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(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN ) -Comments // or /**/ or /***/ Java Notes for Programming Languages and -Blocks {} Advanced Programming

Java Source Code (.java)

Across the Internet using HTML Java Bytecode (.class) Web Browser Java Interpreter Bytecode Compiler

-Methods -main method (always public static void) -Identifiers (UpperCase, LowerCase, _, $, Digits) cannot start with digit case sensitive (TOTAL, Total, total) -Consistency in naming (Beginning Lowercase => methods and identifiers Beginning Uppercase => classes All Uppercase => constants -print and println methods -command line arguments (main method) -object oriented programming (classes, objects, inheritance, etc.)
//Turkey.java File class Turkey { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.print("The international " + "dialing code "); System.out.print("for Turkey is " + 90); } } //NameTag.java File class NameTag { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("Hello! My name is " + args[0]); } }

Java Compiler

Java Interpreter (Applet)

Machine Code (.exe)

//FrstProg.java file class FrstProg { /*This program just writes something to the console and will stop executing*/ public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("This is the first lesson"); //println is part of API } } HOW TO COMPILE AND RUN JAVA FILES: Java Compiler: javac FrstProg.java Java Interpreter: java FrstProg Output: This is the first lesson (creates FrstProg.class) (executes FrstProg.class)

javac NameTag.java java NameTag XXX Hello! My name is XXX To import a package: import package.class; Or: import package.*;

(compile) (run) (output)

-2View: http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/api/ Download: http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs.html Packages java.applet java.awt java.io java.lang java.math java.net java.rmi java.sql java.text java.util

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


JAVA API (Application Programming Interface) OPERATORS: Unary: + Binary: * / % + + = += -= *= count++ ++count count---count ! && || Multiplication, division, remainder Addition, subtraction String concatenation Assignment /= %=

creates programs (applets) that are easily transported across the web. (Abstract Windowing Toolkit) Draw graphics and create graphical user interfaces. perform a wide variety of I/O functions. general support. It is automatically imported. for high precision calculations. communicate across a network. (Remote Method Invocation) create programs that can be distributed across multiple computers. interact with databases. format text for output. general utilities.

return count and then add 1 add 1 and then return count return count and then subtract 1 subtract 1 and then return count ^ Bitwise xor & Bitwise and | Bitwise or == > >= != < <=

Logical not Logical and Logical or

CODITIONS AND LOOPS: condition ? expression1 : expression2 example: int larger = (num1>num2) ? num1 : num2 ; if (condition) Statement1 else Statement2 switch (expression) { case value1: Statement-list1; break; case value2: Statement-list2; break; . default: Statement-list3; } do Statement while (condition); break for (init; cond; incr) Statement; return

PRIMITIVE DATA TYPES: byte 8 bits -128 short 16 bits -32768 int 32 bits -2 billion long 64 bits -1019 Floating point: float 32 bits double 64 bits Others: char boolean void 16 bits

127 32767 2 billion 1019

65536 Unicode characters false true

while (condition) Statement; continue

WRAPPER CLASSES: Classes declared in package java.lang: Byte Float Character Short Double Integer Long

Boolean

Void

-3INSTANTIATION AND REFERENCES class CarExample { public static void main(String[] args) { int total = 25; int average; average = 20; //CarClass should be declared CarClass myCar = new CarClass(); CarClass yourCar; yourCar = new CarClass();

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


GARBAGE COLLECTION Objects are deleted when there are no more references to them. There is a possibility to have the System run the garbage collector upon demand using the System.gc() method. Calling the gc() method suggests that the Java Virtual Machine expend effort toward recycling unused objects in order to make the memory they currently occupy available for quick reuse. When control returns from the method call, the Java Virtual Machine has made a best effort to reclaim space from all discarded objects.

If we add the line:


CarClass momCar = myCar;

} }

//To call a method use "." myCar.speed(50); yourCar.speed(80); System.out.println("My car cost $" + myCar.cost());

we get the following drawing:

class CarClass { int _speed; int _cost; CarClass() { _speed = 0; _cost = 2500; } public void speed(int speed) { _speed = speed; } public int cost() { return _cost; } }

_speed = 50

_speed = 80

myCar
2

yourCar
1

To reduce the number of references to an object, We do the following:


MyCar = null;

(What would happen in C++ if we do this???)

