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Third Quarter 2012

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Vol. 16 No. 3

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Response No. 21

Organic Seed Coating

summitseedcoatings.com

Third Quarter 2012

www.seedtoday.com

6
RiceTec, Inc. Headquarters/Research Alvin, TX

12
RiceTec, Inc. Production Facility Eagle Lake, TX

16
Case Study Hubner Industries RIB Packaging System

Columns

Profiles

Feature Reports

APHIS Permits

4 ..............................Editors Notes 18 ..........Arcadia Biosciences, Inc. 6 ....................... Larger Bt Refuge 80 ..Second Quarter APHIS Permit Applications for Field Testing of 26 ......................................... ASTA 30 ............................Dale Wimmer 63 ............... No Bt Corn Allergens Regulated Plants 28 .......................................AOSCA 31 ................................... Ben Lang 72 ................. Insects and Bt Corn

Product Reviews
Post-Harvest Gas Fumigant Dow AgroSciences LLC ....................... 62

Hows It Made
LMC Inc, Donalsonville, GA . ................................................................34

Corporate Notes
Collaborations . .................................................................................... 50

Cover Photo

Global Biotech Notes


Nigeria Biotech Crops. ..........................................................................76

Seed Shorts

Short row hybrid rice evaluation trials, RiceTec, Inc., Alvin TX. Two cytoplasmic male sterile female production rows surrounded by four pollinator rows.

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Third Quarter 2012 3

EdItorS NotE

Amazing Genes
A Publication of Country Journal Publishing Company 3065 Pershing Ct Decatur, IL 62526 217-877-9660 FAX: 217-877-6647 www.seedtoday.com joe@seedtoday.com

Joe W. Funk
Editor

Publisher/Sales Manager/Circulation

Deb Coontz

Jerry Perkins, Karl F. Ohm


Associate Editors

Production Manager/Assistant Editor

Jody Sexton

Rebecca Jackson
Art Director

Sy McElvain
Bookkeeper

Jeff Miller, Mark Avery


Sales

Seed today is published quarterly and mailed to members of the following seed associations: American Seed Trade Association Atlantic Seed Association Independent Professional Seed Association Northern Seed Trade Association Pacific Seed Association Southern Seed Association Western Seed Association The magazine is free of charge to qualifying individuals in the United States and Canada. Foreign subscription rate is $60 per year. Brought to you by the publishers of Grain Journal, Milling Journal, BioFuels Journal and industry specific F.Y.I. E-newsletters.
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It has been within my lifetime that the concepts of DNA, genes, and genomics have entered the populist lexicon. The discovery of DNAs structural symmetry was an astounding revelation to scientists in 1953, but it meant little to most people. Publication of the first draft of the human genome in 2003 gained some traction on the street, but Joe W. overall, that achievement was little more than an interesting phrase to be dropped in social conversation. Today, popular conversations are sprinkled with references to having the right (or wrong) DNA as an explanation (or excuse) for everything from why some people become serial killers to why Michael Phelps has become the most decorated athlete in Olympic history. Talk about genes, genetics, and genome has become so cheap that reality has become obscured by unknowing chatter. Too many people still believe GM crops are the only plants with DNA.

language of genes and genomics that I tend to lose sight of their wonder and complexity. In 2009, the completed sequence of the corn (aka maize in the rest of the world) genome was published. Comparisons to the human genome abound. Each of our cells has 23 chromosomes, corn has 10. Corn has 32,000 genes. We have an estimated 20,000 Funk to 25,000 about the same number of genes as dogs and mice, but half as many as rice. Within our 23 chromosomes are 3.3 billion base pairs which have been identified and make up our genome. Corn has about two billion base pairs.

A Fickle Master

Its Still a Mystery to Me

There are a lot of things in life that are beyond my comprehension when I take a moment to really think about them. The fact that airplanes and bumblebees can both fly, that one single fiber optic cable can transmit 100 terabits per second, that a giant oak tree started as a small acorn, and that a tea olive tree can perfume our entire front yard with a most delightful fragrance these are still mysteries to me. How can every one of the 100 trillion cells in my body have in its nucleus a complete set of the three billion base pairs that comprise my genome that somehow when paired with a matching set of base pairs from my wife resulted in children, each of who have their own set of three billion base pairs in each of their 100 trillion cells. I have become so familiar with the

It is also a mystery to me how 25,000 or so genes in our DNA can generate RNA, which produces 20 basic amino acids that yield two million (five million, ten million? no one knows for sure) proteins that form our bodies. It is all part of a natural process. For all its wondrous accomplishments, natural is not to be worshiped as perfection. Congenital birth defects are natural. My brother died of natural causes at a very young age. In a sense, even cancer is a natural albeit unwelcome - process. So it is a mystery to me why making some changes in a crops genetic makeup to gain a more desirable result is vilified as being unnatural when we have been altering the natural world for our benefit from time immemorial. As is so often the case, objections to technological progress are more philosophical than scientific. When you dont know what your are talking about, anything and everything is possible. It is still a mystery to me how crops can be altered for our benefit, but I am happy to accept these genetic changes and the benefits they provide. Joe Funk, editor joe@seedtoday.com

4 Third Quarter 2012

Response No. 51

Larger Bt Refuges Needed


Researchers recommend 50% refuge for single Bt protein corn
cally important crop pests in the United States has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 in some areas of the U.S. corn belt. For Bt corn to remain effective against rootworms, they recommend increasing refuge requirements to 50% for corn producing one Bt protein and 20% for corn producing two Bt proteins.

WCR 2012 Activity

Recent research suggests IPM refuge areas for Bt crops should be more than doubled to effectively delay pest resistance to Cry proteins.

Transgenic crops that produce insect-killing proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have reduced farmers reliance on insecticide sprays. However, just as insects become resistant to conventional insecticides, they also can evolve resistance to the Bt proteins in transgenic crops. As a condition of approving unrestricted use of Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires farmers to plant refuges of non-Bt crops near Bt crops to delay buildup of resistant pests. But how much refuge acreage is enough?

Two entomologists rec-

ommend increasing WCR refuge requirements to 50% for corn producing one Bt protein and 20% for corn producing two Bt proteins.
Bruce Tabashnik, University of AZ, Tucson and Fred Gould, NC State University, Raleigh

How Much Is Enough?

In June, Bruce Tabashnik, Ph.D., at the University of Arizona, Tucson, and Fred Gould, Ph.D., at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, published research that indicates the EPA should more than double the percentage of corn acres planted to mandated refuges to delay insect resistance, encourage integrated pest management (IPM), and promote more sustainable crop protection. To slow resistance in the western
6 Third Quarter 2012

corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera (WCR), the EPA currently requires a 20% refuge for corn producing one Bt protein (Cry3Bb1), and a 5% refuge for corn that simultaneously produces two different Bt proteins. However, Tabashnik and Gould note that WCR one of the most economi-

In mid-June, 2012, University of Illinois professor of entomology and crop sciences extension coordinator Mike Gray reported severe injury to Bt corn expressing Cry3Bb1 protein in western Illinois fields. Thus far, resistance to this protein in Illinois has not been confirmed, says Gray. However large numbers of WCR adults are visible in the whorls of plants. Seed industry representatives confirmed that beetles were observed this year nearly a full month earlier than when they are usually first reported, around the 4th of July. Corn rootworms can cost U.S. farmers close to $1 billion each year. Bt corn has helped to reduce these costs and to decrease insecticide sprays, but evolution of resistance by the pests can diminish or even eliminate these benefits, says Dr. Tabashnik. Most of the corn seed currently produced in the United States is transgenic and includes genes for insect control. Enlarging refuges will require more seed without corn rootworm control genes. This shift in production will take time, so this process should begin immediately, says Dr. Gould. In addition to increased refuge sizes, the researchers say the best way to postpone resistance is to use a system of integrates pest management (IPM) in which Bt corn is combined with other control tactics, judicious use of insecticide sprays, and less prophylactic use of Bt crops.

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Response No. 71

c o v e r f e at u r e

ricetec, Inc.

Hybrid rice seed.

Transitioning from a research company to a fully integrated research, production, and marketing company
ricetec, Inc
Headquarters: Alvin, TX Production facility: Eagle Lake, TX 877-580-7423 www.ricetec.com
John Nelsen, President/CEO Doug Merkle, Production Manager James Watson, Plant Manager From its beginning in 1982 as a business venture to develop a new method for producing hybrid rice for Farms of Texas, RiceTec, Inc. has evolved into the worlds leading mechanized producer of hybrid rice seed. Since RiceTec introduced its improved hybrid varieties in 2000, its U.S. market share continues to increase and is now the leading supplier of rice seed to American farmers. The leading competitors are public non-hybrid varieties. In 2005 and 2011 respectively, RiceTec began efforts to introduce and distribute its hybrid rice seed products in

RiceTec, Inc. President/CEO John Nelsen

Key Personnel

Brazil and India, thus marking its evolution into a marketing company while retaining its strong R&D foundation.

Modernizing Hybrid Production

company Profile

Established 1982 as an independent entity inside Farms of Texas to develop hybrid rice for mechanical production. Introduced its first hybrid rice variety in 1999/2000. All seed products are non-GM. Sister companies in Brazil and India.
8 Third Quarter 2012

Hybrid rice seed is not a new product. Chinese farmers have had access to hybrid rice for decades. After development of cytoplasmatic male sterile parent lines, Chinese plant breeders developed hybrid rice for commercial production. With an abundance of very inexpensive labor, seed producers employed large numbers of workers to march across flooded paddy fields to manu-

RiceTec, Inc. Headquarters, Alvin, TX. The third flagpole is reserved for the flag of Liechtenstein when RiceTecs owner His Highness the Prince of Liechtenstein or a member of his family is present.

ally beat the male rice plants to loosen pollen in order to cross-pollinate the normally self-pollinating plants. Following pollination, Chinese workers manually transplanted the fertilized plants to seed production fields. That process is extremely labor intensive and is in no way suited for use by highly mechanized U.S. rice producers. RiceTec originally was formed to develop hybrid rice as a new alternative crop with the expectation that hybrid vigor would boost income for the 50,000 acre Farms of Texas owned by the Prince of Liechtenstein Foundation. Farms of Texas was largely disbanded, but the companys efforts to develop hybrid rice continued. In October 1999,

RiceTec applied for its first patent for hybrid rice varieties A0044 and B0044. By using advanced breeding technology coupled with molecular marker technology, RiceTec scientists had developed new parent lines with improved agronomic traits that were suited to large-scale mechanized seed production. The company also developed pollination methods for seed production and new farming techniques to take advantage of the unique agronomic characteristics exhibited by the hybrid varieties. Instead of manually flogging the male plants to spread pollen, RiceTec contracts for a fleet of helicopters to fly low over seed production fields. By timing the flights to correspond to midafternoon pollen release, the helicopters downdraft moves sufficient pollen to produce hybrid seed. Research efforts led by Jos R, Ph.D., RiceTec research and technology lead, continue to develop and identify improved parent lines that are both compatible to mechanized pollination and possess the desired agronomic traits and milling quality. Evidence of the companys continuing varietal improvement is the anticipated release of a smooth leaf variety in
Jos R, Ph.D. RiceTech Research and Technology Lead. (JWF photos)

2013 that will reduce the internal wear to harvest equipment caused by rices normally abrasive leaves. We have the double challenge of maintaining both agronomic traits and the milling qualities that are necessary to satisfy millers standards, R says. Milling quality can vary depending on a farmers cultural practices, so we must also continually work to educate our customers and ourselves while helping them shift to a new paradigm when it comes to growing our products. For example, because RiceTecs hybrid products tiller more profusely that common varieties, farmers need to reduce seeding rate by two-thirds. Farmers were initially reluctant to use seeding rates so contrary to their traditional farming practices, says Jim Thompson, technical service advisor. We continue to study the growing habits of our products so we can provide the best technical information to help our customers be financially successful.

