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Nama : Sylver Ivan Sabinus No.Kad Pengenalan : (911230-12-5923) Pensyarah : Miss Noraziah Rulah

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Spread Spectrum Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Summary

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Spread Spectrum
The spread spectrum has the larger bandwidth than the normal signals. The code word associated with the Spread Spectrum signal is independent of the

information carried by the signal. Also these signals are pseudo random in nature and therefore normal signals cannot demodulate the SS signal. Only special designed receiver can demodulate it to recover the information. Spread spectrum s designed to be used in wireless applications (LANs and WANs).A wireless transmission technique that requires a bandwidth several times the original

bandwidth.These are two techniques to spread bandwidth : Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) and Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)


A wireless transmission method in which the sender transmits at one carrier frequency for a short period of time , then hops to another carrier frequency for the same amount of time, hops again for the same amount of time, and so on.After N hops, the cycled is repeated. Technique uses M different carrier frequencies that are modulated by the source signal. At one moment, the signal modulates one carrier frequency. At the next moment, the signal modulates another carrier frequency. Although the modulation is done using one carrier frequency at a time, M frequencies are used in the long run. The bandwidth occupied by a source after spreading is BFHSS >> B.

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum


A wireless transmission method in which each bit to be sent by the sender is replaced by a sequence of bits called a chip code. Techniques also expands the bandwidth of the original signal, but the process is different. In, DSSS we replace each data bit with n bits using a spread code. Each bit is assigned a code of n bits, called chips where the chip rate is n times that of the data bit.

Summary
In spread spectrum (SS), we combine signal from different sources to fit into a larger bandwidth. Spread spectrum is designed to be used in wireless applications in which stations must be able to share the medium without interception by an eavesdropper and without being subject to jamming from malicious intruder. The frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) techniques uses M different carrier frequencies that are modulated by the source signal. At one moment, the signal modulates another carrier frequency. The direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technique expands the bandwidth of a signal by replacing each data bit with n bits using a spreading code. In other words, each bit is assigned a code of n bits, called chips.