-4STRINGS:

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


OUTPUT: str1: Seize the day str2: str3: Seize the day str4: Day of the seize str5: Seize the day length of str1 is 13 length of str2 is 0 Index of 'e' in str4: 9 Char at pos 3 in str1: z Substring 6 to 8 of str1: th str1 and str5 refer to the same object str1 and str3 don't refer to the same object str1 and str3 contain the same chars str2 now is: SEIZE THE DAY str5 is now: SXizX thX day str1 and str5 don't refer to the same object
class StringExample { public static void main (String[] args) { String str1 = "Seize the day"; String str2 = new String(); String str3 = new String(str1); String str4 = "Day of the seize"; String str5 = "Seize the day"; System.out.println("str1: " + str1); System.out.println("str2: " + str2); System.out.println("str3: " + str3); System.out.println("str4: " + str4); System.out.println("str5: " + str5); System.out.println(); System.out.println("length of str1 is " + str1.length()); System.out.println("length of str2 is " + str2.length()); System.out.println(); System.out.println("Index of 'e' in str4: " + str4.indexOf('e')); System.out.println("Char at pos 3 in str1: " + str1.charAt(3)); System.out.println("Substring 6 to 8 of str1: " + str1.substring(6,8)); if (str1==str5) System.out.println("str1 and str5 refer to the + same object"); if (str1 != str3) System.out.println("str1 and str3 don't refer to + the same object"); if (str1.equals(str3)) System.out.println("str1 and str3 contain the + same chars"); System.out.println(); str2 = str1.toUpperCase(); System.out.println("str2 now is: " + str2); str5 = str1.replace('e','X'); System.out.println("str5 is now: " + str5); //now check again if (str1==str5) System.out.println("str1 and str5 refer to the + same object"); else System.out.println("str1 and str5 don't refer to + the same object"); } }

Useful methods for string:


length() charAt (int index) indexOf(char ch) lastindexOf(char ch) endsWith(String suffix) startsWith(String prefix) equals(Object obj) equalsIgnoreCase(Object obj) toLowerCase() toUpperCase() substring(int begin, int end) :returns the length :returns char at that positions (0..) :returns index (0..) of first occurrence :returns index (0..) of last occurrence :returns true if has this suffix :returns true if has this prefix :returns true if two strings are the same :returns true if two strings are equal, ignoring case :returns a new string of lower case :returns a new string of upper case :returns a new string that is a substring of this string including begin, excluding end.

java.lang.StringBuffer.
StringBuffer- implements a mutable sequence of characters. String - implements a constant sequence of characters. public class ReverseString{ public static void main(String[] args){ String source="abcdefg"; int strLen=source.length(); StringBuffer dest = new StringBuffer( strLen ); for( int i= strLen-1; i>=0; i--){ dest.append( source.charAt(i) ); } System.out.println( dest ); } } output: gfedcba

-5ARRAYS:

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


MULTI DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS: class MultiArray { int[][] table = {{1,2,3,4}, {11,12}, {21,22,23}}; public void init1() { table = new int[5][]; for (int i=0; i<table.length; i++) { table[i] = new int[i]; } } public void print() { for (int rows=0; rows<table.length; rows++) { for (int col=0; col<table[rows].length; col+ +) System.out.print(table[rows][col] + " "); //move cursor to next line System.out.println(); } }
class ArrayTest { public static void main(String[] args) { ArrayParameters test = new ArrayParameters(); //first way to initialize array with fixed size and data int[] list = {11,22,33,44,55}; //second way to initialize array. Fixed size. int[] list2 = new int[5]; //default for int is 0... //fill in data for (int i=0; i<list.length; i++) { list2[i]=99; } test.passElement(list[0]); //list: 11 22 33 44 55 test.chngElems(list); //list: 11 22 77 44 88 test.chngRef(list, list2); //list: 11 22 77 44 88 test.copyArr(list, list2); //list: 99 99 99 99 99 list=test.retRef(list2); //list: 99 66 99 99 99 } } class ArrayParameters { public void passElement(int num) { num = 1234; //no change in original } public void chngElems(int[] my1) //reference passed { my1[2] = 77; my1[4] = 88; } public void chngRef(int[] my1, int[] my2) //reference passed { my1 = my2; } public void copyArr(int[] my1, int[] my2) { for (int i=0; i<my2.length; i++) my1[i]=my2[i]; } public int[] retRef(int[] my1) { my1[1] = 66; return my1; } }

public static void main(String[] args) { MultiArray ma = new MultiArray(); ma.print(); ma.init1(); ma.print(); } } OUTPUT: 1234 11 12 21 22 23 0 00 000 0000

