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A

Appendix
The goal of this appendix is to establish the essential notation, terminology, and algebraic skills that are used throughout the book.

Algebra
EXAMPLE 1 Algebra review
a. Evaluate 1- 3222>5. b. Simplify 1 1 . x - 2 x + 2 x4 - 5x2 + 4 c. Solve the equation = 0. x - 1
SOLUTION

a. Recall that 1-3222>5 = 31- 3221>542. Because 1- 3221>5 = 2 -32 = - 2, we have 5 1-3222>5 = 1- 222 = 4. Another option is to write 1-3222>5 = 31- 322241>5 = 10241>5 = 4. b. Finding a common denominator and simplifying leads to 1x + 22 - 1x - 22 1 1 4 = = 2 . x - 2 x + 2 1x - 221x + 22 x - 4 c. Notice that x = 1 cannot be a solution of the equation because the left side of the equation is undefined at x = 1. Because x Z 1, both sides of the equation can be multiplied by x - 1 to produce x4 - 5x2 + 4 = 0. After factoring, this equation becomes 1x2 - 421x2 - 12 = 0, which implies x2 - 4 = 1x - 221x + 22 = 0 or x2 - 1 = 1x - 121x + 12 = 0. The roots of x2 - 4 = 0 are x = ; 2 and the roots of x2 - 1 = 0 are x = ; 1. Excluding x = 1, the roots of the original equation are Related Exercises 1526 x = - 1 and x = ; 2.

Sets of Real Numbers


Figure A.1 shows the notation for open intervals, closed intervals, and various bounded and unbounded intervals. Notice that either interval notation or set notation may be used.

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APPENDIX A

a a a a a a

b b b b

[a, b] = {x: a x b} (a, b] = {x: a 6 x b} [a, b) = {x: a x 6 b} (a, b) = {x: a 6 x 6 b} [a, q) = {x: x a} (a, q) = {x: x 7 a}

Closed, bounded interval Bounded interval Bounded interval Open, bounded interval Unbounded interval Unbounded interval Unbounded interval Unbounded interval Unbounded interval

b b

(-q, b] = {x: x b} (-q, b) = {x: x 6 b} (-q, q)

FIGURE A.1

EXAMPLE 2 Solving inequalities Solve the following inequalities.


a. -x2 + 5x - 6 6 0
SOLUTION

b.

x2 - x - 2 0 x - 3

a. We multiply by - 1, reverse the inequality, and then factor: x2 - 5x + 6 7 0 Multiply by -1. 1x - 221x - 32 7 0 Factor.

The roots of the corresponding equation 1x - 221x - 32 = 0 are x = 2 and x = 3. These roots partition the number line (Figure A.2) into three intervals: 1- q , 22, 12, 32 , and 13, q 2. On each interval, the product 1x - 221x - 32 does not change sign. To determine the sign of the product on a given interval, a test value x is selected and the sign of 1x - 221x - 32 is determined at x.
(x Sign of 2)(x 3) 0 1 2 3 4 5

FIGURE A.2

A convenient choice for x in 1- q , 22 is x = 0. At this test value, 1x - 221x - 32 = 1-221-32 7 0. Using a test value of x = 2.5 in the interval (2, 3), we have A test value of x = 4 in 13, q 2 gives
The set of numbers
{x: x is in 1- q , 22 or 13, q 2 } may also be expressed using the union symbol: 1- q , 22 13, q 2

1x - 221x - 32 = 10.521-0.52 6 0. 1x - 221x - 32 = 122112 7 0.

Therefore, 1x - 221x - 32 7 0 on 1- q , 22 and 13, q 2. We conclude that the inequality - x2 + 5x - 6 6 0 is satisfied for all x in either 1- q , 22 or 13, q 2 (Figure A.2).

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APPENDIX A

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b. The expression

x2 - x - 2 changes sign only at points where the numerator or x - 3 x2 - x - 2 denominator of equals 0. Because x - 3 1x + 121x - 22 x2 - x - 2 = , x - 3 x - 3

the numerator is 0 when x = - 1 and x = 2, and the denominator is 0 at x = 3. 1x + 121x - 22 Therefore, we examine the sign of on the intervals 1- q , - 12, x - 3 1-1, 22, 12, 32 , and 13, q 2. 1x + 121x - 22 Using test values on these intervals, we see that 6 0 on Test Value x 1 x 2 x 3 Result x - 3 -2 1- q , -12 and (2, 3). Furthermore, the expression is 0 when x = - 1 and x = 2. 0 + + x2 - x - 2 2.5 + + Therefore, 0 for all values of x in either 1- q , -14 or 32, 32 x - 3 4 + + + + (Figure A.3).
(x Sign of 1)(x 2) x 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