Cultural Diversity

Establishing a hybrid rice breeding program is south Texas eventually became a study in cultural diversity within the RiceTec staff. There was little local, ready-made experienced talent to develop a hybrid rice research team. The answer was to form an international group of scientists who could each make a contribution to achieving RiceTecs goals. In terms of our people, we may be the most diverse seed company of our size in the world, says R who in a former life was a hybrid sunflower breeder in Argentina. Diversity is a feature of rice. As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for nations across the globe. At last count, our R&D staff represents 17 nations. Fortunately, we all speak English. Together we bring to the discussion a wide variety of viewpoints that is found in very few other companies. Because we are all working together toward
Third Quarter 2012 9

a common goal, our differences are one of RiceTecs greatest strengths.

Strengthening the U.S. Rice Production Industry

On the surface, RiceTecs breeding program has goals and objectives that could apply to any seed company: From our plant breeders to our management teams to our Board of Directors, demonstrate a level of technological expertise and strategic prowess that meets the highest standards of our industry. Below the surface, however, there is a sense of urgency that extends beyond next years sales targets. The rice industry is in a competitive battle with corn, soybeans, cotton, and others for crop acres, says Production Manager Doug Merkle. The crop also has high water usage, the cost of which has a direct bearing on farmer profitability. As a leading supplier of rice seed to a relatively small commodity, we have an obligation to raise the bar for all growers in order to keep rice an economically competitive crop. Long-term, we must be responsive to the changes taking place across the entire industry from growers to consumers. It is essential to maintain a sufficiently large base acreage so that rice will be able to continue to attract the various R&D activities and other innovations needed to support U.S. production of one of the

Advanced hybrid rice evaluation trials. Two female rows bordered by male rows. Note the abundant tillering, a characteristic of RiceTecs hybrid varieties.

worlds most critically important food crops, Merkle says. On October 31, 2011, the Worlds population hit 7 billion. It is gratifying to work in a crop that is eaten daily by 50% of its people. However it is unsettling to know that every six seconds a child, somewhere in the world, dies of starvation or malnutrition, Nelsen says. Experts are forecasting continued

growth in the worlds population which means more people to feed and will most assuredly place more strains and constraints on our limited natural resources such as land and water. Nelsen concludes with a challenge to the seed industry: As seed developers, we must all continue to challenge ourselves to develop new products that will produce the same amount of grain/ food using fewer acres, less water, less fertilizer and reduced chemicals to feed more people. Joe Funk, editor
Plant breeder Liping Diao making hand pollinations at RiceTecs Alvin, TX greenhouse.

With only a foot between the wider female seed production strips and the male pollinator plants, GPS guidance eleminates cross contamination.(RiceTec photo) 10 Third Quarter 2012

Response No. 111

Fa c i L i t y F e at u R e

Hybrid Rice Seed Facility


New seed conditioning facility designed to withstand abrasive rice seed

RiceTec hybrid rice seed production field with alternating strips of male (light color) and female plants. Flood irrigation levee ditches crisscross the field. (RiceTec photos)

he 2011 crop was the first production at RiceTecs new seed conditioning facility about an hour west of Houston near Eagle Lake, TX. The facility is one of the

worlds few seed conditioning operations specifically designed for hybrid rice. The challenge with conditioning hybrid rice has not as much to do with the finished product, as it is with the inherent nature of producing hybrid rice, says Production Manager Doug Merkle. On its own, rice is for the most part a self-pollinating plant. The ease of producing commercial quantities of hybrid seed falls somewhere between producing open pollinated corn and selfpollinating soybeans but a lot closer to soybeans. An inherent result of forcing a selfpollinating plant to cross pollinate is a relatively high amount of seedless hulls on the cytoplasmic male sterile plants that are harvested along with the hybrid seed. These empty hulls and the abrasiveness of rice seed are the two considerations that make designing a hybrid rice seed plant different from
Production Manager Doug Merkle

conventional rice conditioning. To design the new facility, RiceTec President John Nelsen turned to the Bratney Companies, Des Moines, IA, because of his earlier experience with them building corn conditioning plants. This is the first new greenfield hybrid rice seed plant in North America, says Bratney Project Manager Derek

Supplier List
Contractor ........... Bratney Companies Aspirators ..... Carter-Day and Cimbria Bagger, bulk tote ...... Chantland MHS Bagger, paper ....Premier Tech Chronos Bucket elevators....Universal Industries Bulk storage ....... GSI, Meridian Mfg. Conveyors ..........Universal, Chantland Dust filters ... Camcorp, Cimbria Heid Gravity separator ...........Cimbria Heid Length sizers..................Cimbria Heid Precision sizers...................Carter-Day Seed cleaner.................. Cimbria Delta Seed treater....................Cimbria Heid

12 Third Quarter 2012

Gage. Our biggest design challenge was how to deal with the very abrasive rice hulls caused by their high silica content. To some degree, Bratney engineers could anticipate vulnerable wear zones and strengthen them with stainless steel components. Everyone anticipated that there would be other wear zones that would not be immediately apparent. After the plant had been operating for a year, we would occasionally find indications of a wear point when rice began falling to the floor, says Jamie Watson, plant operator. Rice was wearing holes in pipes that might never have worn through had we been running another commodity. This is all part of working with rice. The second unique feature of conditioning hybrid rice seed is the light, fluffy empty hulls that come into the facility. Although a small portion by weight (total clean-out seldom exceeds

three percent by weight), the hulls are both bulky and dusty. While the discards from corn and soybean conditioning contain sufficient grain to have feed value, the rice discards are virtually all dry, blank hulls with little or no feed value. Feed mills dont want them, says Watson. We spread them on our fields just to get rid of them.

Drying Bins

Hulls are also a problem in the corrugated steel drying bins, says Merkle. As the bins are filled for drying, the blank hulls and chaff tend to accumulate along the sidewalls. The grain stirrers used during the drying process further tend to push the empty hulls toward the outer walls. The accumulated hulls can prevent the sweep auger from getting traction during unloading. To solve this prob-

lem, the drive wheel is replaced with a large diameter wheel with paddles that brush through the chaff and make floor contact (see photo next page). A reduction drive gear in the wheels hub slows the wheels rotation. To maintain milling quality, the rice is dried with high air volume and only a few degrees of added heat. The process can take three or four days depending on beginning moisture content and weather conditions.

Red Rice

With aspirators and a good air screen, we can separate the blank hulls, Watson says. A far more difficult separation is eliminating any red rice that was not rogued out of the field. For that we rely on a series of Carter Day sizers. Red rice is slightly wider that the good rice. Merkle says maintaining good field sanitation to keep red rice and other

RiceTecs new seed conditioning facility began operation with the 2011 harvest. 16 outdoor bulk bins provide storage for 100,000 cwt of rice prior to cleaning. (RiceTech photos) Third Quarter 2012 13

Top row (left to right): Jamie Watson, conditioning facility operator; (center) Abrasion-resistant cushion boxes atop stainless steel elbows at a critical location subject to accelerated abrasion; (right) A series of Carter Day precision sizers. Center: Paddle wheel on the outer end of the sweep auger inside a 36-ft. diameter GSI drying bin gains traction on the floor through empty hulls that accumulate along the outer wall. Bottom row (left to right): Cimbria Heid batch seed treater; (center) Automatic grain samplers; (right) High volume dust collection system with two dust storage bins. (JWF photos)

weeds out of the production fields is the most effective method of producing good seed. During harvest we stay in contact with our producers and alert them whenever we seed indications that they
14 Third Quarter 2012

need to make some adjustment to their combines, he says. RiceTec seed production fields are all inspected and certified by the Texas Department of Agriculture. Most seed is packaged in bulk totes

and immediately shipped to warehouses closer to growers in Arkansas and Louisiana where the majority of southern rice is produced.
Joe Funk, editor

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Response No. 151

case study

Meeting RIB Requirements


Fully automated system provides speed, documentation for RIB packaging
art technology that brought increased capacity and new efficiency to the family-owned business. In 2012, that system was dismantled and carried out the back door because it was too slow, too inefficient, and too old to be upgraded to meet the demands of packaging refuge in bag (RIB) seed corn. RIB seed corn products are a blend of insect-resistant Bt hybrids with a small amount (usually 5%) of non-Bt seed that provides a safe refuge for Bt-target insects. Everything has changed since we put the old system in place in 1999, says President/CEO Bob Hubner. Seed technology has made dramatic advances, the overall standards for seed quality have increased, and most recently, RIB products and the attendant record keeping requirements have added an entirely new dimension to what it takes to package seed corn. Blending too little non-Bt seed into a package violates the EPA insect resistance management (IRM) requirements. Packaging a blend with too much nonBt seed is in violation of the licensing agreement seed producers have with trait providers.

Hubner Industries Fischbein-Inglet RSV-100 Simplex duplex refuge scale system blends Bt seed and refuge seed +/-0.001 lb. (Fishbein photo).

Hubner Industries LLc


West Lebanon, IN 866-404-8324 www.hubnerindustries.com Key Personnel
Bob Hubner, Owner/President Greg Smith, General Manager David Dunk, Operations Manager Rodney Keeling, Packaging Line Manager

Thirteen years ago, a new packing system was installed in Hubner Industries seed corn production facility in west-central Indiana. It was state-of-the-

company Profile

Family-owned contract corn seed production business. Retail brand Monsanto owned. Established 1972.

Blended seed is packaged in single units or in bulk boxes. 16 Third Quarter 2012

2011 was the first year blended RIB seed corn was commercially available to growers. There is also a practical side to having a precise blend and that is our cost of licensing fees to trait providers. Hubner says. Even if our blend is off by a few ounces per bag, it becomes a sizeable amount over thousands of bags.

