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Introduction Sulphuric acid

9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid 9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid 9.1.3 The industrial process in manufacture of sulphuric acid 9.1.4 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid Ammonia and its salt

9.2.1 Properties of ammonia 9.2.2 The uses of ammonia 9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia Alloys

9.3.1 Physical properties of pure metas 9.3.2 Meaning and purpose of making alloys 9.4 Synthetic polymers 9.4.1 The meaning and types of polymers 9.4.2 Advantages of synthetic polymers 9.4.3 Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers 9.4.4 Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers 9.5 Glass and ceramics 9.6 Composite material Conclusion References

All the objects that exist around us are made up of chemical substances. These objects exist an element, compound or mixture. All these objects contribute benefit to humankind. As time goes on, human has done many researches to ensure all these chemical substances will be enough for the use of themselves. Chapter 9 of Form 4 syllabus introduces the students with manufactured substances in industry. This is important for the students to appreciate the knowledge of chemistry that is still new for themselves. Personally, I think that this chapter is an interesting chapter as it revealed the way of scientist produces the material around me. It also gives me new knowledges of the uses of chemical substances that I usually found in the laboratories. I hope, by learning this chapter, I will be more interested in learning chemistry as it will help me in the future. All the equations from this chapter make me more understand of the previous chapters.

9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid

1. Sulphuric acid is a strong mineral acid. 2. Its molecular formula is H2 SO4. 3. It is soluble in water. 4. Sulphuric acid is a non-volatile diprotic acid. 5. It is a highly corrosive, dense and oily liquid. 6. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless liquid





Diagram 9.1 shows the Properties of Sulphuric Acid

9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid

1) To manufacture fertilizers -There are many fertilizers that can be made of sulphuric acid. Some of them are: a) Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (superphosphate) b) Ammonium sulphate c) Potassium sulphate 2) To manufacture detergents - Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. Sulphonic acid is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents. 3) To manufacture synthetic fibres - Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Rayon is an example of a synthetic fibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose. 4) To manufacture paint pigments - The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate, BaSO4. The neutralization of sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate. 5) As an electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators 6) To remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating 7) To manufacture pesticides 8) The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are: - As a strong acid - As a drying or dehydrating agent - As an oxidizing agent - As a sulphonating agent - As a catalyst

Diagram 9.2 shows the Uses of Sulphuric Acid

9.1.3 The industrial process in manufacture sulphuric acid

1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact process. 2. Sulphuric acid is produced from sulfur, oxygen and water via the contact process. 3. The Contact process involves three stages. Sulphur Sulphur dioxide Sulphur trioxide Sulphuric acid 4. Stage I: Production of sulphur dioxide gas, SO2. This can be done by two methods, a) Burning of sulphur in dry air. b) Burning of metal sulphide such as zinc sulphide in dry air. 5. Stage II: Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide SO3. This is then oxidised to sulphur trioxide under the following conditions: a) The presence of a vanadium(V) oxide as a catalyst. b) A temperature of between 450C to 550C. c) A pressure of one atmosphere 6. Stage III: Production of sulphuric acid a) Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 to produce oleum, H2S2O7 b) Oleum is reacted with water to form concentrated H2SO4. 7. In stage II, sulphur dioxide is dried first before being added to dry air to produce sulphur trioxide. This is: a) To remove water vapour b) To remove contaminants 8. In stage III, sulphur trioxide is not dissolved directly in water to produce sulphuric acid. This is because: a) sulphur trioxide has low solubility in water b) sulphur trioxide reacts violently and mists are formed instead of a liquid

Contact Process

A brief summary of the Contact Process: - Solid sulphur, S(s), is burned in air to form sulphur dioxide gas. - The gases are mixed with more air then cleaned by electrostatic precipitation to remove any particulate matter. - The mixture of sulphur dioxide and air is heated to 450 degree Celcius and subjected to a pressure of 101.3 - 202.6 kPa (1 -2 atmospheres) in the presence of a vanadium catalyst (vanadium(V) oxide) to produce sulphur trioxide, with a yield of 98%. - Any unreacted gases from the above reaction are recycled back into the above reaction. - Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in 98% (18M) sulphuric acid to produce disulphuric acid or pyrosulphuric acid, also known as fuming sulphuric acid or oleum. - Water is then added to the oleum to produce 98% of sulphuric acid.