-6INPUT/OUTPUT:
import java.io.*;

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


Numbers.dat file 1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 10.5 javac Sum.java java Sum How many numbers: 5 The total is 21.5
//This program does not use deprecated methods import java.io.*; class MyTest { BufferedReader reader = null; public void read() { try { reader = new BufferedReader (new FileReader ("numbers.dat")); } catch (FileNotFoundException f)//if file was not found { System.out.println("File was not found"); System.exit(0); } try { String line= new String(); double sum = 0.0; while((line=reader.readLine())!=null) { double d = Double.parseDouble(line); sum += d; } System.out.println("Sum is " + sum); } catch (Exception e) { System.out.println("Exception occurred"); }

class Greetings { public static void main (String[] args) { try { DataInputStream in = new DataInputStream(System.in); System.out.println("What is your name?"); String name = in.readLine(); System.out.println("Hello " + name); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Exception: " + e.getMessage()); } } }

What is your name? Bill Gates Hello Bill Gates


import java.io.*; class Sum { public static void main (String[] args) { try { DataInputStream in = new DataInputStream(System.in); DataInputStream fin = new DataInputStream(new FileInputStream(numbers.dat)); int count; double total = 0; System.out.print(How many numbers? ); System.out.flush(); count = Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); for (int i=1; i<=count; i++) { Double number = Double.valueOf(fin.readLine()); total += number.doubleValue(); } System.out.println(The total is: + total); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println(Exception while performing + e.getMessage()); } } }

public static void main(String[] args) { MyTest test = new MyTest(); test.read(); } }

-7Class java.io.File
import java.io.*;

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN ) java.util.StringTokenizer


import java.io.*; import java.util.StringTokenizer; public class Tokens { public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException { BufferedReader in=new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in)); int first,second,pitaron; int i; char sign; String line; do { System.out.println("Enter the exercise with =."); line = in.readLine(); StringTokenizer st=new StringTokenizer(line); first=Integer.parseInt( st.nextToken("-+*/") ); sign = ( st.nextToken("1234567890") ).charAt(0); second= Integer.parseInt( st.nextToken("=") ); switch(sign) { case '+': pitaron= first+second; break; case '-': pitaron= first-second; break; case '*': pitaron= first*second; break; case '/': pitaron= first/second; break; default : pitaron =0; } System.out.println(line + pitaron); } while( pitaron != 0); } } output: Enter the exercise with =. 12-33= 12-33=-21 StringTokenizer(st1,delim)- construct a StringTokenizer for st1. delim= the delimiters. StringTokenizer(st1)- construct a StringTokenizer for st1. delimiters= tab,\n,space.(default) nextToken(delim)- return the string until the delim. CountTokens()- return the number of tokens, using the current delimiter set. HasMoreTokens()- return boolean, test if there are more tokens available.

public class BuildDir { public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException { File from = new File("source.txt"); File newDir = new File("newDir"); File to = new File("newDir/target.txt"); newDir.mkdir(); FileReader in = new FileReader( from ); FileWriter out = new FileWriter( to ); int character; while( (character=in.read())!= -1 ) { out.write(character); } in.close(); out.close(); from.delete(); } } Useful methods of File getAbsoulutePath() return string. Absoulute path of the file. canRead(),canWrite()-return boolean .app can read/write to file. IsFile(), isDirectory()- return boolean. list()- return string[]. The list of the files in the directory. mkDir() return boolean. Creat a directory. renameTo(File des) return boolean. Renames the file name to the Des pathname.

-8Class RandomAccessFile +--java.io.RandomAccessFile public class RandomAccessFile extends Object implements DataOutput, DataInput

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


Example:
import java.io.*; public class CopyTwoToOne { public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException { RandomAccessFile in1; RandomAccessFile in2; RandomAccessFile out; in1=new RandomAccessFile("source1.txt","r"); out=new RandomAccessFile("target.txt","rw"); byte[] con = new byte[(int)in1.length()]; in1.readFully(con); out.write(con); in1.close(); out.close(); in2=new RandomAccessFile("source2.txt","r"); out=new RandomAccessFile("target.txt","rw"); out.seek( out.length() ); con = new byte[(int)in2.length()]; in2.readFully(con); out.write(con); out.writeUTF("end"); in2.close(); out.close(); } } Useful methods

