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HIGHER EDUCATION I BARBADOS N Anthony Layne

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CRESALGUNESCO Caracas, April 1989


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HIGHEREDUCATION I BARBADOS/Layne N Anthony.-Caracas:CRESALC-UNESCO, 1989. p.y appendix: tbls.:cuad.:inc.ref. ISBN:980-6226-06-2 HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM - BARBADOS - HIGHER EDUCATION HISTORY HIGHER EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT EDUCATIONAL FUTUROLOGY

The opinlons expressed i this document are those of the author n and do not necessarily represent those of UNESCO.

Photocomposition. diagramming. mountlng and printing: Luz M a q u e z . Nunda Moccia. Maria Teresa Portilla and Cirilo Ramos - Graphic Arts and Reproduction Department of U N E S C O / C R E S A L C . P.O. Box 62090,Caracas 1060-A. Venezuela

ISBN: 980-6226-06-2

PRESENTATION
Wt the monograph on Barbados. CRESALC has almost lh completed the series dedicated t the situation of higher education o i Latin America and the Caribbean. n This study,the thlrd publlshed on English-speakingcountdes ofthe reglon, was carried out by D . r Anthony Layne ofthe University of the West Indies.following the guldelines suggested by CRESALC. T h e information it presents, especially that concerning the conceptuallzatlon of hlgher education. Is hlstorical evolution,the t structure of i s education system,the variables affecting it and i s t t perspectives. offers the researcher useful and sometimes unpubllshed material on the situation of higher education in Barbados. Furthermore,thls informqtion allows the reader to perceive the intrinsic characteristics Barbados has I thls field. n Through thls serles o monographs CRESALC hopes to bring f withln the reach of polltlclans,researchers,planners,teachers and people interested on this topic,information and analytical contrlbutions that will not only offeran indepth study of the sltuatlon and n il the perspectives of higher education I a specific country,but wl widen the comparathre analysis' capacity a the sub regional as w l t el as a the reglonal level. t

Antonio Pasquali cREsAu=/uNEsco

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
5 PRESENTATION .............................................................. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................. 7 INTRODUCTION ............................................................. 9 9 The Concept of Higher Education ....................................... Structure o the Study ....................................................... 10 f 11 Limitations of the Study ....................................................

CHAPTER 1 HIGHER EDUCATION I THE C O L O N I A L PERIOD ........ N Establishment of the Tradition of E i i m .............................. lts Evolution ofCodrington College ......................................... Evolution o the University of the W s lndies ....................... f et The Function of the UCWI ................................................ Establishment of the College of Arts and Science in Barbados ...

13 13 14 16 19 20

CHAPTER 2 PRESENT STRUCTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION ............ Structure and Types o Degree and Diploma Courses .............. f Government and Internal Organization ................................. The Old Arrangements ...................................................... T h e New Arrangements ..................................................... Access to Higher Education ............................................... Sixth Forms and A Level Certificates ................................ CHAPTER 3 ACTUAL S I T U A T I O N OF HIGHER EDUCATION:1
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22 22 25 25 26 27 28

Enrolment ...................................................................... Educational Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................... Student Services ............................................................... M t r a and Physical Resources .......................................... aeil Financing o Higher Education ........................................... f

32 32 38
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46
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CHAPTER 4 ACTUAL SITUATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION: I1 ......... 54 Co-operation Between the C a v e Hl Campus and the Barbados i l
Community College
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Higher Education and Research ........................................... Research. Innovation and Co-operation ................................ T h e Primary Education Project ........................................... Research in Teaching Programmes ....................................... T h e Women and Development Studies P o e t ........................ rjc

54 56 5 9 61 66 67

CHAPTER 5 FUTURE PERSPECTIVES ................................................... Different Perspectives on the Future ..................................... T h e lssue of Cost-Effectiveness ...........................................
Conclusion
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72 73

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APPENDIX ...................................................................... 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................. 88

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
There are no published studies on higher education in Barbados, and

I am therefore deeply indebted to m y colleague, Dr. Desmond Broomes, Senior Research Fellow in the Faculty of Education at the Cave Hl (Baril
bados) Campus of the University o the West Indies, for proposing to f UNESCOKRESALC that I be given the opportunity to underuke this study. I would also like to thank another of m y colleagues, M s Kathleen r. Drayton, w h o is a Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Education at the Cave Hl Campus. Mrs. Drayton made available to me important material on il the W o m e n and Development Studies Project which is being cvried out by the University of the West Indies, and, at very short nonce, showed me h o w the part of this study which deals wt that Project needed to be imih proved in its o i i a draft form. rgnl T h e Chapter on Hge Education i Barbados in the Colonial ihr n Period w s made possible through the valuable material which ww made a available t me by two members of staff o Codrington College. I am grateo f f l to Canon Noel Titus, Principal of Codrington College, and t D . u o r John Holder. Lecturer at Codrington College, for r n h g available to me the draft of the book on Codrington College, which has been prepared by Dr. Holder, and which should be published early next year. Finally, I would like to thank Ms.Sandra Inniss for the excellent job w i h she did in ryping the manuscript at very short notice. hc Anthony Layne

INTRODUCTION
T h i s study examines higher education in Barbados in terms of its historical development, present situation and future prospects. Since the term

higher education means different things to different people, it i impors tant to make it clear from the outset how the term is used in this study. After thls is done, it wl be usdul to say a few things about the structure il and limitations o the study. f

THE CONCEPT O F HIGHER EDUCATION


Higher education is equated by some writers with postsecondary andlor adult education. Such an equation is viewed i this study as simplisn tic, although this author accepts that higher education is related to both postsecondary and adult education. s In this study, higher education i defined as formal education which: a) is provided in postsecondary institutions, and b) leads to degrees, c e d i c a m and diplomas. Such education is available i universities and colleges n r f which offer degree programmes either autonomously o as &iliares o institutions which award degrees. This definition o higher education leads us f f to reject the following amorphous concept o higher education which has been put forward by writers such as Perkins: f lot In many parts o the world, traditional universities are a m s the sole agencies f r postsecondary education. But as countries o o develop, the needs f r d e n t become more diverse, students have increasingly different aspirations, and academic programmes and institutions become more specialized to take care o f these specialized needs. Higher education embraces the new diversity of insdcuaons, of which the university becomes the most imponant. Emphasis added. (Perkins, 1976,p.v. ) Emphatically, then, t qualify as an institution o higher education the ino f stitution must offer some kind of degree programme even i , i addition, it f n o f r certificate and/or diploma programmes. fes This author agrees w t Wlim and Harvey that the following clear i h ilas distinction should be made between higher education and adult education: A distinction is made between higher education and adult education. T h e latter-& seen as any programme offered t indio viduals beyond school leaving age whether formal, non-formid or informal; vocational or non-vocational;initial, remedial o r continuing. While adult education is inclusive o higher educaf tion, the latter reaches a s m d and more closely defined population, since it is postsecondary. (Williams and Harvey, 1985,p 1 . .)

Higher education does not include courses and studies which, though organized by universities and colleges, a m a promoting general culture or i t knowledge in a strictly Limited field (Goodridge and Layne, 1984, p.3). The definition o higher education w i h is accepted in this study f hc necessarily causes our examination of the Barbadian case to focus o n the University o the West Indies (UWI) specifically, the Cave Hl Camf and, i l pus of rhr UWI.T h e UWl is a regional institution which was established i 194%. It hu three Cynpuscs. These three Campuses are a M o n a n t uamaica), E Augustine (Trinidadand Tobago),and Cave Hl (Barbados). . il T h e Cave Hl Campus i m of three institutionsinvolved in higher educai l s e tion in Barbados. T h e other two institutions are Codrington College and the Ehrbados Community College (BCC). Codrington College has been an affiiate of the UWI f r h o s t two decades. Prior t October 1987. the o o BCC did not offer any kind o degree programme. In O t b r 1987, the f coe BCC launched an Associate Degree programme as a joint venture with the Cave Hl Campus. il To conclude our remarks o n what the term higher education is understood t mean in this study, it should be pointed out that higher ducao tion is viewed in this study as something dynamic rather than static. W h e n f higher education is viewed simply as a level o training, what is measured i static. In contrast, the notion o stage immediately suggests a continus f f ous progression, and postulates the taking into account not only o the qualifications earlier obtained within a particular educational system, but a s o all the peninent factors, including professional experience and perlo f sonal achievements.This dynamic conception o higher education has been f promoted by UNESCO in its laudable e f n t help resolve the issues surfo o atr f rounding the m t e s of equivalence and mutual recognition o degrees and diplomas (see U N E S C O , 1982a pp. xii-n).

STRUCTURESOF T H E STUDY

The study contains five chapters. Chapter 1 traces the historical development of higher education in Barbados during the colonial period f (1627-1966). Major attention is given to the evolution o Codrington College, since Codrigton College w s the only institution o higher education a f i Barbados prior to the establishment in 1963 of what is n o w known a the n s Cave Hl Campus of the UWI.Attention is a s given to the conversion of i l lo the University College o the West Indies (UCWI) f into the UWI and the impact of that development on Codrington College. Chapter 1 is relatively short,since the main objective o the study is to examine the present situaf tion o higher education in Barbados. f
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The present situation is dealt w t in Chapters 2, 3 and 4. Chapter 2 ih focusses on the structure and types of degree programmes at the Cave Hl i l Campus, the government and internal organization o the U W I , and access f t higher education. Chapter 3 contains a detailed analysis o the following: o f enrolment, educational personnel, student services, material and physical f resources,and financing o higher education. In order to facilitate a smooth flow of ideas, three other important aspects o the present situation are f ih dealt w t not in Chapter 3, but in Chapter 4. Those three aspects are research, recent importlnt innovations, and inter-institutional co-operation. f Chapters 24 are essentially descriptive and constitute the core o the study. ih f Chapter 5, the final chapter, deals w t the future o higher education in Barbados in the light o the historical analysis in Chapter 1 and the def scription o the present situation in Chapters 2-4. It does not attempt t f o predict h o w higher education wl develop in Barbados in the future. il Rather, it outlines alternative lines of development which would result f from the adoption o different perspectives o n the future which have been used in educational planning, as well as what, i this authors opinion, n o o needs t be done in Barbados t have higher education make an even greater contribution to national development.

LIMITATIONSOF THE STUDY As w t any study, this one has limitations.T h e limitationsare both ih substantive (relating to content) and methodological. O n the Substantive o f side, n o attention has been given t the question o technological research in higher education in Barbados. Because o this, the picture o what has f f been happening in the Faculty o Natural Sciences at the Cave Hl C a m p u s f il is not as comprehensive as it should be. However, attention has been given t scientific research, and especially t the integration o scientific research o o f wt teaching programmes. ih S i l o n the substantive side, the study has not been able to provide tl any hard data o n the economic background of students in higher education o in Barbados. Such data do not appear t be available, and the time-constraint prevented the author from collecting such data himself. O n the methodological side, the study m a y be placed in the category o library or desk research. It would have been nice t have included in the f o study survey data o n the perceptions held by members o the University f f community, the Barbados Ministry o Education, and other interest groups, such as employers and prospective students, on both the cost and f effectiveness o higher education in Barbados. Unfortunately, it was not
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possible t carry out such a survey, but perhaps some other study o n higher o i l ih education in Barbados w l concern itself specificallywt this very important matter. Notwithstanding its limitations, the study is valuable in that, to the best o this authors knowledge, there is n o published study o n higher eduf cation in Barbados. It is hoped that the study will trigger further research n into higher education i Barbados, a country which is widely regarded as having the most highly developed educational system in the Comrnonw a t Caribbean. elh

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CHAPTER 1
HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE COLONIAL PERIOD
Barbados w s a colony o Great Britain from 1627 t 1966. Since the a f o dominant value-system i colonial dependencies mirrors that o the dominn f ant class in the metropolitan country, it should come as no surprise that in colonial Barbados higher education meant essentially overseas university o o education for a fortunate few t become steeped in the classics andlor t enter the learned professions o law and medicine. For most o the colof f n a period in Barbados, higher education w s reserved for the sons o the il a f f oligarchs, the sons o the wealthy and powerful sugar planters and merchants. However, i the closing decades o the colonial period, a few nonn f o Whites began t have access to this traditionally highly prized type and level of education. This chapter deals wt this tradition o eiim in higher ih f lts o f f education in Barbados up t the opening o the College o Arts and Science i 1963. n

ESTABLISHMENT O THE TRADITION O F ELITISM F


There w s no institution o higher education i Barbados prior t the a f n o year 1830. Consequently, those Barbadians who were in a position to aso o pire t higher education looked t institutions in the metropolis. Since a regime o Black slavery lasted in Barbados from the 1640s t August, 1834, f o o n the few Barbadians who were in a position to aspire t higher education i the pre-1830 period were those members o the white minority who were f i a position t pay f r higher education. U p t the year 1813, the Barban o o o f o dian oligarchs paid out o their o w n pockets for their sons t attend the top British universities. Between 1813 and 1929, they utilized an annual university scholarship which the Society for the Propagation o the Gospel (SPG) f provided for graduates o the racially -and class- exclusive Codrington f Grammar School t study law, medicine or theology in Britain for four o years (see Bennett, 1958, pp. 8-9). After the SPG withdrew its annual f scholarship, the Barbadian oligarchs paid once again out o their pockets f r overseas university education for their sons, until the Barbados Scholaro ship w s introduced in 1890. a ihrwl f The SPGs w t d a a o its annual scholarship in 1829 cleared the way f r Barbados first institution o higher education to commence operao f a tions in 1830. That institution w s Codrington College (which still exists). Like the Codrington Grammar school, Codrington College was founded by the SPG out o funds bequeathed by a wealthy Barbadian planter, f il Christopher Codrington, in his wl of February 22, 1703. Codrington had

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bequeathed the funds for the establishment of a divinity college (see A p ) . pendix I The SPG built the college and gave it the name Codrington College, but allowed Codrington College t function only as a grammar o o school, the Codrington G r a m m a r School, up t 1830. It was only &er Wlim H r Coleridge, the first Anglican Bishop o Barbados, criticized ila a t f the SPG for not carrying out Christopher Codringtons design for a divinf f ity coltege that the SPG got out o the business o financing university education in the rnetropoiis for the sons o the Barbadian planter-merchant f elite. However, the establishment o Codrington College as a theological f seminary m 1830 i no w a y weakened the tradition o elitism in higher edun f cation.

EVOLUTION OF CODRINGTON COLLEGE


Wt the transition of Codrington College from a Grammar school ih o to a full-fledge college, the SPG set about t place the college on the acadanii footing originally contemplaced by Christopher Codrigton.T h e f thinking o the SPG was that the college should provide an adequate education for those students f o throughout the region who were disposed t rm o devote themselves t the Christian ministry in their native islands, without o o t such students having t seek the necessary qualifications in Europe a a distance from their friends and relations. Between 1830 and 1847, some 111 students graduated from the College. Those 1 1 1 graduates included 15 o readers and Catechists, as well as four students who were candidates f r immediate ordination but not regular students. The graduates in question were made u p o Exhibitioners and Commoners, as has been pointed f out by Holder: ih Along w t the Exhibitioners, there were the Commoners who were not prospective candidates f r Holy Orders. Whereas the o Exhibitioners received their education as well as their board and lodging at the expense o the trust (SPG), the Commoners f were charged for tuition, the use o their room, and the libf rary, in addition t other fees. In 1847, a C o m m o n e r was o .. charged about fifty-five pounds for the academic year. . [It] would seem as if some Commoners went on t become priests o and ministers, as was the case w t T.A.Browne o the 1837 ih f f class, and H . Richards o the 1838 class. (Holder,1 8 ,p. 11). 97
Barbadians accounted for the bulk (60%) o the 1 1 1 graduates, and West f Indians for 86%. Thirteen o the graduates (12%) were from England, one f w s from Ireland, and another was from N w Brunswick. Is short, the ina e f fluence o the College extended far beyond the shores of Barbados.

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T h e oligarchy in Barbados resisted the effort o Codrington College f to carry out its theological mission. Indeed, when Richard Rawle became Principal o the College in 1847, he discovered that the Bishop o Barbados f f was fighting against a movement t have the College revert t its role as a o o Grammar school, a movement led by the C i f Justice of Barbados, Sir he Bowcher Clarke. Rawle took the side o the Bishop, Bishop Parry, and it f was theit side that prevailed even though the Chief Justice had threatened to take the issue t COUR. T h e complete text o Bishop Purys letter t o f o Principal Rawle outlining w h y &e College should remain as a college and not be reconverted into a grammar school is in Appendix 2. The year 1875 marked a significant academic milestone in the evolution o Codrington College. In that year, Principal T.H.WEBB and f Bishop Mitchinson o Barbados sought t provide f r students o Codf o o f rington College a degree programme which would be readily accepted in England. They approached the University o Durham, and it was agreed f n that the College should be affiliated to Durham. Indeed, i 1875. a Classical Faculry was set up at the College wt a programme leading t the B.A. ih o degree o Durham University. T h e establishment o the Classical Faculty f f w s intended not only to make available a degree readily acceptable i Enga n land, but also t cope wt the problem o a paucity o students at the Colo ih f f lege. The paucity o students had led Richard Rawle: a) t threaten t seek f o o greener pastures in 1848, and b) t describe his position in 1863 as being o very much that o a steam saw-mill i an untimbered country (see Gorf n don, 1963, pp. 73,227-228). f ih T h e affiliation o the College w t Durham University continued o ih right through t 1955, wt the students reading for degrees in theology, classics and other subjects. T h e mixed nature o the College (secular stuf dents and ordinands) enabled some o the leaders i several areas ofWest f n Indian society t acquire university degrees which they would not othero wise have acquired. However, the college was never really held in high esteem by the Barbadian oligarchs, and was neglected by the SPG for most o f the period. The tradition o university education in the metropolis for a few f privileged Barbadians t enter the learned professions o law and o f ih f medicine was strengthened w t the introduction o the Barbados Scholarf ship in 1890, and the SPGsneglect o the College h o s t led to the closure of that institution i 1899. n Interestingly enough, even though the Barbados Legislature made the highly prestigious Barbados Scholarship tenable a the Universities o t f Oxford and Cambridge, it did not w s t see the end o Codrington Colih o f lege. The Barbados Legislature provided two annual Island Scholarships tenable a Codrington College from 1878, and was instrumental in getting t o the SPG to provide funds t keep the College open when disaster threatened in 1899 (ibid.,p. 290).

