learning Centre 71


Proprietary & Confidential 71

IAD will be connected to IP DSLAM or Cisco 3550/3400 or through cascading switches

71
Reliance MEN Services

z Residential Broadband Services

z Enterprise Services
z E-LINE

z E-LAN

z L3VPN

z MVPN

z Inter-AS VPN Services

Network
Page 72 Learning Centre 72
Proprietary & Confidential 72

Enterprise Services:
-EPL

Inter-AS VPN Services:


-L3VPN
-MVPN
-CSC

72
Enterprise Services (E-LINE)

RDN IP/MPLS
Backbone

MCN1 MCN2 MCN1

MAN MAN MAN MAN


MAN MAN
BAN BAN BAN BAN

BN BN BN BN BN BN
BN BN
BN BN BN BN BN BN BN BN
BN BN
BN BN
CPE BN BN
CPE
CPE CPE

Network
Page 73 Learning Centre 73
Proprietary & Confidential 73

EPL: Ethernet Private Line

73
Enterprise Services (E-LAN)
VPN-X VPN-Y VPN-Z

BN
BN
BAN

BAN
MCN1
RR2
R
BAN

RDN IP/MPLS MCN2


Delhi
Backbone

Multipoint-to-multipoint
connection for
enterprise customers
by E-LAN

Network
Page 74 Learning Centre 74
Proprietary & Confidential 74

74
Enterprise Services (MPLS L3VPN )
VPN-X VPN-Y VPN-Z

BN
BN
BAN

BAN
MCN1
RR2
R
BAN

RDN IP/MPLS MCN2


Delhi
Backbone

Multipoint-to-multipoint
connection for
enterprise customers
by L3VPN

Network
Page 75 Learning Centre 75
Proprietary & Confidential 75

75
Enterprise Services (MVPN)
RDN IP/MPLS
Backbone

MCN1 MAN MCN1


MCN2

MAN MAN Ring MAN Ring MAN


MAN
MAN MAN

BAN Ring
BAN Ring
CX600 CX600 CX600 CX600

CX600 CX600 BN Ring

BN Ring
CX200 CX200
CX200 CX200
CPE CPE
CX200 CPE

City X City Y

Network
Page 76 Learning Centre 76
Proprietary & Confidential 76

MVPN: Multicast VPN

76
Reliance MEN Services

z Residential Broadband Services

z Enterprise Services

z Inter-AS VPN Services

Network
Page 77 Learning Centre 77
Proprietary & Confidential 77

77
Inter-AS VPN(L3VPN)
CPE
SESM
DHCP/IPTV/Management IAG Internet
RDN IP/MPLS
Backbone

ISG
CAG1
CAG2
MCN1
MCN acts as ASBR of
MAN MAN Reliance MEN and
MAN established Inter-AS
BAN connection with CAG
BAN

BN BN BN BN

BN BN BN BN
BN

BN BN
CPE
CPE

Network
Page 78 Learning Centre 78
Proprietary & Confidential 78

78
Network Implementation

Network Learning Centre 79


Proprietary & Confidential 79
IP Address Planning
• There are three types services.

– HSI
• HSI service assigned with public internet IP
address
– VoIP
• VoIP service assigned with Reliance private IP
address
– IPTV
• IPTV service assigned with Reliance private IP
address
•Page80
different services using different scopes of IP addresses.
Network Learning Centre 80
Proprietary & Confidential 80
VLAN Assigning
Access Mode VALN ID IP Address of Gateway

IP DSLAM VLAN 102


Using IP Address of
Ethernet Lan Switch VLAN 66
super-vlan as their gateway
Wimax VLAN 65

Static IP address IP address of logical vlan-interface


VLAN 64
assigned 64

IP address of logical vlan-interface


Multicast VLAN VLAN 999
999

Packets processed by BAN


Per customer
enterprise customers According to VLAN ID and go into
per VLAN ID
L3VPN,VPLS,MVPN
Network Learning Centre
Page81 81
Proprietary & Confidential 81