Instances of this class support both reading and writing to a random access file. A random access file behaves like a large array of bytes stored in the file system. There is a kind of cursor, or index into the implied array, called the file pointer; input operations read bytes starting at the file pointer and advance the file pointer past the bytes read. If the random access file is created in read/write mode, then output operations are also available; output operations write bytes starting at the file pointer and advance the file pointer past the bytes written. Output operations that write past the current end of the implied array cause the array to be extended. The file pointer can be read by the getFilePointer method and set by the seek method. It is generally true of all the reading routines in this class that if end-of-file is reached before the desired number of bytes has been read, an EOFException (which is a kind of IOException) is thrown. If any byte cannot be read for any reason other than end-of-file, an IOException other than EOFException is thrown. In particular, an IOException may be thrown if the stream has been closed.

Since: JDK1.0 Constructor Summary RandomAccessFile(File file, String mode) Creates a random access file stream to read from, and optionally to write to, the file specified by the File argument. RandomAccessFile(String name, String mode) Creates a random access file stream to read from, and optionally to write to, a file with the specified name.

EXCEPTION HANDLING:
import java.io.*; import java.util.*; class IO { private String line;

readByte() / writeByte() readInt() / writeInt() readDouble() / writeDouble() readBoolean() /writeBoolean()

seek(long pos)- set the file pointer offset. length()- Return the length of the file. skipBytes(int n)

-9private StringTokenizer tokenizer;

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


public void newline(DataInputStream in) throws IOException { line = in.readLine(); if (line == null) throw new EOFException(); tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(line); }
public String readString(DataInputStream in) throws IOException {

if (tokenizer == null) newline(in); while (true) { try { return tokenizer.nextToken(); } catch (NoSuchElementException exception) { newline(in); } }

public static void main (String[] args) { System.out.println("This is the Java IO Example"); IO test = new IO(); DataInputStream file = null; try { file = new DataInputStream(new FileInputStream(books.txt)); } catch (FileNotFoundException fnfe) { System.out.println(Could not find file. + Please place books.txt in main directory); } try { while (true)
{ System.out.println(Type: + test.readString(file)); System.out.println(Name: + test.readString(file)); System.out.println(Cost1: + test.readDouble(file)); System.out.println(Cost2: + test.readDouble(file));

} }

public double readDouble(DataInputStream in) throws IOException {

if (tokenizer == null) newline(in); while (true) { try { String str = tokenizer.nextToken(); return Double.valueOf(str.trim()).doubleValue(); } catch (NoSuchElementException exception) { newline(in); } }

catch (EOFException exception) { //just exit the program } catch (IOException exception) { System.out.println(Exception occurred: + exception.getMessage()); } finally { System.out.println(This Line is printed anyhow.); } } }

- 10 INHERITANCE: class Car { boolean auto; int price; int maxSpeed = 120; Car() { auto = true; price = 100000; } Car (boolean auto, int price) { this.auto = auto; this.price = price; }

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


class PrivateCar extends Car { final int LEATHER = 1; final int STANDARD = 0; float engine; int seats = LEATHER; PrivateCar() { auto = false; price = 150000; } PrivateCar(float engine, int seats) { super(); //must be first command this.engine = engine; this.seats = seats; super.speed(100); } public void speed(int max) { maxSpeed = max*2; } public static void main(String[] args) { PrivateCar a = new PrivateCar(); a.speed(100); if (a instanceof PrivateCar) System.out.println("a is a PrivateCar"); }

Car (int speed) { this(); //must be first command maxSpeed = speed; } public void speed (int max) { maxSpeed = max; } public int cost() { return price; } public static void main(String[] args) { Car a = new Car(); Car b = new Car(true, 120000); b.speed(80); int c = b.cost(); } } }

protected- class is accessible jast for its subclasses and package members. public - class is publicly accessible. abstract - class cant be instantiated. final - class cant be subclassed.

