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Agricultural Wastes

Jiaming Liang1, Qingye Lu1,2, Robert Lerner1, Xiaohui Sun1, Hongbo Zeng2, Yang Liu1*

ABSTRACT: Literature related to agricultural wastes and published in 2010 was summarized in this review. The review is divided into the following sections: reuse and recycle, waste treatment, waste characterization, waste management and pollution minimization.

Nasuha et al. (2010) studied the adsorption of MB from aqueous solutions using a low-cost adsorbent, rejected tea, by the batch adsorption technique. The equilibrium adsorption was best described by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacities that were found to be 147, 154 and 156 mg/g at 30, 40

KEYWORDS: reuse, recycle, waste treatment, waste management, characterization

and 50C, respectively.The adsorption of copper ions and MB onto the citric acid modified wheat straw (MWS) was studied by batch techniques. It was observed that the

doi: 10.2175/106143011X13075599869614

maximal adsorbed quantity of Cu2+ and MB on MWS at 293 K was 39.17 and 396.9 mg/g, respectively (Han et

Reuse and recycle as sorbents Dye adsorption. Bello-Huitle et al. (2010) investigated the adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and phenol by granulated activated carbon made from castile and pecan nutshells. They found that a phosphoric acid activation ratio of 2 maximized the adsorption capacity of granulated activated carbon.

al., 2010). The removal of tartrazine by coconut husks was examined by Gupta, Jain, et al. (2010). Their results indicated that the use of coconut husks for tartrazine removal was effective and can be used as a viable alternative to the activated carbon. Sharma (2010) reported that activated carbon can be prepared by pyrolyzing all agro-waste, rice husks, in the presence of ZnCl2. The activated carbon displayed

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering,

both a microporous and mesoporous nature with a significant surface area of 180.50 m2/g. The adsorption of MB from its aqueous solutions by this activated carbon was found to increase with the adsorbent dose and temperature. Franca, Oliveira and Nunes (2010) evaluated the removal efficiency of malachite green (MG)

Markin/CNRL Natural Resources Engineering Facility, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2W2, Canada;
*

Corresponding author phone: 780-492-5515; Fax.


2

780-492-0249; E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4, Canada.

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from aqueous solutions by the adsorbent obtained through the microwave activation of defective coffee press cake. The results showed that the produced adsorbent presents potential as an inexpensive and easily available alternative for the removal of cationic dyes in wastewater treatments. Franca, Oliveira, Saldanha et al. (2010) studied the removal of MG using mango seed husks. The results showed that mango seed husk is a suitable candidate for use as a biosorbent in the removal of cationic dyes. Iqbal et al. (2010) compared the Congo red dye removal abilities of melon, water melon and musk melon seeds in batch reactors. A pH of 2, a temperature of 20-30C and a 100-200 rpm stirring speed were found to be the optimal removal conditions for all three substances, with best to worst adsorption reported for melon seed (23.10 mg/g), musk melon seed (21.23 mg/g), and finally water melon seed (3.08 mg/g). The sorption of Congo red dye onto cashew nut shells (CNS) was studied by Kumar et al. (2010). Their results indicated that CNS could be employed as a low cost alternative compared to other commercial adsorbents in the removal of dyes from wastewater. Kumar (2010) developed a carbon adsorbent from neem sawdust that was effective for Congo red removal, with the removal efficiency decreasing with increased pH. Adsorption was found to

in dye sorption was compared with activated carbon. It proved that coconut husk was an excellent low-cost adsorbent. Also, they (Mittal, Mittal et al., 2010) tested the adsorption ability of two wastes to remove light yellow SF (Yellowish) dye from wastewaters, one was an agricultural industry waste, deoiled soya, and the other was a waste of thermal power plants, bottom ash. The deoiled soya was found to have the percentage adsorption of 89.65% with a percentage recovery of 99.08%, while the bottom ash was 88.74% and 99.82% respectively. Biosorption of Reactive Red 195 from solutions using cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linneo was shown to be effective (Aksakal and Ucun, 2010). An alternative methodology for the removal of dyestuff, Rhodamine 6G (R6G), from aqueous solutions by using a new biosorbent, almond shell (Prunus dulcis) was presented (Senturk et al., 2010). The monolayer biosorption capacity of almond shell was found to be 32.6 mg/g by using Langmuir model equations. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the

biosorption of R6G onto almond shell was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40C. Ibrahim, Fatimah et al. (2010) prepared barley straw to be an adsorbent of the anionic dyes acid blue 40 and reactive blue 4 through modification with NaOH and cationic surfactant hexadecylpyridinium chloride

be optimal at pH values of less than 3, and the kinetics were suitably described by a pseudo-second order model. Mittal, Jain et al. (2010) investigated the potential use of coconut husk, for the removal of Quinoline Yellow dye from wastewater and its efficiency

monohydrate (CPC) under varying conditions. The results indicated that increasing the contact time increased dye removal, and adsorption was higher at an

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acidic

pH.

The

maximum

adsorption

capacity

Basic Blue 3 (BB3), MB and Basic Yellow 11 (BY11) in both systems. Maximum sorption capacities were 23.64 mg/g, 28.25 mg/g and 67.11 mg/g for BB3, MB and BY11, respectively, in the single dye system. However, a decrease in the maximum sorption capacity was observed in the binary systems and this might result from competition between the same binding sites.

determined from the Langmuir isotherm at 25C was 51.95 and 31.5 mg/g for acid blue 40 and reactive blue 4, respectively. Srinivas et al. (2010) used guava leaf powder as an adsorbent to remove the neutral violet dye stuff. It was observed that 91.3% neutral violet dye was removed using the adsorbant guava leaf powder. Investigations were done on the removal of methyl violet (MV) using dead leaves by Cengiz and Cavas (2010). The maximum adsorption capacity of the biomass was found to be 119.05 mg/g at 45C. The results implied that dead leaves were identified to be a significant and low-cost adsorbent to remove MV, which is especially beneficial to the Mediterranean Sea areas. The removal of basic yellow 21 dye using flax shives was investigated by Hassanein and Koumanova (2010). An adsorption capacity of 76.92 mg/g was observed, and it was found that the second-order kinetic model best described the reaction kinetics. Ozdes et al. (2010) evaluated the potential usage of almond shell (P. dulcis) in the removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions. They reported that almond shell could be employed as a low cost and easily available adsorbent for the removal of malachite green in wastewater treatment processes. The monolayer adsorption capacity of almond shell was found to be 29.0 mg/g. Ong et al. (2010) reported their studies using a biodegradable and low cost sorbent for various basic dyes in both single and binary dye solutions. The agricultural by-product has shown its potential to remove

Chemical (other than dye) adsorption. Activated bamboo charcoal was used as a novel low-cost adsorbent to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from aqueous solutions (Ma, Wang et al., 2010). It was found that about 90% 2,4-DCP was removed from the solution within the first 5 minutes. Shaarani and Hameed (2010) investigated the potential feasibility of activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch for the removal of 2,4-DCP from an aqueous solution. The activated carbon was prepared via chemical activation with phosphoric acid and it was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of 2,4-DCP from aqueous solutions, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 232.56 mg/g at 30C. Batch adsorption of phenol from real

wastewater and a synthetically prepared solution was tested using date-pit activated carbon (El-Naas et al., 2010). Besides, they found that using ethanol to regenerate the saturated activated carbon was possible,, with an 86% efficiency after four cycles. The adsorption of phenol on highly porous novel corn grain-based activated carbons (CG-ACs) (>2000 m2/g) was assessed in a batch mode (Park et al., 2010). It was found that the

