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ORI GI NAL

Conjugate heat transfer study of incompressible turbulent


offset jet ows
E. Vishnuvardhanarao Manab Kumar Das
Received: 27 June 2008 / Accepted: 26 March 2009 / Published online: 28 April 2009
Springer-Verlag 2009
Abstract In the present case, the conjugate heat transfer
involving a turbulent plane offset jet is considered. The
bottom wall of the solid block is maintained at an iso-
thermal temperature higher than the jet inlet temperature.
The parameters considered are the offset ratio (OR), the
conductivity ratio (K), the solid slab thickness (S) and the
Prandtl number (Pr). The Reynolds number considered is
15,000 because the ow becomes fully turbulent and then it
becomes independent of the Reynolds number. The ranges
of parameters considered are: OR = 3, 7 and 11, K =
11,000, S = 110 and Pr = 0.01100. High Reynolds
number two-equation model (ke) has been used for
turbulence modeling. Results for the soliduid interface
temperature, local Nusselt number, local heat ux, average
Nusselt number and average heat transfer have been
presented and discussed.
List of symbols
C
p
Specic heat at constant pressure
C
e1
, C
e2
and C
l
Turbulence model constants
h Width of the jet
H Offset height
k Turbulent kinetic energy
K Ratio of thermal conductivity of solid
and uid
OR Offset ratio, H/h
p Static pressure
p
0
Ambient pressure
P Non-dimensional static pressure
Pr Prandtl number
Re Reynolds number, U
0
h/m
T Dimensional temperature
T
in
Inlet temperature
T
?
Ambient temperature
U
0
Average inlet jet velocity
u; v Dimensional mean velocities in x,
y-directions, respectively
U; V Non-dimensional velocities in X,
Y-directions, respectively
x, y Dimensional co-ordinates
X, Y Non-dimensional co-ordinates
Greek symbols
a, a
t
Laminar and turbulent thermal diffusivities,
respectively
e Dissipation
h Non-dimensionalized temperature.
m, m
t
Laminar and turbulent kinematic viscosity
q Density of uid
r
k
, r
e
Turbulence model constants
DT Reference temperature difference
E. Vishnuvardhanarao M. K. Das (&)
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati, Assam 781039, India
e-mail: manab@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in
E. Vishnuvardhanarao
e-mail: vishnu.kavuluru@gmail.com
Present Address:
E. Vishnuvardhanarao
Fluidyn Software and Consultancy Pvt. Ltd,
Bangalore 560 102, India
Present Address:
M. K. Das
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India
123
Heat Mass Transfer (2009) 45:11411152
DOI 10.1007/s00231-009-0486-9
1 Introduction
Wall jet and offset jet are commonly used for cooling
applications. Examples where these kinds of jet cooling are
utilized represent the ows like heat exchangers, uid
injectors, environmental dischargers, combustion cham-
bers, cooling systems and others. A schematic diagram of
an offset jet used for cooling a heated solid block is shown
in Fig. 1. When the height t = 0, the offset jet becomes a
wall jet. Asymmetric entrainment on both sides of the jet
causes the jet to deect towards the plate and nally atta-
ches to it. This is called the Coanda effect [1]. The jet is
mainly divided into three regions, viz. the recirculation
region, the impingement region and the wall jet region (as
shown in Fig. 1).
The details of the turbulent offset jet ow were studied
by several authors. Hoch and Jiji [2] have considered the
case of an offset jet in the presence of a free-stream motion.
The uid ow solution has been provided by them. Uti-
lizing this uid ow solution, Hoch and Jiji [3] later on
have provided the analytical solution for the temperature
distribution for the same geometry. In a study, Pelfrey and
Liburdy [4] have provided the details of the mean ow and
turbulent characteristics and showed how entrainment,
local pressure and turbulent energy components are affec-
ted by the jet curvature in the reattachment region. In this
study, the plate parallel to the jet was considered as adia-
batic. For large Reynolds numbers generally larger than
10
4
, the impingement distance becomes a function of the
offset ratio only. Holland and Liburdy [5] presented the
thermal characteristics of offset jets in a condition similar
to that of Pelfrey and Liburdy [4] for different offset ratios.
In the study, they examined the surface temperature dis-
tribution, the maximum temperature decay and the tem-