Related Exercises 2730

Absolute Value
The absolute value of a real number x, denoted x , is the distance between x and the origin on the number line. (Figure A.4) More generally, x - y is the distance between the points x and y on the number line. The absolute value has the following definition and properties:
The absolute value is useful in
For example, 232 = 3 and 1a is nonnegative, we have 2a2 = a .
4 units 4 4 0 4 x units x 0 x x x units x x 5 5 units 5 5

simplifying square roots. Because

21- 322 = 19 = 3. Note that the solutions of x2 = 9 are x = 3 or x = ; 3.

For x

FIGURE A.4

Definition and Properties of the Absolute Value The absolute value of a real number x is defined as x = e Let a be a positive real number. 1. x = a 3 x = ; a
Property 6 is called the triangle
inequality.

x -x

if x 0 if x 6 0

2. x 6 a 3 -a 6 x 6 a 4. x a 3 -a x a 6. x + y x + y

3. x 7 a 3 x 7 a or x 6 - a 5. x a 3 x a or x - a

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FIGURE A.3

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APPENDIX A

EXAMPLE 3 Inequalities with absolute values Solve the following inequalities.


Then sketch the solution on the number line and express it in interval notation. a. x - 2 6 3
SOLUTION
3 1 0 x: x 2 2 3 3 5

b. 2x - 6 10

a. Using Property 2 of the absolute value, x - 2 6 3 is written as -3 6 x - 2 6 3. Adding 2 to each term of these inequalities results in -1 6 x 6 5 (Figure A.5). This set of numbers is written as 1-1, 52 in interval notation. b. Using Property 5, the inequality 2x - 6 10 implies that 2x - 6 10 or 2x - 6 - 10.

FIGURE A.5

2 0 x: 2x 6 10

FIGURE A.6

Cartesian Coordinate System


The conventions of the Cartesian coordinate system or xy-coordinate system are illustrated in Figure A.7.
y

The familiar 1x, y2 coordinate system

Quadrant II x 0, y 0

Quadrant I x 0, y 0 (x, y) y O x x

is named after Ren Descartes (15961650). However, it was introduced independently and simultaneously by Pierre de Fermat (16011665).

Quadrant III x 0, y 0

Quadrant IV x 0, y 0

FIGURE A.7
For any right triangle, a2 b2 c2.

Distance Formula and Circles


b

By the Pythagorean theorem (Figure A.8), we have the following formula for the distance between two points P11x1, y12 and P21x2, y22. Distance Formula The distance between the points P11x1, y12 and P21x2, y22 is
y1

a P2(x2, y2) (x2 x1)2 (y2 y1)2 y2

P1P2 = 21x2 - x122 + 1y2 - y122 .

P1(x1, y1)

x2

x1

(x2, y1)

FIGURE A.8

A circle is the set of points in the plane whose distance from a fixed point (the center) is a constant (the radius). This definition leads to the following equations that describe a circle.

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We add 6 to both sides of the first inequality to obtain 2x 16, which implies x 8. Similarly, the second inequality yields x - 2 (Figure A.6). In interval notation, the solution is 1- q ,-24 or 38, q 2 . Related Exercises 3134

APPENDIX A
y Upper half: y b r2 (x a)2

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Equation of a Circle The equation of a circle centered at 1a, b2 with radius r is y = b - 2r2 - 1x - a22 1x - a22 + 1y - b22 = r2.

Solving for y, the equations of the upper and lower halves of the circle (Figure A.9) are
b radius: r center: (a, b) x

y = b + 2r2 - 1x - a22 upper half of the circle

lower half of the circle.

Lower half: y

r2

(x

a)2

a. Find the equation of the circle with center 12, 42 passing through 1- 2, 12. b. Describe the set of points satisfying x2 + y2 - 4x - 6y 6 12.
SOLUTION

EXAMPLE 4 Sets involving circles

FIGURE A.9

a. The radius of the circle is the length of the line segment between the center 12, 42 and the point on the circle 1-2, 12, which is Therefore, the equation of the circle is 1x - 222 + 1y - 422 = 25. b. To put this inequality in a recognizable form, we complete the square on the left side of the inequality:
Recall that the procedure shown here for
completing the square works when the coefficient on the quadratic term is 1. When the coefficient is not 1, it must be factored out before completing the square.