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The third stage in the evolution o Codrington College began in 1913 f when, under the Principalship o A.H. hstey, the College became inf volved in teacher training. In that year, the h w l e Training College for Men w s opened a the College. T h e teacher trainees were h o u d in a a t building constructed a f w hundred yards south o the theological college, e f n f and shared i the social and religious life o the College. In 1914, a similar institution was established forwomen. T h e L f o Codrington College as a ie f teacher training institution was relatively short. It ended i 1948 when the n Barbados Government established Erdiston College w t a view to moderih nizing teacher training i the isirnd. n n The fourth stage i the evolution of Codrington College commenced in 1952. I that year, the SPG passed a resolution discontinuing the accepn tance o students for classical studies at the College. A s a result o that decif f sion, the last batch of secular students to read for the degree in Classics awarded by Durham University matriculated a the College in 1955. That t f batch o students graduated in 1958. After 1958, only two students at the College were able t obtain theological degrees with all o the required o f work being done at Codrington (Holder, op. cif., p. 32). B y the 1960s, then, Codrington College was still i existence despite n devastation by fires and humcanes (see Appendix 3. neglect by the S P G , ) f o and the tradition o university education in the metropolis f r a chosen few. However, by the 1960s the College had c o m e t be overshadowed by the o f University o the West Indies, and by 1971 Codrington College was offering, in affiliation wt the University o the West Indies, programmes leadih f ing t the Licentiate in Theology and the B.A.degree in Theology. It is apo o ih f propriate at this juncture, therefore, t deal wt the evolution o the University o the West Indies, which was opened as the UniversityCollege o f f the West Indies i October 1948. n

EVOLUTION O F UNIVERSlTY O F THE WEST INDIES E


A the end o World W a r 11, higher education in Barbados was still t f reserved for a tiny portion o the population. Access t university educaf o tion in the metropolis was reserved f r the wealthy persons in the society, o f and for the winner o the Barbados Scholarship. In 1945, the Barbados Scholarship was s i l forboys only, and was worth the princely s u m o one tl f thousad pounds sterling together w t c e h n allowances and increases ih o f owing t war-time conditions. In stark contrast, each o the two Island Scholarships tenable a Codrington College was valued a forty pounds t t surling. The educational authorities were interested in increasing the efficiency o the method of awarding the Barbados Scholarship, rather than in f democratizing access t university education. In 1945, Howard Hayden, o
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the then Director of Education, successfully proposed t the Barbados o i Legislature that candidates for the Barbados Scholarship be required to s t an examination o O p e n Scholarship standard, i order to remedy a situf n tion in which young candidates had to spend a further two years in school until their old competitorswere exhausted (see Hayden, 1945,p. 390). There are two other pieces o information which should be provided f to situate the discussion o the establishment o the University College o f f f the West Indies. The first concerns access t secondary education, and o especially t the Sixth Forms, where candidates were prepared for the Baro bados Scholarship Examinations. In 1944, the 1 1 Government Assisted Secondary schools had a t t l o about 2,000pupils, 44% o w h o m were in oa f f ih the three schools wt Sixth Forms (Harrison College, Queens College, Lodge School). As can be seen in Table 1.0,the tuition fees charged by the three Sixth Form schools were way above those charged by the other f schools, and this was especially true o Lodge School (formerly the Godrington Grammar School). Since access t secondary education w s reo a o e o stricted t the f w who could pay or who were fortunate t win the handful o available Government Exhibitions, the competition for the Barbados f Scholarship constituted an exercise i which pupils were exercised like n racehorses in a steeplechase only a chosen few could hope t win (Lewis, o 1968,p. 230). The other piece o information concerns the political climate a the f t f time. At the end o World W a r 11, the metropolitan Government and the British West Indian legislatures were engaged in a search for ways of preventing a repetition o the violent racial and political upheaval which the ref gion experienced in the 1930s. In the specific case of Barbados, the violence broke out in 1937.Since the forces o decolonization were gaining strength f at a global level by the end o World W a r 11, British colonial policy hit f upon the device o regional university colleges as a means of promoting f development in the British colonies. It was, then, i the context o the n f persistence o educational elitism and the global movement f r decolonizaf o f a don that the University College o the West Indies w s established in 1948.

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w ~ n t m n o t

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The Function o the UCWl f The University College o the West lndies (UCWI) established f was by the British Government in October, 1948, w t a single campus, at ih M o n a in Jamaica. T h e UCWI was later re-named the University o the f West Indies (UWI),i 1962. In the period between 1948 and 1962, the n UCWI was an affiliateo the University o London. f f Although the UCWI had a single campus, it was explicitly intended t be a regional institution. It was supposed to fuel an intellectual energy o which would support the aspirations o the British C r b e n people for f aiba political, social and economic integration (Marshall e al, 1986, p.5). In its t actual functioning, the UCWI was n o different from other regional university colleges established by the British Government in various pvrs o the f British Colonial Empire at the end o World W r 11. The most important f a o function ofthe regional university colleges in question W M t produce an indigenous elite, culturally and intellectually s m l r t the colonial adiia o o n ih ministrators and willing t work i hannony wt them (Pratt, 1977, p. 531). Virtually everything a the UCWI was transplanted from Britain: t Hls had high tables. Students were resident and attended al classes and dinner in red gowns. Curricula were shaped o n British models and, on the successfulcompletion of a course o f study, students were awarded degrees o the University o f f London... (Drayton,1981,p. 8. ) The author just cited has recalled how Sir James Irvine, the C a r m o him f the Committee which organized the setting up o the UCWI, once f explained t her that the UCWI was set up a) to cream o f the best and o f most irtiCUlate West Indians. and b) t t a n that elite to hold the more o ri f radical and irresponsibleelements o the population in check (ibid.). Student registration at the UCWI was small f o the outset, and was rm ih kept at a low level. T h e UCWI opened its doors in October, 1948, w t a t t l o 33 registered students (23 male and 10 female), and had a mere 695 oa f students (446 male and 249 female), on its r l in 1959-60 ( V W I SS ol & & 1982-83,p.1). In keeping w t the tradition o academic education o the ih f f classical type or for a privileged few t enter the learned professions the o UCWI had three Faculties: A m , Natural Sciences and Medicine. Wt the establishment ofthe U C W I , the Government of Barbados ih increased its financial assistance t higher education. Under the Governo ment Scholarship and Exhibitions Act, 1949, five Barbados Scholarships f were made available, instead o one as had been the case since the nineteenth century. T h e Barbados Scholarships were normally tenable a t overseas universities, but as w e shall soon see. some o the Barbados Schof lars opted t attend the U C W I . Under the 1949 Act, the Government reo

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affirmed its commitment t providing two annual Island Scholarships to o Codrington College, and made provision for two annual Government Exhibitions tenable at the UCWI.Those two Exhibitions were awarded to runners-up in the Barbados Scholarship Examinations. The Government o Barbados a s provided assistance for higher f lo education under the Higher Education (Loan Fund) Act, 1953, and the f Governments Training Scheme. Three kinds o facilities were available under the Government Training Scheme: bursaries to teachers in service who wished to better their qullifications; three-year degree scholarships f r teachers tenable at the U C W I ; and three-year Diploma courses in o Domestic Science at the Ct o Bath Training College. iy f It should be clear from what has already been said that the Barbadians who attended the UCWI had the opporruniry t study for the o Bachelor o h t s degree, the Bachelor o Science degree, o a Degree in f f r Medicine. T h e Barbadians who attended the UCWI wt the aid o the preih f o stigious Barbados Scholarships and Government Exhibitions tended t study Medicine. This was particularly true o the Barbados Scholars. In the f f academic year 1956-57,for instance, eight o the 25 Barbados Scholars who were resident a universities were a the U V . C W I , and seven o those eight t t f were in Medicine (Barbados Education Department 1954-57Report, pp. 33-34). In that same academic year, three of the seven Barbados Exhibitioners a the UCWI were in Medicine. In short, the UCWI was geared toward t the production o an indigenous academic elite, and the Barbadians who atf ih f tended that institution wt the aid o the more prestigious awards had no illusionsabout the S U N S enjoyed by medical doctors i their society. n

Establishmento the College o Artr and Science i Barbados f f n


The UCWI became the UWI o n April 2, 1962. That development came hot on the heels o Jamaicas becoming the fn country in the region f i a to gain its political independence, in 1961. It w s quickly followed by the establishment in Trinidad and Tobago in 1962 o the St.Augustine C a m p u s f f of the UWI,the withdrawal by the Government o Guyana of its support for the UWI in 1963, and the establishment in Barbados in 1963 o a camf pus o the UWI. f Today, the UWI is still a three-campusinstitution. f The campus o the UWI which was opened in Barbados in 1963 was known as the CoUege o f h and Science. It was opened a a temporary site t near the Deep Water Harbour, in Bridgetown, the national capital, and ref mained a that site until 1967.In 1967, the College o A m and Science was t moved t its permanent site a Cave Hl and was re-named the Cave Hl o t i l il Campus. The Cave Hl C a m p u s was officially opened in 1968. i l

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As was implied i the name, the College of A t and Science had two n rs Faculties, one o Arts and the other o Science.The College of A m and Scif f ence was opened wt a rod o 118 registered students. It was clear from ih f the very beginning however, that, at least in terms o access, the College o f f Arts and Science would be more o a mass institution than the UCWI ever f was. From the very beginning, tuition was free at the College o A m and f l e Science for d Barbadians who m t the entry requirements and were granted admission. In addition, teachers who gained admission to the College of A m and Science were granted leave o n half pay for up t three o years. The College o A m and Science only offered first-degree progrmf mes. As Barbados entered Independence in 1966, therefore, the question n which presented itself was whether higher education i the island would a) undergo greater democratization, and b) become harnessed t the requireo ments o national development. Al eyes were o n the UWI, Barbadians f l for f f were to be found o n all three campuses o that institution. T h e College o Arts urd Science was the object o special attention for at least two reasons. f Firstly, more and more Barbadians were recognizing that they did not have t travel t metropolitan countries o even t Jamaica t receive university o o r o o education. Secondly, in 1952 Codrington College had reverted t its role as o a theological seminary, and the College o A t and Science was therefore f rs i a position t show what it could do as the islands only secular institution n o o higher education. T h e question was whether in the post-colonial period f the Cave Hl C a m p u s would rise t the challenge o becoming an instituil o f f l f tion o which Barbadians from a l walks o life could be justly proud.

21

CHAPTER 2 PRESENT STRUCTUREOF HIGHER EDUCATION


This chapter deals w t the present structure o higher education in ih f f i l Barbados. It focusses o n the structure o the uw? and the Cave H l Campus. The first matter which is given attention i the structure and types o s f degree and diploma courses at Cave Hill. T h e second i that of the governs f ih o ment and internal organization o the UWI w t special reference t the Cave H l Campus. T h e h d and f n l matter w i h i examined i that o i l ia hc s s f access t higher education. o

STRUCTURE AND TYPES O F DEGREE A N D DIPLOMA COURSES


The latest information o n the structure o the degree and diploma f i l courses at the University and its Cave H l C a m p u s un be found in the U W I Calendar, Vol.2, for the academic year 1987-88. T h e Bachelors degrees are based o n the British ones, and the B.A./B.SC./LL.B. involve f three years o full-time study from G.C.E. A level entry. There is a Medical course leading t the MB.BS. (Bachelor o Medicine and Bachelor o f o Surgery). This course was originally a five-year course, but has been ref duced t four and a half years. A special two-year B.Ed. is awarded t o o Teachers College graduate9having some experience. Students admitted t o the Preliminary year in Natural Science at Cave Hl and a the other two i l t campuses spend an extra year and m a y transfer t other Faculties. o f Honours classifications o First, Upper and Lower Second are awarded in addition t a Pass Degree, except in Medicine where the classifio cations are Honours and Pass. U p t the academic year 1984-85. the Fao f f culty o Education awarded the B.Ed.degree in the categories o Distinction and Pass. However, f o the academic year 1985-86 the B.Ed. degree rm ih has been awarded wt the same classifications used by the other Faculties. Degree programmes a the University and its Cave Hl C a m p u s make prot i l vision for specialist as well as more general options, but only in Natural Sciences is the title Special Degree used. t Certificates are awarded for work a Undergraduate level not covering the Degree programme. T h e term Diploma is usually reserved for the o one-year Post-graduate course, but is occasionally used for one t which non-graduates are admitted, based on experience in the field. A Cave Hill, t there are two Certificate programmes, one in Educational Management and Administration, and the other in Public Administration.Like the Diploma in Education, the Certificate in Educational Management and Administra-

22

tion is an in-service programme. However, whereas the persons admitted to the Diploma in Education programme already have degrees, those admitted t the Certificate in Educational Management and Administration o do not necessarily possess degrees. Higher degrees such as M.A., M.Sc., M.A.(Ed.), M.Phil. and LL.M. are all offered a the Cave Hl Campus. Usually, they are based on t i l one or two yearsstudy involving course work and/or thesis. However, the M.Phil. i a two-year research degree, T h e Ph.D. is a three-year research s Degree.In Medicine, the DM i awarded as the specialist quahfication and s generally involves four years o residence. f t Let us n o w look more closely a the programmes available in the various faculties a Cave Hill. T h e Faculty o A t and General Studies has t f rs B.A. degree programmes in which courses are offered in the following: Education, English, French, Government, History, Law, Linguistics, Sociology and Spanish. Courses for the B.A. (Theology)and the Licentiate i Theology (L.Th) are provided for students o Codringon College, n f which is an lffiliate o the University. Candidates f r the L.Th. must purf o f sue a prescribed course o study extending over not less than three and not more than five academic years before being eligible f r the award o Liceno f tiate. Candidates for the degree o B.A. (Theology)are required t pursue f o a three-yearcourse of study comprising 14 courses, 10 o which must inf clude University Courses in Biblical Studies, Church History, Systematic Theology and Philosophical Studies, and Practical and Pastoral Studies. The Faculty o Education offers programmes for the Bachelor o f f Education, the Diploma in Education, and the Certificate in Educational Management and Administration. In addition, the Faculty has an interdisciplinary programme called the B.A./B.Sc. w t Education. T h e Education ih component o the B.A./B.Sc. w t Education is designed as the first three f ih f o years o an integrated four-yearcourse f r undergraduates who are teachers o who intend t become teachers, and who, on graduating w t a B.A. o r o ih r B.Sc. degree, intend to pursue a professional training programme such as the Diploma in Education. The students in chis programme m a y be registered in the Faculty o Arts and General Studies or in the Faculty of f Natural Sciences. Both full-timeand pan-time students m a y be admitted t o the programme. Students registered in the Faculty o Natural Sciences are f not pennined t enter the B.Sc. wt Education programme before their o ih N2 year. f t In the Faculty o Education, programmes are also available a the Masters and Ph.D. levels. There is in fact only one type o Masters Prof gramme available in Education a present. That programme is the t M.A.(Ed) which involves course work and thesis. T h e M.A.(Ed) was inuoduced in the academic year 1986-87.

23

The Faculty o Law offers the LL.B., the LL.M., the Ph.D., and the f Diploma in Legislative Drafting. T h e LL.B. is offered w t the first-year ih programme available at Cave Hill, M o n a and St. Augustine, and the second and third year programmes a Cave Hl only. T h e LL.M. and Ph.D. det i l grees can be pursued in Legislative Drafting, Tort and Trusts. The Faculty o L a w participates in a Challenge Programme o n which f more wl be said in Chapter 4. Suffice t note f r the time being that Part il o o I of the LLB is offered to students in the Challenge Programme in the N o n Campus Countries, and that the Certificate in Introductory Legal Studies can be pursued by students in the Challenge Programme who have c o m pleted the Pan I LLB. The Faculty o Natural Sciences offers the B.Sc. degree in the followf ing subjects: Bio-Chemistry (Advanced); Biology; Chemistry; Computer Science; Mathematics; Physics; Metereology. T h e B.Sc. in Metereology is offered in collaboration with the Barbados-based Caribbean Metereologicd f f Institute which is an affiliate o the UWI.The Faculty o Natural Sciences has two diploma programmes, one in Electronics and Computer Technology and the other in Environmend Studies. Higher degrees prognmmes n comprise: the MSc., M.Phi1. and Ph.D. i Mathematics; and the M.Phi1. and Ph.D. Chemistry o Physics or Biology. in r f The Faculty o Social Sciences offers the B.Sc. in the following disciplines: Accounting; Applied Sociology; Economics; Economics and Accounting; Economics and History; Economics and Law; Economics and Management; Economics and Mathematics; Hotel Management (Part I); Political Science and Law; Public Administration; Public Administration and Law; Sociology and Political Science; Sociology and Law; and Tourism Management (Pan I. Part I1 o the B.Sc. Hotel Management and the B.Sc. ) f f Tourism Management i available only a the College o the Bahamas, an s t affiliate o the university. T h e Faculty o Social Sciences also offers the Dipf f loma i Public Administration, the Diploma in Management Studies, and n the M.Sc., M.Phil., and Ph.D. degrees in Economics, Government and Sociology. f Finally, there is the Faculty o Medical Sciences. This Faculty offers the final two years of the MBBS degree, as well as post-graduateDiploma hl programmes in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Cid Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Ophthalmology. In addition, the Faculty o M d c l f eia Sciences offers the M S .degree in Family Medicine, and the Doctor o .c f Medicine (DM) degree in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Family Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

24

GOVERNMENT ANT) INTERNAL ORGANIZATION


October, 1984, w s a crucially important date in the lie o the UWI a f and its three Campuses. O n that dace, what the governmenrs o the region f have catled the restructuring o the University took effect. Restmcturf f ing comprised the replacement o the Universitys original Charter, Statutes and Ordinances wt an amended Charter as well as amended Sratutes ih and Ordinances. The original Charter made it clear that the University was a regional institution which, though funded by the regional governments, was not answerable U, any particular government. T h e restructuring which took effect in October, 1984, has involved: a) the transfer o considerable f functions and powers from the central organs o the University to newer f organs a each Campus, b) the erosion o the unitary concept which earlier t f prevailed, and c) the effective placing o control o the Campuses i the f f n hands o the Governments o the three C a m p u s Countries. In order to gain f f f greater insight into the nature o the change which has taken place since 1984 in the government o the University and its Campuses, it i important f s t describe briefly the arrangements which existed prior t October, 1984. o o