perature variations in three regions. Kim et al. [6] have
conducted an experimental study for Reynolds number
6,500 to 39,000. They have reported that the time-averaged
reattachment points are found to coincide with the maxi-
mum Nusselt number locations.
Yoon et al. [7] and Koo and Park [8] have performed the
numerical simulation and Nasr and Lai [9] have done an
experimental study of the offset jet. It was found that
although three turbulence models predict quantitatively,
the standard ke turbulence model predicts better the
reattachment length with the experimental value. Shuja
et al. [10] studied the jet impingement on a surface where
air is considered as the impinging gas. Four turbulence
models, including the standard ke, low Reynolds number
ke, and two Reynolds stress models, are introduced to
account for the turbulence.
Kanna and Das [11, 12] have carried out a steady-
state heat transfer study for a two-dimensional, laminar,
incompressible, plane wall jet ow for different geome-
tries. Results are presented in the form of isotherm,
Nusselt number, and average Nusselt number for a range
of Reynolds and Prandtl number. In another paper,
Vishnuvardhanarao and Das [13] have presented the
numerical solution of uid ow and heat transfer for
turbulent offset jet. The heat transfer study under adia-
batic wall boundary condition has also been compared
with the experimental results. In order to understand the
mechanism and its behavior, the detailed velocity and
temperature distribution in the domain are discussed. The
conjugate heat transfer studies of a turbulent wall jet
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of
the offset jet and a solid bock
1142 Heat Mass Transfer (2009) 45:11411152
123
under constant wall temperature and constant heat ux
conditions have been presented by the same authors in
references [14] and [15], respectively. Vishnuvardhanarao
and Das [16] have also reported the conjugate heat
transfer study of offset jet under constant heat ux
boundary condition.
In the present case, a conjugate heat transfer from a
solid block heated with a constant wall temperature is
considered. It is being cooled by a turbulent plane offset
jet. In the laminar ow regime, many publications are
devoted to conjugate heat transfer on at plate details of
which may be found in Kanna and Das [17]. However,
the conjugate heat transfer study involving a turbulent
ow has received little attention. Some of the conjugate
heat transfer works published in literature (involving
turbulent ow) are by Iaccarino et al. [18], Yilbas [19],
Kassab et al. [20] and Hsieh and Lien [21].
In the conjugate heat transfer approach, the conduc-
tion in the solid and the convection equations in the uid
regions are solved simultaneously. The near-wall treat-
ments of turbulence models are the key factors to yield
an accurate wall heat transfer predictions. In the standard
high Reynolds number ke models, wall functions are
commonly employed to bridge the turbulent and near-
wall viscous regions. In the present case, the conjugate
heat transfer involving a turbulent plane wall jet is
considered. The bottom of the solid slab is heated by a
constant temperature. The parameters considered are the
offset ratio, the conductivity ratio (solid/uid), the solid
slab thickness and the Prandtl number. The Reynolds
number considered is 15,000 because the ow becomes
fully turbulent and then it becomes independent of the
Reynolds number [5]. Powerlaw scheme is used for
discretizing the convective terms. In order to have the
same numerical accuracy for the uid ow solution as
reported in Koo and Park [8], higher grid size is used
and non-uniform grids are used along the walls and at
the entrance of jet. The geometry is similar to that of
Pelfrey and Liburdy [4].
2 Mathematical formulations
The ow is assumed to be steady, two-dimensional, tur-
bulent and the uid is incompressible. Body forces are
neglected and the properties are assumed to be constant.
Reynolds averaged NavierStokes (RANS) equations are
used for predicting the turbulent ow. Boussinesq
approximation is used to link the Reynolds stresses to the
velocity gradients. The standard ke model is used for
calculating the turbulent viscosity (m
t
). The dimensionless
variables are dened as:
U
u
U
0
; V
v
U
0
; X
x
h
; Y
y
h
; h
T T
1
T
h
T
1
P
p p
0
qU
2
0
; k
n