- 11 INTERFACES:
interface ProductsInterface { public String getName(); public int getAvailableCount(); public String getKind(); public double getCost(); } class Book { public public public implements ProductsInterface String m_Name; int m_Available; double m_Cost;

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


class AmericanDisk extends IsraelDisk { public double m_DollarRate; public AmericanDisk(String name, int avail, double cost, double rate) { super(name, avail, cost); m_DollarRate = rate; } public String getKind() {return super.getKind() +"[A]";} public double getCost() {return m_Cost * m_DollarRate;} } class Inherit { public static void main(String[] args) { ProductsInterface[] arr = new ProductsInterface[3]; arr[0] = new Book("My Michael - Amos Oz", 10, 56.50); arr[1] = new IsraelDisk("Moon - Shlomo Artzi", 5, 87.90); arr[2] = new AmericanDisk("Frozen - Madonna", 17, 21.23, 4.25); System.out.println("Kind \t\t Name \t\t\t Available + \t\t Cost"); for (int i=0; i<arr.length; i++) { System.out.print(arr[i].getKind() + "\t\t"); System.out.print(arr[i].getName() + "\t\t"); System.out.print(arr[i].getAvailableCount()+ "\t\t"); System.out.println(arr[i].getCost()); } } }

public Book(String name, int avail, double cost) { m_Name = name; m_Available = avail; m_Cost = cost; } public public public public } class IsraelDisk implements ProductsInterface { public String m_Name; public int m_Available; public double m_Cost; public IsraelDisk(String name, int avail, double cost) { m_Name = name; m_Available = avail; m_Cost = cost; } public public public public } String getName() {return m_Name; } int getAvailableCount() {return m_Available; } String getKind() {return "Disk";} double getCost() {return m_Cost;} String getName() {return m_Name; } int getAvailableCount() {return m_Available; } String getKind() {return "Book";} double getCost() {return m_Cost;}

OUTPUT: Kind Name Book My Michael - Amos Oz Disk Moon - Shlomo Artzi Disk[A] Frozen - Madonna

Available 10 5 17

Cost 56.5 87.9 90.2275

- 12 java.awt.* Important event sources and their listeners:


Event Source Window Button List MenuItem TextField Choice Checkbox List The keyboabrd (component) Listener WindowListener ActionListener

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


Awt Components: Label -For titles, legends, etc. Button -Push buttons TextComponent -Text input (TextField) & display (TextArea) CheckBox -On/Off or Yes/No checkboxes ComboBox -Popup choice list, only one choice List/Choice -Displayed choice list, multiple choices ScrollBar -Nu, Beemet Usage: < container >.add( <components>); Example: Button b=new Button(press); Panel.add(b); Layouts: BorderLayout -North/South/East/West/Center (def. for Frames) FlowLayout -Normal arrangement (def. for Panels, Applets) CardLayout -Overlapping panels GridLayout -Frame is divided into rows and columns GridBagLayout -you can divid one row to num of columns,( vice versa). null - lack of layout, the component set by coordinates. Usage: < container >.setLayout( <Layout>); or Example: Panel p = new Panel( new GridLayout(2,2) ); Check out: http://developer.java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/GUI/AWTLayoutMgr/index.html For an example on layouts.

Event Source

ItemListener

KeyListener

Listener( method )

Important listener interfaces and their methods:


Listener Interface ActionListener FocusListener ItemListener KeyListener Listener Methods actionPerformed(ActionEvent) focusGained(FocusEvent) focusLost(FocusEvent) itemStateChanged(ItemEvent) keyPressed(KeyEvent) keyReleased(KeyEvent) keyTyped(KeyEvent) mouseClicked(MouseEvent) mouseEntered(MouseEvent) mouseExited(MouseEvent) mousePressed(MouseEvent) mouseReleased(MouseEvent) mouseDragged(MouseEvent) mouseMoved(MouseEvent) windowActivated(WindowEvent) windowClosed(WindowEvent) windowClosing(WindowEvent) windowDeactivated(WindowEvent) windowDeiconified(WindowEvent) windowIconified(WindowEvent) windowOpened(WindowEvent)

MouseListener

MouseMotionListener

WindowListener

- 13 ActivatorAWT.java (AWT version)


import java.awt.*; import java.awt.event.*;