Alternative Choices

As Hubner assessed his operation, he realized he had three options. First, bring together enough parts and pieces to enable his existing system to package RIB seed products. Second, install some new equipment in a piecemeal fashion to make the RIB blend. Or third, replace everything with one integrated system that provides sufficient capacity to meet future needs. We had to make one fundamental decision: are we planning for todays business or are we planning for our future? he recalls. We chose to make an investment in new equipment in excess of our current needs, confident we will gain enough new business and increased volume to fully utilize all the capacity that we install today. The only piece of equipment not replaced by the new packaging line is a Conveyco semi-automatic palletizer. In consultation with Robin OMara, OMara Ag Services, Urbandale, IA

(515-223-5391/www.omara-ag.com), Hubner selected a Fischbein Inglet 3597 automatic bagging system coupled with a Fischbein-Inglet RSV-100 Simplex duplex refuge scale system accurate +/- 0.01 pound per weighment. We have worked with Robin in the past and are comfortable with his recommendations and service, Hubner says. Having an integrated system means all the components are designed to work together. Should a problem develop, we are not caught in the middle with one supplier blaming the another for the shutdown.

Performance and Documentation

One of the drawbacks with upgrading the 13-year old bagging system is the documentation required for RIB packaging. The old system could support the required record keeping but only by operating at a reduced speed. With this new system, we can package 20 bags per minute and collect all the documentation needed for EPA and trait provider compliance. In a few years we may need that capacity, but today we are content to operate at 12-14 bags, says General Manager Greg Smith. At this packaging rate, production throughout the system is balanced. Cleaning, treating, and packaging all operate at a comfortable speed for maximum seed quality, he says.

Automated bag handling.

System Features

Some of the systems features noted by Hubner include a two-speed vibratory conveyor feeding the scale, red dust collection at the open bag as it is being filled, bag settling as it is being filled, and fully automatic tagging. If future refuge requirements increase to 10 or 20%, a simple adjustment in the controller is all that would be needed to change the blend percentage. Early in the new systems operation, Hubners staff witnessed an advantage of having an integrated system when the empty bags were not being properly advanced into position. We figured someone would have to come out and rebuild everything, says Operations Manager David Dunk. Instead, a technician remotely accessed the equipment via the Internet, made some program changes, and solved the problem in a few hours. So, why not replace the old palletizer as well? I like how it makes tight, square stacks, says Hubner. It allows the operator to make certain the tags all lay the same way on the bags so they will look neat and tidy when stretch wrapped. I believe neatness enhances the perception that these bags contain superior quality seed. As a contract producer, maintaining image is an important part of business. Joe Funk, editor
(l to r) General Manager Greg Smith, Owner/President Bob Hubner, Packaging Line Manager Rodney Keeling, Operations Manager David Dunk. Third Quarter 2012 17

supplier profile

Arcadia Biosciences, inc.


Developing agricultural technologies that benefit the environment and human health

Grain growers inspect a drought-tolerant soybean crop in Argentina..

Arcadia Biosciences, inc.


Davis, CA and Seattle, WA 530-756-7077 www.arcadiabio.com
Eric Rey, President and CEO Vic Knauf, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer Steve Brandwein, Vice President, Finance and Administration Wendy Neal, Vice President and Chief Legal Officer Don Emlay, Vice President, Regulatory Affairs Roger Salameh, Vice President, Business Development, Agriculture

Key personnel

high-throughput screening, advanced breeding, and genetic engineering. In 2012, Arcadia formed Verdeca, a 50-50 joint venture partner with Bioceres an agricultural investment and development company owned by more than 230 of South Americas largest soybean growers which develops and deregulates soybean varieties with nextgeneration agricultural technologies for global markets. Working in partnership with South American growers, Verdeca technologies will help increase crop productivity and make more efficient and sustainable use of land and water, Rey says.

Company profile

Arcadia Biosciences has strong capabilities in agricultural technology development, field validation, and regulatory affairs, says Eric Rey, President and CEO. The company leverages a variety of modern biotechnology tools such as
18 Third Quarter 2012

Commercial and Collaboration Agreements

Arcadia traits are developed in collaboration with and licensed to companies, and agencies worldwide, Including: Advanta US Water efficient sorghum, salt-tolerant sorghum. Australian Centre for Plant Func-

tional Genomics (ACPFG) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) NUE wheat and NUE barley. African Agricultural Technology Foundation Improved rice varieties. Bioceres (Verdeca JV) NUE soybeans and other crops. Bioriginal Food and Science Corp. High GLA safflower oil. Bioseed Research India Long shelf life tomatoes. Cal/West Seeds High GLA safflower. DuPont NUE corn. MAHYCO multi-crop, multitechnology. Monsanto Company NUE canola. Ningxia Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences Carbon credit methodology. ScottsMiracleGro NUE turf grass. Semillas Fito Long shelf life tomatoes. SESVanderHave NUE sugar beets, water efficient sugar beets. South African Sugarcane Research Institute NUE sugarcane. Targeted Growth, Inc. Herbicide tolerant wheat. USAID Salt-tolerant rice for Bangladesh and Indonesia. U.S. National Institute of Health resistant starch-enhanced wheat. U.S. Sugar Corporation NUE sugar cane, water efficient sugar cane. Vilmorin Nitrogen efficient wheat, water efficient wheat.

Response No. 191

Response No. 201

Flood-Tolerant Soybeans?
Rice and soybeans exhibit similar features to survive flooding
For more than two decades, USDA-ARS scientist Tara VanToai has studied soybean flood tolerance in a range of environments, including greenhouses, laboratories, growth chambers, experimental fields, and farm fields. She and her colleagues are finding and incorporating genes from non-native soybean varieties in an effort to improve soybean tolerance to wet soil and associated diseases. In one study, VanToai used outdoor screenhouses to assess the flood tolerance of 21 soybean lines. The study included soybean lines native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lines developed via selection by farmers, and modern lines from Australia, China, Japan, and Taiwan. Grown in pots, when each plant was in full bloom, it was placed for two weeks in water two inches above the soil surface. The screenhouse tests identified the top three floodtolerant lines: Nam Vang, native to Cambodia; VND2, native to China; and ATF15-1, native to Australia. When the study was replicated in flooded experimental fields, the results were the same.

Plant Similarities

The two standbys rice relies on for its ability to grow in water are adventitious roots and aerenchyma plant tissue with large air-filled spaces. White, secondary aerenchyAdventitious roots grow ma tissue (soybean) followout of the plants stem near ing five weeks of flooding the soil surface and work in (dashed line indicates water tandem with aerenchyma level). to provide more oxygen to flooded roots. VanToai found that the soybean plants that survive flooding use some of the same mechanisms as rice growing in paddies.

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Registered trademarks cited are the property of their trademark owners.

Response No. 211

Third Quarter 2012 21

DOJ-USDA Workshop Take-Away


The DOJs summary report provides few details
petition and consequently vigorous antitrust enforcement. Bolstered by this understanding, the Division remains committed to taking all appropriate investigatory and enforcement action against conduct threatening harm to competition in agricultural markets, the report says.

GM Seeds Summation

U.S. Attorney Eric Holder (fourth from left) makes an opening presentation at the joint Department of Justice/USDA workshop on competition and regulatory issues in the agriculture industry in Ankeny, IA in March 2010. (Jerry Perkins photo)

Heralded by no less than 17 news releases, the U.S Department of Justice (DOJ) Anti-trust Division and the USDA launched a series of five public workshops in 2009 to explore competition and regulatory issues in the agriculture industry. The goals of the workshops, according to a DOJ announcement are to promote dialogue among interested parties and foster learning with respect to the appropriate legal and economic analyses of these issues, as well as to listen to and learn from parties with experience in the agriculture sector. Specific areas of focus for the first workshop in Ankeny, IA in March, 2010 may include seed technology, vertical integration, market transparency and buyer power. Topics for subsequent workshops are the poultry industry (Normal, AL), dairy industry (Madison, WI), livestock industry (Ft. Collins, CO), and margins (Washington, DC). Fifteen months after the final work22 Third Quarter 2012

shop, the DOJ in May 2012, issued its summary report: Voices from the Workshops on Agriculture and Antitrust Enforcement in our 21st Century Economy and Thoughts on the Way Forward.

18,000 Comments

The DOJ was provided ample opportunity to listen to and learn from those interested in agriculture. In addition to five days of open testimony, the public responded with more than 18,000 comments. According to the May report, the workshops did provide a wealth of discussion and information on the state of competition in the agricultural sector. Anyone anticipating the DOJs summary report to include a glimpse into specific actions to affect agricultural competitiveness will be disappointed. The report offers little more than sweeping generalities and a commitment to continue business as usual. These discussions confirmed that a healthy agricultural sector requires com-

The issue of genetically modified seeds implicates the careful balance of the antitrust laws and the intellectual property laws. The antitrust laws preserve the competitive spur to innovation, and the intellectual property laws create incentives for innovation. Antitrust law recognizes the critical role that intellectual-property rights play in driving innovation and values those rights. As the Seventh Circuit held, the price of a patented product cannot violate the Sherman Act: a patent holder is entitled to charge whatever the traffic will bear. However, if conduct goes beyond the appropriate use of intellectual property and harms competition, it should be disciplined by appropriate antitrust enforcement. The Division stands ready to take the appropriate action in those cases. Thus, if the patent holder has crossed the bounds of the antitrust laws and abused his rights in a manner that leads to competitive harm, the Division is prepared to challenge that action. There may also be opportunities for clarification of how patent and antitrust law should align, according to the DOJ May 2012 summary report section about GM seeds. Joe Funk, editor
For more information: Complete May 2012 DJO summary report www.justice.gov/atr/public/ reports/283291.pdf

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To learn more, visit www.BioDiagnostics.net or call 715-426-0246

BioDiagnostics, Inc. 2009. All rights reserved.