k
U
2
0
; e
n

e
U
3
0
=h
; t
t;n

t
t
t
; a
t;n

a
t
a
1
The non-dimensionalized equations are:
Continuity equation:
oU
oX

oV
oY
0 2
x-momentum equation:
oU
2
oX

oUV
oY

o
oX
P
2
3
k
n
_ _

1
Re
o
oX
1 t
t;n
_ _
oU
oX
_ _

1
Re
o
oY
1 t
t;n
_ _
oU
oY
_ _
3
y-momentum equation:
oUV
oX

oV
2
oY

o
oY
P
2
3
k
n
_ _

1
Re
o
oX
1 t
t;n
_ _
oV
oX
_ _

1
Re
o
oY
1 t
t;n
_ _
oV
oY
_ _
4
h-equation:
oUh
oX

oVh
oY

1
Re Pr
o
oX
1 a
t;n
_ _
oh
oX
_ _

1
Re Pr
o
oY
1 a
t;n
_ _
oh
oY
_ _
5
Turbulent kinetic energy (k
n
):
oUk
n

oX

oVk
n

oY

1
Re
o
oX
1
t
t;n
r
k
_ _
ok
n
oX
_ _

1
Re
o
oY
1
t
t;n
r
k
_ _
ok
n
oY
_ _
G
n
e
n
6
Rate of dissipation (e
n
):
oUe
n

oX

oVe
n

oY

1
Re
o
oX
1
t
t;n
r
e
_ _
oe
n
oX
_ _

1
Re
o
oY
1
t
t;n
r
e
_ _
oe
n
oY
_ _
C
1e
e
n
k
n
G
n
C
2e
e
2
n
k
n
7
Production (G
n
):
G
n

t
t;n
Re
2
oU
oX
_ _
2
2
oV
oX
_ _
2

oU
oX

oV
oX
_ _
2
_ _
8
Heat Mass Transfer (2009) 45:11411152 1143
123
Eddy viscosity (t
t,n
):
t
t;n
C
l
Re
k
2
n
e
n
9
Eddy diffusivity (a
t,n
):
a
t;n

t
t;n
Pr
10
3 Numerical scheme and method of solution
In the present work, the dimensionless governing equations
are discretized using the control volume method [22].
Powerlaw scheme is used to discretize the convective
terms and central difference is used for diffusive terms due
to the stability of the solution. To avoid the ne mesh
required to resolve the viscous sub-layer near the boundary,
wall function method [23] has been used which is appro-
priate for high Reynolds number ows. SIMPLE [22]
algorithm is followed to solve the nite difference equa-
tions. Pseudo-transient approach [24] is used to under-relax
the momentum and the turbulent equations. An under-
relaxation of 0.2 is used for pressure.
3.1 Boundary conditions
In this case, the ow of jet is emanating into a quiescent
ambient uid. The schematic diagram of the typical ow is
shown in Fig. 1. The cases computed here are for offset
ratio 3, 7 and 11. The non-dimensionalized boundary
conditions are provided as input to the solution. At the inlet
of the jet (EF) U 1:0; V 0:0 are the boundary condi-
tions for the velocities. For the turbulent kinetic energy
equation, the boundary condition at inlet is k
n
= 1.5I
2
where I the turbulence intensity and is equal to 0.02. For
the dissipation equation, the boundary condition is e
n

k
3=2
n
C
3=4
l
_ _
=l; where l = 0.07h is considered. For the solid
wall (i.e. AB, AE and FG), no slip boundary condition is
considered for velocity. Neumann boundary conditions are
provided for the top boundary (i.e. entrainment side, GH)
and at the exit boundary (i.e. BH), a developed condition of
q//qn = 0 is considered where / U; V; h; k
n
and e
n
:
It has been ensured that the rst grid point near the wall
falls in the logarithmic region, i.e. 30 \Y
?
\100 where
Y
?
= yu
s
/t, u
s
being the friction velocity.
Once the solution is obtained for velocity, it is used for
solving the energy equation, since the ow is incom-
pressible. In the present case, conjugate heat transfer
consisting of the solid block attached to the wall is con-
sidered. The inlet of the jet and quiescent ambient uid
temperatures are at h = 0. The left wall (i.e., AE and FG)
are considered adiabatic. On the entrainment side (GH)
X