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


Activator.java (Swing version)
import java.awt.*; import java.awt.event.*; import javax.swing.*; public class Activator { public static void main(String[] args) { try { UIManager.setLookAndFeel ("com.sun.java.swing.plaf.windows.WindowsLookAndFeel"); } catch (Exception e) { System.out.println("Exception: " + e.getMessage()); } JButton b; ActionListener al = new MyActionListener(); JFrame f = new JFrame("Hello Java"); //always add contents to content pane. Never to Frame!!! Container c = f.getContentPane(); c.add(b = new JButton("Hola"), BorderLayout.NORTH); b.setActionCommand("Hello"); b.addActionListener(al); c.add(b=new JButton("Aloha"), BorderLayout.CENTER); b.addActionListener(al); c.add(b = new JButton("Adios"), BorderLayout.SOUTH); b.setActionCommand("Quit"); b.addActionListener(al); f.pack(); f.show(); } System.out.println(s + " selected"); } }

public class ActivatorAWT { public static void main(String[] args) { Button b; ActionListener al = new MyActionListener(); Frame f = new Frame("Hello Java"); f.add(b = new Button("Hola"), BorderLayout.NORTH); b.setActionCommand("Hello"); b.addActionListener(al); f.add(b=new Button("Aloha"), BorderLayout.CENTER); b.addActionListener(al); f.add(b = new Button("Adios"), BorderLayout.SOUTH); b.setActionCommand("Quit"); b.addActionListener(al); f.pack(); f.show(); } } class MyActionListener implements ActionListener { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { //Action Command is not necessarily label String s = e.getActionCommand(); if (s.equals("Quit")) System.exit(0); else if (s.equals("Hello")) System.out.println("Bon Jour"); else } other method: getSource()return a reference (pointer) to the component that was activated.

class MyActionListener looks exactly the same as before Other methods on frames: setTitle(String title) setBackground(Color col) resize(int x, int y) setLayout(LayoutManager manager) hide()

- 14 ItemListener
import java.awt.*; import java.awt.event.*;

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


setVisible(boolean bool)

FocusListener
import java.awt.*; import java.awt.event.*; public class FocusEvApp extends Frame implements FocusListener { TextField[] tf;

public class ItemEvApp extends Frame implements ItemListener { Checkbox[] c; Label label; GridLayout gl; ItemEvApp() { gl= new GridLayout(3,2); setLayout(gl); c =new Checkbox[4]; String[] labels = { "first","second","third","fourth" };

public FocusEvApp() { setLayout( new GridLayout(2,1) ); tf = new TextField[2]; for(int i=0; i<2; i++) { for( int i=0; i<4; i++) tf[i]=new TextField(); { tf[i].addFocusListener(this); c[i]=new Checkbox(labels[i]); add(tf[i]); add(c[i]); } c[i].addItemListener(this); } } public void focusGained(FocusEvent e) label=new Label(" chose a checkbox. "); add(label); { } Object source = e.getSource(); public void itemStateChanged(ItemEvent e) if( source == tf[0] ) { tf[0].setText(" I am in focus "); if(e.getSource() == c[3]) else if( source == tf[1] ) label.setText("I am the fourth check box"); tf[1].setText(" I am in focus "); else } label.setText(e.getItem()+" was changed to "+e.getStateChange()); } public void focusLost(FocusEvent e) public static void main(String[] args) { { Object source = e.getSource(); ItemEvApp app = new ItemEvApp(); if( source == tf[0] ) app.pack(); tf[0].setText(" I lost focus "); app.show(); else if( source == tf[1] ) } tf[1].setText(" I lost focus "); } } public static void main(String[] args) { FocusEvApp app = new FocusEvApp(); app.pack(); app.show(); } }

- 15 More on Listeners: Implementing an interface:


public class MyClass implements ActionListener { ... someObject.addActionListener(this); ...

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


Anonymous inner classes:
public class MyClass extends JApplet { ... someObject.addMouseListener(new MouseAdapter() { public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent e) { ... //Event Handler implementation goes here... } }); ... }

public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { ... //Event Handler implementation goes here... } }

Using Event Adapters: To use an adapter, you create a subclass of it, instead of directly implementing a listener interface.
/* * An example of extending an adapter class instead of * directly implementing a listener interface. */ public class MyClass extends MouseAdapter { ... someObject.addMouseListener(this); ... public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent e) { ... //Event Handler implementation goes here... } }

Looks and feels supported by Swing: 1 javax.swing.plaf.metal.MetalLookAndFeel 2 com.sun.java.MotifLookAndFeel 3 com.sun.java.WindowsLookAndFeel

Inner classes:
//An example of using an inner class public class MyClass extends JApplet { ... someObject.addMouseListener(new MyAdapter()); ... class MyAdapter extends MouseAdapter { public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent e) { ... //Event Handler implementation goes here... } } }