9.1.4 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid

1. Sulphur dioxide is the main byproduct produced when sulphur-containing fuels such as coal or oil are burned. 2. Sulphuric acid is formed by atmospheric oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the presence of water. It also produces sulphurous acid. 3. Sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid are constituents of acid rain. 4. Acid rain can cause many effects such as: i. Corrodes concrete buildings and metal structure ii. Destroys trees and plants iii. Decrease the pH of th soil and make it become acidic iv. Acid rain flows into the rivers and increases the acidity of water and kill aquatic living things. 5. Hence, we must reduce the sulphur dioxide from the atmosphere by: i. Use low sulphur fuels to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide in exhaust gases ii. Remove sulphur dioxide from waste air by treating it with calcium carbonated before it is released


9.2.1 Properties of ammonia
1. A colourless, pungent gas. 2. Its molecular formula is NH3 3. It is extremely soluble in water. 4. It is a weak alkali. 5. It is about one half as dense as air 6. It reacts with hydrogen chloride gas to produce white fumes of ammonium chloride. NH3 + HCl NH4Cl 7. Ammonia is alkaline in property and reacts with dilute acids in neutralization to produce salts. For examples:
NH3 + HNO3 NH4NO3 2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2 SO4

8. Aqueous solutions of ammonia produces OH ions (except Na+ ion, K+ ion, and Ca 2+ ion) forming metal hydroxides precipitate.
Fe 3+ + 3OH Fe (OH) 3 Mg 2+ + 2OH Mg (OH) 2

9. Some metal hydroxides such as zinc hydroxide and copper (II) hydroxide dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia to form complexes.
Zn(OH)2 + 4NH3 [Zn(NH3)4] 2+ + 2OH Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4] 2+ + 2OH

Figure 9.3 A molecule of ammonia.

extremely soluble in water


Properties of Ammonia

pungent smell

weak alkaline

Diagram 9.4 shows the Properties of Ammonia

9.2.2 The uses of ammonia

1. The major use of ammonia and its compounds is as fertilizers. 2. Ammonia is also used for the synthesis of nitric acid. 3. Ammonium fertilizers contain ammonium ions, NH4+, that can be converted into nitrate ions by bacteria living in the soil. 4. Nitrogen is absorbed by plants to produce protein in the form of nitrates, NO3, which are soluble in water. 5. The effectiveness of ammonium fertilizers is determined by the percentage of nitrogen by mass in them. The fertilizer with a higher percentage of nitrogen is more effective. 6. The percentage of nitrogen by mass can be calculated using this formula:

Mass of nitrogen X 100% Molar mass of fertilizers

9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia

1. Haber process is the industrial method of producing ammonia. 2. It needs direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst, often iron. 3. Nitrogen gas used in Haber process is obtained from the frictional distillation of liquid air. 4. Hydrogen gas used in Haber process can be obtained by two methods: a) The reaction between steam and heated coke (carbon)
C + H20 CO + H2

b) The reaction between steam and natural gas ( consisting mainly of methane)
CH4 + 2H2O CO2 + 4H2

5. In the Haber process: A mixture consisting of one volume of nitrogen gas and three volume of hydrogen gas is compressed to a pressure between 200 500 atmospheres. The gas mixture is passed through a catalyst of powdered iron at a temperature of 450 - 550C. At this optimum temperature and pressure, ammonia gas is produced.
N2+ 3H2 2NH3

Making of Ammonia
Ammonia is manufactured by combining nitrogen and hydrogen in an important industrial process called the Haber process. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic.

Nitrogen gas is obtained from the fractional distillation of liquid air. Hydrogen gas is obtained through the reaction between natural gas and steam. Nitrogen and hydrogen are mixed in the ratio of 1 : 3

9.3.1 Physical properties of pure metals
1. Pure metals have the following physical properties a) b) c) d) e) Good conductor of electricity Malleable Ductile High melting and boiling point High density

2. Pure metals are weak and soft because the arrangement of atoms in pure metals make them ductile and malleable. a) A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and organized closed- packed structure. b) Pure metals are soft because the orderly arrangement of atom enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force is applied on them. This makes the metals ductile and can be drawn to form long wires. c) There are imperfections in the natural arrangements of metal atoms. Empty space exist in the structures of pure metals. When hammered or pressed, groups of metal atoms may slide into new positions in the empty spaces. This makes metals malleable, able to be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets. 3. The strong forces of attraction between metal atoms requires high energy to overcome it. Hence, most metals have high melting points. 4. The close-packed arrangement of metal atoms results in the high density of metals.