Response No. 231

Response No. 241

U.S. GM Trait Adoption


Use of Bt traits fluctuates more than HT traits
It is widely agreed that increased productivity, arising from innovation and changes in technology, is the main contributor to economic growth in U.S. agriculture, states the USDAs May, 2012 Agricultural productivity report. Adoption of GM traits has reached a slow growth stage with little room for increased application.
Adoption of GM crops in the United States, 19962012 Adoption of GM crops in the United States by trait, 2000-12

Source for both charts: USDA, Economic Research Service 12-9526 MAGad387-ST-Q3_Layout 1 7/3/12 2:10 PM Page 1

FOR THE SEED INDUSTRY


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Response No. 251

Third Quarter 2012 25

Ac c o r d i n g to AS tA

Local Action Will Lead to a new crop of Singing Stars for the Seed industry
First and foremost, let me say what an honor it is to serve as chairman of the American Seed Trade Association. Im extremely pleased to have this opportunity and will do my best as chair to represent all interests of the seed industry and keep you apprised of issues and ASTA actions throughout the year. Id also like to take a moment to thank past ASTA chairmen, including Mike Gumina, for setting the stage and focusing on the importance of making your voice heard. Each seed company/ business is as unique as each type of seed and has its own story to tell. A Story to Tell For example Stipa comata (also known as needle and thread) is a perennial grass that can live up to ten years and is deep rooted and drought tolerant. It gets its name because the shape of the seed looks like a needle and thread. The shaft is tightly twisted like an auger. With a little bit of moisture, the shaft begins to uncoil causing the seed to stand up on end and the sharp point allows the seed to plant itself leaving only the thread above ground. We are a diverse industry serving a diverse clientele, but often times the challenges or obstacles we face are similar in nature. ASTA does a great job of prioritizing these issues and working on behalf of its 700 plus membership. While ASTA diligently works at the national and international level, I challenge you to get out and tell your story and that of the seed industry at the local level. Often times, action at the local level can make a big impact think global, act local. You can make a big difference by doing four key things: 1. Add your Congressman and Senators to your mailing list. 2. Invite them to your place for cof26 Third Quarter 2012

fee and a tour of your operation. 3. Write an op-ed for your local paper. 4. Participate in the American Seed Trade Association through committees, working groups, and attending meetings.

Often times, action at

meetings, conversations, and e-mails that our nations policy makers really enjoyed hearing from the seed industry and learning about science, sustainability, technology, and the innovation that drives it. Advocacy or Agvocacy can take many forms and it doesnt have to be time consuming or complicated. Once you do one or more of these steps Ive listed above, be sure to let the ASTA government affairs team (Leslie Cahill and Pat Miller) and myself know how it went by sending an e-mail to info@ amseed.org or calling 703-837-8140. If you have an issue, let them know so they can follow up and take the appropriate action. If you have a success story, let them know and theyll also make sure it gets featured online and in ASTAs member communications. Im excited for what the year ahead will bring and I hope youll join me in helping tackle issues so our businesses can operate in a better business environment and with confidence. Lets Sing! The conference theme for ASTAs 130th Annual Convention is Sing a Song about the Heartland. The seed industry is at the heart of agriculture and when we collectively use our voices, we sing one song in harmony and can be heard far and wide. Theyve heard us, now lets sing.
Blake Curtis is 2012-2013 Chairman of ASTA, the American Seed Trade Association, A l e x a n d r i a , VA (703-837-8140/ www.amseed.org) and president of Curtis & Curtis Seeds, Clovis, NM.

the local level can make a big impact think global, act local. You can make a big difference.
Blake Curtis 2012 - 2013 ASTA Chairman

Advocacy in Action

As a business person, dont be surprised what you have access to or what transferable skills you might have. We heard from our Storm the Hill Day follow up

Response No. 271

A OSCA Notes
Moline, IL 309-736-0120 www.aosca.org

The Seed Industrys New Normal


My daughter graduated from college four years ago and now has a career in business. We were recently talking about the economy and the general state of affairs in the world today. I made one of those the way things used to be remarks that parents past a certain age are prone to make. Her reply made me realize how things actually are in todays world. For her, having lived in the cocoon of college life during the stock market crash of 2008 and having been unaware of the really good times in business just a few years ago, todays reality is the new normal that she relates to and lives within. I have to admit that it should be mine, too, and I need to adapt to it rather than wish for a comfortable return to the good old days. the tests necessary to confirm them. By adopting these new, voluntary standards, AOSCA positioned itself to stay abreast of new varieties that carry advanced technology.

AOSCA members also approved seed certification standards for new crop types and AOSCA expanded its National Variety Review Board process to allow for semi-annual review sessions. These changes allow plant breeders to move new varieties into Certification programs more quickly and will facilitate the international movement of seed. Another topic receiving much discussion was how to inform a new generation of farmers about the benefits of using Certified seed. Seed certification programs exist in 44 states, as well as in several other countries that belong to Finding the New Normal AOSCA, and certified seed acres have remained This got me thinking about the new normal stable for several years for we are facing in the seed most crops. industry and how a new However, AOSCA generation of seed cusrecognizes that younger tomers are more likely Todays reality is the new producers may not be fato relate to the futures with technology rather than normal that we relate to and miliar Tag how Certified Blue seed provides the way things used to be. value by assuring varietal Considering the averlive within. We need to adapt purity and seed quality. age age of farmers, they should be commended to it. for rapidly adopting Collaboration biotechnology and new AOSCAs members voted Chet Boruff, CEO AOSCA traits moving into the to collaborate with other marketplace. seed industry stakeholdHowever, for tomorers to educate growers rows new generation of about the extra value that farmers, using biotechnology will be their new comes from planting Certified wheat seed. normal when it comes to operating profitably. The goal of the initiative will be to promote At its recent Annual Meeting in Sun Valley, the use of all classes of Certified seed as the new ID, AOSCA adopted new seed certification normal in crop production. standards referred to as Additional CertifiAdapting to the new normal in any endeavor cation Requirements. Traditional means of insures that we will be relevant participants in identifying a variety by its physical characteristhe years to come. tics may not apply to varieties that are unique because of their internal genetic traits. Chet Boruff, Chief Executive Officer Plant breeders may now specify if non-pheMoline, IL (309-736-0120) notypic traits identify a variety and designate cboruff@aosca.org / www.osca.org

New Crop Types

28 Third Quarter 2012

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Response No. 291

620.227.7106

Scan Smart Phone

Personal Profile

Dale Wimmer
Seeds of Wildflowers
and

Garden Flowers since 1965


For a catalog, call 303.431.7333

Hundred of Species in Stock Pollinator & Conservation Mixtures

email sales@ applewoodseed.com

Foundation Seed Production Advanta US Crosbyton, TX 806-786-9265 www.advantaus.com


Hometown: Grew up on a farm near Slaton, TX, the third of six children. Only Dale and his brother Chris are still involved in agriculture. Family: Wife Belinda (20 years) and four children. Education: Business Administration, Texas Tech University, Lubbock. Years at present location: 24 years. Career summary: With Cargill Seed 10 years prior to Mycogen, then with Crosbyton Seed until its acquisition by Advanta US Inc. in 2010.
4/5/12 8:46 PM

applewoodseed.com

5380 Vivian Street Arvada, CO 80002 USA

Response No. 301


ASCO_QRT_Pg_Finals.indd 2

Best U.S. seed experience: Being president of the Texas Seed Trade Association in 2011. A big focal point of the Association is raising funds for its scholarship program to help support 12 students each year. It is money well spent, especially for students attending smaller schools. Best overseas experience: Four months in Indonesia with Cargill to oversee building of a seed corn production plant. It was the first introduction of hybrid corn on the island of Java. Biggest management challenge: Learning to live with sorghum ergot when it moved in during 1997. We scrambled to learn how to combat the fungus. We learned that good pollination and good management practices to maximize yields are the best defense. It is not a question of whether we have ergot, it is a question of how severe. Best ideas for dealing with people: Be honest. Answer peoples questions. Focus on common goals. Keep a positive attitude expect a positive outcome. Best ideas for producing sorghum seed: Anybody can grow sorghum, but it takes a community to produce quality sorghum seed. Everyone must be on the same page to coordinate isolation. Follow your plan. Whatever is true for seed production is doubly true for foundation seed. This is a good area for foundation seed because the growers understand the challenges and they work together to insure good isolation. Professional honors: President Texas Seed Trade Association 2011.

Response No. 302

30 Third Quarter 2012

PersonaL ProfiLe

Ben Lang
President/CEO 612-625-7766 Minnesota Crop Improvement Association St. Paul, MN www.mncia.org
Hometown: St. Paul, MN. Family: Wife Debra (28 years), two children. Education: B.S., Univ. of MN. Years at MCIA: 32; President/CEO since 2008. Your best ideas for dealing with people: People deserve to be treated with respect. One of the best ways to show respect is to listen to what others have to say. Pay attention to the feedback you get, think about service from the customers vantage point, and follow up as needed. Consider other views even when they are not what you want to hear. Personal key to success: My key role is to be a team builder. As President/CEO, I strive to empower each member of my staff to reach his/her potential. I try to clearly communicate what I expect commitment to quality, professionalism, best effort, and responsibility for results. I want to make it clear that each individual needs to take ownership of his/her position and encourage the innovation needed to continue to improve our organization. Biggest management challenge you have faced: The services provided by MCIA has been greatly expanded in recent years as the organization has responded to the needs of a changing agricultural industry. In the last few years, we have undertaken a major rebranding effort that includes logo redesign, new website, and updated, enhanced promotional materials to better reflect the current organization and what it can provide. Service diversification has allowed MCIA to achieve revenue growth, retain skilled experienced personnel, and remain a strong, viable resource for Minnesota agriculture. What do you enjoy most about life? Family time is my favorite time. Now that my daughters are grown and are out on their own, I especially appreciate holidays, vacations, and other times when we are all together. Professional honors/offices: MCIA Honorary Premier Seedsman (1995); Minnesota Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Noxious Weed Evaluation Committee, NRCS Minnesota State Technical Committee; Northern Regions representative to AOSCA Certification and Standards Council.
Response No. 312

Response No. 311

Third Quarter 2012 31

SeeD NOTeS

Indiana Seedsman ISF President


During the International Seed Federations (ISFs) World Seed Congress, held June 24-28 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Tim Johnson, vice president of Illinois Foundation Seeds, Inc. (IFSI), Tolono, IL, was elected 2012-14 president. In his acceptance speech, Johnson, who is based in Westfield, IN, told Congress participants that he will use three guiding principles during his two-year tenure as president: find the win-win, make money, and have fun. ISF facilitates the international movement of seed, know-how and technology, mobilizes and represents the global seed industry, informs its members, and promotes the interests and image of the seed industry. A 6.4million ($10 million) grant to develop crops capable of nitrogen fixation was awarded to The John Innes Centre in Norwich, England, by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in July. If we cracked N fixation in cereals, in this case maize in Africa, it would be perhaps the greatest agricultural breakthrough of the century, perhaps of the millennium. It is a hard problem, but if successful it would be blindingly transformational for people and the environment, says Sir Gordon Conway, Professor of International Development, Imperial College London.

Will this summers heat and drought be a boon to new drought tolerant seed varieties? Farmers will believe what they see, says Peter Eckes, president of BASFs plant science division. Seed company executives say droughttolerant seeds are not intended to allow farmers to grow corn in the desert, or in the midst of a severe drought. In compliance with a 2009 district court decision, APHIS completed an extensive environmental impact statement (EIS) and determined Roundup Ready sugar beet variety is not likely to pose a plant pest risk. This is APHIS final regulatory determination in this matter. The deregulation became effective July 20, 2012.