- 16 APPLETS Converting an application to an applet:

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


Example of an HTML file and Applet
Hello.java import java.awt.*; import java.applet.*; public class Hello extends Applet { Font f; public void init() { String myFont= getParameter("font"); int mySize= Integer.parseInt(getParameter("size")); f=new Font(myFont, Font.BOLD,mySize); } public void paint(Graphics g) { g.setFont(f); g.setColor(Color.red); g.drawString("Hello",5,40); } } Hello.html <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE> Hello world </TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H1> my first applet </H1> <APPLET CODE="Hello.class" CODEBASE="c:\myclasses" WIDTH=600 HEIGHT=100> <PARAM NAME=font VALUE="TimesRoman"> <PARAM NAME=size VALUE="40"> No Java support for APPLET ! </APPLET> <BODY> </HTML> short: without parameters etc <APPLET CODE="Hello.class" WIDTH=600 HEIGHT=100> </APPLET> archive: reduce time of download. <APPLET code="Hello.class" archive="Hello.jar" width=600 height=100 ></APPLET> new: <OBJECT CLASSID="java:Hello.class" HEIGHT=600 WIDTH=100> </OBJECT>

1. Change all I/O relevant to the user to awt interface


(System.out.println() g.drawstring()) 2. Ensure applet can be stopped by closing the window. 3. Import applet package: import java.applet.*; 4. Extend Applet class instead of Frame class: class MyApplet extends Applet { 5. main() method is no longer needed (can remain, but should call init()) 6. Remove setTitle(-) calls. 7. Replace the constructor with init() 8. New default layout manager is FlowLayout(). Change it if needed. 9. Replace Frame calls with Applet ones (dispose becomes destroy, createImage becomes getImage, etc.) 10. Replace file I/O with URL I/O or getParameter from HTML base document. 11. Create an HTML file that refers to this applet 12. Run HTML file through appletviewer or Internet browser. Applet Methods: public void init() public void start() public void stop() public void destroy() public void paint( Graphics g ) Important notes: 1. Make main applet class public! 2. Create WWW directory under home directory and move all relevant files into it. > mkdir WWW 3. Make WWW directory viewable to others. > chmod 755 WWW 4. Make all files under WWW directory viewable to others. > chmod 755 *.class *.gif 5. Make home directory viewable to others and passable. > chmod 755 <login> initialization functionality to the applet prior to the first time the applet is started. called after the applet has been initialized (init method), and every time the applet is reloaded in the browser. called by the browser when the containing web page is replaced. destroys the applet and releases all its resources.

- 17 SoundAndImageApplet
import java.applet.*; import java.awt.*; import java.net.*;

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


SoundAndImageAppletCanvas
import java.applet.*; import java.awt.*; import java.net.*; public class SoundAndImageAppletCanvas extends Applet { AudioClip clip; Image image; public void init() { setLayout( new GridLayout(1,1) ); URL soundURL=null; URL imageURL=null; try { soundURL = new URL( getCodeBase(),"sound.au" ); imageURL = new URL(getCodeBase(),"img.jpg"); } catch(MalformedURLException e){} clip = getAudioClip( soundURL); clip.loop(); image = getImage(imageURL); add( new ImageDrawer(image) ); } }

public class SoundAndImageApplet extends Applet { AudioClip clip; Image image; public void init() { setLayout( new GridLayout(1,1) ); URL imageURL=null; URL soundURL=null; try { imageURL = new URL( getCodeBase(),"img.jpg" ); soundURL = new URL( getCodeBase(),"sound.au" ); } catch( MalformedURLException e ){} image = getImage(imageURL); clip = getAudioClip( soundURL); clip.loop(); }

class ImageDrawer extends Canvas public void paint(Graphics g) { { Image image; g.drawImage(image,0,0,getSize().width,getSize().height,this); public ImageDrawer(Image image) }

{ }

this.image = image; public void paint(Graphics g) { g.drawImage(image,0,0,getSize().width,getSize().height,this); }

- 18 THREADS

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


Example1: class SimpleThread extends Thread { public SimpleThread(String str) { super(str); } public void run() { for (int i=0; i<10; i++) { System.out.println(i + " " + getName()); try { sleep((long)(Math.random()*1000)); } catch (InterruptedException e) {} } System.out.println("Done! " + getName()); } } public class TwoThreadsTest { public static void main(String[] args) { new SimpleThread("Jamaica").start(); new SimpleThread("Fiji").start(); } } OUTPUT: 0 Jamaica 0 Fiji 1 Jamaica 1 Fiji 2 Fiji 2 Jamaica 3 Jamaica 4 Jamaica 3 Fiji 4 Fiji 8 Fiji 8 Jamaica 9 Fiji Done! Fiji 9 Jamaica Done! Jamaica