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influences

of

physical

properties

and

energetic

temperature did not impact the adsorption efficiency. Activated carbons, produced by physical steam activation of olive kernel, corn cobs, rapeseed stalks, and soya stalks were tested for bromopropylate removal from water. It was found that corn cobs had the best adsorption capacity, and that biomass derived activated carbons could achieve equal bromopropylate removals when compared to commercial activated carbons (Ioannidou et al., 2010). Mahramanlioglu et al. (2010) studied the adsorption of pyridine on acid treated spent bleaching earth. The Lagergren first order rate equation was used to describe the adsorption rate of pyridine and maximum adsorption was found to occur at pH 6.5. Activated carbons were produced from

heterogeneity nature of CG-ACs on phenol adsorption efficiency were significant. Specifically, the increase in the phenol adsorption capacity was observed when increasing the fraction of microporosity, which was likely due to the micropore filling. The adsorption of 4-nitrophenol by acid activated jute stick char in the batch mode was investigated by Ahmaruzzaman and Gayatri (2010) at three different temperatures. The authors found that increasing temperature decreased the adsorption

efficiency. Activated carbon was prepared by apricot stones for the removal of phenol and p-nitrophenol (Petrova et al., 2010). It was found that the adsorption capacity of the produced activated carbon was 152 mg/g for phenol and 179 mg/g for nitrophenol. Coir pith, a waste biomass from coconut coir industry, was used to prepare activated carbon with ZnCl2 for the removal of 2-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions (Subha and Namasivayam, 2010). The

agricultural waste corncobs using a variety of different activation strategies and activators for hydrogen

adsorption (Sun and Webley, 2010). The microporous carbon with the largest BET specific surface area showed H2 adsorption capacities up to 2.0 wt% at 77K under 1 atm pressure and 0.44 wt% at 298 K at 5 MPa. The removal of ammonium from aqueous solutions using zeolite NaY prepared from rice husk ash waste was investigated (Yusof et al., 2010). The cation exchange capacities of the zeolites were measured as 3.15, 1.46 and 1.34 meq/g for zeolite Y, powdered mordenite and granular mordenite, respectively. The monolayer

Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 149.3 mg/g, which indicated that zinc chloride-activated coir pith carbon is economically more effective compared to commercial activated carbon. The use of sugarcane bagasse was found to be very efficient for the removal of gasoline and n-heptane from 5% aqueous solutions (Brandao et al., 2010). Using CPC modified barley straw, Ibrahim, Wang et al. (2010) investigated the removal of emulsified canola oil from wastewater. The study showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was at a neutral pH and the

adsorption capacity for zeolite Y (42.37 mg/g) was found to be higher than that of powdered mordenite (15.13 mg/g) and granular mordenite (14.56 mg/g).

Metal ion adsorption. Activated guava seed

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carbon (AGSC) and modified guava seed (MGS) were used to adsorb Ni (II). The results suggested that the maximum adsorption capacities of AGSC and MGS were 18.05 and 32.05 mg/g at the pH of 6 respectively (Zewail and El-Garf, 2010). Coconut oilcake activated carbon showed more adsorption efficiency than neem oilcake activated carbon (thermally activated at 800C) for the removal of nickel (II) from wastewater (Hema and Srinivasan, 2010). Adsorption of both activated carbons was best described by pseudo-second order kinetics and Tempkin isotherms. Gupta, Nadeem et al. (2010) measured the removal of Pb (II) using rice bran adsorption, as a function of pH, temperature, contact time and the initial metal concentration. Results indicated that a pH range of 3.5-4.5 was effective, the optimal temperature was 25C and the removal was best fit by Langmuir isotherms. The ability of modified soda lignin, extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunches, to remove Pb(II) under varying conditions was investigated by Ibrahim, Ngah et al. (2010). Modified soda lignin was found to be an effective adsorbent with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 46.72 mg/g at 47C. Pb(II) ions were tested for removal by rubber leaf powder, treated with potassium permanganate and sodium carbonate (Kamal et al., 2010). The results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of lead was 95.3 mg/g. Li, Zheng et al. (2010) studied the removal of Pb2+ in modified areca waste from aqueous solutions with the Fenton reagent. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 3.37 mg/g at pH 6.6

and 323 K. A new kind of orange peel (OP) biosorbent containing the extractant Cyanex 272 was developed to remove Pb(II) from aqueous solutions (Lu et al., 2010). The maximum adsorption capacity was improved, with the order of the adsorption capacities being 272SCO (1.30 mol/kg) > SCO (1.26 mol/kg) > 272CO (1.20 mol/kg) > 27200 (1.02 mol/kg) > CO (0.62 mol/kg). Mohammadi et al. (2010) prepared activated carbon from Sea-buckthorn stones to remove Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. It was proposed that the produced activated carbons from the Amygdalus scoparia shell were an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the adsorption of Pb(II). Cao and Harris (2010) produced biochar by heating dairy manures at temperatures below 500C. They found that the biochar was capable of adsorbing Pb (up to 100%) and atrazine (up to 77%). Ofomaja et al. (2010a) studied the sorption of lead(II) onto pine cone powder (PCP). The effect of NaOH treatment on the kinetics of lead(II) uptake was also evaluated. Their results revealed that NaOH treatment changed the pattern of the biosorption kinetics. Activated carbon prepared from Bombax ceiba sawdust (SDC) was applied to remove of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions (Sakthi et al., 2010). The maximum adsorption of Pb(II) occurred at pH 5 and the maximum sorption capacity was 209 mg/g. Thermodynamic parameters and the Tempkin constant showed that the sorption process of Pb(II) onto SDC was feasible, spontaneous conditions. and endothermic under the studied

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Optimization of operating conditions for Cr(IV) adsorption onto sulfuric acid treated sunflower head and stem waste was explored by Jain et al. (2010). Under

indicated the spontaneous, endothermic and increased randomness nature of the Cr(VI) adsorption. Shen et al. (2010) investigated the removal mechanism of Cr(VI) from water by coconut coir. The results showed that, upon reaction with coconut coir at pH 3, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), which was either bound to the coconut coir or released back into the solution. The removal of cadmium using melon peel agricultural wastes as a sorbent was investigated (Hamdaoui et al., 2010). Results showed that cadmium removal by melon peels was very effective, with a maximum monolayer sorption capacity of 81.97 mg/g. Rao et al. (2010a) and Rao et al. (2010b) used two kinds of abundantly available waste biosorbents, Tectona grandis L.f. leaf powder and Psidium guvajava L leaf powder for the removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions. The maximum adsorption of the two leaf powders was 29.94 mg/g and 31.15 mg/g respectively. Wang, Wang et al. (2010) studied the adsorption of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions by bamboo charcoal. The results showed that a higher pH was favourable for Cd(II) ion removal, and that a higher initial Cd concentration lead to lower removal percentages but higher adsorption capacity. The equilibrium adsorption time was 6 h with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.08 mg/g. Pereira et al. (2010) prepared chemically modified wood sawdust (ES) and sugarcane bagasse (EB) to remove Zn2+ from aqueous solutions and

the optimized condition, 75.7% and 85.4% removals were obtained for the head and the stem waste, respectively. Karaoglu et al. (2010) explored the application of vineyard pruning wastes on the adsorption of Cr(III). The results indicated that the at the optimized pH (4.2) and temperature (303K) conditions, an uptake capacity of 12.453 mg/g can be achieved. Two studies about pistachio hull waste were carried out by Moussavi and Barikbin, (2010) as well as Moussavi and Khosravi, (2010). In the first work, pistachio hull powder (PHP) was tested for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 116.3 mg/g. In the second work, the pistachio hull waste was introduced as an efficient and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of different concentrations of cyanide from water and wastewater. They achieved a maximum adsorption capacity of 156.2 mg/g. Rice bran carbon (RBC), prepared from rice bran (an agricultural waste), was successfully utilized for the removal of Cr(VI) from an aqueous solution (Ranjan and Hasan, 2010). The maximum uptake of the total chromium obtained by applying the Langmuir isotherm model was 138.88 mg/g for RBC, which was comparable to that obtained by utilizing commercial activated carbon (116.28 mg/g) at 40C. Rao and Rehman (2010) used the fruits of Ficus glomerata as an adsorbent for the adsorption of Cr(VI). The thermodynamic parameters

electroplating wastewater. The adsorption capacities were 80 mg/g and 105 mg/g in aqueous single metal