9.3.2 Meaning and purpose of making alloys

1. An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain composition in which the major component is a metal. 2. In the process of alloying, one or more foreign elements are added to a molten metal. When the alloy hardens, the positions of some of the metal atoms are replaced by the atoms of foreign elements, which size may be bigger or smaller than the original metal atoms. 3. In an alloy, these atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty space in the metal crystal structure. 4. Hence, the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each other easily. This makes the alloy harder and stronger, less ductile and less malleable than its pure metals. 5. The properties of a pure metal are thus improved by making them into alloys. There are three aims of alloying a pure metal: a) To increase the hardness and strength of a metal b) To prevent corrosion or rusting c) To improve the appearance of the metal surface

An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which metal is the major component. The making of alloy is:

To increase the strength and hardness of a pure metal. To prevent corrosion. To improve the appearance of a pure metal.

Pure Metal

Pure metal is made up of one type of atoms that are in same size. Therefore, when a force is applied, the layers of atoms can slide over one another. Thus, metals are ductile or can be stretched. There are some empty spaces in between the pure metal atoms. When a metal is knocked or pressed, groups of atoms may slide and then settle into new positions. Thus, metals are malleable or can be shaped.

Examples of Alloy


Some of the spaces between the metal atoms are filled up by the foreign atoms which may be bigger or smaller than the original metal atoms. The presence of foreign atoms disrupts the orderly arrangement or the pure metal. The layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over one another easily. This makes alloys stronger and harder than pure metals.

Examples of alloy
Alloy Steel Stainless steel Bronze Brass Magnalium Duralumin Pewter Solder cupronickel Composition 99 % iron + 1 % carbon 74 % iron + 18 % chromium + 8 % nickel 90 % copper + 10 % tin 70 % copper + 30 % zinc 70 % aluminium + 30 % magnesium 95 % aluminium + 4 % copper + 1 % magnesium 97 % tin + 3 % lead and antimony 50 % tin + 25 % copper 50 % lead + 75 % nickel


- 9.4.1 The meaning of polymers
1. Polymers can be defined as large molecules composed of numerous smaller, repeating units known as monomers which are joined by covalent bonds. 2. Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined together to form the big molecule known as the polymers. 3. There are two types of polymerization process: a) Addition polymerization b) Condensation polymerization 4. A polymer is a very big molecule (macromolecule). Hence, the relative molecular mass of a polymer is large. 5. The properties of polymer are different from its monomers.

6. Polymers can be divided into two types: Naturally occurring polymers 1. This type of polymer exists in living things in nature like the plants and animals. 2. Examples of naturally occuring polymers are: a) Protein b) Carbohydrate c) Natural rubber 3. Naturally occuring polymers are formed by the joining of monomers by polymerization. 4. Protein is formed by the joining of monomers known as amino acid. 5. Carbohydrate is formed by the joining of monomers known as glucose. 6. Natural rubber is formed by the joining of monomers known as isoprene. Synthetic polymers 1. This type of polymer are man-made by chemical process in the laboratories. 2. The raw material for synthetic polymers are obtained frompetroleum. 3. The types of synthetic polymers include: a) Plastics b) Fibres c) Elastomers 4. Examples of plastics are polythene(polyethylene),polyvinylchloride(PVC), polypropene (polypropylene), polystyrene , Perspex and bakelite. 5. Polythene and PVC are produced by addition polymerization 6. Examples of synthetics fibres are nylon and terylene. They are produced by condensation polymerization.

9.4.2 Advantages of synthetic polymers

strong and light

cheap Advantages of synthetic polymers able to resist corrosion inert to chemical reaction

Easily moulded or shaped and be coloured

can be made to have special properties

Diagram 9.5 shows the Advantages of Synthetic Polymers

9.4.3 Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers

a) As most of polymers are non-biodegradable, they will not decay like other organic garbage. b) Burning of polymers release harmful and poisonous gases.

9.4.4 Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers

a) Reduce, reuse and recycle synthetic polymers b) Develop biodegradable polymers


1. The main component of both glass and ceramic is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2. 2. Both glass and ceramic have the same properties as follow : a) b) c) d) e) f) Hard and brittle Inert to chemical reactions Insulators or poor conductors of heat and electricity Withstand compression but not stretching Can be easily cleaned Low cost of production

3. Differences between glass and cerement are, glass is transparent, while ceramic is opaque. Ceramic can withstand a higher temperature than normal glass. 4. Types of glass are a) Fused glass It is consist mainly of silica or silicon dioxide It has high heat resistance b) Soda lime glass It cannot withstand high temperatures c) Borosilicate glass It can withstand high temperature d) Lead glass High refractive index 5. Uses of improved glass for specific purpose a) Photochromic glass It is sensitive to light intensity b) Conducting glass It conducts electricity 6. Ceramic is a manufactured substances made from clay, with the main constituent of aluminosilicate with small quantity of sand and feldspar. 7. Superconductor is one improved ceramics for specific purposes.