T h e O M Arrangcmmts
Prior t October, 1984, the Authorities at the University were the o University Council, the University Senate, the Guild of Graduates, and such other bodies as m a y have been prescribed by Statute. The Senate was the academic authority. T h e Council was, in the words of the Charter, the governing and executive body o the University w t power to manage all f ih matters not provided otherwise by this O u r Charter o the Statutes (UWI r Calendar, 1978, p. 1 ) 2. Under the old arrangements, Statute 1 laid it d o w n that: 6 The Council shall consist o the following persons: f a) Members ex-officio: the Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellor, the Treasurer, the Pro Vice-ChancelIon,the C a m p u s Principals, the Deans o the Faculties; f b) Nine members elected by the Senate from the members of the Senate provided that there is a least one member o t f professorial rank and one non-professorial member from each campus; f c) Four graduates elected by the Guild o Graduates from among their own number; d) O n e member appointed by the government o each of the f Contributing Territories; o e) N t more than seven persons appointed by the Chancellor, o f regard being had t the desirability o including among the

25

members o the Council persons of high international, regf r ional o national standing from the professions, commerce, industry, the public service and similar fields; f O n e student from each campus elected annually pursuant t ) o the provisions o Statute 36. f (ibid., pp. 20-21). Statute 3 o the old Statutes specified who were the officers o the f f University. The Officers comprised: the Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellor,the Treasurer, the Pro Vice-Chancellors, the C a m p u s Principals,the Deans o the Faculties, the University Registrar, the Univerf sity Bursar, the University Librarian, and such other members o the Unif versity as m a y be granted by Ordinance the status o Officers. It should f be pointed out that a) the Chancellor was Head o the University, b) the f Vice-Chancellor was the academic and executive head, and c) the ProChancellor served as Chairman o the Council in the absence o a Chancelf f lor. ih The structure outlined above was always looked upon w t a jaundiced eye by some of the regional governments. B y the 1970s, there was general agreement among the regional governments that the N o n - C a m p u s in Countries (NCCs) panicular were profiting relatively little from the operations of the University, and that more resources should be located in f easy reach o the students in the N C C s . It has been appropriately pointed out by the Marshall Committee that the demand for more decision-making at source on the needs o individual countries inferred the dilution o the f f o f University Centre, and led by a natural logic t a restructuring o the University in 1984 (Marshall e al. 1986, pp. 6-7). t T h e New Arrangements Under restructuring, each C a m p u s n o w has its o w n C a m p u s Council, C a m p u s Grants Committee, C a m p u s Technical Advisory Committee, as well as a Campus Finance and General Purposes Committee to which the Campus Council delegates some o its responsibilities.T h e n e w f t bodies which have been added at the C a m p u s level have paralleled those a the Centre, and are composed largely o persons from the C a m p u s Counf ih try, but wt some representation from a) other C a m p u s and N o n - C a m p u s Countries, and b) the University Centre. It should be stressed that the functions and powers o the Universif ty Centre have been diluted, rather than eliminated. T h e University C o u n cl has retained overall responsibility for c o m m o n services, University proi grammes. and programmes in the NCCs.T h e University Council is still responsible for the making o senior administrative and academic appointf

26

ments. The Senate is still the principal academic authority, w t responsiih bility f r the award o degrees, diplomas and certificates. However, there o f can be no doubt that the new organs which have been created a the Camt pus level are forces t be reckoned with. o Through its standing C a m p u s Finance and General Purposes Committee, the Campus Council at Cave H l has control o the finances of the i l f il f Cave Hl Campus. T h e powers o the C a m p u s Council are wide, and include the appointment and promotion o faculty employed a the C a m p u s f t up to the level o senior lecturer. T h e C a m p u s Academic Board exercises f wide powers in academic matters, largely as a result o delegation from the f is o Senate. The C a m p u s Grants Committee (CGC) perhaps the key t it all, since it i the CGC,rather than the University Grants Committee (UGC) s which makes the decision about the level o funds to be provided t the f o Government o the Campus Country for a given triennium. W e wl return f il to the CGC when w e deal in detail w t the question o financing. ih f Wt regard to the internal organization of the Cave H l C a m p u s ih i l specifically, it should be noted that the academic and executive head i the s s s Principal, who i also a Pro Vice-Chancellor.Beneath the Principal i the Director o the Office o University Services (OUS). T h e Director o the f f f OUS is also a Pro-Vice Chancellor, and acts as Principal in the absence of the Principal. Beneath the Principal and the Director o the OUS are the f heads o the various non-academic units and the Deans o the Faculties. As f f was previously mentioned, there are six Faculties. T h e non-academic units are: Administration, the Library, the Computing Centre, the Learning Ref sources Centre, the Department o Extra Mural Studies, and the OUS.

ACCES TO HIGHER EDUCATION


Admission policies in universities are wide-ranging when such policies are examined o n a global basis. They include: O p e n admissions, admission o students o n a trial basis, admission o n the basis o age o c o m f f r r f f petence o quantity and quality o work experience, the enlargement o traditionally limited faculties through the dropping o special entrance ref f wt f o quirements, the use o quotas ( i hthe granting o bonus points t disadvantage and minority groups), the use o State or regional proficiency f examinations so that students compete only against those in their regions, grants and/or loans, and so on (see Goodridge and Layne. op. cit., pp. 56. ) In principle, it can be said that the Cave H l C a m p u s (and the Unii l versity) has a flexible admissions policy. T h e regulations governing matriculation at the University specify that normally eligibility for admission i s restricted to applicants who have attained the age o 17 years o n 31st D e f

27

cember o the year o admission, but that applicants below this age w h o f f satisfy the normal (GCE A level) matriculation requirements are also eligible f r admission. o For normal matriculation f r admission t degree courses a the Unio o t versity, eligible persons are those whose qualifications include a GCE 0 level pass in English or the equivalent. Students whose native language is not English are required t perform satisfactorily in an approved English o Language requirement, candidates are eligible for admission if the a) have passed all the examinations f r a degree o any university recognized by the o f o University Senate f r matriculation purposes, or b) are holders of General Certificates o Education or the approved equivalents. f f The holders o General Certificates in Education m a y be admitted under Scheme A o Scheme B (see U W I Cdendar,1987-88, op. cit., pp. r 130-140). Scheme A consists o passes in five subjects, o which at least two f f must be a the Advanced level o the equivalent. Scheme B comprises passes t r f in four subjects, o which three must be at the Advanced level or the equivalent. There are regulations governing the subjects which need not have been passed a one and the same occasion. t Since the applicant must possess at least two Advanced level (A level) certificates, the question is who has access to A level certificates. A n answer t this question requires that w e examine, even if briefly, the o issue of access t Sixth Forms. o

Sixth Forms and A Level Certificates


Barbados has 21 Government secondary schools, but only four o f those schools have Surth Forms. T h e four schools in question are Harrison College, Queens College, T h e Lodge School, and Combermere. Harrison College and Queens College have long been out-performing the Lodge School and Combermere in the A level Examinations. This is largely explained by the fact that Harrison College and Queens College receive the cream o the academic crop from a highly selective C o m m o n Entrance f for Examination (CEE) Government Secondary schools which all pupils who have reached the age of 1 1 years are eligible t sit. o Empirical research has long established that children .fromeconomically andlor educationally advantaged homes outperform their counterrm parts f o disadvantaged homes in academically-oriented examinations such as the CEE. It was ostensibly because o public disquiet over: a) the f superior pupil resources possessed by Harrison College and Queens College in academic terms and b) the then policy of leaving the allocation o f Sixth Form Places in the hands o the headteachers of the Sixth Form f f schools, that in 1985 the Minister o Education announced that all pupils wishing t enter the Sixth Forms would have t apply t the Ministry o o o o f

28

Education. Furthermore, a policy-decision was made in 1985 that: 1) only applicants w t a minimum o five 0 cenificates would be eligible ih f level f r consideration for Sixth Form places, and 2) top priority would be given o t the highest q d k r s . o Wt the centralization o the allocation of Sixth F o r m places in the ih f hands o the Ministry o Education, Harrison Colleges position o domif f f nance was reinforced. Observe, in Table 2.0, that in 1985-86 Harrison Colege took in a t t lo 96 S m h Form students.Those %students represented oa f 38.4% o d the students who were awarded Sixth Form places. Observe, f too, that 72.9% o Harrison Colleges intake was from Harrison College itf self. Ironically,the cmtrdzation o the allocation o Sixth Form places in f f the hands o the Ministry o Education was supposed t give pupils of the f f o non-Sixth Form Schools-especiallypupils of the (low-prestige)N e w e r Secondary Schools an equal chance o receiving Sixth Form education, but f in fact strengthened the hold o the Older Secondary schools o n sixth Form f places at Harrison College. That the equality of oppomnity which the Ministry of Education claimed t be promoting wt its policy-shift was m t i a rather than real o ih yhcl was a s evidenced in the fact that Harrison College and Queens College lo continued t have a monopoly o n the students wt nine certificates (Table o ih 2.1). Thirteen (13) o the 15 candidates w t nine certificateswere awarded f ih o places a Harrison College. Harrison College had virtually nothing t do t wt the candidates wt five certificates, and the example set by Harrison ih ih College was followed by Queens College.

TABLE 20 INTAKEOF STUDENTS I T THE SIXTH FORMS, . NO BY TYPE OF SCHOOL, 1985-86


SIXTH FORM SCHOOLS
Com-

Type of School OLDER SECONDARY St. M c a l ihe


Foundation ColdgdPVry Alouadra

Harrison Queens 7 8
6

Lodge
6 3 1

h a c

Total
28 21 2 2 1 12 33 72 7 1 242

1 1

8
70 95

mvc
Lodge Cornhere Queens College Hvrison College Sub-Td

59 67

10

1 33 1 1 56

9 8 1 2

24

29

SIXTH FORM S C H O O L S
Typc o School f NEWER SECONDARY
Parkinson Princess Margaret Roebuck Springer Memorial Sub-Total
tirrrimon Queens

Lodge
1 -

Combermme
1 1 1 3
-

Total

1 1 96

1 68

APPROVED INDEPENDENT
PresentationCollege St. Winifreds SUb-Total GRAND TOTAL

1
2(1* 6-)

59

2 1 3
250

This student w s supposed to go t Hanison College if there was room. a o

TABLE 2.1 STUDENTS ADMITIED TO SIXTH FORMS BY NUMBER O F PASSES 1985-86


NLTMBER O PASSES F
SCHOOL Hanison College Queens College Lodge Combermere( 1) TOTAL
9 8

13

35

7 31

15

60

25

15

49

6 1 6 21 8

5 1

TOTAL
96 68 27 59 250

45

22

16

1. The breakdown by Combmnere is not available but it is evident that Combermere did not receive any o the candidates w t the highest qualifications. f ih

T h e scramble for Sixth Form places must be understood in the conf iie f text o : a) the very l m t d number o available Sixth Form places, and b) the policy-decision which was taken by the Government in 1986 not t ino crease t any significant degree the number o such places. Observe, in o f Table 2.3 that in 1983-84(the latest year f r which official statistics are avo ailable) that enrolment in the public secondary schools was 1.5 times higher than it was in the academic year succeeding Independence, but that the f number o Sixth Form students remained essentially unchanged at around 400 persons. T h e Barbados Government has taken the position that those applicants f r Sixth Form places who are not awarded places can always ato tend the Barbados Community College. T h e trouble wt this argument is ih that the Barbados Community College does not have an unlimited supply o of places, and that Harrison College has c o m e t have a strangle hold on the Barbados Scholarships.

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T M L E 23 E N R O L M E N T I FIFIH . N AND S K I M FORMS I GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS, N SELECTED YEARS


Enrolment i n

Public Secondary Schools


1967-68 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1976-77 1977-78 1983-84 13,241 14,407 15,150 16,424 17,059 19,064 19.660 20,454

Fifth Form

Sixth Form
%

%
2.0 2.6 19 . 19 . 1.9 2.3 2.2 2.0

1,326 1,828 2,096 2,141 2,470 3,316 3,555 5,060

10.0 12.7 13.8 13.0 14.5 17.4 18.1 24.7

399 372 289 305 319 447 437 412

Sources: Ministry of Education Annull Reports; Digest of Education StatisticsBarbados, 1983-84. T h e fundamental point which is being made, then, i that while the s o Universitys admissions policy m a y be said t be more-or-less open, there are forces a work which militate against all but a relatively t s a l number o students acquiring theA level certificates which facilitate ml f admission t the University and its Cave Hl Campus. It is imponant t o il o balance out the picture, however, by noting that the University also allows f r lower-levelmatriculation and f r the special admission o mature stuo o f dents. To be eligible f r lower level matriculation, the student must hold o passes in an approved G.C.E. o Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) r examination in five approved subjects not necessarily obtained a one and t the same occasion. The subject must include: English Language, Elementary Mathematics, either a foreign language o an approved science (not r Geography or Health Science) or Additional Mathematics, and two other approved subjects which m a y include any not counted above. Alternatively, the student must hold passes in an approved G.C.E. o CXC exarnir nation in five approved subjects obtained on one and the same occasion, including English Language and Elementary Mathematics. f o t i l In sum, access o Barbadians t the UWI and i s Cave Hl C a m p u s is strongly influenced by the type o secondary school attended, and the f type o secondary school attended i in turn strongly influenced by the perf s formance of the pupil in the highly selective CEE,even though policy-meao f f t sures have been implemented over time t rid the system o some o is more traditionally blatant aristocratic features.

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CHAPTER 3 ACTUAL SITUATIONO F HIGHER EDUCATION:I This chapter deals wt the actual situation in higher education in ih
Barbados. It focuses o n student enrolment, educational personnel, srudent services, material and physical resources, and educational financing. The matters o innovation in higher education, inter-institutional co-operation, f and scientific research wl be dealt wt in Chapter 4. Let us begin, then, il ih wt enrolment. ih

ENROLMENT
Triennial Trends The latest published official statistics on enrolment at the UWI are oa f for the academic year 1985-86.In 1985-86,the University had a t t l o 10,718 registered students, o whom 1.902 (17.7%) were a the Cave Hl f t i l Campus. AScan be seen in Table 3.0, enrolment at the Cave Hl Campus i l

TABLE 30 GROWTH O F TOTAL STUDENT REGISTRATION . THE UWI,BY CAMPUS, FOR EACH TRIENNIUM 1963-64 TO 1978-79 AND ANNUALLY 1979-80TO 1985-86
WHOLE ACADEMIC YEAR UNTVERsm 1963-64 1966-67 1969-70 1972-73 1975-76 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 2,187 3.259 4.627 6.326 7,257 8,519 8,986 9,058 9,543 9,573 10,026 10,572 10,718 ST.
MONA
AUGUSTINE

CAVE HILL TRIENNlAL TOTAL GROWTH

1,486 2,073 2,687 3,516 3,963 4,496 4,574 4,548 4,798 4.884 5,188 5,394 5,088

583 964 1,511 1,967 2,229 2,661 2,915 2,923 3,144 3,125 3,197 3,428 3,728

118 222 429 843 1,065 1,362 1,497 1,587 1,601 1,564 1,641 1,790 1,902

104 207 414 222 297

239

189

Note re Registration i the Hotel Management Progmnme in the Bahamas: n fieres for 1978-79( 2 ; 1979-80( 5 ; 1980-81(31); 1982-83( 9 ; 1983-84 1) 2) 2) (31); 1984-85(28)and 1985-86(22)are i d d a i the Mona totals. nue'n Some: U W I Development and Planning Unit, 1987.

32

is almost twice as high as it was a decade ago, but growth in student enrolo ment in the last triennium (1981-82 t 1984-85)was lower than in any triennium except the first (1963-64t 1966-67).It is i p r a t t mention what o motn o has been happening triennially in enrolment, since the University is funded f o f on a triennial basis. It is too early, o course, t assert that a trend o declining enrolment has set in at the Cave Hl Campus. However, it is certain i l that the Cave Hl authorities and the Barbados Government have been i l watching closely the figures on enrolment at the C a m p u s in recent years. A decline in enrolment is usually accompanied by cutbacks in government spending on the educational sector.

Enrohcnt by Faculty Examination o the distribution o student enrolment between the f f i l various Faculties a Cave Hl reveals several interesting things. Observe, in t Table 3.1 (appendix), that over the 12-yearperiod 1973-74 t 1985-86 most o of the students were enrolled in the Faculty of Arts and General Studies. Observe, too, that by the triennium ending 1985-86 Social Sciences had taken over from A m and General Studies as the most popular area of student enrolment. In 1985-86, Social Sciences accounted for 31% of the student enrolment and A m and General Studies for 24%. Apart from Social Sciences, the only Faculty that experienced groarth in student enrolment in each triennium since 1973-74 was Natural Sciences. f Natural Sciences accounted for 22% o the enrolment in 1985-86. The establishment o a Faculty o L a w at the Cave H l C a m p u s in f f i l 1970 w s cause f r celebration by m a n y Barbadians and West Indians. Rea o d from our historical analysis in Chapter I that traditionally l w and l a medicine were the W O most prestigious fields o study and that only a f f f privileged few had access to those two fields o study. W h e n the doors o the Faculty o L a w were opened in 1970, they were evidently opened fairly f wide. The 269 students enrolled in the Faculty o L a w in 1973-74 repf f resented 29% o that years enrolment. However, it seems that the Faculty o Laws doors are not as wide open as they were in the past. Enrolment in f f t the Faculty o L a w has been kept a about the 290-300 students mark, and represented 16% o the t t l enrolment in 1985-86. That proportion w s f oa a roughly half o what it had been in 1973-74. f A Faculty o Medicine was opened at Cave Hl 1985-86 in the wake f i l o the resmcturiig o the University in October 1984. Prior t 1985-86, f f o Medicine was taught a the M o n a C a m p u s only. Whether by accident o by t r f s ih design, the Faculty o Medicine i the one wt the second lowest enrolment a the Cave Hl Campus. T h e 46 students enrolled in the Faculty o t i l f Medicine in 1985-86represented two per cent o the t t l enrolment. f oa

33

TABLE 31 STUDENT E N R O L M E N T AT T H E . CAVE HILL CAMPUS BY FACULTY A N D TRIENNIUM 1973-74TO 1985-86 FACULTY A t and rs
General Studies Social Sciences Law Education Natural Sciences Medical Sciences

1973-74 197677 1979-80 1982-83 1985-86 438

269 39 192 938

422 104 290 39 285

- 1,497

493 322 289 68 325

419 459 298 62 334

TOTAL

1,140

1,572

456 594 310 76 420 46(1) 1,902

(1) Faculty o Medical Sciences was opened in 1985-86. The f


Source: U W I Vice-Chancellors Report t Council, 1983 o LJWIDevelopment and Planning Unit, 1987.