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solutions, and 47 mg/g and 45 mg/g in the real electroplating waste water, for ES and EB respectively. The decreased adsorption efficiency in the wastewater was due to the competition between other cations and/or interference of other ions. Ma, Chen et al. (2010) prepared an aminated bagasse (AB) with a high-adsorption capacity for mercury ions by grafting a copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto sugarcane bagasse, followed by aminating with the chelating molecule

non-conventional and low-cost adsorbents for the removal of copper (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The monolayer sorption capacity of OPLP for copper (II) ions was found to be 11.22 mg/g at 30C. Rice straw ash, created after co-firing with 0.15 to 0.3 liters of methanol per kg of straw, was shown to be suitable for uranium immobilization due to its porous texture, especially in the presence of phosphorus or vanadium (Bishay, 2010). The chemically activated carbon, prepared from Syzygium jambolanum nut, was successfully used to remove mercury(II) and chromium(VI) in batch studies by the adsorption process (Muthukumaran and Beulan, 2010). Reddy et al. (2010) studied the

diethylenetriamine. The results showed that AB was effective for the removal of mercury over a wide range of pH > 5, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 917.4 mg/g. Seven kinds of agriculture wastes were studied as a biosorbent to copper by Hansen et al. (2010). Biosorption capacity and kinetics were investigated which indicated that peach stones and pine sawdust were good biosorbent with high sorption capacity (around 10-15 mg/g) at acidic pH. Ofomaja et al. (2010b) investigated the NaOH solution modified PCP for the removal of copper(II) from aqueous solutions. A higher copper(II) adsorption capacity was obtained in the PCP treated with a higher concentration of NaOH. Ozcimen and Ersoy-Mericboyu (2010) studied the activated carbons prepared from hazelnut shells and apricot stones as adsorbents for the removal of copper(II) ions from an aqueous solution. Increased temperature and pH were found to lead to an increase in the adsorption capacity of both adsorbents. Sulaiman et al. (2010) used oil palm leaf powders as new,

biosorption of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by biomass prepared from Moringa oleifera bark. The adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was 34.6 mg/g at an initial pH of 5.0. This biosorbent was effective in removing lead in the presence of common metal ions like Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ present in water. Rice husk activated carbon was evaluated for its adsorptive capacity (Awwad et al., 2010). Their

results indicated that the rice husk activated carbon was efficient in the removal of La(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous solutions, with the monolayer capacity at 175.4 mg/g for La(III) and 250 mg/g for Er(III). Agricultural waste products of rice straw and wheat straw, when combined with a Salvinia biomass, were shown by Dhir and Kumar (2010) to be effective for heavy metal (Cr, Ni, and Cd) removal from wastewaters. Guo et al. (2010) found that poultry

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litter-based activated carbon can be effectively used for heavy metal (Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+) removal from wastewaters. Hu et al. (2010) examined the effects of reacting saponified pineapple peel fiber and succinic anhydride in refluxed pyridine and dimethyl sulfoxide at different pH values and temperatures for the purpose of creating novel ionic metal adsorbents. The results showed that modified pineapple peel fiber has a high adsorption capacity. Onwu and Ogah (2010) carried out a study to investigate the potential of applying the African white star apple in scavenging heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH-dependent and the results indicated that the optimum pH for the sorption of Cd(II) and Ni(II) was 6.0 while Pb(II) was 7.0. van Lienden et al. (2010) examined the adsorption of zinc and copper on 12 granular activated carbons, of which six were obtained commercially and six were produced through the thermal activation of agricultural byproducts in the laboratory. The granular activated carbon produced from nutshells was less effective than that produced from rice materials (straw and hulls). Vassileva and Detcheva (2010) studied the adsorption of transition metal ions from aqueous solutions via a novel porous material obtained from Bulgarian lignite (Chukurovo deposit) and its oxidized modifications. It was found that the adsorption process was affected significantly by the pH value of the aqueous solution.

Saccharum officinarum, Moringa oleifera, Triticum aestivcum and Oryza saliva in their raw forms as well as after converting them into ash and activated carbon as biosorbents for the treatment of brackish water. A significant improvement has been observed in the quality control parameters of the water after treatment. A substantial decrease in conductivity, TDS, TH, concentrations of cations and anions was observed in the samples of brackish water after treatment with different biosorbents.

Characterization.

Sharma

et

al.

(2010)

investigated the characteristics of activated carbon prepared from coconut coir. The BET surface area of the synthesized activated carbon was found to be 205.27 m2/g. After activation, both micropores and a small volume of mesopores were formed in the product.

Reuse and recycle (excluding sorbents) Enzyme Production. The ability of various bacteria isolated from Nigerian agricultural wastes to produce beta-amylase and amyloglucosidase was

examined by Adeniran et al. (2010). Results showed that Aspergillus. niger produced the greatest amount of beta-amylase (33.2 EU) using plantain peels as the medium via the static cultivation method and produced the greatest amount of amyloglucosidase (29.8 EU) using yam peels as the substrate under the solid-state cultivation regimen. Chapla et al. (2010) investigated the production of xylanase using Aspergillus foetidus MTCC

Solids. Rizwan et al. (2010) used wastes of the

4898, wheat bran and anaerobically treated distillery

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spent wash under solid state fermentation. Xylanase activity of 8450 U/g was measured and subsequently used for enzymatic saccharification of agro residues such as wheat straw, rice straw and corncobs. It was found that NaOH and ammonia pretreatments enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of all three compounds. The use of various ratios of coba husk and corn steep liquor to produce low molecular weight xylanase was statistically modeled (Fang et al., 2010). It was found that by applying optimal compositions a 227% increase in xylanase activity compared with the original design can be achieved. Using DeMeos fractional factorial design, Geetha and Gunasekaran (2010) studied the optimization of a nutrient solution containing agricultural wastes for xylanase production by Bacillus pumilus B20. A 3.4-fold increase in xylanase production (313.3 U/mL) was achieved. Honorato and Rodrigues (2010) tested the stability of dextransucrase produced by fermentation using cashew apple juice as the substrate and found that the crude enzyme was stable at 30C for 30 h with a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5, and the partially purified enzyme was also stable in non-fermented cashew apple juice at a pH 5.0 for 96 h at 30C, indicating that enzyme purification was not necessary.

the requirements, likely due to the decreased supply of nitrogen and presence of manganese toxicity. Hazelnut husk, maize straw and poultry manure agricultural wastes, in combination with other materials, were checked for their suitability as growing media for the ornamental plants ligustrum (Ligustrum lucidum) and cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) (Dede et al., 2010). Results showed that these waste mixtures could successfully replace peat and soil. The most suitable

one for ligustrum was the mixture containing poultry manure, whereas for cypress was bio-solid, regardless of the main components. To reduce the pollution from agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW) and unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers, K- and ammonium-based humic substances, were produced from composted SW (Petrus et al., 2010). The results show that mixing soil with humin produced from composted SW before the application of the fertilizers significantly increased maize dry matter production and the efficient use of nutrience. The value of a mixture of dried vegetable waste powder and oil cake mixture as an agricultural feed was enhanced through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus niger S(1)4 and NCIM 616 (Rajesh et al., 2010). Significant increase in crude

Biofertilizers, Cultivation Materials and Soil Amendments. Chang et al. (2010) showed that the exclusive use of pea and rice hull compost based fertilizers could meet the nutrient requirements of Anthurium andreanum. However cow cattle dung with tea leaf residue compost based fertilizer could not meet

protein and amino acids, significant reduction in the crude fat and crude fibre content were obtained. Van Zwieten et al. (2010) studied agricultural soil

remediation using biochars. Their results indicated that the performance of remediation was dependent on different types of biochars and soil types.

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data, and showed that this model could be combined General Biogass Production. A with a high ethanol model and to glucose form a concentration simultaneous

methane-production unit was set up in the department of Loiret by farmers, Messrs Beets, working in co-operation to create renewable energy which may be applicable to farms (Lejars, 2010). It has a capacity of 150 kW-hour and the electricity generated could be resold at 0.136 euros per kW-hour. The main source of raw materials was farm effluents (farmyard manure, slurry),

fermentation

saccharification and fermentation model. Tran et al. (2010) studied the potential use of a high amylase producing Bacillus subtilis in a co-culture with Clostridium butylicum TISTR 1032 to enhance

acetone-butanol-ethanol production from starch. The mixed culture increased amylase activity and ABE production, compared to those of produced from Clostridium pure culture.

complemented by agricultural products and waste. Hydrogen produced from the mixture of cow manure and food wastes was measured (Yokoyama et al., 2010). It was found that the production of hydrogen was dependent on the concentration of carbohydrate other than protein or fat. A model was developed to illustrate

Energy Production. Gomez et al. (2010) assessed the potential of using wastes from olive-oil mills, rice mills, wineries, dairy plants, breweries and wood, meat and nut processing plants to produce energy via grate firing followed by steam turbine, co-firing in coal power plants and anaerobic digestion plus internal combustion engine. A reduction by 50% of the investment costs of grate firing could increase profitable

the process of hydrogen production from agricultural wastes (Parker et al., 2010). It was illustrated that the cost of hydrogen production from agricultural wastes was similar to that of producing from natural gas.