212 - (-22)2 + 14 - 122 = 5.

x2 + y2 - 4x - 6y = x2 - 4x + 4 - 4 + y2 - 6y + 9 - 9

Add and subtract the square of half the coefficient of x.

= x2 - 4x + 4 + y2 - 6y + 9 - 4 - 9 t
1x - 222

= 1x - 222 + 1y - 322 - 13 Therefore, the original inequality becomes


A circle is the set of all points whose
distance from a fixed point is a constant. A disk is the set of all points within and possibly on a circle.

This inequality describes those points that lie within the circle centered at 12, 32 with radius 5 (Figure A.10). Note that a dashed curve is used to indicate that the circle itself is not part of the solution.
The solution to (x 2)2 (y 3)2 25 is the interior of a circle. y

1x - 222 + 1y - 322 - 13 6 12, or 1x - 222 + 1y - 322 6 25.

(2, 3)
1 1

Add and subtract the square of half the coefficient of y.

t
1y - 322 r 5 x

Related Exercises 3536

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FIGURE A.10

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APPENDIX A

Equations of Lines
y x2 x1, y2 y1, m 0

The slope m of the line passing through the points P11x1, y12 and P21x2, y22 is the rise over run (Figure A.11), computed as m = y2 - y1 change in vertical coordinate = . x2 - x1 change in horizontal coordinate

(x2, y2) (x1, y1) O x

y x2 (x1, y1) (x2, y2) O x x1, y2 y1, m 0

Equations of a Line Point-slope form The equation of the line with slope m passing through the point 1x1, y12 is y - y1 = m1x - x12. Slope-intercept form The equation of the line with slope m and y-intercept (0, b) is y = mx + b (Figure A.12a). General linear equation The equation Ax + By + C = 0 describes a line in the plane, provided A and B are not both zero. Vertical and horizontal lines The vertical line that passes through (a, 0) has an equation x = a; its slope is undefined. The horizontal line through (0, b) has an equation y = b, with slope equal to 0 (Figure A.12b).
y y mx (m 0) b y mx (m 0) b y

FIGURE A.11
Given a particular line, we often talk
about the equation of a line. But the equation of a specific line is not unique. Having found one equation, we can multiply it by any nonzero constant to produce another equation of the same line.

x a (m undefined)

(0, b)

y b (m 0)

(a)

(b)

FIGURE A.12

EXAMPLE 5 Working with linear equations Find an equation of the line passing through the points 11, -22 and 1-4, 52.
SOLUTION The slope of the line through the points 11, -22 and 1- 4, 52 is

m =

5 - 1-22 -4 - 1

Using the point 11, -22, the point-slope form of the equation is 7 y - 1-22 = - 1x - 12. 5
Because both points 11, - 22 and 1- 4, 52

7 7 = - . -5 5

Solving for y yields the slope-intercept form of the equation: 7 3 y = - x 5 5


Related Exercises 3740

lie on the line and must satisfy the equation of the line, either point can be used to determine an equation of the line.

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APPENDIX A

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Parallel and Perpendicular Lines


Two lines in the plane may have either of two special relationships to each other: they may be parallel or perpendicular.
y slope M Parallel lines slope m O m M x

Parallel Lines Two distinct nonvertical lines are parallel if they have the same slope; that is, the lines with equations y = mx + b and y = Mx + B are parallel if and only if m = M. Two distinct vertical lines are parallel.

EXAMPLE 6 Parallel lines Find an equation of the line parallel to


3x - 6y + 12 = 0 that intersects the x-axis at 14, 02. 1 x + 2. 2
SOLUTION Solving the equation 3x - 6y + 12 = 0 for y, we have

y =

1 1 This line has a slope of 2 and any line parallel to it has a slope of 2 . Therefore, the line 1 1 that passes through 14, 02 with slope 2 has the point-slope equation y - 0 = 21x - 42. After simplifying, an equation of the line is

y =

1 x - 2. 2
Related Exercises 4142

Notice that the slopes of the two lines are the same; only the y-intercepts differ.