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0.98
0.985
0.99
0.995
1
OR=3
OR=7
OR=11
X

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
OR=3
OR=7
OR=11
X

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
OR=3
OR=7
OR=11
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 2 Interface temperature distribution at the soliduid interface at
different offset ratios. a Pr = 0.01, S = 10 and K = 1,000. bPr = 1.0,
S = 10 and K = 1,000. c Pr = 100.0, S = 10 and K = 1,000
1144 Heat Mass Transfer (2009) 45:11411152
123
X

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Pr=0.01
Pr=0.1
Pr=1
Pr=10
Pr=100
X

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
S=1
S=2.5
S=5
S=7.5
S=10
X

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
K=1
K=10
K=50
K=100
K=500
K=1000
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 3 Interface temperature distribution at the soliduid interface
at OR = 7. a S = 10 and K = 1,000. b Pr = 1 and S = 10. c Pr = 1
and K = 1,000
X
N
u
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0.6
1
1.4
1.8
2.2
OR=3
OR=7
OR=11
X
N
u
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
OR=3
OR=7
OR=11
X
N
u
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
60
140
220
300
OR=3
OR=7
OR=11
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 4 Local Nusselt number distribution at different offset ratios.
a Pr = 0.01, S = 10 and K = 1,000. b Pr = 1, S = 10 and
K = 1,000. c Pr = 100, S = 10 and K = 1,000
Heat Mass Transfer (2009) 45:11411152 1145
123
X
N
u
x
0 20 40 60
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
Pr=0.01
Pr=0.1
Pr=1
Pr=10
Pr=100
X
N
u
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
10
20
30
40
50
K=1
K=10
K=50
K=100
K=500
K=1000
X
N
u
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
10
20
30
40
50
S=1
S=2.5
S=5
S=7.5
S=10
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 5 Local Nusselt number distribution and at OR = 7.
a S = 10 and K = 1,000. b Pr = 1 and S = 10. c Pr = 1 and
K = 1,000
X
q
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0.005
0.0075
0.01
0.0125
0.015
OR=3
OR=7
OR=11
X
q
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
0.0006
0.0012
0.0018
0.0024
0.003
OR=3
OR=7
OR=11
X
q
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
1E-05
2E-05
3E-05
4E-05
5E-05
6E-05
OR=3
OR=7
OR=11
(b)
(a)
(c)
Fig. 6 Interface heat transfer (q
x
) distribution for different offset
ratios. a Pr = 0.01, S = 10 and K = 1,000. b Pr = 1, S = 10 and
K = 1,000. c Pr = 100, S = 10 and K = 1,000
1146 Heat Mass Transfer (2009) 45:11411152
123
h = 0 is applied. To be more precise, the exit boundary
condition q
2
h/qX
2
= 0 has been used. At the bottom of the
solid block (i.e. CD) h = 1.0 is applied. Finally, at the
interface two conditions are met. One is temperature at
the interface should be equal and the other the heat transfer
across the interface must be equal. The details are men-
tioned in Appendix A.
3.2 Code validation and grid independence study
To validate the code developed, results obtained from the
present computation are compared with the experimental
results given by Pelfrey and Liburdy [4] for OR = 7.
Comparisons have been made with the experimental
velocity proles at different downstream locations of
X = 3 (recirculation region), 6 (recirculation region),
9 (impingement region), 12 (impingement region) and 15
(wall jet region). It is observed that very good agreement
with the experimental results have been obtained. The
details of the validation have been presented in Vishnu-
vardhanarao and Das [13].
After ensuring the code validation, a grid independence
study is carried out for all the cases and the effect of domain
size is also considered and tested. After doing considerable
numerical testing, it is found that a domain size of 75 9 35
and a grid size of 151 9 101 are satisfactory for all the
cases. Even though a grid size of 121 9 101 produces a
good solution, the grid size of 151 9 101 is considered for
all the cases. Similarly the grid independence test is also