Ethanol Production. The potential for the production of bioethanol from waste rice straw was discussed by Dominguez-Escriba and Porcar (2010) in terms of both energy production and agricultural waste disposal. Advances in research with regards to the conversion of lignocelluloses into the fermentable sugars that are needed for bioethanol production were also discussed, with a focus on straw pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Ko et al. (2010) explored kinetic model parameters for rice straw feedstock used for cellulose saccharification using real experimental

power to 1102 MWe (and production to 7.70 TWh). High quality biodiesel production, using waste soybean oil, was investigated by Hossain and Mazen (2010). Results showed that the highest biodiesel yield (68.5%) was obtained with process conditions of 3: 1

oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 0.5% NaOH catalyst, a temperature of 55C and a 250 rpm stirring speed. Munir et al. (2010a) investigated the

coutilization of agricultural residues in existing coal fired power plants which can help in producing clean energy, disposing of waste, and increasing the income of the

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rural population

It was concluded that the agricultural

Ashori and Nourbakhsh (2010) studied the use of various agricultural waste residues as an alternative to wood fibers as a thermoplastic support. They found

residues can be used as a potential substitute fuel which can help to control the emission of NOx and SO2. Shea meal and cotton stalk were selected and co-fired with coal to produce energy (Munir et al., 2010b). The results indicated that the addition of biomass coupled with air and fuel-staging techniques not only reduced-NOx and SO2 simultaneously but also improved the char burnout efficiency. Poschl et al. (2010) evaluated the energy efficiency of different biogas systems, including single and co-digestion of multiple feedstock, different biogas utilization pathways, and waste-stream management strategies. Results showed that the energy balance evaluated as Primary Energy Input to Output (PEIO) ratio, was dependent on biogas yield, the utilization efficiency, and energy value of intended fossil fuel substitution.

that samples treated with coupling agents exhibited improved tensile, flexural and impact properties as compared to untreated samples, and that the use of the G-3216 coupling agent gave superior results when compared with G-3003. Ionic liquids 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium

chloride (AmimCl) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (Emi-mAc) were used to regenerate corn husk cellulose into densely structured cellulose (II) (Cao et al., 2010). The solvents were found to be recyclable and the mechanical properties of the regenerated cellulose were superior for those made from the AmimCl solvent. The cellulose extracted from agricultural wastes was studied and were characterized (Ibrahim, Agblevor et al., 2010). It was found that the isolation of cellulose was affected

Production/Recovery of Other Materials. The actions of two different endoxylanase were examined on the autohydrolysis liquors of wheat straw and sunflower stalk for the production of

by treatment conditions and thermal stabilities of the cellulose samples varied corresponding agricultural waste types. Leao et al. (2010) studied the utilization of agro-based biocomposites, pineapple (Ananas comosus) and banana (Musa indica) for industrial applications. This residual waste was found to be one of the single largest sources of cellulose fibers available at almost no cost. Mandels et al. (2010) studied the enzymatic hydrolysis of waste cellulose by enzyme, Trichoderma viride, which can be produced with submerged fermentation using newspaper as a growth substrate. The saccharification of 5% slurries after 48 hrs ranged from

xylooligosaccharides and the resulting antioxidant activity (Akpinar et al., 2010). The results suggested that autohydrolysis-treated wheat straw and sunflower stalk can be used as prebiotics and antioxidants. Amiri et al. (2010) investigated single and biphasic systems using a dilute acid hydrolysis process to convert rice straw into furans, and found that the use of solvents improved the production of

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and tetrahydrofuran.

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2-92%. The rate and extent of the hydrolysis was controlled by the degree of crystallinity, particle size, and the presence of impurities. Rice husk ash, modified with maleic anhydride, was shown to be a suitable filler for the use with polyvinylchloride, with an optimal strength and

alkali-treated wheat bran, using both xylanases, showed the highest hydrolysis, and reached optimal performance under the conditions of pH 4.0-4.5 and a temperature of 35C. Khan and Perveen (2010) introduced

hardwood sawdust, softwood sawdust, banana stems and banana peels to cells of Trichoderma viride to determine their transformability into fermentable sugar for ethanol production. Results showed that banana stems were the best substrate. Mutlu (2010) produced furfural from hazelnut shells using two steps reactions with o-nitrotolene extraction method. Optimum conditions for the

tribological properties occurring with ash concentrations of 10% by weight (Chand et al., 2010).

Espindola-Gonzalez et al. (2010) synthesized silica oxide nanoparticles using rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk through vermicompost with annelids (Eisenia foetida). It was demonstrated to be a novel synthesis method. The recovery and antioxidant capacity of phenol from olive mill wastewater was investigated for the effects of pretreatment with temperature and an ethanol addition (Galanakis et al., 2010). Results showed that the extraction time was not a governing factor, while pretreatment with 20% ethanol decreased the recovery of phenol. Preheating at either 50-60C or 80C decreased both the recovery and antioxidant strength of phenol. Gontero et al. (2010) developed a procedure for producing crystallized fruit from watermelon rind by removing the outer peel, slicing it into 7mm cubes, blanching for 5 minutes, treating it with a 10% sodium chloride solution, treating it with sucrose solutions, and then drying it at 60C. Ja'afaru and Onilude (2010) compared the hydrolysis of alkali-treated agricultural wastes with xylanase isolated from Trichoderma viride Fd18 and Aspergillus ustus Fd12. The results showed that

maximum furfural production rates (0.3079 g furfural / h-g xylose) were found to be 177.7C and at 4.00 % (g/100 mL) sulphuric acid concentration. The maximum furfural conversion yield of hazelnut pentosans was 60%. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose was produced from date palm rachis (Khiari et al., 2010). It was found that the synthesized sodium carboxymethylcellulose exhibited 10% greater performance than a commercial anionic flocculent (A(100)PWG: polyacrylamide). Succinic acid was successfully produced from the waste orange peel and the wheat straw by a one-step consolidated bioprocessing which combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation by a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 (Li, Siles et al., 2010). The greatest succinate titres were found to be 1.9 and 2.0 g/L for pre-treated orange peel and wheat straw, respectively.

1450 Water Environment Research, Volume 83, Number 10Copyright 2011 Water Environment Federation

Manso et al. (2010) reported a method that uses carob pulp aqueous extracts as the carbon source for the production of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans PBC-1. Optimal sugar extraction was achieved at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10 (w/v), at 25C, for 1 h. The initial sugar concentration of 5 g/L allowed the rapid growth (0.16/h) and the high biomass productivity (0.28 g/lh). The first fully biomass-based poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was synthesized from furfural derived from inedible agricultural cellulosic waste by Tachibana et al. (2010). Results showed that biomass-based PBS monomers 1,4-butanediol, succinic acid, and dimethyl succinate were synthesized from furfural in polymer grade purity and polymerized to PBS with arbitrary biomass carbon ratios. Orthogonal experimental design (Wang, Zou et al., 2010) was adopted to investigate the optimum conditions for cellulase production from corn straws. Cellulase was further used to produce lactic acid through the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. Their result indicated that the utilization of corn straws as substrate to produce cellulase and lactic acid was applicable and could reduce pollution. An alternative culture medium, based on agricultural waste products (e. g., apple pomace) was optimized to replace the current SYY medium for the production of antimicrobial metabolites by strain Hhs.015(T) (Wang, Huang et al., 2010). The alternative medium contained 15 g apple pomace, 4 g rapeseed meal, 0.1 g KH2PO4, and 0.6 g MgSO47H2O in 1 L distilled

water, which reduced the material costs by 91.5% compared to the SSY medium. Yang et al. (2010) investigated the suitability of using Acanthopanax koreanum fruit waste (AFW), as a source of anti-inflammatory agents. AFW extracts inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages by 79.6% and 39.7%, respectively and can be considered as a potential anti-inflammatory candidate. Cattle manure wastes can be converted to biooil by using hydrothermal conversion technology. Yin et al. (2010) indicated that the conversion efficiency was mainly affected by the operational temperature and the process gases used, whereas, the pressure, retention time and mass ratios were not beneficial to the conversion of cattle manure wastes. The mean high heating value of biooil from hydrothermal conversion of cattle manure was 37.0 MJ/kg.