Drought-Tolerant Crops: Seeing is Believing

Roundup Ready Sugar Beets

Nottingham, Nottingham, England, performed a meta-analysis of 24 published studies looking for the long-term impacts of feeding GM products in animal diets. They conclude that GM plants are nutritionally equivalent to their non-GM counterparts and can be safely used in food and feed. The review collected data concerning the effects of diets containing GM corn, potato, soybean, rice, or triticale. Twelve long-term studies between 90 days and two years in duration and 12 multigenerational studies were analyzed. The researchers studied many parameters using biochemical analyses, histological organ examination, hematology and the detection of transgenic DNA. Chinese Academy of Sciences researchers reported in June that they have identified a gene labeled GW8 in Basmati rice from Pakistan that could not only improve the shape and color of rice grains, but also change the arrangement of starch inside the grain, enhancing its eating quality. A variant of the GW8 gene in some types of high yield Chinese rice improves grain weight and boosts yield 14%.

Nitrogen-Fixing Cereals

High-Yield Rice Gene

A team of researchers at University of

Once Again, a New Meta-Analysis Shows GM Feeds Are Safe

Second Quarter Seed Law Violations


In second quarter 2012, two seed companies in Missouri and South Dakota paid a total of $3,600 to settle alleged violations of the Federal Seed Act (FSA). The alleged violations include failures to keep or provide records, presence of noxious weeds, and false germination labeling. The USDA-AMS administers the FSA with the help of state seed regulatory officials. Money paid to the USDA to settle FSA violations is returned to the U.S. Treasury and is not used to fund USDA programs or activities.

Let them eat GM feed products. (Patriot photo)

32 Third Quarter 2012

Basmati Rice
Piracy of emerging nations indigenous products resulted in 2000 legal battle
Basmati is a variety of long grain aromatic rice grown for many years in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. It is notable for its fragrance and delicate flavor. Since the mid-1900s, basmati has been used in the United States to describe long-grain aromatic rice grown domestically. In 1994, premium grain American Long grain rice. aromatic rice was being sold as Calmati brand from California and the Texmati and Kasmati brands marketed by RiceTec, Inc., Alvin, TX. This usage went unchallenged by India to the extent that RiceTecs July 1994, patent claims for new varieties of basmati rice were made under the plea of long usage provided for by trade-related intellectual property rights. RiceTecs patent approval by the U.S. Patent Office in September 1997, aroused foreign opposition heretofore unperturbed by these products.

Piracy of Indigenous Products

Indian basmati exporters challenged the RiceTec patent and described the American premium varieties as basmati imitations. They challenged the RiceTec patent application and claimed piracy of emerging nations indigenous products. According to the Indian officials, the distinct aroma and the texture of basmati comes from the Indian soil irrigated by waters from the Himalayan rivers. India urged the United States Patent and Trade Office in April 2000, to re-examine certain RiceTec claims that India felt posed a threat to Indian basmati exports to the United States. In hundreds of pages of scientific evidence, India argued that its basmati varieties already had the characteristics claimed as unique by RiceTec. India formally protested RiceTecs claim to the term basmati, and insisted that the appellation be reserved for rice grown in a specific region in India. The argument is much like the one used to limit Champagne to France and Scotch whiskey to Scotland. RiceTec subsequently withdrew 15 claims from its 1994 patent to satisfy Indias objections. RiceTecs consumer products division continues to market Texmati premium aromatic rice throughout the United States.
Response No. 331

Third Quarter 2012 33

LMC Seed Handling Equipment


Custom designed seed handling components and systems

Marcus Carter with a visitor to LMC, Inc. headquarters (right) and a LMC gravity separator installed as part of a complete LMC system.

LMC, INC. (Lewis M Carter)


Donalsonville, GA 800-332-8232 www.lmcarter.com Key Personnel
Lewis M. Carter, Jr L. Marcus Carter III Myles Mosely Buck Jones Grant Brunner

Company Profile

Industrial separation machinery for peanut, treenuts, seed and grain, beans, and other industries ranging from rubber to plastic recycling. Established 1940. Fourth generation family-owned and family-managed. Established 1940.
34 Third Quarter 2012

In 1940, Lewis Carter established his manufacturing business with a single focus: build the best equipment to shell peanuts raised by local growers in southwest Georgia and then separate the peanuts from the chaff and hulls so efficiently that cleaned nuts become candy bar ready with no further cleaning needed. The resulting LMC line of shellers, cleaners, gravity separators, conveyors, and associated equipment processes virtually all of the U.S. peanut crop, says Carter family member L. Marcus Carter III, part of the fourth generation
L. Marcus Carter III

of Carters to own and operate LMC. In addition to the U.S. market, LMC equipment processes a large portion of the worlds tree nut (walnut, almond, pistachio, and pecan) crop. At last count, Carter says LMC equipment is being used to process over 80 commodities. Industrial applications include the recycling industry where rubber, metal, and other recycled products need to be separated. All LMC equipment is manufactured in its 250,000 sq. ft. facility in Donalsonville, GA. About 40% to 50% of LMC products are exported. Major export markets include

A s s e m b l i n g a m a c h i n es s t r u c t u ra l framework. These are more than welders they are craftsmen, says President Marcus Carter.

Australia, South and Latin America, South Africa, and Canada. The market for LMC equipment has been strong. In the past year, we have added more than 40 craftsmen and support staff to our payroll. Business has grown, stretching our present manufacturing capacity. This is a good problem to have, he says.

Equipment for the Situation

LMCs manufacturing floor is much like any other metal fabrication shop brake presses, lasers, CNC machinery, robotic welders, plasma cutters, grinders, and welders along with an inventory of various sized steel plates and tubes. Missing is an inventory of readymade equipment waiting to be sold and shipped. The difference with LMC is what goes into the individualized design of each piece of equipment, Carter says. Our focus is to customize an entire processing line to meet the customers individual situation. Understanding how to apply our equipment to each customers situation is the magic here. Each piece of equipment begins as a basic design that is then individually finished to meet customer specifications. Our team of engineers and representatives make it a point to research each clients unique manufacturing and processing situation to offer custom designed recommendations and solutions,
LMC peanut processing and grading equipment being prepared for export.

he says. We provide the whole package designed together as a system,. The challenge for the production staff is that no two pieces are exactly alike although they come off the same production line. Each piece of equipment has an individual set of plans on file in the companys library of customer orders. Carter says LMCs approach is to provide equipment designed to enhance a customers ability to make the best product that meets its specific standards in the most efficient manner possible. A result of having a flexible approach to equipment design means LMC is continually making changes. My father (Lewis Carter, Jr.) says LMC means Lots of Major Change, Marcus says. Our engineers are always

figuring out changes to make a better machine. We are not just making the same piece of equipment over and over. Another advantage to having individual plans for each machine is that LMC can make a new replacement part that is an exact replica of the original. If a customers employee accidentally runs a forklift into a LMC machine, for example, engineers can call up the original plans for that machine and provide a new part without having to maintain an extensive parts inventory.

Peanut Experience

LMCs nearly 75 years of designing systems for the peanut industry is not lost on the seed and grain industry. The flow chart for a peanut shelling and cleaning facility is 10 times larger than for a seed facility, says Design Engineer Myles Mosely. Peanuts are a food item with zero-tolerance for impurities. Allowing one tiny pebble to remain in a warehouse of peanuts destined for candy could result in a devastating product liability lawsuit. We apply the same high standards to a seed or grain system as we use for peanuts, Mosely says. Joe Funk, editor

Third Quarter 2012 35

Jury: Green Owes Red $1B


Federal court finds DuPont willfully infringed Monsantos RR patents
After a four-week trial, a U.S. District Court jury in St. Louis on August 1 deliberated less than one hour before finding DuPont and DuPont Pioneer willfully infringed Monsantos patents when it stacked Roundup Ready technology and DuPonts own Optimum GAT herbicide-tolerant technology. The jury awarded Monsanto a $1billion settlement, one of the largest jury awards in U.S. patent trial history. DuPont cites fundamental errors in the case and has vowed to appeal the verdict at the earliest opportunity. This verdict represents the third time court proceedings have determined that DuPont or DuPont Pioneer has violated a trait licensing agreement with Monsanto.

Patent Misuse Trial Pending

Monsanto originally filed suit against DuPont and DuPont Pioneer in May 2009. Monsanto argued that DuPont had no right to make hundreds of lines of soybeans stacking the Roundup Ready trait with its GAT technology. DuPont countered that Monsanto deceived the government to obtain the patent, rendering it unenforceable. U.S. District Judge Richard Webber previously ruled that DuPonts adding a second glyphosate-tolerance gene to Roundup Ready crops is prohibited by its licensing agreement with Monsanto. At trial, DuPont claimed Monsanto sued only after it was shown data that the two genes work better than either GAT or Roundup Ready alone. Following the verdict, DuPont released a statement saying, DuPont believes that the evidence presented during the trial demonstrated clearly that Monsantos Roundup Ready soybean patent (RE 39,247) is invalid and unenforceable and that Monsanto intentionally deceived the United States Patent and Trademark Office on several occasions as it sought patent protection. Several aspects of Monsantos misconduct involving the contended patent will be presented to a different jury as part of DuPonts antitrust and patent misuse case against Monsanto in September 2013.
Response No. 361

36 Third Quarter 2012

Response No. 371

Bayer Greenhouse
RTP facility supports development of data packages for trait deregulation
Triangle Park, NC in July. This investment in research and people will help drive our developments in producing crops even more efficiently and sustainably, says Bayer AG Board of Management member Dr. Wolfgang Plischke. The greenhouse marks our commitment to cultivating new ideas and answers, and also reflects our continued expansion of our BioScience activities, Plischke says. Research activities in the greenhouse will include corn and soybeans trait studies, molecular breeding, and the development of data packages for trait deregulation. The BioScience center includes 30,000 sq. ft. greenhouse space, nine walk-in growth chambers, and laboratory space plus seed handling and storage areas and more than 3,500 square foot of office and meeting space. The facility was built with sustainbility in mind: 84% of the construction material is derived from recycled sources. A 70,000 gallon underground water storage tank will collect rainwater for plant irrigation and is expected to reduce consumption of potable water by approximately 700,000 gallons annually. High 20-foot ceilings allow corn to grow unhindered to its full height. Plant growth is maximized by 754 lamps that are 1,000 watts each emitting 1,000 moles of light and 21 air handlers to circulate air with carbon dioxide suppliment if needed.

A look into Bayer CropScience 30,000 sq.ft. BioScience greenhouse space in its new Research Triangle Park, NC, facility.

Bayer CropScience opened its newest research facility, a $20 mllion, three-story, 85,000 square foot facility in Research

Count On Us

OnLine or Lab

or...

Vision Based Seed Counting from a Single Image


Stafford, Texas 281.276.3600 www.satake-usa.com Email: vision@satake-usa.com

The Future of Seed Counting Has Arrived!