done in the solid the block for one depth. For the other
depths, the grid size has been correspondingly increased,
which is reasonable in the solid block.
4 Results and discussion
In the present work, Re = 15,000 is chosen for all com-
putations. Three offset ratios 3, 7 and 11 are considered. At
each offset ratio, Prandtl number is varied from 0.01 to
100, solid thickness is varied from 1 to 10 and thermal
conductivity ratio is varied from 1 to 1,000. In order to
study the heat transfer characteristics, results are presented
in both graphical and tabulated forms.
4.1 Interface temperature
Figure 2ac shows the effect of offset ratio on the interface
temperature (h
i
) for Prandtl numbers 0.01, 1 and 100,
respectively, keeping the solid thickness (S = 10) and the
thermal conductivity ratio (K = 1,000) constant. It is found
that the minimum temperature is found at the reattachment
point and it increases with the offset ratio. Interface
X
q
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
Pr=0.01
Pr=0.1
Pr=1
Pr=10
Pr=100
X
q
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
K=1
K=10
K=50
K=100
K=500
K=1000
X
q
x
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
0.001
0.002
0.003
S=1
S=2.5
S=5
S=7.5
S=10
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 7 Interface heat transfer (q
x
) distribution and at OR = 7.
a S = 10 and K = 1,000. b Pr = 1 and S = 10. c Pr = 1 and
K = 1,000
Heat Mass Transfer (2009) 45:11411152 1147
123
temperature reduces rapidly up to the reattachment point
and increases in the same way in the development region. In
the similarity region, h
i
increases very slowly. It is observed
that the average temperature in the recirculation region
increases with the offset ratio for all Prandtl numbers. For
Pr = 0.01, in the developed and similarity regions for
OR = 11, average temperature falls below OR = 7. But,
for Pr = 1 and 100, average temperature in all the three
regions increases with the offset ratio. Figure 3a shows the
effect of Prandtl number on the interface temperature,
Table 1 Average Nusselt number Nu
_ _
at various Prandtl numbers for OR = 3
S (thickness of solid slab) Thermal conductivity
ratio K(k
s
/k
f
)
Nu (Pr = 0.01) Nu (Pr = 0.1) Nu (Pr = 1) Nu (Pr = 10) Nu (Pr = 100)
0 (non-conjugate) 1.20773 7.10002 27.4381 63.4983 133.003
1 1 1.26125 7.53327 28.1117 63.8422 133.152
1 100 1.20915 7.14658 27.6411 63.667 133.102
1 1,000 1.20787 7.10515 27.4661 63.529 133.028
5 1 1.28284 7.56459 28.1249 63.8451 133.153
5 100 1.21388 7.25205 27.8785 63.7765 133.137
5 1,000 1.20839 7.12142 27.5423 63.5978 133.071
10 1 1.28659 7.5685 28.1264 63.8455 133.153
10 100 1.21837 7.31407 27.9545 63.8006 133.143
10 1,000 1.20893 7.13671 27.6013 63.6398 133.091
Table 2 Average Nusselt number Nu
_ _
at various Prandtl numbers for OR = 7
S (thickness of solid slab) Thermal conductivity
ratio K(k
s
/k
f
)
Nu (Pr = 0.01) Nu (Pr = 0.1) Nu (Pr = 1) Nu (Pr = 10) Nu (Pr = 100)
0 (non-conjugate) 1.03974 6.32644 24.5308 56.619 118.506
1 1 1.07596 6.65482 25.0298 56.869 118.614
1 100 1.04063 6.35873 24.6713 56.7367 118.577
1 1,000 1.03983 6.32996 24.5495 56.6392 118.523
5 1 1.09243 6.68167 25.0405 56.8713 118.615
5 100 1.04364 6.4383 24.8561 56.8232 118.604
5 1,000 1.04015 6.34185 24.6048 56.6895 118.555
10 1 1.09546 6.68516 25.0418 56.8716 118.615
10 100 1.04651 6.48665 24.9184 56.8432 118.609
10 1,000 1.04049 6.35284 24.6472 56.7205 118.57
Table 3 Average Nusselt number Nu
_ _
at various Prandtl numbers for OR = 11
S (thickness of solid slab) Thermal conductivity
ratio K(k
s
/k
f
)
Nu (Pr = 0.01) Nu (Pr = 0.1) Nu (Pr = 1) Nu (Pr = 10) Nu (Pr = 100)
0 (non-conjugate) 1.11616 6.32302 23.8996 54.6758 114.202
1 1 1.15479 6.68075 24.4173 54.928 114.31
1 100 1.11719 6.35867 24.0395 54.7891 114.27
1 1,000 1.11627 6.32691 23.918 54.6947 114.217
5 1 1.17064 6.70955 24.429 54.9306 114.311
5 100 1.12077 6.44792 24.2327 54.8783 114.299
5 1,000 1.11666 6.34041 23.9746 54.7441 114.249
10 1 1.17341 6.71329 24.4305 54.9309 114.311
10 100 1.12405 6.5016 24.2992 54.8995 114.304
10 1,000 1.11705 6.35269 24.0184 54.7754 114.264