Others. The effects of the addition of pig slurry and green waste composts on the heavy metal exchange capacity of different soils were investigated by Doelsch et al. (2010). Results showed that the addition did not increase heavy metal exchange capacity, and in fact decreased the Cu exchange capacity. Lee and Lee (2010) carried out a study to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both the individual and combined phenolics in olive leaf extract. Both the individual and combined phenolics exhibited good radical scavenging abilities. It was revealed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like

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activity and the antimicrobial effect were significantly higher for combined phenolics compared to the individual ones. Studies on the application of common reed to improve the quality of surface water and to produce energy were conducted in Netherlands (Meerburg et al., 2010). They found that reed was capable to reduce the total amount of nitrogen in the water with average efficiencies from 32 to 47% and the total amount of phosphorous with 27-45%. The results showed that reed in the wetland had the capacity to sanitize the surface water and could also be used as a green energy source.

Thermal

Treatment.

laboratory-scale

research on thermal treatment of olive solid wastes (OSW) and residue char based on gaseous emissions was conducted by Chouchene, Jeguirim, Khiari, Trouve et al. (2010). They suggested that the setup of staged oxidation or catalytic treatment may be a promising issue for setting an environmentally friendly process. The effect of particle sizes of OSW and O2 concentrations on thermal treatment of olive solid waste was studied by Chouchene, Jeguirim, Khiari, Zagrouba et al. (2010). The results showed that small particle size was beneficial to the thermal degradation. O2 concentrations affected the activation energy but not the reaction order.

Treatment Anaerobic Treatment. A case study on the effect of temperature and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on anaerobic treatment of cattle manure and agricultural wastes were studied (Alkaya et al., 2010). The results showed that higher temperature could lead to more biogas production while the HRT had no significant effects on the production of biogas. The methane production yield and dry matter reduction efficiencies were comparable to the studies performed on anaerobic digestion of cattle manure. Corn silage, beet pulp silage and carrot residues were used as materials of the anaerobic digestion process to demonstrate the efficiency of the process (Kacprzak et al., 2010). It was found that the highest efficiency could be obtained when using these three materials together.

The effects of reaction conditions on rice husk pyrolyzate were investigated by Heo et al. (2010). They found that temperature was the most important factor affecting the production rate. A new gasification method to convert biomass to energy was developed using coffee husks under high temperatures (Wilson et al., 2010). It was found that higher temperature with the presence of O2 was beneficial to the conversion reaction, which followed zero order model and the activation energy was estimated to be 161 kJ/mol. A fixed-bed fire-tube heating reactor was applied in the pyrolyzate of sugarcane bagasse and the effect of different factors was measured (Islam et al., 2010). The results indicated that it was a good way to use the fixed-bed fire-tube heating reactor to mitigate agricultural wastes and produce bio-oils.

Adsorption Treatment. The removal of pesticides through adding pesticide-primed materials to

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an

on-farm

biopurification

system

(BPS)

was

2010). The results indicated that more than 88% nitrogen removal was reached in this pilot-scale study. An agricultural wastes treatment method was developed using pilot-scale photobioreactors (Kastanek et al., 2010). The results indicated that the treatment could achieve the criteria in EU and that flue gases could be applied to photobioreactors.

investigated (De Wilde et al., 2010). The results presented that the addition of pesticide-primed materials could improve the efficiency of BPS. Endosulfan metabolities was used to be an adsorbent to remove pesticides from water (El Bakouri et al., 2010). Results showed that the thermo chemical treatment was beneficial to the adsorption efficiency. Biochar was used as a sorbent to remove pesticides (Zheng et al., 2010). The results showed that the sorption of the biochar for both pesticides was favored at low pH conditions.

Wetland

Treatment.

The

treatment

performance of agricultural wastes in a constructed wetland system was investigated in seven years (Son et al., 2010). The study tested the contaminants removal

Composting. An in-vessel aerobic composting technique was employed to recycle urban primary sludge (Rihani et al., 2010). The results showed that pathogens could be removed dramatically while the heavy metal removal was low. Studies on the agricultural waste composting to determine the effects of inoculation time on the enzyme activities were conducted by Zeng et al. (2010). The results showed that the inoculation was able to improve the efficiency of the second fermentation phase more than that of the first phase.

and kinetics and found that low rate constant would not affect the BOD removal. The removal of organic matter and NH4+-N from agricultural wastewater was studied through a modified wetland in China (Du et al., 2010). The results revealed that the treatment efficiency was higher than the conventional wetland in regards to the BOD and NH4+-N removal.

Other Technologies. In order to avoid biogas discharging into the atmosphere, a cover was adopted to an anaerobic piggery pond in New Zealand (Heubeck

Bioreactor. A methanogenic bioreactor with carbon fiber textiles (CFT) was first applied to treat agricultural wastes by Sasaki et al. (2010). The results presented that the use of CFT increased the degradation efficiency of agricultural wastes. A study on nitrogen removal from agricultural runoff in bioretention systems was developed and various conditions were applied to demonstrate the nitrogen removal efficiency (Ergas et al.,

and Craggs, 2010). The results revealed that the cover was beneficial to capture biogas and reduce odour greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Fu et al. (2010) demonstrated that agricultural and forestry waste products could be converted to small molecule chiral ligands through acid depolymerization. The produced chiral ligands could be used for sustainable asymmetric catalysis.

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An aerobic thermophilic treatment method was applied to treat wastewater from potato production (Lasik et al., 2010). It was found that the repeated-batch operation could achieve the highest COD and TOC removal rate. Immobilized titania nanophotocatalysis was applied to treat agricultural organic wastes (Mahmoodi and Arami, 2010). The results demonstrated that immobilized titania nanophotocatalysis was an environmental friendly way to treat agricultural wastes. A full-scale treatment process was conducted to treat dairy farming wastes in France (Merlin and Gaillot, 2010). The process was later improved with an aeration process which improved in the contaminant removal rate. The anodic Fenton treatment was adopted to treat sulfonamide which was an agricultural antibiotic (Neafsey et al., 2010). It was found that the bacteriostatic properties of sulfamethazine and sulfadiazine were removed during degradation. The treatment of water polluted with agricultural pesticide was studied by the electrochemical process (Samet et al., 2010). The results obtained revealed that increasing the apparent current density and temperature and decreasing the initial pollutant concentrations improved the COD removal rates.

litter/biosolids mixing granulated products could serve well as a slow-release fertilizer. The amount of N and P discharged produced from agriculture fields in the Mekong Delta, South Vietnam was determined by De Silva et al. (2010). The results indicated that N discharged was in the similar level to feeds and that P discharged levels were much lower than feed levels. A case study on phosphorus discharge was conducted in Hefei city, China by using the substance flow analysis (SFA) method (Li, Yuan et al., 2010). Their results presented that agricultural activities were the main source of phosphorus discharge. Approximately 33% of the total phosphorus input left the area, and nearly 20% of that amount was discharged to surface water. A research on nitrate discharge from pig effluent wastes was conducted using the isotope analysis method to evaluate the effects of agricultural waste on drinking water (Payet et al., 2010). The results presented that the nitrate pollution was mainly contributed by the agricultural effluent.

Gaseous Emission. Ozone produced from the wastes and emissions of four kinds of agricultural animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine and poultry) were measured (Howard et al., 2010). The results presented that the ozone formation potential from poultry

Waste Characterization Nutrients. The bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in biosolids and poultry litter was examined by sequential fractionation coupled with enzymatic

wastes was twice of that from light duty gasoline vehicles while other three kinds of animal wastes produced less ozone than light duty gasoline vehicles. Air pollution caused by combustion of agricultural wastes was tested and analyzed (Musialik-Piotrowska et

hydrolysis (He et al., 2010). The results showed that the

1454 Water Environment Research, Volume 83, Number 10Copyright 2011 Water Environment Federation

al., 2010). It was found that the wooden pellet produced less CO, nevertheless, it produced the most toxic formaldehyde and benzene. In addition, wheat straw pellets generated the most CO and VOCs. Direct and indirect GHG emissions from a vertical flow constructed wetland (CW) planted with forage rice were monitored (Riya et al., 2010). Their results suggested that the percentage of indirect N2O-N emissions (86.7%) was much greater than that of CH4-C emissions (2.9%). Therefore, it was necessary to address the issues of indirect N2O-N emissions.

samples.