Response No. 381

Process Vision
Richmond, Virginia 804.514.9189 www.processvis.com Email: cal.gray@processvis.com

38 Third Quarter 2012

Response No. 391

Response No. 401

BiotechNoloGy

Genome Not Needed


Expressed genes are converted from genomic DNA to mRNA
A new technique allowing plant breeders to introduce valuable crop traits into varieties even without access to the crops full genome sequence is described in Nature Biotechnology. (July 22, 2012 doi:10.1038/ nbt.2302). The technique links important agronomic traits in crop plants with active regions of the genome. Instead of requiring knowledge of the crops complete genome, it identifies only expressed genes. For many crop plants, markers are still lacking because of the complexity of some plants genomes and the very high costs involved, says Professor Ian Bancroft, who led the study at the John Innes Centre, Norwich, England. We have succeeded in developing markers based on the sequences of expressed genes, widening the possibilities for accelerated breeding through marker assisted selection, he says. With bioinformatics techniques, it is possible to associate variation in both the sequences of expressed genes and their relative abundance in the mRNA with important traits, and then produce markers for these traits.

The high-speed, low-maintenance way to cleanly remove Optimize seed purity and performance. Say goodbye to tool bar systems that break Fast and easy installation.

Reading mRNA

Expressed genes are converted from genomic DNA to mRNA. Working with mRNA means that there is no need to generate a complete genome sequence from DNA, making the techniques applicable to a wide range of crops, even those with complex genomes such as oilseed rape and wheat. It also enables the development of advanced marker resources for less studied crops that are important for developing countries or have specific medicinal or industrial properties. In an example of such an application, the researchers are now working with plant breeding company Limagrain to produce reliable markers for hybrid performance in oilseed rape (canola). Marker-assisted breeding for this complex trait has previously been unsuccessful due to a lack of available markers and appropriate technology.

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U.S. patent #6,101,800

650 North Sycamore Street | Villa Grove, Illinois 61956

Pauls Machine & Welding

Response No. 411

Third Quarter 2012 41

A Rose By Any Other Name...


Updated database synchronizes global plant taxonomic information
A rose by any other name would smell as sweet, according to Shakespeare. But any other name might confound scientists interested in understanding the chemical components of its fragrance or discovering where its ancestors grew in the wild because in biology, an organisms taxonomic name is the key to finding information about it. Taxonomic data on the genetic, ecological, and agricultural particulars of every known plant is held in repositories scattered all over the globe in university labs, museums, private-sector corporations, and personal computers. In June, the most complete version of the Taxonomic Name Resolution Service (TNRS) was launched on the Internet to gather this diverse information into one centralized location. The TNRS database is the work of the iPlant Collaborative, a project funded by the National Science Foundation in conjunction with the Missouri Botanical Gardens and Botanical Information and Ecology Networks. TNRS resolves plant taxonomic names by passing them through a process of exact matching, parsing to break names into their component parts, and fuzzy matching for near matches. Two of the analysts are Zhenyuan Lu and Sheldon McKay of Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory, Cold Springs Harbor, NY. TNRS is a critical tool to help plant scientists integrate data from diverse sources in virtually every field of plant research, says Lu.
For more information: Taxonomic Name Resolution Service (TNRS) (www.iplantcollaborative.org/ discover/taxonomic-nameresolution-service-tnrs)

Resolving High Error Rate

It turns out that up to 30% of the names in major biological databases are incorrect in some way, according to TNRS scientists. Error rates that high greatly reduce confidence in the accuracy of science and limit the ability of the public and business to discover and utilize information about plants.

Response No. 421

42 Third Quarter 2012

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Response No. 431

Unraveling Sorghums Tannin


Understand sorghums tannin may lead to improved cold tolerance
properties, but also provide a bitter taste and decreased food and feed protein digestibility. Tannins high antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and UV-protective functions promote human health, but tannins also reduce digestibility. In sorghum they provide a natural chemical defense against bird predation and bacterial and fungal attack in the field. A team of researchers led by agronomist Jianming Yu and sorghum breeder Tesfaye Tesso, Kansas State University, Manhattan, are looking to improve sorghums use as food and feed. untangle their relationship with cold tolerance, a key agronomic trait to improve sorghum. The work is ongoing, says sorghum breeder Tesso. An earlier screening work found that a high proportion of cold tolerant sorghum lines contain tannins. Several other factors make tannins an important research subject, says Scott Bean, USDA scientist and adjunct K-State professor. Bean notes tannins antioxidant capacity and relevant health benefits, their natural occurrence in some cereal crops, and their role in sorghum production. Knowledge of tannins in biosynthesis pathways can be used to generate lines that produce high-content tannins in sorghum and other cereals to promote health through their unique nutritional properties, he says. This study, like many studies in recent years, benefits from work done several years ago on Arabidopsis, according to Yuye Wu, the first author and K-State agronomy research associate. Many genes have been identified in Arabidopsis, through the mutational approach, but there is still much to be learned about the genetic control of tannins in cereal crops, Wu says. What the researchers learn about tannins in sorghum will be beneficial to the future study of tannins in other plants, including some fruits, vegetables and a few other grains such as barley. This kind of genetic research in crops, coupled with nutritional and medical research, could open the possibility of producing different levels and combinations of phenolic compounds to promote human health, Yu says. The project was supported in part by the national Sorghum Checkoff program.
For more information: Sorghum Checkoff program, Lubbock, TX. (806-687-8727/www.sorghumcheckoff.com)
Response No. 441

Kansas sorghum field (JWF photo)

Tannins in certain sorghums can be either a blessing or a curse. They contain health-promoting antioxidant

Cold Tolerance

One key reason to study tannins is to

44 Third Quarter 2012

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Response No. 451

Response No. 461

Cotton Nematode Resistance


Wild tropical cultivars provide resistance for commercial varieties
Plant breeders have struggled for years to develop resistant cotton lines in part because cotton has a diverse and complicated genome some plants are diploid, some are tetraploid making it difficult to cross resistant landraces with commercial cultivars. Developing lines resistant to rootknot nematode has been particularly challenging because resistance is a multiRoot-knot nemgene trait. atode (USDA Finding genetic photo). markers is critical if we want cotton breeders and private companies to get involved and begin developing commercial varieties with nematode resistance, says Richard Davis, an USDA-ARS plant pathologist at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, GA. His research has taken on a sense of urgency because the widely used nematicide Temik is scheduled to be discontinued due to health and environmental concerns. Davis and colleagues have released a root-knot-nematode-resistant line for breeders to use to develop commercially acceptable materials. They have identified and transferred resistance genes from wild germplasm from Mexico and Central America into cotton cultivars and releasing the resulting lines as breeding tools. They are now hunting for additional genetic markers that will open pathways toward development of commercially viable resistant lines. What makes this release significant is that it has extremely good fiber quality, it resists the root-knot nematode, and it can grow all over the southeastern United States, Davis says. The new line provides a source of root knot resistance but is not intended as a commercial cultivar.

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Response No. 471

Third Quarter 2012 47

LegaL nOteS

Bayer-Dow Patent Lawsuit Continues


Bayers right to pursue its claims against Dow AgroSciences (DAS) based upon DASs unauthorized use of Bayer patents related to glufosinate-tolerance technology was affirmed by a federal court in July. The U.S. District Court ordered Dow to enter into arbitration with Bayer within 30 days as per a broad arbitration clause included in the license agreement between the parties. Bayers actions are in defense of its glufosinate-tolerance, 2,4-D herbicide tolerance and glyphosate-tolerance technology patents, traits DAS has stacked in its Enlist Weed Control System. in June upheld a lower courts ruling that Monsantos levy on farmers for using Roundup Ready technology is illegal, noting that the patents relating to Roundup Ready soybeans have expired in Brazil. The Court ordered Monsanto to stop collecting royalties and return those collected since 2004 or refund a minimum of US$2 billion. analysis without destroying the seed. Monsanto wants Pioneer to stop using the machine and stop selling any products developed using the chipper.

The Brazilian Supreme Court of Justice

Monsanto to Refund Fees to Brazils Farmers

Monsanto filed a lawsuit in June accusing DuPont Pioneer of patent infringement on its seed chipper technology. Monsanto holds 12 patents on the system. The system uses a laser to chip a small piece off a kernel of corn for genetic

Monsanto Sues DuPont Pioneer Over the Seed Chipper

Fifty one farmers and farming operations have joined an Arkansas rice farmer in a July lawsuit claiming RiceTec hybrid seed rice is defective and is hurting the U.S. rice industrys reputation. The lawsuit is in response to RiceTec suing an Arkansas farmer for not paying his bill after he claimed the Texas-based company didnt reimburse him for his costs after selling him inferior seed. The lawsuit claims RiceTecs hybrid rice does not mill as well as non-hybrid long-grain rice and is hurting the industrys reputation.

arkansas Sue Ricetec for Defective Seed

Response No. 481

48 Third Quarter 2012

Response No. 491

c o r p o r at E n o t E S

Seed Industry Facility Expansions


From equipment expansions to new world-class conditioning facilities, seed companies recently announced new construction worldwide valued collectively at several hundred million dollars. Agreliant Genetics, Westfield, IN, announced plans for a new corn conditioning facility near Ogden, IA, 60 miles northwest of Des Moines. Completion is scheduled for summer, 2013. Bayer CropSciences has opened a new European Wheat Breeding Center in Gatersleben, Germany. Construction is underway for a nearby 15,000-squarefoot greenhouse and laboratory facility. Dow AgroSciences LLC opened its new Olivia, MN research and development facility on July 27. At the opening, a $15,000 donation from The Dow Chemical Company Foundation was given to the local Habitat for Humanity affiliate as a way of giving back to the community. DuPont Pioneer has made a P1-billion (US$24 million) investment in a corn seed processing plant in Luisita, Tarlac. The plant began operation in March 2012. Gro Alliance, Cuba City, WI, has completed a 40% expansion of its seed corn drying capacity at its headquarters facility in Cuba City. This is Gro Alliances third major capacity expansion since last year. The company also signed an agreement in June to acquire Bo Jac Seed Companys Mt. Pulaski, IL seed corn production location. Monsanto announced in June it is planning a $329 million seed corn production facility in Cordoba, Argentina. When completed in 2013, the plant will produce seed to plant 8.6 million acres annually. With the new facility, Monsanto says Argentina will have the worlds two largest seed corn production facilities. The company is also planning new experimental facilities in Cordoba and Tucuman province. In July, Monsanto Canada held the grand opening of its expanded DEKALB canola seed processing plant in Lethbridge, Alberta. The facility has capacity to process over 10,000 acres of hybrid canola seed production. Monsanto Canadas next generation canola trait - TruFlex Roundup Ready canola - is expected to have its commer-

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Response No. 501

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Response No. 502

50 Third Quarter 2012

cial preview launch in 2014. Syngenta is in the midst of expanding its Phillips, NE, corn facility. Construction began in June and is anticipated to be completed in time for the 2013 harvest. The expansion will provide a new green corn receiving facility, additional single pass reversing dryer capacity, a new conditioning tower, and additional bulk seed storage. The added capacity will support contracting up to 5,500 additional acres of seed production.

ness will be headquartered in Wabash. McKillip Seeds was established in 1934 and Adler Seed Company launched in 1937. Monsanto and the Illinois Crop Improvement Association, Champaign, IL, in July added the stacked combination of Genuity Roundup Ready 2 Yield and Bt soybean technologies to their trait introgression services agreement. Illinois Crop Improvement Association facilitates access of these traits to licensees authorized by Monsanto.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) granted registration for two Syngenta refuge in a bag products, Agrisure Viptera 3220 E-Z Refuge trait stack and Agrisure 3122 E-Z Refuge trait stack. Both products feature a five percent blended refuge in the bag. Agrisure E-Z Refuge products will be available from Syngentas Garst, Golden Harvest and NK seed brands.