The Faculty o Education (formerly the School o Education) is the f f Faculty w t the lowest enrolment, if one excludes enrolment in the in-serih vice Diploma Education and Certificate in Educational Management and ih f Administration programmes. This has less to do w t the low prestige o the B.Ed. degree when compared wt an LL.B.o medical degree, than ih r w t the high economic cost o the B.Ed. degree. T h e 76 students enrolled ih f in the Faculty o Education in 1985-86represented four per cent o the enf f rolment. The picture which presents itself, then, as far as the current distribution o enrolment between the Faculties i concerned, is one in which f s Social Sciences is in the lead, followed by A m and General Studies, Natural Sciences, Law, Education, and Medicine in that order.

Sex and Type of Programme


The available data o n n e w admissions to the entire University indicate that the University has been admitting more female than male students. If w e examine the n e w Barbadian students admitted to the University in 1985-86,w e find that such students were 405 in number (Table 3.2). Females accounted f r 57% and males f r 43%. However, there i more t o o s o the matter o enrolment by sex than simply counting the number o females f f o a ih f gaining admission and comparing that t t l wt the number o males gaining admission.O n e also needs to examine admission o the sexes t the diff o ferent programmes.

34

A m o n g the new Barbadian students admirted t the University in o 1985-86,b t m l s and females had a marked tendency t enter First D e o h ae o gree programmes. This was true o 86% of the males and 81% of the f o females. When w e examine admission t the First Degree programmes, by sex, w e find that there were marked differences between the sexes. Most o f the females (43%) entered A t and General Studies, while most o the rs f males (45%) entered Natural Sciences. Social Sciences was the next on the list, for both males (21%) and females(27Y0). Law w s evenly shared by the a f sexes, but Medicine and Engineering were patently male-dominated.Six o the eight n e w students admitted t Medicine were males, and not one of the o four new students admitted to Engineering was a female.

TABLE 32 NEW UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS . TO FIRSTDEGREES,CERTIFICATESA N D DIPLOMAS, BY FACULTY A N D SEX BARBADIANS ONLY, 1985-86 TYPEOFPROGRAMME FIRST DEGREES A m and
General Studies Social Sciences Law Natural Sciences Medicine Agriculture Engineering

MALE
29 32 10 68 6 1 4 150

FEMALE
79 51 9 45 2

TOTAL
108 83 1 9 113 8 1 4 336

186
1 20

T t l F r t Degrees oa is
Ccdiatcs/Diplomas Cen. Social Work Cert.Ed.Admin. Dip. Mass C o m m .
Dip. Public Admin. Dip. Educ.

Total CcdicatedDqlomas G R A N TOTAL

1 10 1 7 5 24

2
30 1 1 6 20 69

9 15

45
231

1 74

405

Source: UWI Development and Planning Unit, 1987.

35

The indications are, then, that w t the exception o social science, ih f the world o science is still e s n i l y a mansworld at the G v e Hl f setal il Campus. Since the U i e s t is a regional institution, it is necessary t nvriy o round out our examination o enrolment by looking at enrolment by t r i f ert ory, taking into account the distribution o the population among the terf
ritories.

Enrolment by T r i o y ertr Dt on enrolment in F r t Degree, Cediate and Diploma progaa is rammes,by territory, are provided i Table 3.3 f r the e t r University i n o nie n 1985-86.Observe that there were 1,195 Barbadians enrolled i First Degree n
programmes and another 100 i Cediate and Diploma programmes,w t n ih the total o 1,295 Barbadians representing 13.8% o the overall t t l o f f oa f 9,411 students. If we stay w t nationals of the Campus Countries, it ih should be noted that Jamaicans accounted f r 44.1% of the o e a l enrolo vrl ment, and T i i a i n and Tobagonims f r 35.9%. The remaining 6.3% rnddas o o the enrolment was divided between the NCCs. f

TABLE 33 E N R O L M E N T IN FIRST DEGREE .. A N D CERTIFICATE A N D DIPLOMA P R O G R A M M E S AT T H E UWI BY TERRITORY, 1985-86


TERlUTORY
Anguilla Antigua
B b l s

Enrolment Fn Dcsreg CCrtrJDipl. TOTAL it 8 7 1


37

58
115 .9 34 10 2 30 60

9 3

4 6

Barbados Belize

loa 4

BVI
Caynun Islands Dominica

-2
10

61 125 .9 38 12

2
40

Geaa rnd
J n i V a U

3,614
25 55 91 40

MtSrt ONen

5 536
2 12

65
4,150

St. Kim-Nevis St. Lucia


s . vincmt t

25 57
103 45

5 T i i a and Tobago rndd 2.912 465 Turks Islands 1 1 Guyana 50 4 Other Territories 20 11 TOTAL 8,24 1 1,170 Source:L W I Developmentand Planning Unit, 1987.

3,377 2 54 31 9,411

36

When the distribution o the population is taken into account, it is f clear that Barbadians are over-represented among the students enrolled at the University (appendix,Table 3.4). Barbados share o the regions popuf lation is 5.4%, but Barbadians account for about 14.696 o the students f reading for First Degree. Trinidad and Tobago is also over-represented, though not to the extent of Barbados. Jamaica is slightly under-repo f resented, accounting as it does f r 49.5% o the population and for about 44.2% the enrolment in First Degree programmes. T h e NCCs are heavily under-representedamong the students reading for First Degrees. They acf count for 21.2% of the population, but only for about 5.5% o the enrolment.

TABLE 34 COMPARISON O F PROPORTIONS . O F POPULATIONS WITH FIRST DEGREE ENROLMENTS,BY TERRITORY, 1985-86
%
TliOy CTtr Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Barbados N o n Campus Countries

ENROLMENT %F t D m e
grtc Enrol. 44.2 35.7 1. 46 5.5

Population
49.5 23.9 5.4 21.2

S o m e : U W I Development and Planning Unit, 1987.

T h e very s a l share o the NCCs i the enrolment raises questions ml f n about the relationship between the NCCs and the University on the one f hand, and the NCCs and the governments o the Campus Countries on the other. There can be no doubt that especially since the restructuring o the f University in October, 1984, the governments o the Campus Countries f have seen their responsibility f r funding o the university as something o f which should cake the national interest first and foremost into account. Nor can there be any doubt that some o the NCCs have allowed themf selves to fall into arrears as far as the honouring o their funding o the Unif f versity is concerned. In any event, it is clear that Barbados has more than adequate representation among the students enrolled at the University; and this is something which needs t be taken into account when one is asseso sing the effectiveness o higher education in Barbados. We turn n o w t f o educational personnel.

37

EDUCATION PERSONNEL
Since enrolment at the Cave Hl C a m p u s is small by international il o standards, it should not be surprising t find that the C a m p u s has relatively s a l senior administrative and full-time academic staff. At November 1, ml 1986, such staff at the Cave Hl C a m p u s totalled 130 persons. L t us il e examine this total o 130 staff members in relation to the budgeted staff, f and say a f w things about the characteristics o the full-time academic e f
S d .

Actual Vs Budgeted Staff


The 130 staff members comprised 23 non-Faculty members and 107 Faculty members, distributed between the various units as shown i Table n 3.5 The non-Faculty u i s had a shortfall o only one staff member. That nt f shortfall w s in Administration, where there were 9 persons o n staff as a compared wt the budgeted t t lo 1 . ih oa f 0 The Faculties had an overall shortfall o 20 staff members, since there f oa f l were 107 persons on staff as compared with the budgeted t t l o 127. A l o the Faculties had a s o t a l in staff, but Social Sciences and L a w were the f hrfl ones w t the largest shortfalls, 7 persons and 5 persons respectively. In the ih f eatet Faculty o Social Sciences, the D p r m n which was hardest hit was the Institute o Social and Economic Research w t its deficit o 3 staff mernf ih f bers. TABLE 35. DISTRIBUTION O F NON-FACULTY

MEMBERS A N D FACULTY MEMBERS AMONG THEUNITS O F THE CAVE HILL CAMPUS N O V E M B E R 1,1986
UNrr NON-FACULTY Administration Library Computing Centre Learning Resourcc Centre Office of U i e s t Services nvriy

NO.ON STAPF
9

BUDGETED STAFF SHORTFALL 10 1

7 2
1

Sub-Total
FACULTY Arts and General Studies
EdUUCiOn

2 23 21
11

23 13

L W

Nand Sciences
Social Sciences

18 23 21
13

23 26 28
14 127 151

2 2 5
3 7 1 20 21

Medical Sciences

Sub-Td 107 TOTAL 130 S o m e : W W I Development and Planning U i ,1987. nt

38

The shodall in staff did not occur by accident. It resulted from a conscious University decision to freeze posts in order t live within i s o t budget, and to use part-time staff as necessary t fill teaching gaps. As has o been pointed out by the Marshal Committee, that course o action was a f prudent one for the Cave Hl C a m p u s t follow, but it raised issues about il o the viability of some Faculties. and certainly cut into the resources available f r graduate and undergraduate programmes a well as for research o critio s f cal i m p o m n c e t national development ( a s a lt al, op. cit., p. 22). o Mrhle

Country or Region o Oii f rgn Barbadians constituted a majority (51%) of the 130 persons o n s d at November 1, 1 8 ,and W s Indians 81%. There can be no doubt that 96 et the staff o the University as a whole is made up h e a d y o West Indians. f f At November 1, 1986, the 374 members o staff at the M o n a C a m p u s inf cluded 223 Jamaicans and 297 West Indians, while the 305 members o staff f

TABLE 36 STAFFING AT THE CAVE HILL CAMPUS .. BY UNIT A N D SELECTEDCOUWIZY O R REGION O F ORIGIN NOVEMBER 1,1986 Country or Region o Oii f rgn
Great Bri-

T d

wn c

tpind

Administration Library Computing C n r ete Learning resources centre Extra munl studies

suflrkubdolInd#Ird.adorhrr 9 9 9 7 3 6 1

2
1

2 1 1

2
1

Office o Univ.services f Sub-Total FACULTIES A m and Gm.Studies


Education
L W

2 2
21

1 6
6 5
7 7

2 2 22 17
1

2
1 1 1 6

21
11

2 2
1 1

18
13

Medical Sciences N t r kknces aud S c a Sciences oil Sub-Total (Fdticr)

13 1 0

23 21
107

12
13 90

16 18
a4

2
13 14

TOTAL 130 66 106 PERCENTAGES ON STAFF 100 51 ai Source: U W I Development and P h n i n g Unit, 1987.

10 10 08

11

39

of the St. Augustine C a m p u s included 182 nationals o Trinidad and Tof I bago and 242 West Indians (see W Development and Planning Unit, 1987,pp. 24-30). At the Cave H l Campus, the non-West Indian staff members at i l November 1, 1986, came mainly from Great Britain and Ireland. To be precise, 14 staff members (11% o the total) were f o Great Britain and f rm Ireland. What was interesting about those particular members o staff was f f f that six o them were in the Faculty o Natural Sciences. T h e question which arises here i whether there is a shortage o qualified natural scientists s f among Barbadians and West Indians. The 10 staff members who were neither from the West Indies nor from Great Britain and Ireland came from Canada, the U S A , India, Africa, Australia and N e w Zealand.

QuaEcations and Rank

A this point, let us concentrate o n the full-time academic staff and t say something about their quaUcations and academic rank. Relatively few of che 117 full-time members o academic staff had only a Bachelors D e f f gree. There were 19 persons (16% o the tod)in that category.There were 38 persons with degrees at the Masters level, 50 Ph.Ds. and 10 persons wt special qualifications in Medicine (Table 3.7). Although the full-time ih s o academic s d is not poorly qualified, there i some room f r improvement since only about half o these staff members have Ph.Ds. o special qualifif r cations. The C a m p u s authorities have recognized this and have put in place an active staff development programme. TABLE 37 DISTRiBUTION OF FULL ZIME ACADEMIC .. STAFF A T C A V E HlLL CAMPUS, BY FACULTY A N D ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS NOVEMBER, 1986 QUALIFICATIONS
TOTAL

A m and Gen.Studies
Fduurion

BDchdon htm
1 1 7 9 1 1 1 9

Ph.D.
11 5 4 3 15 12

LW
Medicine (clinical) Naturd % c s me sodd Scieaces

5 7 1 7
9 38

TOTAL
Source: WDwdopment and Pg I &

50

spcid F~ll-Tim~ Q d - Audcmic krionr Staff 21 11 18 10 13 23 2 1 10 117

U i ,1987. nt

The 117 full-time members o academic staff were made up o two f f Assistant Lecturers, 60 Lecturers, 47 Senior Lecturers and 8 Professors. W e n one examines the distribution o Senior Lecturers and Professors f among the Faculties the fmdings are very interesting. Firstly, Social Sciences, the Faculty w t the most Senior Lecturers, had no Professor. O n e ih f s ml wonders why. SecondIy. although the Faculty o Education i s a l in terms o student enrolment, it had five Senior Lecturers (but n o Professors) f among its 11 full-timemembers o academic staff. Thirdly, hdf o the fullf f time academic staff o the Faculty o Medicine was made up o Senior Lecf f t turers urd Professors even though, as w e have seen, the Faculty o f Medicine had an enrolment o ls than 50 students in 1985-86. Fourthly, f a the Faculty ofN t r l Sciencesw s the one w t the most Professors (three aua a ih to be exact), even though it occupied the fourth position in terms o f number of Senior Lecturers.W e turn n o w t student services. o

TABLE 38 DISTRIBUTION O F FULL-TIME .. ACADEMIC STAFF BY RANK AMONG THE FACULTIES, NOVEMBER 1,1986
RANKS O F ACADEMC STAFF
5nr eb
Arrp and Gen.SN&CS
Assistant

Education
L W

Profawn kNtcnLccfum3 L c u e errn 1 8 12 5 6 2 7 8 1

Tool 21
11

18
23 23 21 117

M d c l Sciences eia
(clinical)

NanvllSeiaKcs
s c a scinces oil

9 8

12
11 11

TOTAL

10 47

1 2

60

Source: LIWIDevelopmenr and Planning U i ,1987. ni

S T U D E N T SERVICES
The G v e Hl C a m p u s has a wide range o student services. These il f services include: accommodation, loans and scholarships, prizes, health and m d c l facilities, legal representation,counselling, a bookshop, a mail eia service, urd a cafeteria. W e wl focus on accommodation, loans and il scholarships,health and rnedicd facilities, and w e wl deal briefly w t the il ih student movement.

4 1

Accommodation i l f Student accommodation at the Cave Hl C a m p u s consists o a single hall o residence, Sherlock Hl has accommodation for 120 students, 56 f al male and 61 female. During vacation periods, students who wish t remain o in residence m a y do s only w t the permission o the Warden, who a s o ih f lo serves as Student Counsellor. Students are required to pay in advance for their room. There are a least three problems w t the accommodation at Shert ih al o f lock Hl.Firstly, the demand f r places far exceeds the supply. Most o the 500-odd overseas students a the Cave Hl Campus have no choice but t i l r o ih to lease houses and apartments o t stay w t families. Acceptable accommodation within a reasonable distance from C a m p u s is scarce (Vice-Chancellors Report t Council, 1983, p. 42). However, the Student A f i s Seco far tion of the C a m p u s tries t find off-campus accommodation f r n e w overo o t seas students who have not been allotted places a Sherlock Hall. The second problem is that accommodation in Batbados is expensive, both o n and o f campus. T h e estimated annual residence fees at Sherf lock Hl are as follows: BD5$52,170 in Terns, B - 0 during the al D9 Christmas and Easter vacation periods, and BDSl4O during the 9-week Summer vacation (see The Students Handbook, 1987, p. 35). T h e estim t d monthly rates f r off-campus accommodation are, in local currency: ae o $500-$700 for a twobedroom house; $600-$850for a three-bedroom house; $500-600 for a two-bedroom furnished apament; $600-700$for a threeih bedroom furnished apartment; $450-$600 for board and lodging w t families; and $200-$300 for lodging if the student decides to share furnished rooms wt other students (ibid., p.41). ih ih The third problem is that w t off-campus accommodation as expensive as it is, a regime o rent-increases has been instituted a Sherlock H l f t a l to make that Hl pay its way. In his Report t Council in 1983. the Unial o al o versitys Vice-Chancellor acknowledged that Sherlock Hl continues t suffer from deferred maintenance and equipment replacement problems, al and pointed out that the rent increase at Sherlock Hl in 1982 was designed to help make that hall self-supporting since the UGC had taken a decision not t fund any Hl deficits w t effect from October, 1982 (Vice-Chano al ih cellors Report, loc. cit.).

Loans and Scholarships The Student Welfare Committee o the Cave Hl C a m p u s has a small f i l student loan scheme with terms o repayment satisfactory t the Campus f o

OncBarbadordollarirU.S.)O.M.