1148 Heat Mass Transfer (2009) 45:11411152
123
keeping the S = 10 and K = 1,000 at OR = 7. It is found
that the interface temperature reduces as the Prandtl number
increases. Figure 3b and c shows the effect of thermal
conductivity ratio (K) and slab thickness (S). As expected
interface temperature reduces with the decrease in thermal
conductivity ratio and increase in the slab thickness.
Table 4 Heat transfer across the interface (Q
i
) at various Prandtl numbers for OR = 3
S (thickness of solid slab) Thermal conductivity
ratio K (k
s
/k
f
)
Q
i
(Pr = 0.01) Q
i
(Pr = 0.1) Q
i
(Pr = 1) Q
i
(Pr = 10) Q
i
(Pr = 100)
0 (non-conjugate) 0.603864 0.355001 0.13719 0.03174 0.00665
1 1 0.275973 0.043828 0.00481 0.00049 4.96E-05
1 100 0.596952 0.331407 0.10669 0.0191 0.002806
1 1,000 0.603166 0.352491 0.13332 0.0297 0.005820
5 1 0.086138 0.009726 0.00099 9.97E-05 9.98E-06
5 100 0.570637 0.261842 0.05723 0.00752 0.000863
5 1,000 0.600376 0.342777 0.12001 0.02381 0.003931
10 1 0.046282 0.004930 0.00049 4.99E-05 5.00E-06
10 100 0.540632 0.207507 0.03635 0.00429 0.000463
10 1,000 0.59691 0.331391 0.10687 0.01915 0.002812
Table 5 Heat transfer across the interface (Q
i
) at various Prandtl numbers for OR = 7
S (thickness of solid slab) Thermal conductivity
ratio K (k
s
/k
f
)
Q
i
(Pr = 0.01) Q
i
(Pr = 0.1) Q
i
(Pr = 1) Q
i
(Pr = 10) Q
i
(Pr = 100)
0 (non-conjugate) 0.51987 0.316322 0.12265 0.02831 0.005925
1 1 0.256775 0.043144 0.00479 0.00049 4.96E-05
1 100 0.514697 0.297312 0.09762 0.0177 0.002664
1 1,000 0.519348 0.31431 0.11954 0.0266 0.005257
5 1 0.084177 0.009691 0.00099 9.96E-05 9.98E-06
5 100 0.494899 0.239924 0.05444 0.00730 0.000848
5 1,000 0.517264 0.306531 0.10870 0.02181 0.003663
10 1 0.045711 0.004922 0.00049 4.99E-05 5.00E-06
10 100 0.472091 0.19345 0.03520 0.00421 0.000459
10 1,000 0.514676 0.297375 0.09781 0.01784 0.002672
Table 6 Heat transfer across the interface (Q
i
) at various Prandtl numbers for OR = 11
S (thickness of solid slab) Thermal conductivity
ratio K(k
s
/k
f
)
Q
i
(Pr = 0.01) Q
i
(Pr = 0.1) Q
i
(Pr = 1) Q
i
(Pr = 10) Q
i
(Pr = 100)
0 (non-conjugate) 0.55808 0.316151 0.11949 0.02733 0.005710
1 1 0.266138 0.043158 0.00479 0.00049 4.95E-05
1 100 0.552174 0.297238 0.09561 0.01739 0.002619
1 1,000 0.557486 0.314151 0.11655 0.02582 0.005089
5 1 0.085170 0.009692 0.00099 9.96E-05 9.98E-06
5 100 0.529653 0.239985 0.05378 0.00723 0.000843
5 1,000 0.555109 0.306407 0.10621 0.02123 0.003578
10 1 0.046002 0.004922 0.00049 4.99E-05 5.00E-06
10 100 0.503774 0.193531 0.03491 0.00419 0.000457
10 1,000 0.552154 0.297281 0.09576 0.01744 0.002625
Heat Mass Transfer (2009) 45:11411152 1149
123
4.2 Local Nusselt number
Figure 4ac shows the effect of the offset ratio on the
local Nusselt number (Nu
x
) distribution for Prandtl
numbers 0.01, 1 and 100, respectively, keeping the solid
thickness (S = 10) and thermal conductivity ratio
(K = 1,000) constant. The local Nusselt number is
maximum at the reattachment point and reduces with the
offset ratio. Nu
x
increases rapidly up to the reattachment
point and decreases in the same way after the impinge-
ment region. It then decreases slowly in the similarity
region. Figure 5a shows the effect Prandtl number on
Nu
x
at S = 10 and K = 1,000 for offset ratio 7. It
clearly shows that the local Nusselt number decreases
with the decrease in Prandtl number. It is found that, at
the same offset ratio, the peak Nusselt number occurs
always at the reattachment point. Figure 5b and c elu-
cidates that there is no effect of thermal conductivity
ratio and slab thickness on the local Nusselt number for
a conjugate heat transfer situation. This is because the
Nusselt number is governed by the uid ow and thus is
unaffected by the solid properties.
4.3 Local heat ux
Figure 6ac shows the variation of local heat transfer (q
x
)
across the interface for Prandtl number (Pr) 0.01, 1 and
100, respectively at constant solid thickness (S = 10) and
thermal conductivity ratio (K = 1,000) for different offset
ratios (OR). It is observed that the local heat transfer is