Syngenta Receives EPA Registration For Two RIB Agrisure Refuge Trait Stacks

Dow AgroSciences and The Royal Barenbrug Group in June announced a strategic relationship for the development and commercialization of advanced germplasm in forage seeds. Dow AgroSciences will be a minority shareholder in Barenbrug Holding B.V. and will provide Barenbrug access to select hybrid Brachiaria germplasm. Brachiaria Barenbrug will form a new entity in Brazil to build a cleaning, coating, and packaging facility to process hybrid Brachiaria for Dow AgroSciences and other tropical grasses and legumes. GreenLeaf Genetics LLC, a Syngenta subsidiary, Minnetonka, MN, has acquired JGL, Inc., Plymouth, IN, a soybean and wheat genetics licensing company. The addition of JGL wheat licensing compliments Syngentas wheat portfolio that is distributed through AgriPro associates. INCOTEC, Salinas, CA, has taken over all the activities and operations of Landec Ag LLC, Oxford, IN, a developer and producer of functionalized polymer coatings for the seed industry. INCOTEC will obtain exclusive license rights to market Intellicoat Pollinator Plus technology. Both companies will jointly research the development of new polymer technologies. McKillip Seeds, Wabash, IN, and AgVenture Adler Seeds, Lafayette, IN, announced in July plans to join together as AgVenture McKillip Seeds. The busi-

Acquisitions, Mergers, and Collaborations

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4. 5.

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Response No. 511

Third Quarter 2012 51

Epigenetic Inheritance
Recent research revives the concept of soft inheritance
A technique by which barley prearms its seeds with resistance to the same fungal disease experienced by the parent plants was published in June by a research team from the Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh. Professor Dale Walters reports that if parent plants are stimulated to protect themselves against fungal attack, their seeds can also be programmed with the same selfdefense mechanism which will help protect the next generation. These results raise the possibility of producing seed already primed for resistance to a pathogens [disease-causing organisms] attack, Walters says. Given the vulnerability of plants to pathogens in the early stages of growth, this kind of natural, in-built protection could be a very useful addition to our battery of crop protection methods. Walters observations add credence to the idea of soft inheritance (epigenetics) whereby heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype are caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence.

Response No. 521

Lamarckian Inheritance
Two hundred years ago, French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (17441829) published his theory that the main means by which organisms adapt and evolve is by adaptive changes in response to local environments which are then passed on to offspring. Support for Lamarckian inheritance fluctuated over the years. In 1942, an English geneticist introduced the term epigenetic to identify heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. The molecular basis for epigenetics is complex, controversial, and the subject of ongoing research including DNA methylation studies. Joe Funk, editor

Response No. 522

52 Third Quarter 2012

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Response No. 551

Response No. 561

plaNT sciENcE

Mutations for Beneficial Traits


Discovery may facilitate easier production of novel trait combinations
Meiosis is a specific type of cell division that generates gametes (sexual cells) in all living beings which reproduce sexually. Meiosis consists of two successive cell divisions after which each of the four daughter cells future gametes only contain half of the chromosomes of the parent that produced them. Just before the first division, chromosomes from each pair match up and some parts cross over. This is when fragments of genetic material can be exchanged between the chromosomes. This natural crossing-over phenomenon contributes to the recombination of genetic information and produces chromosomes that are unique from the parental chromosomes. Crossing-over also plays a mechanical role because it is essential for the correct distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. In cultivated plants, it may be interesting to exploit such genetic recombination in order to group essential traits of agronomic interest in new varieties, say Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris, France researchers focused on the mechanisms that regulate crossovers in Arabidopsis thaliana. The scientists searched for new mutations capable of restoring crossovers and fertility with the idea that this would enable them to identify the genes that limit the number of crossovers. opens promising perspectives in cultivated plants where an increase in genetic recombination during reproduction via regulation of crossovers could provide access to hitherto unknown combinations of beneficial traits.

New Enzyme Discovered

They identified FANCM, an enzyme in the helicase family which limits development of crossovers during meiosis in A. thaliana. A mutation of the gene coding for FANCM was able to restore the crossovers in zmm protein mutants. Until now, FANCM was known to intervene in DNA repair. Also in plants, only factors promoting the formation of crossovers had been discovered. The researchers report this discovery
Response No. 571

Third Quarter 2012 57

Maize Heterosis Identified


Small sRNAs are a previously overlooked source of genetic diversity
Looking at small RNAs (sRNAs), a class of double-stranded RNA molecules that are 20 to 25 nucleotides in length, a University of Illinois-Urbana researcher thinks his team has discovered a new source of heterosis in maize. Scientists have debated the source of hybrid vigor since the early 1900s. We thought that maybe its the rest of the genome, the remaining 85% of the corn genome, thats important, says Steve Moose, an associate professor of maize functional genomics. Researchers studying virus resistance originally observed in 1998 the way sRNAs function is very different from the functioning of protein-coding genes. Every time we have a breakthrough in our knowledge of genetics, people have looked to see if that breakthrough brings any insight into the mystery of the hybrid vigor, says Moose. Thats what weve done with the small RNAs.

A Deluge of Data

Moose and his graduate student Wes Barber sampled small RNAs from the seedling shoot and the developing ear of maize hybrids two tissues that grow rapidly and program growth. They found that differences are due mainly to hybrids inheriting distinct small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), a subset of sRNAs, from each parent. The siRNAs interfere with gene expression. They also found that hybridization does not create new siRNAs, but hybrids have a more complex siRNA population than their parents because they inherit distinct siRNAs from both parents. Moreover, the differences in parental siRNAs originated primarily from repeats, which are the result of retrotransposon activity. Retrotransposons are elements that move around and amplify themselves within a genome. We are not saying that genes are unimportant, says Moose. But probably the way corn properties are altered in the hybrid situation is mediated by the small RNAs in addition to the genes. When you think about what small RNAs do, they participate in regulating growth and they tell other genes what to do, Moose concludes.
Response No. 581

58 Third Quarter 2012

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Response No. 591

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Bench-Top DNA Sequencing


Lower cost and faster technology move DNA sequencing to the front-line
It has been only a few years ago that the cost and time needed to sequence a plant genome had fallen to hundreds of thousands of dollars for a run lasting no more than a week or two. That cost is more than pocket change for most of us, but far removed from the $2.7 billion and 13 years needed to sequence the three billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA. The cost and time for sequencing a

Illumina MiSeq bench-top sequencer.

genome continues to fall. Research carried out by scientists at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, have found that new benchtop machines for sequencing DNA are capable of accurately identifying over 95% of a genome in a day or two at a cost measured in thousands not millions of dollars. Over the last five years, there have been dramatic improvements in the speed, ease, and cost of determining DNA sequences, thanks to a range of new technologies that fall under the umbrella term high-throughput sequencing or next-generation sequencing, says University of Birmingham School of Biosciences Professor Mark Pallen. The Birmingham scientist compared the performance of three new bench-top instruments in genome-sequencing a strain of Escherichia coli bacteria. While none of the bench-top sequencing instruments generated a completely accurate, joined-up, finished genome, all three recovered more than 95% of the strains genome. The researchers say the study shows that whole genome sequencing with bench top technology can now be used in the front line.
Response No. 601

60 Third Quarter 2012

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Postharvest Gas Fumigant


Dow AgroSciences LLC | 800-352-6776 | Indianapolis, IN | www.profume.com
ProFume gas fumigant (sulfuryl fluoride), a Dow AgroSciences product, has been registered since 2004 as a broad-spectrum post-harvest fumigant. ProFume controls all insect life stages of insects and eliminates insect resistance concerns. Low label rates handle rodent clean-outs. ProFume can be used in all areas of seed processing facilities. Because it is non-corrosive, the fumigant can be used without removing electrical or sensitive computerized equipment, says Ellen Thoms, Ph.D., Dow AgroSciences technical expert for sulfuryl fluoride. Faster fumigations are possible compared to using phosphine. Chamber fumigations can be completed in 12 hours or less. Precision Fumigation Tools and Techniques, a ProFume exclusive, includes a computerized application to create custom fumigation plans, measure fumigation progress in real time to ensure control, and provide reports to document the fumigation.

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Response No. 621 See ad on p. 19

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Response No. 622 Response No. 623

62 Third Quarter 2012

No New Allergens in GM Corn


An international team finds no evidence of altered allergenicity
This article is taken from Characterization of maize allergens MON810 vs. its non-transgenic counterpart published in Journal of Proteomics volume 75: issue7, April 3, 2012 pp.2027-2037. An international team led by Ctia Fonsecaa, National Institute of Health, Lisboa, Portugal used quantitative real time RT-PCR to evaluate the expression of five naturally occurring allergens in maize to determine if the presence of an inserted gene for insect resistance affected the expression of allergens. In other words, would an independent analysis of Bt corn (MON810) determine whether or not transgenic grain presented an increased risk to hu-

significant differences.
Research team leaderCtia Fonsecaa, National Institute of Health Lisboa, Portugal

We found no statistically

man health. One of the main concerns about genetically modified foods and their potential impacts on human health is that the introduction of a new or altered gene may putatively alter the expression of other genes, namely endogenous al-

lergens, says Fonsecaa Tests were performed during three stages of seed development of MON 810 (DKC6575) maize and its nontransgenic isoline at 10, 16, and 23 days after pollination (DAP). Lateral flow test strips were used to evaluate the presence or absence of Bt CryIA(b)protein in all samples. The scientists also used proteomics techniques to compare the immunologic response in two people to have allergenic reactions to non-GM maize.

Measuring Maize Allergens

Relative expression of five known maize allergens Zea m14, Zeam25, Zeam27kD, 50kD Zein, and tryp-

Response No. 631

Third Quarter 2012 63

Quantitative real time RT-PCR relative expression results for four allergens during seed development.10 d=10 days after pollination; 16 d=16 days after pollination; 23 d=23 days after pollination; C=non-GM control; GM=MON810.

Response No. 641

Response No. 642

64 Third Quarter 2012

GM vs. non-GM plants.