1. Glass is made up from sand. 2. The major component of glass is SiO2. 3. There are four types of glass which are as follows: Fused glass Soda-lime glass Borosilicate glass Lead crystal glass

Name of Glass
Fused glass

Very high softening point (1700 C) hence, highly heat resistant. Transparent to ultraviolet and infrared light. Difficult to be made into different shapes. Does not crack when temperature changes (very low thermal expansion coefficient). Very resistant to chemical reactions. Low softening point (700 C), hence, does not withstand heating. Breaks easily. Cracks easily with sudden temperature changes (high coefficient of expansion). Less resistant to chemical reactions. Easy to be made into different shapes.

Chemical Composition
SiO2 (99%) Ba2 O 3 (1%)

Examples of uses
Telescope mirrors, Lenses, Optical fibres, Laboratory glass wares.

Soda lime glass

SiO2 (70%) Na2O (15%) CaO (3%) Others (5%)

Bottles Windowpanes Light bulbs Mirrors Bowls ( The most widely used type of glass)

Name of Glass
Borosilicate glass

High softening point (800C). Thus it is heat resistant. Does not crack easily with sudden temperature changes. Transparent to ultraviolet light. More resistant to chemical reactions. Does not break easily. Low softening point (600 C). High density. High refractive index. Reflects light rays and appears sparkling.

Chemical Composition
SiO2 (80%) Ba2 O 3 (15%) Na2O (3%) Al 2 O 3

Examples of uses
Laboratory apparatus Cooking utensils Electrical tubes Glass pipelines

Lead crystal glass

SiO2 (55%) PbO( 30%) K2O (10%) Na2O ( 3%) Al2 O 3 ( 2%)

Decorative items Crystal glassware Lens Prisms Chandeliers

1. Ceramic is a manufactured substance made from clay that is dried and then baked in a kiln at high temperature. 2. The main constituent of clay is aluminosilicate, (which consist of aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide) with small quantities of sand and feldspar. 3. Kaolinite is an example of high 4. Red clay contains iron (III) oxide which gives the red colour . 5. General uses ceramics are as follows of :
- very hard and strong but brittle - inert to chemical reaction - has a very high melting point - good electric and heat insulator - able to withstand compression


1. A composite material is a structural material formed by combining two or more materials with different physical properties, producing a complex mixture. 2. The composite material produced will have different properties far more superior to the original materials. Composite Materials
Reinforced concrete


Properties of Component
Hard but brittle, With low tensile strength Hard with high tensile strength but expensive and can corrode Transparent, does not reflect light rays. Heavy, strong but brittle and nonflexible Heavy, strong but brittle and nonflexible Light, flexible, elastic but weak and inflammable Transparent and not sensitive to light.

Properties of materials
Stronger, higher tensile strength, not so brittle, does not corrode easily, can withstand higher applied forces and loads, relatively cheaper



Fibre optics

Glass of low refractive index Glass of high refractive index

Reflect light rays and allow light to travel along the fibre.



Polyester plastic

Light, strong, tough, resilient and flexible, with high tensile strength and not flammable.

Photochromic glass


Sensitive to light: darkness when light intensity is high, becomes clear when light intensity.

Silver chloride, or Sensitive to light silver bromide

We must appreciate these various synthetic industrial materials.One of the way is by doing continuous research and development ( R & D ) to produce better materials used to improve our standard of living. As we live in a changing world, our society is getting more complex. New materials are required to overcome new challenges and problems we face in our daily lives. Synthetic material are developed constantly due to the limitation and shortage of natural materials. New technological developments are used by scientists to make new discoveries. New materials for clothing, shelter, tools and communication to improve our daily life are developed continuously for the well-being of mankind. New needs and new problem will stimulate the development of new synthetic materials. For example, the new use of plastic composite material will replace metal in the making of a stronger and lighter car body. This will save fuel and improve speed. Plastic composite materials may one day used to make organs for organ transplant in human bodies. This will become necessity with the shortage of human organ donors. The understanding of the interaction between different chemicals is important for both the development of new synthetic materials and the disposal of such synthetic materials as waste. A responsible and systemic method of handling the waste of synthetic materials and their by-product is important to prevent environmental pollution. The recycling and development of environmental friendly synthetic material should be enforced.