There are two ways to create a new thread of execution. One is to declare a class to be a subclass of Thread. This subclass should override the run method of class Thread. An instance of the subclass can then be allocated and started. For example, a thread that computes primes larger than a stated value could be written as follows:
class PrimeThread extends Thread { long minPrime; PrimeThread(long minPrime) { this.minPrime = minPrime; } public void run() { // compute primes larger than minPrime . . . } }

The following code would then create a thread and start it running:

PrimeThread p = new PrimeThread(143); p.start();


The other way to create a thread is to declare a class that implements the Runnable interface. That class then implements the run method. An instance of the class can then be allocated, passed as an argument when creating Thread, and started. The same example in this other style looks like the following:
class PrimeRun implements Runnable { long minPrime; PrimeRun(long minPrime) { this.minPrime = minPrime; } public void run() { // compute primes larger than minPrime . . . } }

The following code would then create a thread and start it running:

- 19 Example2:
import java.awt.*; import java.util.*;

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


Example3:
import java.awt.*; import java.util.*; public class ThreadApp extends Frame { int sec=0; Label time; ClockThread runner; public ThreadApp() { time = new Label(sec+":"); add(time); runner = new ClockThread( time ); runner.start(); pack(); show(); } public static void main( String[] args ) { ThreadApp app=new ThreadApp(); } } class ClockThread extends Thread { Label time; int sec; public ClockThread(Label t) { time = t; } public void run() { while( true ) { sec++; time.setText(sec+":"); try { Thread.sleep(1000); } catch(InterruptedException e){} } } }

public class Clock extends Frame implements Runnable { int sec; Label time; Thread runner; public Clock(int sec) { this.sec=sec; time = new Label(sec+":"); add(time); start(); pack(); show(); } public void start() { if( runner == null ) { runner=new Thread(this); runner.start(); } } public void stop() { runner = null; } public void run() { while( runner != null ) { sec++; repaint(); try { Thread.sleep(1000); } catch(InterruptedException e){} } } public void paint( Graphics g ) { time.setText(sec+":"); } public static void main( String[] args ) { Clock c=new Clock(0); } }

- 20 NETWORKING IN JAVA
SERVER

(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )


CLIENT import java.net.*; import java.io.*; public class PrimeClient { public static final int PORT = 1301;// port out of the range of 1-1024 String hostName; Socket soc; public static void main(String args[]) throws IOException { //replace localhost =>args[0] or with url PrimeClient client = new PrimeClient("localhost"); client.go(); } public PrimeClient(String hostString) { this.hostName = hostString; } String readInput() throws IOException { BufferedReader in =new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader(System.in)); return( in.readLine() ); } public void go() throws IOException { soc = new Socket(hostName, PORT); BufferedReader ibr = new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader( soc.getInputStream())); PrintWriter pw = new PrintWriter( new OutputStreamWriter( soc.getOutputStream()),true); System.out.println("************** Check Prime *************"); System.out.println("Enter a number."); pw.println( readInput() ); System.out.println(ibr.readLine()); ibr.close(); pw.close(); soc.close();

import java.io.*; import java.net.*; import java.util.*; public class PrimeServer { private ServerSocket sSoc; public static final int PORT = 1301;

// port out of the range of 1-1024

public static void main(String args[]) throws IOException { PrimeServer server = new PrimeServer(); server.go(); } public void go() throws IOException { Socket soc = null; sSoc = new ServerSocket(PORT); while(true) { soc = sSoc.accept(); // blocks until a connectio occurs PrintWriter pw = new PrintWriter( //creating an OutputStream object new OutputStreamWriter( soc.getOutputStream()),true); BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader( soc.getInputStream())); int num = Integer.parseInt( br.readLine() ); pw.println( prime(num) ); pw.close(); br.close(); soc.close(); } } String prime( int num ) { for(int i=2; i*i<= num; i++) if( num%i==0 ) return(num +" is not a primary number."); return(num +" is a primary number."); } }

} }

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(Java Notes 2011 SSN SAN )