Particles.

Ram

et

al.

(2010)

studied

carbonaceous aerosols. They found that the fractional mass of carbonaceous aerosols contributed to PM10 mass varied in different seasons and that the agricultural wastes burning was the main source of carbonaceous aerosols.

Environmental Impact. The impacts of pesticides presented in the Llobregat river basin on benthic biological communities were examined (Ricart et

Microorganisms. A study on protozoan infections due to agricultural animal wastes in the U.S. elderly was conducted to assess the relationship between the cattle density and the human infection risk (Jagai et al., 2010). The results showed that higher cattle density could lead to higher risk of protozoan infections and that the risk presented a seasonal pattern. Molecular biology techniques were performed to analyze microbial communities in bovine slurry (Murayama et al., 2010). The results showed that there were different kinds of microorganisms present in bovine slurry and that most of these microorganisms had no potential to affect human health. Hormones fraction in the swine manure were determined using the solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques

al., 2010). They revealed a potential relationship between triazine-type herbicides and the distribution of the diatom community. Effects of organophosphates and phenylureas in both structural and functional aspects of the biofilm community were also observed. The agricultural impact on fish species and amounts in three rivers in Nepal was studied by Jha et al. (2010). It was found that agricultural wastes and misuse of agricultural products mainly contaminated the downstream of the rivers. Agricultural pollution was studied through a case study in Eskipazar (Karabuk, Turkey) (Keskin, 2010). It was found that the main nitrate and heavy metal pollution in this area was caused by agricultural activities.

(Combalbert et al., 2010). The results showed that the ways used to store samples affected hormone

Waste management and pollution minimization General Management. Rashid et al. (2010) discussed the benefit of applying food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) to recycle soil

concentrations. It was also found that estrone and alpha-estradiol were the main constituents in the

1455 Water Environment Research, Volume 83, Number 10Copyright 2011 Water Environment Federation

nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N). They demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer application and the emissions of GHG could be largely reduced. An Integrated Swine Manure Management (ISMM) program was developed for animal waste management (Karmakar et al., 2010). The results indicated the program was feasible. An assessment of agricultural wastes was conducted based on situations in Almeria, Spain (Callejon et al., 2010). It was found that it was more beneficial to reuse the agricultural wastes directly. The situation of straw wastes utilization in Vojvodina, Serbia was discussed (Dodic et al., 2010). It was indicated that the utilization efficiency was very low. It was suggested that farms should apply basic principles of the cleaner manufacturing for the sustainable development.

and cultivation would increase the GHG emissions while plantations would decrease GHG emissions. The generation of superoxide in water was studied (Furman et al., 2010). It was found that superoxide could be applied to the removal of highly halogenated organic compounds generated in the production of pesticides and herbicides.

Others. The potential of applying constructed and restored wetlands to reduce the contamination from agricultural wastes was studied (O'Geen et al., 2010). It was found that wetlands had high potential of reducing the contamination of pollutants from agricultural runoff. The adverse effect of wetlands was also discussed and proper measurements to reduce the adverse effects were proposed.

Gaseous

Emission

Control.

The

GHG Reference

emissions and energy consuming in agricultural biogas plants were calculated by Bachmaier et al. (2010). It was found that agricultural biogas plants were able to save more energy and produce less GHG compared to other fossil resources. Decision making models for agricultural practices based on Atanassov's Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets were studied (Hernandez and Uddameri, 2010). Its application in agricultural practices was also presented through a case study in South Texas. It concluded that this approach was particularly suitable for prioritizing and ranking agricultural best management practices. GHG emissions from the land used for agricultural was measured in Zimbabwe, Africa

Adeniran, H. A.; Abiose, S. H.; Ogunsua, A. O. (2010) Production of Fungal on Some beta-amylase Nigerian and

Amyloglucosidase

Agricultural

Residues. Food Bioprocess Technol., 3 (5), 693698. Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Gayatri, S. L. (2010) Batch Adsorption of 4-nitrophenol by Acid Activated Jute Stick Char: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies. Chem. Eng. J., 158 (2), 173180. Akpinar, O.; Gunay, K.; Yilmaz, Y.; Levent, O.; Bostanci, S. (2010) Enzymatic Processing and Antioxidant Activity of Agricultural Waste Autohydrolysis Liquors.

BioResources, 5 (2), 699711. Aksakal, O.; Ucun, H. (2010) Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of The Biosorption of Textile

(Mapanda et al., 2010). It was found that deforestation

1456 Water Environment Research, Volume 83, Number 10Copyright 2011 Water Environment Federation

Dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus Sylvestris L. J. Hazard. Mater., 181 (13), 666672. Alkaya, E.; Erguder, T. H.; Demirer, G. N. (2010) Effect of Operational Parameters on Anaerobic Co-digestion of Dairy Cattle Manure and Agricultural Residues: A Case Study for the Kahramanmaras Region in Turkey. Eng. Life Sci., 10 (6), 552559. Amiri, H.; Karimi, K.; Roodpeyma, S. (2010) Production of Furans from Rice Straw by Single-phase and Biphasic Systems. Carbohydr. Res., 345 (15), 21332138. Ashori, A.; Nourbakhsh, A. (2010) Bio-based Composites from Waste Agricultural Residues. Waste Manage., 30 (4), 680684. Awwad, N. S.; Gad, H. M. H.; Ahmad, M. I.; Aly, H. F. (2010) Sorption of Lanthanum and Erbium from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Rice Husk. Colloid Surf. B-Biointerfaces, 81 (2), 593599. Bachmaier, J.; Effenberger, M.; Gronauer, A. (2010)

Callejon, A. J.; Carreno, A.; SanchezHermosilla, J.; Perez, J. (2010) Environmental Impact of an Agricultural Solid Waste Disposal and Transformation Plant in the Province of Almeria (Spain). Inf. Constr., (518), 7993. Cao, X. D.; Harris, W. (2010) Properties of

Dairy-manure-derived Biochar Pertinent to Its Potential Use in Remediation. Bioresour. Technol., 101 (14), 52225228. Cao, Y.; Li, H. Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; He, J. S. (2010) Structure and Properties of Novel Regenerated Cellulose Films Prepared from Cornhusk Cellulose in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 116 (1), 547554. Cengiz, S.; Cavas, L. (2010) A Promising Evaluation Method for Dead Leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) in the Adsorption of Methyl Violet. Mar. Biotechnol., 12 (6), 728736. Chand, N.; Sharma, P.; Fahim, M. (2010) Tribology of Maleic Anhydride Modified Rice-husk Filled Polyvinylchloride. Wear, 269 (1112), 847853. Chang, K. H.; Wu, R. Y.; Chuang, K. C.; Hsieh, T. F.; Chung, R. S. (2010) Effects of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on the Growth, Flower Quality and Nutrient Uptake of Anthurium Andreanum, Cultivated for Cut Flower Production. Sci. Hortic., 125 (3), 434441. Chapla, D.; Divecha, J.; Madamwar, D.; Shah, A. (2010) Utilization of Agro-industrial Waste for Xylanase Production by Aspergillus Foetidus MTCC 4898 under Solid State Fermentation and Its Application in Saccharification. Biochem. Eng. J., 49 (3), 361369. Chouchene, A.; Jeguirim, M.; Khiari, B.; Trouve, G.; Zagrouba, F. (2010) Study on the Emission Mechanism during Devolatilization/Char Oxidation and Direct Oxidation of Olive Solid Waste in a Fixed Bed Reactor. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 87 (1), 168174.

Greenhouse Gas Balance and Resource Demand of Biogas Plants in Agriculture. Eng. Life Sci., 10 (6), 560569. Bello-Huitle, V.; Atenco-Fernandez, P.; Reyes-Mazzoco, R. (2010) Adsorption Studies of Methylene Blue And Phenol onto Pecan and Castile Nutshells Prepared by Chemical Activation. Rev. Mex. Ing. Quim., 9 (3), 313322. Bishay, A. F. (2010) Environmental Application of Rice Straw in Energy Production and Potential Adsorption of Uranium and Heavy Metals. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 286 (1), 8189. Brandao, P. C.; Souza, T. C.; Ferreira, C. A.; Hori, C. E.; Romanielo, L. L. (2010) Removal of Petroleum Hydrocarbons from Aqueous Solution Using Sugarcane Bagasse as Adsorbent. J. Hazard. Mater., 175 (13), 11061112.