42

Finance Officer. Application is made through the Assistant registrar, Student Affairs. From t m to time, Student Affairs invites applications for ie Campus scholarships provided by local firms, service clubs o interested r lo persons in the community. It a s invites applications for undergraduate awards, bursaries and other forms o assistance available throughout the f f Universiry. Freshmen entering the C a m p u s without the aid o scholarships may apply t sit the University Scholarship Examinations which are held in o February/March. Most major University, Government and CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency) Scholarships are awarded on the f basis o this examination. f The Barbados Government has been concerned about the amount o money which it has been spending on scholarshipstenable a the University t and elsewhere. It actually spent BDsS1.3 million on scholarships in 198182, but the Barbados Estimates f r 1983-84contained an allocation o only o f o B D S 1 . O million f r scholarships. In 1984-85 the actual expenditure on a scholarsbs w s $1.4 million. marginally higher than in 1981-82. However, the Approved E t m t s f r 1985-86showed a figure o $1.8 million siae o f f r scholarships. and the allocation f r scholarships in the Barbados Esuo o m r s f r 1986-87w s $2.3 million. ae o a The Barbados Government has been using a Student Revolving Loan Fund (SRLF) t reduce its expenditure on scholarships, and t tie is o o t financing o studies t specific professional and technical areas which it f o considers beneficial t national development. o
o The SRLF programme has been designed principally t help:

a) expand ost-seconday and higher education opportunities t quali led applicants; o b) provide n e w resources f r the financing o post-secondary o f and higher education; c) transfer all or part o the cost o such education from the f f o f family or the Government t the actual beneficiary o the SRLF; d) provide Barbados wt trained professionals in priority ih areas; ih e) provide the Government w t a mechanism which might permit it gradually t reduce the number o scholarships o f awarded annually;and f) bring about an increase in national income levels by adding o professionally trained Barbadian personnel t the economy. f (Ministry o Education 1978-82 Report, p. 60).

43

The SRLF has been managed by the Barbados Ministry o Education f through a Student Revolving Loan Fund Management Committee. This Committee has about five members, and is chaired by the Permanent Secf retary in the Ministry o Education. T h e priority areas and loans approved under the SRLF up to 1981-82are shown in Table 3.9.

TABLE 39 FRIORITY AREAS A N D LOANS APPROVED .. U N D E R THE S T U D E N T REVOLVING L O A N FUND

UP T O 1 9 8 1 4 2
T t l Fuab oa
priority

T t l Loons oa Approved

Approved

Engineering
Technology

Adminiswation Teacher training Agriculture Naturd kimces Architecture Land Surveying Medicine
Drsy min

20 28 75 27 6 28 6
1

16 2
209

BS DS 256,763 946,487 957,004 474,472 64,403 232,684 148,000 20,000 240,335 47,000
2,966,743

TOTAL.

S~IUCC: Minisq ofEducation 1978-82Report,p. 60.

Most of the funds for the SRLF have come from the Inter-American Development Bank. T h e Barbados Government intends t keep the SRLF o going, but t modify i s operation, as is explicitly stated in the current fiveo t year Development Plan: The Government has negotiated w t the Inter-American D e ih velopment Bank a second loan agreement to replenish and exf pand the scope o the Student Revolving Loan Fund. In addition to the provision for post-graduate and undergraduate il courses, the fund wl n o w permit loans to qualified Barbadians pursuing post-secondary education and training especially in technicd/vocational areas and middle management in national institutions such as the Barbados Community College, the Samuel Jackman Prescod Polytechnic and Erdiston [Teacher Training] College. T h e n e w arrangement wl inil clude a loadgrant principle which should make the scheme more attractive to students and should encourage high scholast c achievement. i (Barbados DevelopmentPlan, 1983-88,p. 144).

44

Health and Medical Facilities Students a the Cave Hl C a m p u s are provided wt clinical services t i l ih through the Students Health Service. T h e clinical services are provided by a Senior Nursing Sister, a pan-time Nursing Sister, and a panel o visiting f doctors. The part-time Nurse was made available from the academic year 1976-77,and up t 1980 she covered the examination period only (approxio mately five weeks, M a y t June). Since 1980, the services o the pan-time o f Nurse have been provided during the academic year only. f There are about 10 persons o n the panel o visiting doctors. They include a medical specialist, a surgeon, a psychiatrist and a dental surgeon. Four o the doctors service four medical clinics weekly. There is a oncef monthly psychiatric and diagnostic clinic. T h e Clinic hours are 8.30 a.m. 4.30 p.m. A l other specialist care i organized through the public clinics at the l s Queen Elizabeth Hospital, a m o d e m University teaching hospital, and is free. Ophtalmic care i offered partly free, and i organized by a leading s s fr o Optitians i Bridgetown. The Cave Hl authorities have made it im f n il very dear to the students that while the University is prepared to provide them w t medical assistance, it is not prepared t accept responsibility for ih o the payment o unauthorized medical bills: f The University does not undertake t provide or meet the cost o o medical services including diagnostic tests, which cannot be f obtained from the Health Service in conjunction w t the ih Queen Elizabeth Hospid. Where in extraordinary circumstances these are necessary, they must be met by the stur r dent, his parents o guardians o donors. Where circumstances n warrant, a emergency loan m a y be available from the Student Emergency Loan fund. (StudentsHandbook, op. a . p. 4 ) i , 3. Although the efforts o the Cave Hl C a m p u s at providing its stuf i l dents w t health and medical facilities are t be commended, there i room ih o s f r improvement in the Students Health Service. T h e Clinic facilities have o been i use since the inception o the Clinic in 1972, and have become inn f adequate beuuse o the rapidly increasing number o students using the f f Health Service (Vice-Chancellors Repon, op. cit., p. 41).

ul f T h e G i d o Undergraduates The Guild o Undergraduates at the Cave H l C u n p u s has been f i l seeking t increase the level o communication between its Council and the o f general student community. Through its representation o n a number o def o cision-making bodies a the Campus, the Guild Council has been able t t secure the cooperation o the Cave Hl Administration in remedying a f i l
45

number o problems. It has succeeded in bringing about improvements in f f o the conditions o out-door lighting on the C a m p u s f r security purposes. It has been able t secure financial assistance for the improvement o the o f o f facilities and equipment available t students in a variety o areas. These def velopments have included: the resurfacing o the playing courts, the renovation o the cricket pavillion, the purchase o v i d band equipment f r the f f o students campus band, and the acquisition o the services o a number o f f f professional coaches to assist in the preparation for the Inter-Campus Games (Ibid., p. 43). The Guild Council has been carrying out an educational programme on world affairs. In 1983, f r instance, it organized a symposium on Deo velopment in the Third World: Prospect for the future. The speakers a t f the Symposium included not only members o the Univetsitys academic staff, but also some o the leading political figures in the region. f lo f The Guild has a s been active in the area o publications. Its N e w s f letter is distributed free o cost, and provides information o n the activities o the Council, Clubs and Societies. It publishes the Law Socieg/ournal, f the A m and General Studies Magazine, the Social Sciences Journal, the Sherlock Hl Magazine entitled Interlock, and a miscellany o things a1 f from clubs such as Creative Writers. It recently commenced publication o f an official Year Book.

MATERIAL AND PHYSICAL RESOURCES


Let us turn to the material and physical resources a the Cave Hl t il campus. Two matters wl be delt wt in this respect: libraries and the il ih Learning Resources Centre, and the Computer Centre. Libraries and the Learning Resources Centre There are two major libraries a the Cave Hl Campus, the Main t i l o Library and the Law Library. The Main Library is open t all students and members o staff registered a the Campus. It has over 94,000 volumes of f t books,over 12,000pamphlets and over 2,000periodicals. It is a depository for the United Nations English Language documents and selected publicaf tions by the Organization o American States. It has other separate collections such as the West Indies collection (closed access) and Government Serials (which are for reference only). Undergraduates are allowed t borrow o up t eight books a a time from the Main Library, for a period o normally o t f up t three weeks. The Main Library has access to D I A L O G , a c o m o ih puterized information retrieval system w t 180 databases containing in excess o 80 million records. T h e Main Library is open from 9.00 a.m. to f

46

10.00p.m.from Monday to Friday, and from 9.00 a,m. t 5.00p.m, on o s t Saturdays. It i also open a specified tima during vacations. The Main Library Administration appreciates that the Main Library has been making a major contribution t the development o the Campus, o f but it has expressed its concern over the reduced purchasing power ofthe book vote: While w e are encouraged by the n e w opportunities w e must a s register concern at the rapidly diminishing power o our lo f book vote. Wt the improved efficiency in the technical services departih f il ment promised by the judicious use o automation w e wl need t ensure that our book budgets are sufficient t match o o f the capacity o the processing sections and, more importantly, f o the demands o the staff and students for access t the significant new publications in their fields. (ibid., p. 3) 8.
The L a w Library is located within the building housing the Faculty of Law.It has an extensive collection o West Indian and other C o m m o n f wealth legal materials, and is considered t be the premier legal library in o f the region. The collection has a research capability and is in excess o 60,000 volumes. This number includes approximately 571 periodical titles, 425 l w repon titles, statutes, digests, citators, legal encyclopaedias and a monographs. A substantial part of the L a w Librarys collection was acquired from the library o the Attorney General o the defunct West Indies Federation. f f Other significant benefactors include the British Overseas Development Division, the U.S.Government, York University Library, the Canadian Bar Association, and most of the Commonwealth Caribbean Governments. The collections unique feature is the West Indian section,which includes approximately 8,175 unreported West Indian cases, theses and research papers produced by staff and students. The L a w Library a m a providing a legal reference service for pracis t titioners and researchers in general, in addition to Supporting the teaching f programmes a the Faculty o Law. A computer-based programme, LEXIS t (Legal Information Data Base) has recently been introduced in the L a w Library and should be fully operational during the current academic year o (1987-88). The L a w Librarys hours are: weekdays 9.00 a.m. t 10.00, p.m.,Saturdays 9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m., and Sundays 9.00 a.m. t 10.00 o p.m. During the Christmas and S u m m e r vacations, the L a w Library is open from 9.00a.m. t 4.30 p.m. o f Before w e close our discussion o the library situation, brief mention Strictly speaking should be made ofthe Learning Resource Centre (LRC).

47

the LRC is not a library. It is a unit which supports the academic work o f the Campus, through the following activities: a VTR studio wt a closed ih ei circuit link,a multi-media library, and a m d a production unit which indudes a small off-set press. However, it i necessary to draw attention t s o the L R C , and especially t the LRCs multi-media library, since library o o materials are not restricted t book materials. In 1985-86, the LRCs libnry collection consisted o 250 audio cassettes/capes. 32 16-milimetre f films, 33 f h s m p s , 80 k t , and 70 video cassettes (Deputmentd Reportr is 7) 1985-86,p. 1 9 . In addition t a printery, the LRCsproduction unit has a darkroom, o o graphics artists facilities, and recording devices f r both audio and visual materials. T h e LRC utilizes considerable assistance from students in the areas of collating, reprographic camera work, plate burning and f h processing. It also produces graduation materials, ceriificates, and programmes for the Vice-chancellors thanksgiving service as well as for Commencement Services. T h e Computer Centre The Computer Centre has an ICL 1910A and other material resources. These other material resources consist o eight Rainbows in the f MICROLAB and the Rainbow Plus i the Centre itself. Since September, n 1985, the Computer Centre has had a DEC VAX 750. However, because of a) the lack o adequate space f r setting up the terminals and b) the lif o mited software, the n e w computer has been used mainly f r the training of o Cornputer Centre Staff. Members o staff o the Departments of Mathemaf f tics and Physics have also been making use o the V A X computer, espef cially f r research purposes. o i l ih The Computer Centre at Cave Hl has been sharing software w t the Depamnent o Engineering at the St. Augustine C a m p u s since these f two collaborators have similar equipment. It is expected that the two Campuses wl cooperate closely in all aspects o the acquisition and maintei l f nance of both hardware and software.

FINANCING O F HIGHER EDUCATION


It is time n o w t deal wt the f n l and most imponant matter t be o ih ia o n s f addressed i this chapter. The matter in question i the financing o higher education. Enrolment figures, s d i n g , student services, and material and ol o f physical resources all bi down t a question o money. W e have already had a glimpse of how higher education is being financed in Barbados, especially when w e discussed the SRLF. However, a systematic analysis o the f matter o financing o higher education is very m u c h in order. W e wl f f il

begin by providing information on the cost o education a the Cave H l f t i l Campus, and then focus more directly on the issue o financing. f

COST O EDUCATION AT CAVE HILL F The student attending the Cave H l C a m p u s incurs a variety of fii l
nancial expenses. The Barbadian student incurs expenses related t caution o fees, nominal tuition and examination fees, students guild fees, the f economic cost o his programme and books and incidentals. The overseas student incurs all of these expenses, plus those connected w t accommodaih f o tion and meals. A n estimate o annual expenses f r undergraduate degree programmes at the Cave Hl C a m p u s is provided in Table 3.10.O u r main i l concern i w t the economic cost, which i a) by far the largest o all the s ih s f f costs, and b) met by the Barbados Government for all o its nationals exf cept those in the first year o a four-yeardegree programme. The economic costs o programmes in the four Faculties listed in f Table 3.10 range from BDSS5,840 -$15,360 per annum for students from the N C C s , and from BDS$9,734 $25,600per annum for other students, f including students from Guyana. In the case o nationals from contributing N C C s , the fees shown in the Table for economic costs represent the full Economic Cost discounted by 40%. The reference to the economic costs f r students from contributing NCCs is o major importance since the reo f structuring o the University in 1984 resulted in pan: from the fact that f f o some o the contributing NCC Governments had allowed themselves t fall into arrears w t their contributions. T h e economic cost must be met ih by the non-Barbadianstudent himself unless the Government o his counf try or an acceptable donor agrees t meet it on his behalf. In any event, it o is the Barbados Government which is responsible for the triennial funding o the Cave Hl Campus, and this point cannot be overstressed as w e move f il f directly into the question o financing.

The Od and New Funding A r n e e t l ragmns


Prior t October, 1984, each o the Universitys three Campuses o f o channelled its triennial estimates t the University through its Planning and E t m t s Committee. T h e Planning and Estimates committee revised, siae o amended and pruned the estimates before submitting them t the University Grants Committee (UGC) funding. T h e UGC was made up ofthe for f e Ministers o Finance ofthe 14 Contributing Countries.T h e UGC m t after the estimates had been sanctioned by the Technical Advisory Commirte (TAS).The TAS was made up o the Permanent Secretaries o the Minisf f f f tries o Finance o the Contributing Countries.

49

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50

T h e UGC allocated the funds as a block grant. The University, in turn, decided how m u c h money should go t each Campus. As wt the o ih preparation o the Estimates, the funds were provided under three headf ings: projections, consolidations, and expansion and n e w development. f Projections signdied the carrying on o present activities at existing levels. o o Consolidations referred t improvements t remedy existing inadequacies. Expansion and n e w developmenrs consisted in activities and programmes that had not been tried before. o T h e funding arrangements described above caused the Campuses t have CO resort t crisis management, as has been pointed out by the Maro shall Committee in its recent review o the operations o the Cave H l f f i l campus: Even prior t restructuring,the decisions o the UGC tended o f t be made erilously close to the end o one triennium and the o f begining o the next. O n occasions they were made after a triennium had begun. This imposed upon the University and its campuses the need t resort to crisis management and t o o alter carefully made plans a a very late sage t accommodate t o f o h e level o funding provided f r their operation. ( a s a l ai., op. cit., p. 9 M r h i et ) . T h e restructuring o the University has caused the Campuses t bef o come even more obsessed wt crisis management. Here again is the Marih shall Committee: T h e situation appears t have worsened w t restructuring and o ih f the establishment o the Campus Grants COI'nmitteeS ( C G C s ) o in addition t the UGC itself. For the present triennium which n i t began i October 1984, the Cave HU CGC reached i s decin sions i March 1985; the M o n a CGC later in the same month, the UGC in M a y 1985 on the level o funding f r the Centre, f o and the St. Augustine CGC in April 1986. In June 1986 salary negotiations for the Staff a Cave Hl remain unresolved;the t i l il settlement, when it comes wl date from October 1984. These f are some o the external factors that inhibit adequate forward planning. (ibid., p. 9 1 ) -0.

T h e salary negotiations were complewd earlier this year (1987), and o o have in fact dated back t 1984. It is not an exageration t say that the setdement was a generous one. However, there can be no doubt that the crisis management t which the Marshall Committee referred has become a fact o o life a the Cave H l Campus. Let us take the staff in the two inservice f t i l programmes in the Faculty o Education as a case i point. f n T h e in-service programmes in question were funded 100% b y the i l Barbados Government even before restructuring.Since the Cave H l CGC

51

only reached in March, 1985, its decision t approve funding f r the trieno o nium commencing i October 1984, the staff in the in-service programme n o the Faculty o Education stayed o n the job without knowing whether f f f their contracts which had expired would be renewed. T h e Principal o the i l o Cave Hl C a m p u s was placed in the position where he almost had t terminate the employment o the staff members in question. f The present triennium began in October, 1987, and the Estimates have not been approved a the time o writing. If and when such approval t f is granted, the policy-positionwhich was adopted during the 1981-84trienil f nium wl probably be adopted again because o the economic down-turn which Barbados has been experiencing since 1981. In the 1981-84 trieno nium, funds were provided t meet the projection estimates only, thereby maintaining the SUNS quo.

Government Expenditure The money which the Barbados Government spends on higher eduf i l cation goes towards maintenance o property at the Cave Hl Campus, grants t public institutions, and scholarships t individuals. Grants t o o o public institutions is a category which covers the following four areas a t f the University: payment o tuition fees and the economic costs for students; Governments contribution towards the University Teaching Hospital (the Queen Elizabeth Hospital): seismic research; and the Council of Legal Education. f Expenditure on the maintenance o property has been modest when compared w t the size o the grant t public institutions. This is shown in ih f o Table 3.11. Note that there w s no provision f r expenditure o n maintea o nance of property in the fiscal years 1985-86 and 1986-87. Also note that the grant jumped from between BDs9-10 million just prior t restructuro ing t BDs16.4million in the year when restructuring took effect, and t o o an estimated $19.3 m a i o n in 1986-87. It would seem, then, that the rapid expansion in public expenditure on education which Barbados experienced in its first decade o political inf dependence has caused higher education in Barbados to become something o a white elephant as far as the Government itself is concerned. T h e naf tional debt has been rising sharply (see Appendix 4), although that rise cano not be attributed solely t educational spending. Development projects in the area of higher education have not been enjoying the highest priority in the eyes o the development planners, as can be seen from the data o n apif tl expenditure in Appendix 5. T h e Barbados Government appears to have a its hands f l m e i g the costs o higher education. ul e t n f

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E!