The slopes of perpendicular lines are


negative reciprocals of each other. y slope m Perpendicular lines O x

Perpendicular Lines Two lines with slopes m Z 0 and M Z 0 are perpendicular if and only if mM = - 1, or equivalently, m = - 1>M.

mM

EXAMPLE 7 Perpendicular lines Find an equation of the line passing through the point 1-2, 52 perpendicular to the line /: 4x - 2y + 7 = 0.
SOLUTION The equation of / can be written y = 2x + 2 , which reveals that its slope is 2.
1 1 Therefore, the slope of any line perpendicular to / is - 2 . The line with slope - 2 passing through the point 1-2, 52 is 7

slope M

1 x y - 5 = - 1x + 22, or y = - + 4. 2 2
Related Exercises 4344

APPENDIX A EXERCISES
Review Questions
1. State the meaning of 5x: - 4 6 x 106 in words. Express the set 5x: - 4 6 x 106 using interval notation and draw it on a number line. Write the interval 1- q , 22 in set notation and draw it on a number line. Give the definition of x . 4. 5. 6. Write the inequality x - 2 3 without absolute value symbols. Write the inequality 2x - 4 3 without absolute value symbols. Write an equation of the set of all points that are a distance 5 units from the point (2, 3).

2. 3.

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1068 7. 8. 9.

APPENDIX A Explain how to find the distance between two points whose coordinates are known. Sketch the set of points 51x, y2: x2 + 1y - 222 7 166. What is the equation of the upper half of the circle centered at the origin with radius 6? 3536. Circle calculations Solve the following problems using the distance formula. 35. Find the equation of the lower half of the circle with center 1- 1, 22 and radius 3. 36. Describe the set of points that satisfy x2 + y2 + 6x + 8y 25. 3740. Working with linear equations Find an equation of the line / that satisfies the given condition. Then draw the graph of /. 37. / has slope 5>3 and y-intercept 10, 42. 38. / has undefined slope and passes through 10, 52. 39. / has y-intercept 10, -42 and x-intercept 15, 02. 40. / is parallel to the x-axis and passes through the point 12, 32. 4142. Parallel lines Find an equation of the following lines and draw their graphs. 41. the line with y-intercept 10, 122 parallel to the line x + 2y = 8 42. the line with x-intercept 1- 6, 02 parallel to the line 2x - 5 = 0. 4344. Perpendicular lines Find an equation of the following lines. 43. the line passing through 13, -62 perpendicular to the line y = - 3x + 2 44. the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the points 1- 9, 22 and 13, -52

10. What are the possible solution sets of the equation x2 + y2 + Cx + Dy + E = 0? 11. Give an equation of the line with slope m that passes through the point 14, - 22. 12. Give an equation of the line with slope m and y-intercept (0, 6). 13. What is the relationship between the slopes of two parallel lines? 14. What is the relationship between the slopes of two perpendicular lines?

Basic Skills
15. 11>82-2>3 17. 1u + v22 - 1u - v22 1 1 19. x x + h 2126. Algebra review 21. Factor y2 - y-2. 23. Solve u4 - 11u2 + 18 = 0. 25. Simplify 26. Rewrite 1x + h2 - x
3 3

1520. Algebra review Simplify or evaluate the following expressions without a calculator. 1a + h22 - a2 h

16. 2 - 125 + 21>25 3 18.

2 2 20. x + 3 x - 3

Further Explorations
22. Solve x3 - 9x = 0. 24. Solve 4x - 612x2 = - 8. 45. Explain why or why not State whether the following statements are true and give an explanation or counterexample. b. 242 = 21- 422 c. There are two real numbers that satisfy the condition x = - 2. d. p2 - 9 6 0. e. The point 11, 12 is inside the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin. f. 2x4 = x2 for all real numbers x. g. 2a2 6 2b2 implies a 6 b for all real numbers a and b. 4648. Intervals to sets Express the following intervals in set notation. Use absolute value notation when possible. 48. 12, 34 or 34, 52 49. 51x, y2: x - y = 06 46. 1- q , 122 47. 1- q , - 24 or 34, q 2 a. 216 = ; 4

1x + h - 1x , where h Z 0, without square roots in h the numerator. h for h Z 0.

2730. Solving inequalities Solve the following inequalities and draw the solution on a number line. 27. x2 - 6x + 5 6 0 29. x2 - 9x + 20 0 x - 6 28. x + 1 6 6 x + 2

30. x1x - 1 7 0

3134. Inequalities with absolute values Solve the following inequalities. Then draw the solution on a number line and express it using interval notation. 31. 3x - 4 7 8 33. 3 6 2x - 1 6 5 32. 1 x 10 34. 2 6 x - 5 6 6 2

4950. Sets in the plane Graph each set in the xy-plane. 50. 51x, y2: x = y 6

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