1457 Water Environment Research, Volume 83, Number 10Copyright 2011 Water Environment Federation

Chouchene, A.; Jeguirim, M.; Khiari, B.; Zagrouba, F.; Trouve, G. (2010) Thermal Degradation of Olive Solid Waste: Influence of Particle Size and Oxygen Concentration. Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 54 (5), 271277. Combalbert, S.; Pype, M. L.; Bernet, N.; Hernandez-Raquet, G. (2010) Enhanced Methods for Conditioning, Storage, and Extraction of Liquid and Solid Samples of Manure for Determination of Steroid Hormones by Solid-phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 398 (2), 973984. De Silva, S. S.; Ingram, B. A.; Nguyen, P. T.; Bui, T. M.; Gooley, G. J.; Turchini, G. M. (2010) Estimation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Effluent from the Striped Catfish Farming Sector in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ambio, 39 (7), 504514. De Wilde, T.; Spanoghe, P.; Sniegowksi, K.; Ryckeboer, J.; Jaeken, P.; Springael, of D. (2010) and Transport Isoproturon and in with

155 (34), 390400. Dominguez-Escriba, L.; Porcar, M. (2010) Rice Straw Management: the Big Waste. Biofuels Bioprod.

Biorefining, 4 (2), 154159. Du, X. L.; Xu, Z. X.; Wang, S. (2010) Enhanced Removal of Organic Matter and Ammonia Nitrogen in a One-Stage Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland System. Environ. Prog. Sustain. Energy, 29 (1), 6067. El-Naas, M. H.; Al-Zuhair, S.; Abu Alhaija, M. (2010) Removal of Phenol from Petroleum Refinery Wastewater through Adsorption on Date-Pit Activated Carbon. Chem. Eng. J., 162 (3), 9971005. El Bakouri, H.; Morillo, J.; Usero, J.; Vanderlinden, E.; Vidal, H. (2010) Effectiveness of Acid-Treated Agricultural Stones Used in Biopurification Systems to Avoid Pesticide Contamination of Water Resources Caused by Direct Losses: Part I. Equilibrium Experiments and Kinetics. Bioresour. Technol., 101 (14), 50845091. Ergas, S. J.; Sengupta, S.; Siege, R.; Pandit, A.; Yao, Y. F.; Yuan, X. (2010) Performance of Nitrogen-Removing Bioretention Systems for Control of Agricultural Runoff. J. Environ. Eng.-ASCE, 136 (10), 11051112. Espindola-Gonzalez, A.; Martinez-Hernandez, A. L.;

Degradation Biopurification

Metalaxyl Columns

Inoculated

Pesticide-primed Material. Chemosphere, 78 (1), 5660. Dede, O. H.; Dede, G.; Ozdemir, S. (2010) Agricultural and Municipal Wastes as Container Media Component for Ornamental Nurseries. Int. J. Environ. Res., 4 (2), 193200. Dhir, B.; Kumar, R. (2010) Adsorption of Heavy Metals by Salvinia Biomass and Agricultural Residues. Int. J. Environ. Res., 4 (3), 427432. Dodic, S. N.; Zekic, V. N.; Rodic, V. O.; Tica, N. L.; Dodic, J. M.; Popov, S. D. (2010) Situation and Perspectives of Waste Biomass Application as Energy Source in Serbia. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 14 (9), 31713177. Doelsch, E.; Masion, A.; Moussard, G.; Chevassus-Rosset, C.; Wojciechowicz, O. (2010) Impact of Pig Slurry and Green Waste Compost Application on Heavy Metal Exchangeable Fractions in Tropical Soils. Geoderma,

Angeles-Chavez, C.; Castano, V. M.; Velasco-Santos, C. (2010) Novel Crystalline SiO2 Nanoparticles via Annelids Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Wastes. Nanoscale Res. Lett., 5 (9), 14081417. Fang, T. J.; Liao, B. C.; Lee, S. C. (2010) Enhanced Production of Xylanase by Aspergillus Carneus M34 in Solid-State Fermentation with Agricultural Waste Using Statistical Approach. New Biotech., 27 (1), 2532. Franca, A. S.; Oliveira, L. S.; Nunes, A. A. (2010) Malachite Green Adsorption by a Residue-Based

Microwave-Activated Adsorbent. Clean-Soil Air Water, 38 (9), 843849.

1458 Water Environment Research, Volume 83, Number 10Copyright 2011 Water Environment Federation

Franca, A. S.; Oliveira, L. S.; Saldanha, S. A.; Santos, P. I. A.; Salum, S. S. (2010) Malachite Green Adsorption by Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Seed Husks: Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies. Desalin. Water Treat., 19 (13), 241248. Fu, C. L.; Chen, W.; Quek, Y. L.; Ni, R. Y.; Ghani, A. B. A.; Leong, W. W. Y.; Zeng, H. Q.; Huang, D. J. (2010) Sustainability from Agricultural Waste: Chiral Ligands from Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins via Acid-Mediated Depolymerization. 63226324. Furman, O. S.; Teel, A. L.; Watts, R. J. (2010) Volume Reduction of Nonaqueous Media Contaminated with a Highly Halogenated Model Compound Using Tetrahedron Lett., 51 (48),

Using Rice Bran : an Agricultural Waste. J. Indian Chem. Soc., 87 (7), 837840. Gupta, V. K.; Jain, R.; Shrivastava, M.; Nayak, A. (2010) Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies on the

Adsorption of the Dye Tartrazine onto Waste "Coconut Husks" Carbon and Activated Carbon. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 55 (11), 50835090. Hamdaoui, O.; Saoudi, F.; Chiha, M. (2010) Utilization of an Agricultural Waste Material, Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Peel, as a Sorbent for the Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous phase. Desalin. Water Treat., 21 (13), 228237. Hameed, B. H.; Tan, I. A. W. (2010) Nitric Acid-Treated Bamboo Waste as Low-Cost Adsorbent for Removal of Cationic Dye from Aqueous Solution. Desalin. Water Treat., 21 (13), 357363. Han, R. P.; Zhang, L. J.; Song, C.; Zhang, M. M.; Zhu, H. M. (2010) Characterization of Modified Wheat Straw, Kinetic and Equilibrium Study about Copper Ion and Methylene Blue Adsorption in Batch Mode. Carbohydr. Polym., 79 (4), 11401149. Hansen, H. K.; Arancibia, F.; Gutierrez, C. (2010) Adsorption of Copper onto Agriculture Waste Materials. J. Hazard. Mater., 180 (13), 442448. Hassanein, T. F.; Koumanova, B. (2010) Decolourisation of Waters Using Flax Shives Wasted from Agriculture. Fresenius Environ. Bull., 19 (9), 18941905. He, Z. Q.; Zhang, H. L.; Toor, G. S.; Dou, Z. X.; Honeycutt, C. W.; Haggard, B. E.; Reiter, M. S. (2010) Phosphorus Distribution in Sequentially Extracted Fractions of Biosolids, Poultry Litter, and Granulated Products. Soil Sci., 175 (4), 154161. Hema, M.; Srinivasan, K. (2010) Removal of Nickel(II) from Wastewater: Activated Carbons from Oilcakes. Asian J. Chem., 22 (5), 36753690.