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CHAPTER4 ACTUAL SITUATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION:I1


In this chapter. w e wl complete our examination o the actual situail f tion in higher education in Barbados by dealing w t the matters o scientific ih f research, relevant innovations and inter-institutional co-operation. A special effort is made t examine these three matters at one and the same time, o f o n ih whenever possible. Because o this, w e have decided t deal i detail w t a f w carefully selected cases, rather than t provide a lengthy shopping list e o f r each o the three areas. W e wl begin by focussing on co-operation a o f il t the national level, and specifically on co-operation between the Cave Hl il Campus and the Barbados Community College. Next, w e wl switch t il o the question o the role o higher education in scientific research. After this, f f w e wl examine the link between research, innovation and co-operation. il Finally, w e wl examine the link between research and teaching programil mes.

CO-OPERATION BETWEEN THE CAVE HILL CAMPUS AND THE BARBADOS COMMUNITY COLLEGE
The Barbados Government has made it clear that it expects the Cave Hl Campus to collaborate closely w t the other major local institutions i l ih involved in education and training at the post-secondq level. It is explicitly stated in the current Development Plan that: Efforts wl be made t adapt the C a m p u s t respond more efil o o o fectively t national development needs and the University wl be encouraged t promote complementarity w t B I M A P , il o ih B C C , Erdiston College, and Student Revolving Loan Fund in particular. (1983-88 Development Plan,op. ck, @ 144). . W e wl exclude Barbados Institute o Management and Productivity il f (BIMAP) Erdiston College from the analysis since these two instituand il tions are not involved in degree programmes. W e wl include the Barbados Community College (BCC) since that institution recently launched an Associate Degree programme, i October 1987, t be precise. n o T h e BCC was established by the Barbados Government in January, 1969, to improve the facilities available t the community f r training in o o a wide range o skills at technician, middle management and pre-university f levels (Barbados Development Plan 1973-77, p. 10-12).It has grown into a sizeable organization w t eight Divisions and a student enrolment which ih

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is roughly equal in size t that at the Cave Hl Campus. T h e eight Divio il f sions o the BCC are: Liberai Arts, Science, Commerce, Fine Arts, Technology, Health Sciences, Community Services and Hospitality Services. In 1985-86,the BCC had some 1,750studentson its r l (Ministry of ol Education, 1916,Appendix 0 . ) In the tight o rising educational costs, the Barbados Government has f taken the position that selected programmes currently offered at the Cave Hl Campus can be offered more cheaply and just as effectively at the i l BCC: The Barbados Community College will, during the current plan period, play an expanded role in providing middle level and semi-professionaltraining and for pre-matriculation programmes. T h e Government can no longer afford to support il such programmes a the Cave Hl Campus. T h e Tercentenary t f il School o Nursing wl be integnted into the Health Science il o Division and the Hospitality Division wl be re-organized t provide training more appropriate f r the requirements o the o f towist industry. (1983-88 Devdopmenr P a loc. c f ) ln j.. Without getting into the matter o inter-institutional co-operationa the inf t ternational kvel a this point, it m a y be noted that in the same Developt ment Plan it was stated that the BCC would be encouraged t strengthen o its co-operationw t St. Clair College o Applied A m and Technology in ih f Windsor, Ontario, and Pennsylvania State University in the U.S.A. To date, the particular programme which has most engaged the attention o the authorities at Cave Hill, the B C C , and the Ministry of Eduf cation w t regard t co-operation between the C a m p u s and the BCC has ih o been the N 1 Programme offered by the Faculty o Natural Sciences o the f f i l f i l G v e H l Campus. T h e BCCs Division o Technology and the Cave Hl Campus Faculty o Natural Sciences held a series of j i t discussions, f on f commencing in June 1981, o n the matter o transferring the N1 Programme t the B C C . The discussions revealed that it was feasible t do the N o o 1 Programme at the BCC to the mutual advantage of both the BCC and the i l Cave Hl Campus. As a result, the BCC took the decision to phase out the teaching o Botany and zoology as separate A level subjects (Ministry o f f Education 1978-82 Report, p. 45). T h e N1 Programme has since been o transferred t the BCC. The other major area o co-operation between the C a m p u s and the f BCC which should be discussed is that o accreditation. T h e dimension o f f accreditation involved here is that o exemption from part o related trainf f ing programmes at the Cave Hl Campus, specifically as this concerns the i l BCCsnewly-launchedAssociate Degree programme.

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The BCCsAssociate Degree programme is a four-year p r o g n m m e o r in which students are allowed t read for the first two years of a B.A. o B.Sc. degree a the BCC and then complete two more years a the Cave Hl t t i l Campus. It has been sanctioned by the Barbados Government, and i offs cially viewed as having a least one major advantage over the A level t courses traditionally offered by the BCC. It is supposed t make it easier o f r overseas universities a) t assess the work done by the BCCsstudents o o o and b) t grant BCC students exemptions from coursework as appropriate. The Associate Degree programme utilizes the credit system, a system f used by many foreign universities. In the BCC component o the programme, the student must take two o three majors, in addition to three r compulsory Core subjects. There is provision for the student t be trained o in the particular professional area which he wishes t enter. . o The Principal o the BCC is reported in a leading local newspaper as f o saying that the Associate Degree programme has caused the BCC t have a record 4,ooO-plus applications from persons seeking admission, and that this record-level number o applications represents an increase o over f f 1,000 applications when compared wt the last three years 1984/85, ih 1985/86, 1986/87 (See Barbados Advocate, September, 18, 1987). Whether the new Associate Degree programme at the BCC wl cause enrolment a il t that institution t continue t grow remains t be seen. However, there can o o o be no doubt that the Barbados Government has decided t make as m u c h o use as possible o the BCC even if this means transferring to the BCC some f i l functions over which the Cave Hl C a m p u s traditionally had a monopoly. At this point, anention wl be switched t higher education and research il o and our orienttion wl stan t become more regional and international. il o

HIGHER EDUCATION A N D RESEARCH


Meaningful examination of the role o higher education i scientific f n research in Barbados must take into account the fact that scientific research is yet to become an integral part o the culture o Barbados and o other f f f f Commonwealth Caribbean countries. T h e bulk o the research which is done in the region consists o small individual efforts, and is carried out f mainly by university students in Higher Degree programmes. M u c h o the f f f f research done by staff members o the UWI and o the University o Guyana has been basic rather than applied, and has been carried out i the n face o a major constraint o funding, as Miller has pointed out in the f f specific case o educational research: f That many o the themes pursued have been unrelated t naf o tional issues and policies i substantially explained by the unis

56

versity setting in which the research is done: the resources o f the university allocated t research are limited. In most ino s o stances, the best that the university can do i t provide the staff member w t a salary and a l w access t the support inih lo o o frastructure and a protective climate in which t pursue the ih project w t relative authonomy. B y and large, little funding is available t finance specific projects. o o Research grants go mainly t researchers in medicine, agriculf o ture,natural sciences,and engineering.The number o grants t educational researchers are f w and s a l e ml. ( i l r 1984,p. 178). Mle, Given the scarcity o funding for educational research, higher educaf tion itself has remained Virtually untouched by researchers in Barbados. However, i this section o the study w e wl highlight a few o the major n f il f research projects which have been carried out a the Cave H l C a m p u s a) t i l wt the aid o external funding, and b) w t the aim of helping scientific reih f ih search t become an integral pan o the culture o Barbados and o the reo f f f gion.

Research A t v t e o the ISER,EC. ciiis f


The UWI has three Institutes o Social and Economic Research f (ISER), one a each Campus. The Institute o Social and Economic Ret f i l search at Cave H l services the entire Eastern Caribbean, hence its acronym, ISER, EC.T h e ISER, E C . was established in 1963, and is a depanf f s f ment o the Faculty o Social Sciences. It i the institutionalized centre o research a the Campus, even though research projects are carried out by t individual Faculty members o by the various Faculties as Faculties. T h e r ISER, EC. does not have a teaching function; it is engaged exclusively in research and research-reIatedactivities. f f The staff o the ISER, EC is small. It consists o a Head, a Senior Research Fellow, a Junior Research Fellow, an Administrative Assistant, an Administrative AssistantlLibrarian, a Stenographer and two Office Assistants. However, the ISER, EC a s utilizes as appropriate the services o lo f Faculty members for given research projects. f The role o the ISER, EC as a research institution has changed over time. During the 1%Os, the ISER, EC concentrated on helping the Eastern o Caribbean Governments a) t plan manpower and economic development, b) to conduct studies o n d sectors of the economy, and c) to provide l u i e staff t operate new statistical and economic planning units. At that and o time, the ISER, EC attached the greatest priority to agricultural activity (ISER, EC 1987, p. 6). A good example o the ISER, ECsinvolvement in f agricultural activity was the institutes investigation o the possibilities for f a new nutmeg preserve industry in Grenada.

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W t the crystallization o the movement for political independence ih f in the region during the 1970s. the ISER. EC changed its focus from that o providing technical assistance to one which has involved more policyf oriented research. Since the 1970s. the ISER, ECs activities have involved the carrying out o multidisciplinary projects, contract research and indif vidual research, and these categories o research have not been mutually f exclusive. In the areas o multidisciplinary projects and contract research, f the followinghave been among the more important projects carried out by t f f the ISER, EC:1) the evaluation, a the request o the Barbados InStiNte o Management and Productivity (BIMAP) 1933,o BIMAPsrole in aiding in f f small businessmen in Barbados; 2) surveys o General Elections in several Eastern Caribbean Countries; 3) the Eastern Caribbean component o an f international study entitled M a n and the Biosphere; 4) the Eastern ih t Caribbean Migration Project; and 5) co-research w t the ISERs a M o n a ih f f and St. Augustine and wt the University o Guyanas Institute o D e velopment Studies in a) the Science and Technology Policy Project, b) the Caribbean Public Enterprise Project, and c) the W o m e n in the Caribbean Project (see ibid., pp. 10-13).
In addition to actually carrying out research, the ISER, EC has organized several public lectures, conferences and workshops, and has been involved i publishing. T h e ISER, ECs three main publications are: the n Occasional Paper Series, the Occasional Bibliography Series, and a bimonthly journal called the Bdecin of Eastern Cvibbean Maim. T h e O c casional Paper Series disseminates findings from a) the research staff o the f Institute, b) other UWI academics, and c) professionals in regional and government institutions. The Occasional Bibliography Series covers areas being investigated by ISER researchers. T h e Bdecin, which was first published in 1975, provides analytical commentaries o n political, economic, and social developments in and affecting Barbados and other Eastern Caribbean countries. The projects which have been carried out by the ISER, EC have been f funded by a number o international and regional agencies, including: Ford Foundation (USA), Inter-American Foundation (USA), U N F P A , U N E S C O , IDRC (Canada), Leverhulme Trust Fund (UK), Netherlands f Carnegie Corporation (USA), Ministry o Foreign Affairs, USAID (USA), Canadian Administered Fund, and the Commonwealth Secreuriat (UK). It must be stressed that the ISER, EC does not have a monopoly o n research at the Cave Hl Campus, and that some research is done by the i l Faculties as Faculties. Nowhere has this been more clearly demonstrated than in the cases o the UWIAJSAID Primary Education Project and the f Project on Co-operation in Teaching and Research in W o m e n and D e il velopment Studies ( W o m e n and Development Studies Project). W e wl de-

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vote almost all o the next section t the Primary Education Project since f o that Project combined research, innovation, and inter-institutional coopermotn ation at all levels, and is perhaps the most i p r a t regional project ever il carried out by the University. W e wl focus specifically o n the W o m e n and Development Studies Project when w e deal wt research and teaching ih programmes.

RESEARCH,INNOVATION A N D CO-OPERATION If w e put aside the question o research for a moment, mention f
should be made o two very important innovations which have taken place f at the Cave Hl Campus in recent years. T h e two innovations in question i l f have been the introduction o a Challenge Examinations Scheme, and the creation of an Office o University Services. W e wl deal briefly w t these f il ih two innovations, since our main a m in this section i t provide a fairly i s o f comprehensivedescription o the Primary Education Project.

T h e Challenge Examination Scheme

A Challenge Examination Scheme was introduced by the UWI in 1977,some seven years after a proposal for the introduction o an external f studies programme involving correspondence courses and radio was apo proved by the University Council. T h e Scheme enables students t follow the Universitys programmes in their o w n country, and forms an important part o the Universitys outreach programme. The programmes which are f available under the Scheme include: Year I Social Science courses, some courses in Arts, the first-year programme in Law, the Certificate in Public Administration and the Certificate in Education. (TheCertificate in Education is offered at the M o n a C a m p u s only, and permits specialization in f reading, mathematics and the teaching o the deaf). The programme which has been most popular w t students under ih the Scheme has been that leading t the Certificate in Public Administrao tion. In 1985, some 40 students were awarded the Certificate in Public Administration: 31 from the N C C s and 9 from Barbados. T h e Scheme has f o o clearly been o some benefit t the NCCs since, in addition t the NCC students awarded the Certificate in Public Administration, 14 students from 3 NCCs completed Pan O n e L a w by Challenge Examination in 1985. f The Scheme i apparently in the process o becoming ins stitutionalized, but the University has been wisely advised t have a hard o

5 9

look a the financial implications o offering external studies programmes t f under the Scheme. O n this matter o financial implications, the Marshall f o o t i l Committee had this t say. primarily t the authorities a Cave H l and in the Barbados Ministry o Education: f o f Earlier w e alluded t the danger o the Universitys offering what could develop into external degree-type programmes without the resources t do so. W e have seen n o costing o the o f present challenge scheme, even though w e are advised that the cost i not subscaptial.W e recommend that the university uns f dertake a precise costing o the scheme, including staff time, and show this as an expenditure item in the budget even if in the find analysis the cost is met from savings. ( a s a l a , op. cit., p. 31). M r h l er i

At the time of writing, there are no indications that the University is about
to abandon the Scheme.

l7-E m C E O F UNIVERSITY SERVICES O


Prior t the restructuring o the University in October, 1984, there o f was n o Office o university Services (OUS)t the Cave H l Campus. Wt f a i l ih the restructuring, the Cave Hl C a m p u s set up its O U S , wt a mandate i l ih from the Eastern Caribbean Governments for the OUS t provide profeso sional leadership, planning services, administrative guidance, and resource assistance in the development of the systems of tertiary education in the NCCs.The OUS is a non-teaching unit w t a staff o three: a Director, an ih f Educational PlannerlResearcherand his assistant. In carrying out its mandate, the OUS co-ordinates the resources o f the Cave H l C a m p u s t help support NCC negotiations w t external aid i l o ih agencies f r financial assistance. S o m e o the more i p r a t o the aco f motn f tivities o the OUS during the 1985-86 academic year included: organizaf f tion and sponsorship o a University Preliminary Year Science Workshop f for Post-SecondaryTeachers fromthe N C C s ; provision o assistance in the development o specific tertiary-leveleducation programmes for the NCCs f (e.g. Community Nutrition Programmes in St. Lucia); and administration o the Cave Hl Campus outreach programmes such as the Challenge f i l Examinations and the Certificatein Public Administration (see DepartmenUlReport, 1985-86,pp. 158-159). Like the Challenge Examination Scheme, the OUS has been an innovation f o which the NCCs have benefited in n o small measure. The rm OUS is helping to keep the regional spirit alive at a time when the regional character o the University i being eroded. However, the suffing situation f s o the OUS has made the OUSplanned activities i the areas o accreditaf n f tion. the Challenge E x a m i m t b n Scheme, and service in tertiary level institutions perhaps overly ambitious (Marshall et al, op. cit., p. 32).

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THE PRIMARY EDUCATION PROJECT


W e c o m e n o w t the major concern o this section,the Primary Eduo f cation Project. W e wl restrict ourselves t the following aspects o the il o f Project: its background and objectives, the outcomes, the problems encountered, and the implications o the Project f r future co-operation betf o ween the pmners.

Background and Objectives In 1979,the UWI,the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC), the
Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) entered into an agreement t undero take a regional project entitled Caribbean Education Development. The Project had three components: Primary School Curriculum Development, Primary School Construction and Rehabilitation, and Secondary School Curriculum Development. T h e component o the Project which i o imf s f mediate relevance to this study w s that which had to do w t primary a ih f school curriculum development. That set o activities technically constituted a sub-project o the Caribbean Education Development Project, but f was carried out on an independent basis and came to be k n o w n as the Primary Education Project (PEP). The PEP had the following four major objectives: 1. To provide teachers w t revised syllabi and teachers' ih o o f guides s as t make teachers aware o content requirem n s and o the wide variety of teaching approaches availet f o able t implement the syllabi.

2. To provide instructional materials (charts, posters, graphs,


o reading materials, etc.) f r teachers, and either provide for students o help teachers prepare for student workbooks, r project exercises, and other materials t supplement andlor o o substitute f r the more traditional textbooks.

3. To strengthen the teacher force through an in-service teacher training programme that encompassed content f o knowledge, methods o teaching and testing, and ability t understand and use newly-developed more relevant and better quality syllabi, guides and instructional materials. 4. To provide training f r school principals, headteachers and o s o supervisors, as well a f r temtorial educational planners. (Massanm'andi l r 1985,pp.3-4). Mle,

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The label PEP therefore belied the comprehensive nature o the Project. f Although the main purpose o the PEP was t improve the learning envif o ronment for pupils in the 7-11 age group throughout the English-speaking f Caribbean, the PEP also had the important sub-purposes o a) providing training f r educational administrators and educational planners, and b) o strengthening the U W I s Faculty o Education so as t enable that faculty f o to extend and expand its ongoing assistance programme t the Contributo ing Countries in their efforts t improve their educational systems. o The PEP was located in the Faculty o Education o the G v e H l f f i l Campus, but also involved the participation o members o the Faculty o f f f Education of the other two Campuses. A chart showing the PEPSorganif zational structure is provided in Appendur 6.T h e location o the PEP in the f i l o Faculty o Education at Cave Hl caused the PEP t experience some probil ih lems in i s start-up phase. W e wl deal w t these problems in a while. For t the time being, l t us turn t the outcomes o the Project in relation t the e o f o objectives listed above.