maximum (q
max
) at the reattachment point and reduces
with the offset ratio. Heat transfer rapidly increases up to
the reattachment point and then decreases in the same way
in the impingement region. It then decreases gradually in
the wall jet region. Figure 7a shows the variation of q
x
at
various Pr at constant S = 10, K = 1,000 and OR = 7. q
x
increases with the decrease in the Prandtl number. Though
q
x
decreases with increase in the Pr, heat transfer is max-
imum at the reattachment point. Figure 7b shows the effect
of thermal conductivity ratio (K) on the heat transfer at
constant S = 10, Pr = 1 and OR = 7. As expected, the
heat transfer reduces drastically with the decrease in K. It is
found that at low K, heat transfer is constant and the effect
of recirculating region, impingement region are negligible.
Figure 7c shows the effect of solid thickness (S) at constant
Pr = 1, K = 1,000 and OR = 7. It is found that there is a
considerable effect of the slab thickness on the heat transfer
and the heat transfer reduces as S increases.
4.4 Average Nusselt number
Extensive computations are done in their respective ran-
ges and results of the average Nusselt number Nu
_ _
are
presented in Tables 1, 2 and 3 for offset ratios 3, 7 and
11, respectively. It shows clearly that Nu is a function of
Prandtl number only. The effect of solid thickness (S) and
thermal conductivity ratio (K) are negligibly small. It is
observed that Nu increases with the increase of Pr. It is
found that, for high Prandtl number uids, average
Nusselt number reduces with the increase in offset ratio.
At Pr = 0.01, Nu of OR = 11 is higher than that of
OR = 7.
4.5 Average heat transfer
The average heat transfer (Q
i
) integrated over the surface
for various S, K and Pr are shown in Tables 4, 5 and 6 for
offset ratio 3, 7 and 11, respectively. The heat transfer for
the conjugate case is compared with the non-conjugate case
(S = 0). It is observed that as the solid thickness increases,
heat transfer decreases. However, as K is increasing, Q
i
increases. For K = 1,000, Q
i
approaches almost equal to
the non-conjugate case. It is observed that at high Prandtl
number, the non-dimensionalized average heat transfer
reduces with the offset ratio. At Pr = 0.01, Q
i
of OR = 11
is higher than the OR = 7.
5 Conclusions
In the present case, the conjugate heat transfer study
involving a turbulent plane offset jet is considered. The
bottom of the solid block is maintained at a constant
isothermal temperature. The parameters considered are
the offset ratio, the conductivity ratio, the solid slab
thickness and the Prandtl number. The Reynolds number
considered is 15,000 because the ow becomes fully
turbulent and independent of the Reynolds number. It is
observed that the minimum interface temperature is found
at the reattachment point. The interface temperature
reduces rapidly up to the reattachment point and there-
after it increases. With the increase in OR, the interface
temperature increases. The interface temperature decrea-
ses with increase in Pr. It increases with K and decreases
with S. The local Nu
x
decreases with the increase in OR.
It increases with the increase in Pr. However, Nu
x
remains nearly unaffected by the variation of K and S.
The non-dimensional local heat ux (q
x
) decreases with
the increase in OR. It decreases with the increase in Pr. It
increases with the increase in K and decrease with the
increase in S. The average Nusselt number data as tabu-
lated shows clearly that Nu is a function of Prandtl
number and OR only. As K is increasing, the average heat
transfer increases. For K = 1,000, the average heat
transfer approaches almost equal to the non-conjugate
case.
1150 Heat Mass Transfer (2009) 45:11411152
123
Appendix
Deriving the expression for heat ux in the uid side
At the interface between the solid and uid, the following
conditions are applied.
h
s
= h
f
at the interface.
Heat transfer across the interface must be equal.
Wall heat ux in the uid side is given by:
q
f