Superoxide. J. Agric. Food Chem., 58 (3), 18381843. Galanakis, C. M.; Tornberg, E.; Gekas, V. (2010) Recovery and Preservation of Phenols from Olive Waste in Ethanolic Extracts. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 85 (8), 11481155. Geetha, K.; Gunasekaran, P. (2010) Optimization of Nutrient Medium Containing Agricultural Waste for Xylanase Production by Bacillus pumilus B20. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng., 15 (5), 882889. Gomez, A.; Zubizarreta, J.; Rodrigues, M.; Dopazo, C.; Fueyo, N. (2010) An Estimation of the Energy Potential of Agro-Industrial Residues in Spain. Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 54 (11), 972984. Gontero, M.; Brandelli, A.; Norena, C. Z. (2010) Production of Crystallized Fruit from Watermelon Rind. Cienc. Investig. Agrar., 37 (2), 5560. Guo, M. X.; Qiu, G. N.; Song, W. P. (2010) Poultry Litter-Based Activated Carbon for Removing Heavy Metal Ions in Water. Waste Manage., 30 (2), 308315. Gupta, M. K.; Nadeem, U.; Chattopadhyaya, M. C.; Tripathi, V. S. (2010) Removal of Lead(II) from Aqueous Solutions

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Heo, H. S.; Park, H. J.; Dong, J. I.; Park, S. H.; Kim, S.; Suh, D. J.; Suh, Y. W.; Kim, S. S.; Park, Y. K. (2010) Fast Pyrolysis of Rice Husk under Different Reaction Conditions. J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 16 (1), 2731. Hernandez, E. A.; Uddameri, V. (2010) Selecting Agricultural Best Management Practices for Water Conservation and Quality Improvements Using Atanassov's Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets. Water Resour. Manag., 24 (15), 45894612. Heubeck, S.; Craggs, R. J. (2010) Biogas Recovery from a Temperate Climate Covered Anaerobic Pond. Water Sci. Technol., 61 (4), 10191026. Honorato, T. L.; Rodrigues, S. (2010) Dextransucrase Stability in Cashew Apple Juice. Food Bioprocess Technol., 3 (1), 105110. Hossain, A.; Mazen, M. A. (2010) Effects of Catalyst Types and Concentrations on Biodiesel Production from Waste Soybean Oil Biomass as Renewable Energy and Environmental Recycling Process. Aust. J. Crop Sci., 4 (7), 550555. Howard, C. J.; Kumar, A.; Mitloehner, F.; Stackhouse, K.; Green, P. G.; Flocchini, R. G.; Kleeman, M. J. (2010) Direct Measurements of the Ozone Formation Potential from Livestock and Poultry Waste Emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol., 44 (7), 22922298. Hu, X. Y.; Zhao, M. M.; Huang, H. H. (2010) Modification of Pineapple Peel Fiber as Metal Ion Adsorbent through Reaction with Succinic Anhydride in Pyridine and Dimethyl Sulfoxide Solvents. Water Environ. Res., 82 (8), 733741. Ibrahim, M. M.; Agblevor, F. A.; El-Zawawy, W. K. (2010) Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose and Lignin from Steam-Exploded Lignocellulosic Biomass.

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Jha, B. R.; Waidbacher, H.; Sharma, S.; Straif, M. (2010) Study of Agricultural Impacts through Fish Base Variables in Different Rivers. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 7 (3), 609615. Kacprzak, A.; Krzystek, L.; Ledakowicz, S. (2010)

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Microbiol. Biotechnol., 88 (3), 671678. Li, S. S.; Yuan, Z. W.; Bi, J.; Wu, H. J. (2010) Anthropogenic Phosphorus Flow Analysis of Hefei City, China. Sci. Total Environ., 408 (23), 57155722. Li, X. M.; Zheng, W.; Wang, D. B.; Yang, Q.; Cao, J. B.; Yue, X.; Shen, T. T.; Zeng, G. M. (2010) Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Modified Areca Waste: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies. Desalination, 258 (13), 148153. Lu, L. L.; Chen, L. H.; Shao, W. J.; Luo, F. (2010) Equilibrium and Kinetic Modeling of Pb(II) Biosorption by a Chemically Modified Orange Peel Containing Cyanex 272. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 55 (10), 41474153. Ma, J. W.; Wang, H.; Wang, F. Y.; Huang, Z. H. (2010) Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol from Aqueous Solution by a New Low-Cost Adsorbent - Activated Bamboo Charcoal. Sep. Sci. Technol., 45 (16), 23292336. Ma, N. F.; Chen, S. X.; Liu, X. L.; Yang, Y. (2010) Preparation of an Aminated Bagasse Fiber and Its Mercury Adsorption Behavior. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 117 (5), 28542861. Mahmoodi, N. M.; Arami, M. (2010) Immobilized Titania Nanophotocatalysis: Degradation, Modeling and Toxicity Reduction of Agricultural Pollutants. J. Alloy. Compd., 506 (1), 155159. Mahramanlioglu, M.; Ozgen, O.; Cinarli, A.; Kizilcikli, I. (2010) Adsorption of Pyridine by Acid Treated Spent Bleaching Earth. Asian J. Chem., 22 (2), 14281434. Mandels, M.; Hontz, L.; Nystrom, J. (2010) Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Waste Cellulose. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 105 (1), 325. Manso, T.; Nunes, C.; Raposo, S.; Lima-Costa, M. E. (2010) Carob Pulp as Raw Material for Production of the Biocontrol Agent P. agglomerans PBC-1. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 37 (11), 11451155.

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Riya, S.; Zhou, S.; Nakashimada, Y.; Terada, A.; Hosomi, M. (2010) Direct and Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland Planted with Forage Rice. Kag. Kog. Ronbunshu, 36 (4), 229236. Rizwan, M.; Athar, M. M.; Ali, M.; Shaheen, M. A.; Tariq, M. I.; Iqbal, S.; Rehman, F. U.; Farooq, R.; Karim, A.; Ahmed, N.; Maqbool, S. (2010) Biosorption Treatment of Brackish Water. J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 32 (1), 6470. Sakthi, V.; Andal, N. M.; Rengaraj, S.; Sillanpaa, M. (2010) Removal of Pb(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Bombax Ceiba Saw Dust Activated Carbon. Desalin. Water Treat., 16 (13), 262270. Samet, Y.; Agengui, L.; Abdelhedi, R. (2010) Anodic Oxidation of Chlorpyrifos in Aqueous Solution at Lead Dioxide Electrodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 650 (1), 152158. Sasaki, K.; Morita, M.; Hirano, S.; Sasaki, D.; Ohmura, N.; Igarashi, Y. (2010) Efficient Degradation of Rice Straw in the Reactors Packed by Carbon Fiber Textiles. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 87 (4), 15791586. Senturk, H. B.; Ozdes, D.; Duran, C. (2010) Biosorption of Rhodamine 6G from Aqueous Solutions onto Almond Shell (Prunus dulcis) as a Low Cost Biosorbent. Desalination, 252 (13), 8187. Shaarani, F. W.; Hameed, B. H. (2010) Batch Adsorption of 2,4-Dichlorophenol onto Activated Carbon Derived from Agricultural Waste. Desalination, 255 (13), 159164. Sharma, Y. C. (2010) Optimization of Parameters for Adsorption of Methylene Blue on a Low-Cost Activated Carbon. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 55 (1), 435439. Sharma, Y. C.; Uma; Gode, F. (2010) Engineering Data for Optimization of Preparation of Activated Carbon from an Economically Viable Material. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 55 (9), 39913994. Shen, Y. S.; Wang, S. L.; Huang, S. T.; Tzou, Y. M.; Huang, J. H. (2010) Biosorption of Cr(VI) by Coconut Coir:

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(2010) Metals Removal from Stormwater by Commercial and Non-Commercial Granular Activated Carbons. Water Environ. Res., 82 (4), 351356. Van Zwieten, L.; Kimber, S.; Morris, S.; Chan, K. Y.; Downie, A.; Rust, J.; Joseph, S.; Cowie, A. (2010) Effects of Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Papermill Waste on Agronomic Performance and Soil Fertility. Plant Soil, 327 (12), 235246. Vassileva, P. S.; Detcheva, A. K. (2010) Adsorption of Some Transition Metal Ions Cu(II), Fe(III), Cr(III) and Au(III) onto Lignite-based Activated Carbons Modified by Oxidation. Adsorpt. Sci. Technol., 28 (3), 229242. Wang, F. Y.; Wang, H.; Ma, J. W. (2010) Adsorption of Cadmium (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by a New Low-Cost Adsorbent-Bamboo Charcoal. J. Hazard. Mater., 177 (13), 300306. Wang, Q.; Zou, D.; Ma, H.; Ji, Y.; Wang, X. (2010) Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Corn Straw to Lactic Acid. Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q., 24 (3), 371376. Wang, X. X.; Huang, L. L.; Kang, Z. S.; Buchenauer, H.; Gao, X. N. (2010) Optimization of the Fermentation Process of Actinomycete Strain Hhs.015(T). J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 10. Wilson, L.; John, G. R.; Mhilu, C. F.; Yang, W. H.; Blasiak, W. (2010) Coffee Husks Gasification Using High

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