Outcoma o the PEP f


The Project Plan called for each o the 1 participating countries t f 0 o identify five pilot primary schools, but only 9 countries actually pUticif pated in the mainstream o the Project. Jamaica participated only in that component which had t do w t the training o educational administrators o ih f and educational planners. A n Evaluation Plan for the PEP was completed in June, 1981, and became the basis for both internal and external evaluation o the Project.The findings o the internal evaluation helped t modify f f o ih o f Project implementation, especially w t regard t the conduct o workshops and integration o the curriculum material across subject areas. Exf ternal evaluations were conducted in June both in 1981 and 1982, and the terminal external evaluation was carried out during M a y 21-June 15, 1985. T h e Project outcomes m a y be divided into principal and secondary (see ibid., Chapters 3 and 4 . T h e principal outcomes were those connected ) w t the immediate purpose o the Project (which was t improve the qualih f o f ity o learning for primary school age children). They comprised: a) the production o a modified, refined model o curriculum development prof f cess which m a y a s be described as participatory; b) cumculum products lo which included revised syllabi, teachers manuals, teachersresource materials and pupils materials, all in Language Arts, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies;c) reduced reliance by teachers in the Project schools o n lecf turingheacher-talk and the utilization by such teachers o more childcentred approaches t teaching and d) an apparent positive impact o the o f Project on improving the performance o Project school children in the f selective secondary school entrance examinations.

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The last o the above mentioned outcomes was especially important f since the bottom-line o the Project was improvement o student perforf f mance a the primary level in four subject areas. The design which was used t both i the Project Paper and in the Evaluation Plan t measure improven o ment in student performance centred around the collection o base-line f data, the use o pre and post-tests, and the use o the pilot-parallel schools f f strategy. L t us turn n o w to the secondary Project outcomes, and mention in e the process some unplanned outcomes. T h e secondary outcomes had t do o w t that sub-purpose o the Project which related t the training o headih f o f teachers/schooladministrators and the training o educational planners. W e f wl exclude from the discussion the component which was handled by the il M o n a Campus, and wl concentrate o n that which was handled at the Cave i l Hl Campus, through the Project Office itself, beginning wt the training il ih o primary school principals. f Under the auspices ofthe PEP,the Faculty o Education a Cave H l f t i l conducted 22 training workshops f r primary school principals in Cono tributing Countries outside Jamaica. T h e workshops utilized as resource f f persons not only members o the Faculty o Education, but also a) officers f from the Ministry o Education in the particular country in which a given f workshop was held, b) Teachers College staff, and c) representatives o USAID and U N E S C O . The training o educational planners was not a major thrust of the f Project, but that particular sub-component nwenheless made an i m p m t contribution t the achievement of Project outcomes. Four such training o workshops were organized by the PEP, the last three being co-sponsored by U N E S C O s Caribbean Network o Educational Innovation for D e f Since the countries serviced by CARNEID invelopment (CARNEID). cluded non-English-speaking Caribbean countries, the PEP was widened in geographical scope (see C A R N E I D , 1985). Wt the involvement of ih CARNEID in the PEP, the educational administratiodeducationd planning aspect of the PEP was extended t Cuba, Haiti, the Netherlands A n o tilles and Suriname. T h e resource persons for the four workshops came from a wide range of institutions: the Project Office, the University, CARNEID,Ministries o Education in Barbados and the Bahamas. the College o the Bahamas, f f UNESCO (in Paris), the Inter American Development Bank (IADB), and the Caribbean Centre f r Development Administration (CARICAD).h e o T quality o the training which was provided clearly found favour w t the f ih f trainees, for 15 o the participants who were trained in the 1983 workshop returned f r more training in the 1984 workshop. o

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As was previously mentioned, some of the outcomes of the PEP were unplanned. The unplanned outcomes included: the development by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)f several health readers o to supplement the Language A m materials produced by the Project; CARNEIDs important contribution in cosponsoring training workshops for educational planners; the contributions o UNESCO,I A D B , and C D B ; f the development and dissemination of the Science education materials by the British Development Division; the development in Belize o materials f f r teaching English t speakers o other languages; the strengthening by o o f several Ministries o Education o their Curriculum Development Units/ f f f Centres; and the carrying out o research activity in the area of achievement testing in Science (Massanariand Miller, pp. 142-148).
Problemsencountered As wt any project, the PEP,though highly successful, encountered ih
a number o problems. W e wl only mention here the problems which f il n f were encountered i the stut-up phase o the PEP. since chat particular set o problems involved the universitys Faculty o Education a Cave Hl. f f t il The location o the PEP in the University enabled the Project t bef o nefit from the knowledge, experience and insight o virtually all the talent f which the University had available o n i s three campuses. However, as was t pointed out by the External Terminal Evaluation T e a m in its Repon, there was, a least initially, tension between the PEP and a particular section o t f the Faculty o Education at Cave Hill, even though that Faculty was evenf N ~ able to address the needs o primary education in the region directly Y f and substantively i a w a y it had not been able t do previously (see ibid., n o t f f pp. 22-23). A the mot o the problem was the decision o the University t give the PEP departmental status in the Faculty of Education at Cave o

Hl. il
The tension was between the PEP and the Faculty o Educations Ref search and Development section (R and D section). T h e Faculty also had a the time (and s i l has) an In-service Teaching Section. The In-service t tl Section always gave the PEP its fl co-operation. In contrast, the R and D ul Section interpreted the Universitys decision to grant the PEP departmental SUNS as meaning that the Project had been taken away f o the R and D rm Section after the R and D had laid the groundwork both for identifying the o needs and f r COnCepNdiZing how the needs could be met through a project. The University itself had not rationalized d the details concerning the change in the conceptualization o how the PEP would be integrated into f the Faculty o Education, and, as a result, members o the In-serviceSecf f tion were paid honoraria for work done in connection wt the Project, ih f while members o the R and D were not.

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The External Terminal Evaluation T e a m was aware o the tension bef f w e e n the PEP and the R and D Section. It highlighted the real nature o the tension,and succc~sfully forward a proposal t resolve the difficulties: put o H a d the Project been integrated into the R and D Section then this differential treatment would be justified but in light o the f o o change, t full d e p w e n t a l status f r the Central Project Staff, it was not. After recommendations made by the External Evaluation T e a m i 1981 this problem was resolved so that n f members o the R and D Section were also paid honoraria for work done. In some instances members o the Section adopted f a cordial but arms length approach t the Project. After o these initial difficulties were sorted out, a m s ?U members o lot f the R and D Section contributed t Project implementation o either directly i running workshops o indirectly through n r o (advice t or)consultation with Project central staff. (ibid., p. 2 ) 2.

Implicationsfor Future Co-operrtion


The R ~ O o the External Terminal Evaluation o the PEP appropK f f riately stressed that while the PEP represented successful developmental f co-operation among the three partners (USAID,the U W I s Faculty o Education, and the 10 Ministries o Education) the future f r each partner f o would be different because o the outstanding success o the Project. Acf f f cordingly, the Evaluation T e a m examined the implications o the Project f r each o the three partners (see ibid., Chapter 8 , and w e wl briefly o f ) il summarize what the Evaluation T e a m had to say on this point. Wt regard to the implications for USAID, the Evaluation T e a m ih pointed out that the Caribbean Education Development Project had pioneered a regional approach t assistance even though the funding was o U.S.in origin. The replacement of the traditional bilateral model o aid f wt a regional model permitted the experts, the conceptualization o conih f tent and approaches, and the methodology employed enabled the PEP t o be entirely o Caribbean origin. B y having the goals o the PEP jointly af f greed on by the three p m e r s , and by leaving the means o goal-attainment f f entirely in the hands o the University and the governments, USAID negated any possible charge that it had imposed U.S. personnel o ideas on r any aspect of the Project. Through the PEP, USAID found partners, and o intermediariessuch as the CDB and C X C , o n whom it could rely f r future ventures, and the regional approach had wider applicability than to eduution alone. T h e generalized regional project model which the Evaluation Team proposed i shown in Appendix 7. s

Next, w e come t the implications forthe University. Through the o

PEP, the University demonstrated that w h e n it was given the resources it


could assemble a team o competent Caribbean administrators and profesf sionals t deliver a quality product. T h e PEP also opened up the question o as t whether the University should not establish, on a permanent basis, a o Department o Primary Education within the Faculty o Education a Cave f f t Hill. The Evaluation T e a m took the time t stress that such a Department o f could service the needs o the Contributing Countries, especially the counf tries within the Organizaaon o Eastern Caribbean States, and that this regional approach through a central department o the Faculty o Education, f f o Cave Hill, would be more cost effective than if each country sought t establish its o w n national curriculum unit. Finally, the PEP had implications f r the Ministries o Education. o f The successful implementation o the PEP was due i part t the quality o f n o f the top administrators (including Chief Education Officers) selected by the Ministries o Education to be participants. T h e PEP raised the question as f t whether such persons could not be more actively involved in the process o of teacher training in the NCCs,where the existing l w level o teacher o f training has been a serious constraint t the f u d e r improvement o primo f ary education. o f f In addition t the question o teacher training, there was that o the distribution o teaching materials and supplies. In some participating counf tries, the Project schools had materials for pupils and teachers, while nonf Project schools had virtually nothing a all. In the dissemination phase o t the Project, all schools wl have some teaching and learning materials and il f il t l o supplies, but the Ministries o Education wl s i l need t establish some kind o policy regarding an equitable distribution o materials and supplies. f f

RESEARCH I TEACHING PROGRAMMES N


T h e university teacher should be competent in subject matter, reaching skills and research skills (Shorey and Layne, 1986, pp. 69-70), and members o the academic staff a Cave Hl are presumed t have these f t il o skills. Those Faculty members who are involved in the Higher Degrees programmes have been integrating into the coursework the findings from research carried out by their students, especially as these findings relate t o the Caribbean. However, it would appear that the integration o research f w t teaching programmes is more prominent in some faculties than in ih others.

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The Eprrrfpikso social Sciences and Medicine appear to be i the lead f n as far as the integration o research w t teaching programmes is concerned. f ih
f s In the Faculty o Social Sciences, this i especially true ofthe Departments o Economics and Sociology. In the areas of History, Literature and f Marine Biology, Caribbean material has been included in course offerings because o basic research done by some staff members. T h e staff members f who have suffered the greatest handicap have been the natural scientists, who have been hit very hard by the lack o funds for essential equipment f (ibid., p. 72). T h e indications are, however, that the Campus is moving i n the direction o establishing a dose link between research and coursework, f and the current W o m e n and Development Studies Project has been playing n an imprunt role i this respect.

THE WOMEN A N D DEVELOPMENT STUDIESPROJECT


The W o m e n and Development Studies Programme is an innovative programme linking research and coursework, and i being carried out at the s f three campuses o the UWI.It has been developed b y the w o m e n of the UWI and has received its initial funding from the Ford Foundation. Under the Programme, an innovative project of co-operation in research and teaching between the University and the Institute of Social Studies (ISS), the Hague, was approved i 1985. This project, which goes by the short n r j c , il rm tide of the W o m e n and Development Studies P o e t wl receive f o the ISS approximately US$6OO,WO over 3 years, wt possible extra funding ih f r a further 2 years. Under the terms o the agreement, fellowships wl o f il a s be provided. lo

&&ground and Objectives In 1977, the Universitys Extra-Mural Department and the Jc &a Womens Bureau co-sponsored a seminar o n the integration o Women and f Development in the Caribbean. As a result o that seminar, a W o m e n and f Development Ui (WAND) was established wifki the Universitys nt E m - M u n l Department at Cave Hl. It should be pointed out imil mediately that WAND is not a unit o the University i the strict sense o f n f the tern. T h e University pays the salary o the Co-ordinatoro W A N D . f f The Co-ordinator o W A N D in tun raises funds, o which the University f f ds 10%. e In 1982, WAND convened in Barbados a meeting o UWJ w o m e n t f o discuss the possible development o a Womens Studies Programme at the f
University. This followed upon the completion o the ISERs W o m e n in f

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the Caribbean Project, to which reference was earlier made. O u t of the Barbados meeting came the following initiatives and topics which were designed to form a basis for teaching and research: f a) To examine the development o Caribbean societies and the f changing position o w o m e n within them through the f f analysis o a number o topics. b) To develop a knowledge o the development o society f f within a historical perspective, and the part w o m e n have f played in the process, through a critical analysis o existing social, psychological and physiological theories. f c) To examine the social division o labour within various ih countries internationally but w t special reference to the Caribbean. d) To develop a knowledge and critical examination o the f cognitive, developmental and social learning theories reo ih lated t sex differentiation, w t special reference to the Caribbean. (Women and Development Studies Project Document, 1 985,p.5. )

At the Barbados meeting, a steering committee was established to cof ordinate the activities o the three C a m p u s groups, each working through a campus co-ordinator.T h e meeting also worked out a three-phase plan for the gradual introduction o teaching in W o m e n and Development at varif ous levels within the University. It was anticipated that the outcome would be an integrated and inter-disciplinary programme of teaching, research and action, and w t that end in view the Universitys W o m e n Studies ih Group approached the ISS in 1983 for assistance. T h e Project Programme
T h e W o m e n and Development Studies programme is intended to meet four levels o training needs i the area o W o m e n and Development. f n f The four levels o training needs have been specified i the Project Docuf n ment as follows: i. Exposure o all students at University level to general f training in W o m e n and Development at under-graduate and post-graduate level. Initially this would involve the f rs Faculties o A t and General Studies, Social Sciences, Education. L a w and Agriculture...

ii. Training of teaching staff at the UWI.This would necessif level tate a) the training o junior staff at the M.Phil/Ph.D in W o m e n and Development at the ISS;b) the organizing

o short seminarlworkshop type courses for more senior f staff who are unable to be away for long periods o time. f f ii Strengthening o the existing Outreach Programme of i. WAND through the U W I s Department of Extra-Mural f Studies by the participation o the programme staff in the short courses organized for the teaching staff. vi. Provision o specialized training at post-graduate level for f persons presently o intendmg t be employed by nar o tional, regional and international organizations focussed on W o m e n and Development.

(ibid.,pp. IO-I I. ) As was previously mentioned, the Project is expected t have three o phases. The areas t be implemented duriig Phase I relate mainly to staff o development, but also include other teaching activities, research, s d i n g and personnel developments, and material inputs. Let us elaborate o n f other teaching activities and research since these areas are the ones o immediate interest in this study. o f During Phase I, pilot teaching is t take place in the Faculties o hrrs and General Studies, Social Sciences, Education, L a w and Agriculture. These activities are supposed to take place a the under-graduate, postt graduate and Outreach levels. T h e courses planned for development during o the first phase include: W o m e n in the Caribbean;Research Approaches t MaleFemale Relations in Caribbean Society; Sex-Role Stereotyping; W o m e n and Child-rearingand the Development o Adolescents. f
f s The research component o the Project i intended primarily as a supt teaching. It is intended t take these three forms: preparation o o o f teaching materials (mainly desk/library research); supervised student research a undergraduate and graduate level o n specific topics; and advanced t theoretid and applied research. T h e supervised student research has been planned to be highly innovative: il Student research at post-graduatelevel wl make an important o contribution t building up a data base in this subject area. Inr dividually o in small oups, students wl design and c o m il lete their own researc wt the assisstance o faculty m e m ih f iers. Al the research projects wl involve original research l il o and include three t twelve months fieldwork, usually requirt ing extensive surveys andlor librarylarchiveresearch a various institutions and other countries. o Students are responsible f r writing research proposals, recruiting and training interviewers and assistance [sic] where necessary and managing the budgets for the projects.
POK

8:

(ibid., 26-27). pp.


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As envisaged in the Project Plan, the second phase o the Project f would run from October 1988-September 1990. This phase would be used to consolidate on the staff development, pilot teaching and bibliographic development done i Phase I, and would be marked by the introduction o n f an interdisciplinary Masters Degree in W o m e n and Development.
Actual Achievement The W o m e n and Development Studies Programme has been made f possible because o considerable lobbying and sheer hard work on the part of the s a l group o UWI women, especially the w o m e n a Cave H l and ml f t i l St. Augustine. The courses originally planned for Phase 1 of the W o m e n and Development Studies Project have been reviewed in time for the actual implementation o an Introduction to Womens Studies course a St. A u f t o a gustine and Cave Hill. The Introduction t Womens Studies course w s offered f r the first time a St. Augustine from October, 1986, and a Cave o t t Hl from October, 1987. il A n inaugural seminar on Gender in Caribbean Development was held at the St. Augustine C a m p u s in September, 1986. Inter-institutional o cooperation at the international level helped t characterize that seminar. The seminar w s funded by the Commonwealth Secretariat and the Board a of Global Missions. It was attended by teaching, research and documentation staff from the UWIsthree Campuses and the University o Guyana. f Resource persons were drawn from the three Campuses, E.C.L.A., unif versities in the United States, the I.S.S.,and the Institute o Development Studies (Sussex). In 1987, 3 two-week inter-disciplinary seminars were held, one on each Campus. The focus and objectives o each seminar were determined f f i l by the needs and resources o the C a m p u s group. T h e Cave H l Seminar w s held during October 15-25,and its theme was Womens Studies: Ina terdisciplinary Readings. The three interdisciplinary seminars have been a prelude to a series o disciplinary seminars scheduled t be held over the f o next two years. In structure and design, the W o m e n and development Studies Project f has recognized the importance o research in the initial training and subsequent professional development o the University teacher. In addition to f f involving the participation o senior and experienced researchers from within as well as from outside the University, the Project has provided o o much-needed opportunities f r younger staff and similar personnel t work and study alongside their more experienced fellow professionals. As this author has commented elsewhere, this cannot but be t the mutual o f o benefit o both groups as well as t the project in which they are all involved (Shorey and Layne, op. cit.,p. 73).