Residential Customers can access Reliance MEN by three last miles access
types, IP DSLAM, Active Ethernet LAN switch and Wimax. Each access types
assigned one VLAN id, IP DSLAM assigned VLAN id 102, LAN switch
assigned VLAN id 66,Wimax assigned VLAN id 65, static IP address assigned
VLAN id 64, multicast VLAN id 999;
For VLAN id 65,66,102 act as sub-VLANs and created a super-VLAN logic
interface to share the IP gateway and isolated different sub-VLANs each
other;
For VLAN id 64, services carried with VLAN 64 will be terminated by itself
logic interface, not by super-VLAN interface;
Multiple ports belong to same VLAN on one box deployed port separated
feature with each other;
For VLAN id 999, used for multicast VLAN and created VLAN logic interface
to terminate multicast service;

81
VLAN Assigning
Radius SESM
IAG Internet
Reliance RDN
IP/MPLS Backbone

ISG
CAG1 TG
DHCP/IPTV CAG2
MCN1 MCN2

MAN MAN Reliance Voice


MAN AG/MGW
VLAN 102 and 999
BAN BAN
should be configured
VLAN 65 should be configured

BN BN BN BN

BN BN Customer VLAN ID
BN BN
BN should be configured
BN BN

Wimax Base
IP DSLAM Station
IAD CPE
CPE
IAD IAD SS SS

Network
Page 82 Learning Centre 82
Proprietary & Confidential 82

82
MPLS L3VPN for HIS and VoIP
Radius SESM
IAG Internet
Reliance RDN
IP/MPLS Backbone

ISG
CAG1 TG
DHCP/IPTV CAG2
MCN1 MCN2

MAN MAN Reliance Voice


MAN AG/MGW
IGMP Snooping & BAN BAN
IGMP Throttling &
IGMP filter PIM SM/SSM&
Anycast RP&MSDP

Wimax Base
IP DSLAM Station
IAD CPE
CPE
IAD IAD SS SS

Network Learning Centre


Page83 83
Proprietary & Confidential 83
MPLS L3VPN for Customers
VPN-X VPN-Y VPN-Z

BN
MPLS LDP LSP BN
AS 65000 BAN
MP-iBGP
BAN
MCN1
RR2
R
BAN

RDN IP/MPLS MCN2


Delhi
Backbone

MPLS TE
Tunnel

Network Learning Centre


Page84 84
Proprietary & Confidential 84
MPLS L2VPN for Customers
MPLS LDP LSP

MPLS TE
Tunnel

Martini mode
Network Learning Centre
Page85 85
Proprietary & Confidential 85
MPLS VPLS for Customers
VPN-X VPN-Y VPN-Z

BN
MPLS LDP LSP BN
BAN

BAN
MCN1
RR2
R
BAN

RDN IP/MPLS MCN2


Delhi
Backbone

MPLS TE
Tunnel

Martini mode

Network Learning Centre


Page86 86
Proprietary & Confidential 86
Multicast VPN for Customers
RDN IP/MPLS
Backbone
RP&MSDP RP&MSDP

MCN1 MAN MCN1


MCN2

MAN MAN Ring MAN Ring MAN


MAN
MAN MAN
PIM-SM/SSM
BAN
BAN Ring
CX600 Ring CX600 CX600
CX600

CX600 CX600 BN Ring

BN Ring PIM SM/DM (CPE&BAN)


CX200 CX200
CX200
CX200
CPE CPE
CX200 CPE

City X City Y

Network Learning Centre


Page87 87
Proprietary & Confidential 87

MVPN only deployed for enterprise customer with video applications;


Default-MDT for PIM RPT, data-MDT for PIM SPT;
Deploying PIM SM/SSM routing protocol on each MCN &MAN & BAN
nodes;
Deploying BFD for PIM feature to achieve multicast redundancy of PIM DR
failure on BN dual homing BAN scenario;
Deploying four RP nodes using Any-cast RP feature for multicast traffic load
balance and redundancy (RP location: Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Karkata ;
Deployed PIM SM/DM routing protocol between CPE and BAN;
Deploying MD (multicast domain) mode MVPN solution and the MVPN
traffic forwarding with GRE code and decode;
For default-MDT deployed RPT;
For data-MDT deployed SPT;

87
ThankYou

Network Learning Centre 88


Proprietary & Confidential 88