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Terms:

1. bureaucracy

a. a large, complex organization composed of appointed officials


2. patronage

a. The power to distribute or appoint people to governmental or political positions. b. The act of distributing or appointing people to such positions. c. The positions so distributed or filled.
3. spoils system

direct taxes in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895). It was ratified on February 3, 1913.
7. Discretionary authority

a. The extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws.
8. Name-request job

a. the firing of the office holders of a defeated party and replacing them with loyalists of the newly elected party
4. Pendleton Act (1883)

a. A job that is filled by a person whom an agency has already identified


9. Senior Executive Service

a. Reform measure that created the Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit system. The act classified the federal service by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of a competitive examination. It made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party.
5. Laissez-faire economics

a. Established by Congress in 1978 as a flexible, mobile corps of senior career executives who work closely with presidential appointees to manage government.
10. Competitive service

a. An economic theory that government should not regulate or interfere with commerce. 6. 16th Amendment a. The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on Census results. This amendment exempted income taxes from the constitutional requirements regarding direct taxes, after income taxes on rents, dividends, and interest were ruled to be

a. The government office to which people are appointed on the grounds of merit as ascertained by a written examination or by having met certain selection criteria (such as training, educational attainments, or prior experience).
11. Office of Personnel Management

a. The United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is an independent agency of the United States government that manages the civil service of the federal government.
12. Excepted service

a. excepted from the requirements of the competitive service by law, meaning applicants for jobs need not go through as formal of an application process
13. Merit system

a. the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability
14. Civil Service Reform Act of 1978

a. The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 abolished the U.S. Civil Service Commission b. Recognized that many high level positions in the civil service have important policy making responsibilities and that the president and his cabinet officers ought to have more flexibility in recruiting, assigning, and paying such people. 15. Hatch Act (1939 and 1993) a. A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics.
16. Whistle Blower Protection Act (1989)

personnel practices (PPPs), especially reprisal for "whistleblowing." The agency also operates a secure channel for federal whistleblower disclosures of violations of law, rule or regulation; gross mismanagement; gross waste of funds, abuse of authority; and substantial and specific danger to public health and safety. In addition, OSC issues advice on the Hatch Act and enforces its restrictions on political activity by government employees.
18. Iron triangle

a. A close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group.


19. client politics

a. A law passed in 1989 which created an Office of Special Counsel to investigate complaints from bureaucrats claiming they were punished after reporting to Congress about waste, fraud, or abuse in their agencies. 17. Office of Special-Counsel a. The United States Office of Special Counsel (OSC) is a permanent independent federal investigative and prosecutorial agency whose basic legislative authority comes from four federal statutes, the Civil Service Reform Act, the Whistleblower Protection Act, the Hatch Act and the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA). OSC's primary mission is the safeguarding of the merit system in Federal employment by protecting employees and applicants from prohibited

a. Client politics is the type of politics when an organized minority or interest group benefits at the expense of the public. Client politics may have a strong interaction with the dynamics of identity politics. b. This is particularly common in a pluralist system, such as in the United States, where minorities can have considerable power shaping public policy. The opposite of client politics is 'entrepreneurial' politics, or conviction politics.
20. Issues network

a. Issue networks are an alliance of various interest groups and individuals who unite in order to promote a single issue in government policy. Usually, issue networks push for a change in policy within the government bureaucracy. An example includes the wide ranging network of environmental groups and individuals who push for

more environmental regulation in government policy. Other issue networks revolve around such controversial issues as abortion, gun ownership rights, and drug laws. In the United States, the various parties within an issue network include political executives, career bureaucrats, management and policy consultants, academic researchers, journalists, foundation officers, and White House aides.
21. Authorization legislation

advance and without passing a law


26. Legislative veto

a. the authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The supreme court has held that Congress does not have this power. 27. INS v. Chadha 1983) a. A section of the Immigration and Nationality Act provides that the Attoryney General could suspend the deportation of a deportable alien if the alien met specified conditions and would suffer extreme hardship if deported. However, the act also had a provision which provided for legislative veto by one house if the Congress disagreed with the Attorney generals decisions as to any particular alien. Chadha was an Indian whose education was not yet complete, but whose Visa had run out. b. was a United States Supreme Court case ruling in 1983 that the one-house legislative veto violated the constitutional separation of powers
28. Red tape

a. legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency


22. Appropriations

a. a legislative grant of money to finance a government program or agency


23. trust funds

a. funds for government programs collected and spent outside the regular government budget
24. annual authorizations

a. Legislation that authorizes appropriations for a single fiscal year and usually for a specific amount. Under the rules of the authorization- appropriation process, an annually authorized agency or program must be reauthorized each year if it is to receive appropriations for that year. Sometimes Congress fails to enact the reauthorization but nevertheless provides appropriations to continue the program, circumventing the rules by one means or another.
25. Committee clearance

a. complex bureaucratic rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done
29. National Performance Review

a. the ability of a congressional commitee to review and approve certain agency decisions in

a. The National Partnership for Reinventing Government (NPR), originally the National Performance Review, was an interagency task force to reform the way the United States federal government works in the Clinton Administration.
30. Freedom of Information Act (1966)

a. he Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) is a federal freedom of information law that allows for

the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the United States government. The Act defines agency records subject to disclosure, outlines mandatory disclosure procedures and grants nine exemptions to the statute.[1] It was originally signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, despite his misgivings,[2] on July 4, 1966
31. National Environmental Policy Act (1969)

a. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is a United States environmental law that established a U.S. national policy promoting the enhancement of the environment and also established the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). As one of the most emulated statutes in the world, NEPA has been called the modern-day equivalent of an environmental Magna Carta.[ b. NEPA's most significant effect was to set up procedural requirements for all federal government agencies to prepare environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs). EAs and EISs contain statements of the environmental effects of proposed federal agency actions. [2] NEPA's procedural requirements apply to all federal agencies in the executive branch. NEPA does not apply to the President, to Congress, or to the federal courts. 32. Administrative Procedure Act (1946) a. The Administrative Procedure Act (APA), Pub.L. 79-404, 60 Stat. 237, enacted June 11, 1946,

is the United States federal law that governs the way in which administrative agencies of the federal government of the United States may propose and establish regulations. The APA also sets up a process for the United States federal courts to directly review agency decisions. It is one of the most important pieces of United States administrative law. The Act became law in 1946. b. The APA applies to both the federal executive departments and the independent agencies. U.S. Senator Pat McCarran called the APA "a bill of rights for the hundreds of thousands of Americans whose affairs are controlled or regulated" by federal government agencies. The text of the APA can be found under Title 5 of the United States Code, beginning at Section 500.