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The W o m e n and Development Studies Project should be viewed not as just another educational innovation, but 1s part o a struggle t bring f o about a fundamental re-distribution o power in Barbados and Caribbean f a n society.This w s made unmistakeably clear i the one-page note which the Co-ordinator o the Womens Studies Group at Cave Hl prepared f r a f il o recent meeting between that group and a CIDA representative on the subf o f ject o possible funding from CIDA f r certain aspects o the Project: T h e rationale for our work is the critiquing, changing and f transforming o the curriculum. The existing cumculum in this definition o human and h u m a n achievement reinforces f f o f exiscing patterns o access t power, as well 1s hierarchies o class, race and sex. W e a m through teaching, research and i, o outreach activity t transform traditional knowledge by incorporating information and an understanding of womens and mens roles in development. W e consider that this investment in education is central to the redistribution o Cdturaland, f hence, oliucal power and that education is a critical response t the c allenges o development. o f (Drayton,1 8 ) 97. il ean o Whether this potentially revolutionary goal wl be achieved r m i s t be seen.

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CHAPTERS

FLFIURE PERSPECTIVES
The information provided in the preceding chapters strongly suggests that the rigidly elitist system o higher education which existed in f Barbados during the colonial period has given w a y to a system o higher f o education which has been making an important contribution t national and regional development. W e have seen how in post-colonial Barbados an e f r has been made t establish a link benveen higher education and nafot o tional development through at least the folowing: an increase in the number o Barbadians enrolled in higher education; the restructuring of the UWI t f o give Barbadians greater control over the Cave H l Campus; the obvious i l policy-emphasiso n hiring Barbadians andlor West Indians as staff m e m f o o bers; the use o the SRLF t tie studies in higher education t priority areas in national development;increased public expenditure on higher education; the promotion o scientific research; the move t integrate research w t f o ih teaching programmes; and the implementation o innovative projects such f as the Challenge Scheme, the PEP. and the W o m e n and Development Studies Project. It would be misleading to conlude from the above catalogue of achievements that higher education in Barbados is perfectly democratic, o r that higher education is making a perfect contribution t national developo f s tl ment. W e have seen how the world o science at the UWI i s i l basically a mans world, and how a dubiously meritocratic conception of distributive f justice has been manifested in a process o educational selection which form l y begins a the tender age o 11-. W e have seen how the Cave Hl al t f i l Campus has become something of a white elephant t the Barbados o Government, a situation which has been aggravated by the restructuring of the University. W e have seen how the Barbados Government expects postsecondary education (including education a the Cave Hl Campus) t t i l o make a greater contribution t national development, and how the W o m e n o and Development Studies Project has questioned the relevance o the Unif versitys curriculum to national and regional development. The question which presents itself, then, is: what does the future hold in store f r higher education in Barbados? How one answers this o question depends o n the particular perspective on the future which one holds. Since the issue of the contribution o education t national developf o ment boils d o w n essentially t the matter o costs o n the one hand and efo f i l fectiveness on the other, w e wl first mention the different perspectives on the future which have been used i educational planning, and then focus n on the fundamentally important issue o cost-effectiveness. f

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DIFFERENTPERSPECTIVESON THE FUTURE


There are basically six perspectives o n the future which have been used in educational planning. These perspectives range from those which r o assume that the future is more o less Like the present, t those which assume alternative futures (Table 5 0 . T h e perspectives which assume that .) r ih the future is more o less like the present are not concerned w t far-relching structural change, w e n though they a l w for the implementation o inlo f novations and for reforms. They utilize either a short- or a medium-term time horizon. In contrast, the perspectives which assume alternative futures ih are concerned w t the redefinition of goals and means, explore scenarios and invent futures,and utilize a long-term time horizon. Educational planners in Barbados have assumed that the future is more or ls lie the present. At the national level, educational plans have a formed part ofthe Five-yearDevelopment Plans, and, as w e have seen, the i l o Cave Hl Campus has tended t engage in triennial planning. Unless there is a radical departure from this practice of using a medium-term time horizon, it seems reasonable t suggest that a qualitative transformationo the o f system o higher education i Barbados is not likely t take place in the f n o foreseeable future. It should be pointed out that the first four perspectives in Table 5.0 are being treated separately by this author for analytical purposes. In the real world of educational planning in Barbados, all four perspectives are used, although the second and fourth are heavily emphasized in the current o Development Plan (1983-88). There is n o reason t believe that the Barbados Government wl abandon its policy-emphasiso n the efficient use of il resources n o w that enrolment at the Cave Hl C a m p u s appears t be leveli l o ling o f Given the high cost o university education, w e can expect even f. f il closer collaboration between the Cave Hl C a m p u s and the BCC as the o Barbados Government intensifies its search f r cost effectiveness in education in general and in higher education in particular.

THE ISSUE OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS


In its quest for cost-effectivenessin higher education, the Barbados il o Government wl need to resist the temptation t assume that a reduction i costs is necessarily t be equated w t increased effectiveness. T h e n o ih simplistic and misleading equation between reduced cost and increased effectiveness has already been accepted by some influential persons in educational circles in Barbados, and such persons have been using the local newso papers t try to persuade the public to see things their way. For instance, Leonard Shorey, the apparent leader o the movement t reduce the cost of f o higher education in Barbados, has spoken o the money wasted o n a f

73

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4 c . 4

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number of programmes at Cave Hill, and has contended that such programmes can be offered cheaply at the BCC (see Shorey, 1987, pp. 5, 11). As w e have seen, the Barbados Government itself seems t be moving in o f o i l the direction o transferring t the BCC programmes at Cave Hl which it considers t be in the two expensive category. o f The problem is that the advocates o reduced educational costs in Barbados wl increasingly be asked by females and other groups which are il demanding equity in higher education t define rigorously what they mean o o f o by cost-effectivenessand t avoid subordinating considerations o equity t those of efficiency. It is important, therefore, for us t distinguish between o f cost-effectivenessand a number o related concepts which have erroneously been used by m a n y people in Barbados and elsewhere as synonyms for cost-effectiveness. T h e term cost-effectiveness has sometimes been erroneously equated w t cost-benefit o acost-utility or cost-fusibility (Levin, ih r 1983,pp. 17-30).Cost-effectivenessanalysis refers t the evaluation o alo f ternativesaccording t both their costs and their Lffects w t regard t proo ih o ducing m e outcome or set o outcomes. U d r cost-effectiveness f ne analysis, efecctivenessdata can be combined w t costs in order to provide ih an evaluation that makes possible the selection o pachose approaches f r which prowide the m a x i m u m effectiveness per level of cost o which require the least K O S ~per level of effectiveness. f Cast-benefit analysis refers U) the evaluation o alternatives according COa comparison o both their costs and benefits w h e n each i measured f s in monetary terms. It i diffieulr, if not impossible, t place money values s o l f on d o the costs and results of particular alternatives, and this is w h y many cost-benefit analysts have switched t cost-effectiveness analysis. o C s - t l t analysis refers to the evaluation o alternatives according t a otuiiy f o comparison of their costs and the estimated udlity o value o their outr f comes. It is the appropriate tool t use when subjective assessments must o f el be made about the nature and probability o educational outcomes as wl as their relative values. C s - e s b l t analysis refers t the method o esotfaiiiy o f timating only rhe coscs an alternativein order to ascertain whether o not of r it can be considered.

In the case o Barbados, w e can expect t hear more and more about f o the con-feasibility o offering at certain tmirry-level institutions some f programmes which are currently being offered at the Cave Hl Campus. i l Just as the BCC has launched an Associate Degree programme, w e can expect Erdiston College t compete with the Faculty o Education at Cave o f Hl in the area of Certificate and Diploma programmes in Education. W e il can expect BIMAP t intensify its &on CO take over some o the work o f which is being done at the Cave Hl C a m p u s i the area o management i l n f

75

training. But wl the fact that these three institutions can offer certain il programmes more cheaply than the Cave Hl C a m p u s necessarily mean i l i l that they would be more cost-effectivethan the Cave Hl Campus? At the global level, many researchers have switched from the once o fashionable cost-benefit studies t cost-effectiveness studies, some involving non-moneruy objectives, because their e f r s t estimate the monetary fot o returns t different types o educational investments led them to reach uno f stable and conflicting conclusions. In drawing this vitally important matter t our attention, Davis has pointed out how the two main approaches t o o cost-effectiveness analysis have been characterized by their preocupation w t economic effkiency : ih O n e approach emphasizes meeting fmed targets at the least f o cost; another aims at the maximization o objectives subject t fmed-cost constraints. In either case, cost-effectiveness analysis s h k the emphasis t questions o economic effio f ciency in undercaking educational missions, beyond the more f o fundamental question o whether t undenake a mission in the first place. (Dank,1980,p. 1 ) 2. In order to increase the contribution o higher education t national f o development, the educational authorities in Barbados wl need t adopt a il o long-term perspective and deal w t the difficult question o the goals of the ih f educationalsystem. In pucicular, they need t be clear in their minds about o the goal o higher education, if complementarity between the Cave Hl f i l Campus and other tertiary-level institutions is t mean more than offering o programmes more cheaply. Universities in both Developed and Def veloping countries have self-sufficiency as one o their goals, and some universities have found themselveso n a precipice because they have stepped out of their shores and become a substitute for government (Thompson, 1976,p. 15). B e this as it may, the Marshall Committee saw the Cave Hl i l Campus as having an obligation t work more closely w t the other tero ih tiary educational institutions in Barbados (Marshall et al, op. cit., p. 19) and this author believes that such a trend has already commenced and is perhaps irreversible.

CONCLUSION
Higher education in Barbados today is making a greater contribution to national development than it was able t make in the colonial period. o More innovative, relevant, and equitable education is being offered at the il Cave Hl C a m p u s than was the case in the past, but this does not mean that the Cave Hl C a m p u s should become complacent. There is pressure on the i l

76

C v H l Campus to collaborate more closely w t other tertiary educaae i l ih


tion institutions, and this pressure wl certainly continue as the Barbados il f Government continues to search for ways of restricting the rate o growth of educational cosfs. T h e C v H l Campus is at Stage V of Bowles five stages of educaae i l tional development (see Bowles, 1976, pp. 440-459). This stage *he stage o achievement of university maturity- is one in which the University has f moved from a l m t d role as a teaching institution preparing for profesiie sional life or government service t a larger role as the institution central to o the supporr of national development. T h e Cave Hl Campus has taken this i l role not only through its manpower selection and training, but through research, planning, programme development, and project management and i l evaluation. In other words, the Cave Hl Campus has moved form a service role to an operational role in development. To the extent that Barbados is a genuinely democratic society, ways wl be found to develop universal il n o programmes i higher education without damage t the economy, as long as the mass o the people decide upon and demand the goal o increased opf f portunities for higher education. In this context, the Barbados Government needs to move from medium term to long-term planning.

77

APPENDIX

APPENDIX 1

THE CODRINGTON BEQUEST O F FEBRUARY 22,1703


M y W O plantations in the island o Barbados t the society f o f r the Propagation o the Christian Religion in Forraigne o f ila puts, errected and established by m y late good master Wlim the Third, and m y desire i CO have the plantations continued s inure and 300 negroes a least t be kept thereon, and a convet o nient number o Professors and Scholars m i t i e there, d f anand l o them t be under vows o poverty and chastity and obedif o f ence, w h o shall be obliged to study and practise Physics and Chirurgery as well as Diviniry, that by the apparent usefulness o the former t all mankind, they m a y b t endear themselves f o oh t the people and have the better opportunities o doing good o f t mans souls w i s they are caking care o their bodys, but o hlt f the pvciculars o the constitution I leave t the Society c o m f o posed o wise and good men f Source: As reproduced i Holder, 1987,p. 7. n

APPENDIX 2

LElTER FROM BISHOP PARRY TO THE PRINCIPAL OF CODRINGTON COLLEGE DATED JUNE,25 1847
Bishops Court Barbados, June 25th, 1847 M y Dear Mr. Principal, I concur altogether in your view of General Codringtons bequest; and I cannot but feel surprise, as well as regret, that Sir BOWCHER CLARKE,first confounding, as it appears t me, the end proposed by the o f ih Testator (the Propagation o Christianity) wt the means recommended (a College), should afterwards l s sight o 60th. I quite agree with you also oe f as to the comparative results o the College and the School which preceded f i , even when the latter was aided by exhibitions t England, and think that t o t reconvert the College into a School would be t West Indian society a o o great loss,to the Church in the West Indies an irreparable one: it being pero f ih fectly utopian t think o supplying these ctoceses wt Clergy, excepting here and there one, from English Universities. It is what never his been done yet, and what, from the nature o the case, never c m be done. W e f must have our own Colege f r the supply o our Church wt Ministers, o f ih and still more w t Missionaries. If w e lose Codrington, w e shall have t ih o supply its place, as best w e can, w t another. A School would be nothing ih t us in comparison. o

81

M y only regret in regard to your letter, is that you have not dwelt more largely on the colaterid benefits o the College to our West Indian f f youth, o the more educated classes, generally, whether designed for the Ministry o the Church o not, in supplying them, though not gratuitously f r (which can never be done except t a few) yet at a very moderate expense, o with the advantages o a good academical education o n Christian princif ples, such as all professions, and gentlemen o no profession, require as the f f ih c o m m o n basis o their different studies. To restore the School wt Exhibitions t England would be, f r the sake o a very f w the more dented o o o f e, f whom would probably remain in England, to deprive many o the acadernif o cal education n o w within their reach. M a n y young m e n resort t Codrington College, who would never be likely to go to England under the exhibition system. Just at this moment., iodeed the number at the College is small. The College i fact has been suffering, as from other causes n o w n happily removed, so not a little from the agitation and prejudice produced by the attempt. however parriotidly and uprightly meant, to secularize, and restrict mainly t one Island, the Founders noble design o spreading o f abroad the Christian religion. Earnestly trusting, that through the Divine blessing o n the deliberaf tions o the venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel,so deplorable a result m a y be prevented.

I am,m y dear Mr. Principal


Very sincerely yours The Reverend Richard Rawle Principal o Codrington College f

T.BARBADOS
Source: As reproduced in Holder, 19 7 p .2 3. 8,

APPENDIX 3 LMPORTANT DATES I THE HISTORY O F CODRINGTON N COLLEGE


1712 The SPG obtained possession o the two Codrington estates, Society f and College.

1713 Colonel Christian Lilly, a famous English architect, was commissioned t prepare plans f r the college. They took h m two years t c o m o o i o plete.

82

1714 Work on the college began.


1743 T h e building of the college was completed.

ih 1745 - The College was opened as a G r a m m a r School w t 17 pupils. 1780 - The College as well as the neighbouring Mansion-house were al-

most destroyed by a devastating hurricane.

ak 1797 The College was repaired and opened under the Rev. M r Nicholson as president and superior master, and Mr.Thomas M o o d y as his assistant. The grammar school was moved from the upper estate back to the College.
1829 The grammar school was removed t the Chaplains Lodge on the o upper estate under the charge o the Rev. John Packer. Measures were f f taken for the opening o the College no longer as a mere grammar school f r boys, but as a strictly collegiate institution for the education o young o f ih men, especially wt a view to Holy Orders (SPG report o n Codrington College, 1847).

1831 - The College was devastated by a hurricane, but by 1833 most o the f
1830 The College was openend for the reception o students. f
dunaged buildings were repaired.
o 1899 The SPG took a decision t close Codrington College. There was a concerted &OK t prevent this disaster, w t the governor o Barbados and o ih f the Archbishop o Canterbury appealing for funds t ensure the college ref o m i e opened. There seems to have been a change o hearth a the SPG, and f t and it sent out some 2,200 t the College. o

1926 The College was gutted by fire with only the walls left intact.
a ih 1930The College w s re-opened wt a slight increase in accommodation.

1976 A new x h e m e f r the running o the College and the Codrington eso f tates w s i n d u c e d . T h e SPG felt that the day-to-day running o the Cola f lege should pass to the Anglican Church in the Province o the West Indies. f It authorized the establishment o two boards, a board t manage the Codf o rington estates, and a Board o Governors t see after the welfare o Codf o f rington College.

83

1983 - The Codrington Trust Act 1983 -27 was promulgated in the Barbados Parliament. The administration and control o the Codrington Esf tates Trust were vested in a n e w Board o Trustees. This superseded the arf f f rangements o 1976,and allowed the legal control o the Codrington Trust t pass from the SPG to a totally West Indian group after some 271 years o (1712-1983). Source: Holder,1987.

APPENDIX 4 PUBLIC DEBT OUTSTANDING BDS) MILLION


1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 435.6 494.8 567.4 798.3 1,096.6 1,306.8 1,472.7 1,639.1 1,812.6

DEBT SERVICE PAYMENTS BDsSoOO


Interest Internal External

Amomzition lnurnal Encmal

( hntriburion

Sinking Fund TOTAL

1977178 1978179 1979180 1980181 1981182 1982183 1983184 1984185 1985/86 1986187

15,313 17,181 18,577 20,757 37,422 50,631 38,830 40,129 38,488 37,961

3,106 5,558 9,865 9,731 14,983 20.533 23,869 24,853 31,346 43,202

7,644 405 5,237 5,922 4,620 6,340 8,068 8,540 3,645 16.131

10,129 7,904 8,835 12,833 13,127 14,571 18,388 22,602 29,449 39,560

2,446 2,670 2,670 2,830 3,750 3,835 3,833 3,810 4,035 3,800

38,638 33,718 45,184 52,123 73,902 95,910 92,988 99.934


106,963

140,654

Source: C n r l Bank ofBarbados, 1987. eta

84

LI

*Inm

o m -

?%% - m 9
d

VI

a a

z w

85

Appendlx 8 Organlzatlonal Structure o the Prlmary Educatlon Project f

School of Educallon
ProJectCwrdlnalor
dmlnlstra

r
Tdnlng o
Educallon

Admlnlstra tors Other Counlrlcs

Educational Plannlng

Somrx: Masaanarl and M l r 1987.p. 1 lk. 8

86

Appendix 7 Generallsed Regional Project Model


lnstitu tion

Head of lnstltution
I

1
Project Coordinator Management Committee

p
Consultants Coordinator

Ancillary

b Agencies l

P ,

--:Massand

and M l e , 1987. p. 1 ilr 8

87

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92

PUBLICACIONESDEL CRESALC PUBLICATIONSDU CRESALC CRESALC'S PUBLICATIONS


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THIS BOOK WAS PUBLISHED DURING THE MONTH OF MAY,NINETEEN

HUNDRED EIGHTY NINE AT THE REGIONAL CENTRE FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (CRESALC) OF UNESCO.ISSUES PUBLISHED 1.000.