h
w
h
p;f
_ _
C
l
k
3=2
n
Pr
t
1
j
logEY

P
f
_ _ 11
where P
f
pee-function, which is given by:
P
f
9:24
Pr
Pr
t
_ _
3=2
1
_ _
1 0:28 exp 0:007
Pr
Pr
t
_ _ _ _
12
Wall heat ux in the solid side is given by:
q
s

1
Re Pr
k
s
k
f
_ _
oh
oY

1
Re Pr
k
s
k
f
_ _
h
w
h
p;s
DY
13
Interface temperature is calculated by equating Eqs. 11
and 13. Where h
p,f
, h
p,s
are neighbor temperatures in the
uid and solid regions.
Deriving the expression for Nusselt number calculation
We can write the above equation as:
Nu
x

h
c
H
k
h
c
T
w
T
1
_ _

t
a

1
qC
p

1
U
0
T
w
T
1

U
0
H
t
14
Nu
x

Q
w
Re Pr
qC
p
T
w
T
1
_ _ 15
Finally,
We can write the above equation as:
Nu
x

Q
w
Re Pr
qC
p
T
w
T
1
_ _
T
h
T
1
_ _
T
h
T
1
_ _ 16
Finally,
Nu
x

Q
w;n
Re Pr
h
w
17
Since h
?
= 0. Which is used for calculating the Local
Nusselt number distribution. The average Nusselt number
is calculated as:
Nu
_
L
0
Nu
x
dx 18
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