Conclusion

The published report concludes, We found no statistically significant differences in the expression of the five tested maize allergens (Zeam14, Zea m25, Zeam27kD, 50kD Zein, and trypsin inhibitor) throughout seed development of MON 810 transgenic vs. its non-transgenic counterpart. Considering the small number of allergic subjects tested (two) and the impossibility to correlate the differences found in the immunoreactivity assays with spots in the corresponding gels, the team could not draw conclusions regarding the differential allergenicity of the two maize lines (transgenic vs. non-transgenic).
Quantitative real time RT-PCR relative expression results. (continued)

sin inhibitor was achieved using standard, commercially available laboratory protocols.

Observations

The results of relative expressions obtained throughout seed development for the five allergens tested are presented here and on the previous page. One of the conclusions we can retrieve from this data is that gene expression varies between replicas, Fonsecaa says. The fact that at this developmental stage, starch reserves are reaching the maximum may have contributed to the observed variability. Additionally, the eventual presence of other non-nucleic acid compounds may have also interfered with RNA purification and qRT-PCR. These conditions together with the natural plant variability may have negatively impacted replicate reproducibility, Fonsecaa reports. As previously recommended, plant natural variability should be always considered in any food safety assessment. Another clear observation was that gene expression was not constant during seed development. Three of the tested genes Zea m27, Zea m50, and trypsin inhibitor were almost not expressed 10 DAP. Their expression increased throughout later seed development. Zea m14, although slightly expressed 10 DAP, also increased during seed development. On the contrary, Zea m25 expression seemed to be relatively stable along all the analyzed time points. For the five tested genes, no statistical difference (p<0.05 in t-test) was found in expression levels when comparing

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Response No. 651

Third Quarter 2012 65

Bt Cottons Disputed Success


Competing interests debate the success of Bt cotton in India
Are Indias farmers better off for planting bollworm resistant Bt cotton? The answers depend on who is doing the counting and which standards are used to measure success. Private firms involved in marketing GM cotton say farmers have reaped substantial profits from the crop. In contrast, several nongovernmental organizations and farmers groups continue to denounce GM technology as an over-hyped and unsuitable practice that is ruthlessly promoted by multinational firms. Caught between these two viewpoints are those who do not contest the reports of financial profit, but caution against the hidden fallout of this technology, such as the loss of local cotton diversity and farming skills in growing traditional cotton varieties, as well the technologys limitations in rain-fed areas with few fertilizer inputs. Researchers from the University of Gttingen, Germany surveyed 533 smallholder farm households between 2002 and 2008. Their report published in July estimates a 24% increase in cotton yields and a 50% rise in profits for farmers who grew GM cotton. As a result, household living standards improved by 18%. On the other hand, another 2012 report by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI),Washington DC, accepted that GM cotton increased cotton yields, but adds that human labor, pesticides, and especially the use of irrigation, are also found to have had significant effects. IFPRI cautions against the hidden fallout of Bt cotton, such as the loss of local cotton diversity and farming skills in growing traditional cotton varieties.

Moving Forward

The Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) in Nagpur, India suggests the best way forward is a mix of strategies, ranging from use of Indian varieties especially the neglected long-staple native varieties to organically grown cotton, dwarf, and compact varieties, and GM cotton with genes to withstand droughts, water-logging and insects.

Response No. 661

Response No. 662

66 Third Quarter 2012

Response No. 671

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Lower UK Opposition to GM
Men more favorable than women toward GM crop experiments
Public opinion within the United Kingdom appears to be shifting in favor of the development of GM crops, according to a ComRes survey for The Independent published in late July. Asked whether the government should encourage experiments on GM crops so that farmers can reduce the amount of pesticides they use, 64% of the public agreed and 27% disagreed. Nine percent replied dont know. There was a significant gender gap, with women more cautious about the trials than men. While 70% of men believe that such experiments should be encouraged, only 58% of women agree. However, there were few differences by age, social class, or parts of the country. Liberal Democrat ministers believe many of their party members might be hostile to a big push on GM foods. But there is little sign of widespread opposition among party supporters, whose views are in line with Conservative and Labour voters. The overall findings are a boost to scientists who hope a more softly, softly approach to the development of GM crops in Britain will gradually win over a sceptical public. Anti-GM protestors have sabotaged crop trials in Britain in recent years by digging up fields. A peaceful demonstration was held in May at the Rothamsted Research Institute

Rothamsted Research Institute aphidresistant GM wheat trial.

in Hertfordshire, where GM wheat is being grown. No GM crops are grown commercially in Britain.

Response No. 691

Response No. 692

Third Quarter 2012 69

Export Impasse Looms


More GM soybean traits on a collision course with slow EU approvals
Slow European Union approval of GM soybeans poses a growing threat to international trade as the pace of new trait development accelerates, says American Soybean Association President Steve Wellman. The potential for market disruption is going to increase, he says, adding that it takes around four years to get EU approval compared with about two years in the United States and Brazil. Wellman says U.S. growers have generally avoided planting GM soybean varieties not yet approved for import by the European Union. One exception is soybeans that have been modified to have a high oleic content, a trait for which seed companies have been seeking EU approval for about five years. These soybeans are now in their second U.S. growing season. We are possibly not going to be able to maintain our (waiting for EU approval before growing elsewhere), Wellman says, adding that some private companies might not even seek EU approval for specialized traits because the process is so slow. Such a decision would raise the possibility of export disruptions if the unapproved varieties make their way into the soybean export channel. The EU has agreed to allow traces of unapproved GM material in animal feed imports but only if the crops are approved in a non-EU producing country and an EU authorization request has been lodged for at least three months. In the United States, 96% of the soybean crop is GM. Virtually all of the soybean crop in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay and approximately 90% of Brazils crop is GM. According to International Grains Councils 2012/13 forecast, these countries supply 95% of global soybean exports. Andrew Watts, commenting on behalf of Britains National Farmers Union, told Reuters in early July that he does not anticipate a change in the EUs approval process in the near future. Things arent difficult enough yet for there to be the political will to get a resolution, he says.

Response No. 701

Response No. 702

70 Third Quarter 2012

How Plants Cool It


Plants elongate stems to cool their leaves
Plants elongate their stems when grown at high temperature to facilitate the cooling of their leaves, according to new research from the University of Bristol in Bristol, England. Although scientists have made significant advances in understanding how plants elongate at high temperature, little is known of the physiological consequences of this response. To investigate these consequences, researchers studied thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). When grown at higher temperatures, plants have an elongated, spindly architecture and develop fewer leaf pores, known as stomata. However, in spite of having a reduced number of stomata, the elongated plants

lationship between temperature, plant architecture, and water use is essential for maximizing future crop production.
Dr. Kerry Franklin, Bristol University

Understanding the re-

displayed greater water loss and leaf evaporative cooling. The researchers suggest that the increased spacing of leaves observed in high temperature-grown plants may promote the diffusion of water vapor from stomata, thereby enhancing the cooling process. Temperature and water availability are major factors affecting plant yield, say Dr. Kerry Franklin and Professor Alistair Hetherington at Bristols School of Biological Sciences. Understanding the relationship between temperature, plant architecture, and water use is therefore essential for maximizing future crop production and ensuring food security in a changing climate.

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Response No. 711 Response No. 712

Third Quarter 2012 71

GM Crops in the environMent

insects Coexist with Bt Corn


Insect communities not influenced by Bt corn
For three summers in a row, Eva Schultheis and her team at RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, caught insects in corn trial fields and then identified the insect species to determine whether insect communities found in Bt corn differ from those in conventional corn. In a January, 2012 interview by Germanys Federal Ministry of Education and Research and published on the agencys GMO safety web site, Schultheis describes her teams research. GMO Safety: The Bt corn in question produces three Bt proteins which target the European corn borer and the Western corn rootworm. In your research you concentrated on particular insects. Which ones were they? Eva Schultheis: We concentrated on groups of organisms that come into contact with the Bt protein from the Bt corn, i.e. ones that feed on the plants or ones that prey on the organisms that feed on the plants and therefore ingest the proteins indirectly. We wanted to see whether these insects are adversely affected by Bt corn. What field methods did you use ? We caught the organisms in the corn field over a period of around 10 weeks in each growing season from 2008 to 2010. To trap organisms in the herbaceous layer we took samples using the net on three occasions in the year. The second technique involved sticky boards. The third technique involved shake samples. We shook the male inflorescences and caught the insects that were between the anthers and the pollen. the next. This is important if you want to define an ecological base line, for instance if you want to develop a monitoring system for approved Bt corn. Of course, differences between the years depend on the weather. We also show that different farming methods have an impact, e.g. field irrigation.

In the laboratory you foWhat did you discover? cused on a specific species In conclusion, we can say a mirid bug that you selected that we were unable to detect as a model organism. What a Bt effect. In other words, we makes this particular mirid found no evidence that cultivabug a good model organism? tion of the Bt corn variety had Our pet mirid bug (TrigoMirid bug an impact. notylus caelestialium) is inter( Trigonotylus But we did discover a range esting because it ingests the Bt caelestialium) of other effects. We identified a proteins from the plants. It is varietal effect. For many of the also very abundant in the field. groups of organisms there was a The bugs are easy to catch, difference, even at species level, in one of simple to identify, and you can keep and our conventional control varieties. That breed them in the laboratory. What is one was always a bit different someparticularly interesting is that this mirid times the results were higher, sometimes bug is found almost all over the world. lower than the others. In addition, we demonstrated that You built up your own breeding prothere were differences from one year to gram with this species of mirid bug

Response No. 721

72 Third Quarter 2012

and conducted various laboratory tests. What were you investigating in these laboratory tests? First of all we caught mirid bugs in the field and brought them into the laboratory. The first step then was to establish a method of breeding them on corn. We were successful and managed to breed up to four generations per year. In a second step we conducted a full-life-cycle test. We documented the development of the bugs from egg laying to hatching and nymphal development to adult insect and egg laying again, on the four corn varieties we were studying. We also conducted various feeding trials. For instance, we observed whether there are differences in feeding behavior between varieties. To do this, we measured the area eaten by a bug each day. Then we kept the bugs on Bt corn for a while and then transferred them to conventional corn to see whether the Bt proteins in the bug stay there and accumulate or whether they are excreted again. That would be important in the food chain, if the insects were accumulating large quantities of Bt proteins.

that cultivation of the Bt corn variety had an impact.


Eva Schultheis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

We found no evidence

gated a number of different factors and we can say that there are differences between the different varieties. This is visible in the nymphal development time, for instance. There is no clear effect caused by the Bt variety. Rather, the Bt variety always behaves in a very similar way to the near-isogenic variety, whereas there are differences between these and the control varieties. You also investigated whether the Bt proteins remain active once they have been ingested by the insects. We wanted to know whether the Bt proteins ingested by the insects play a role in the food web. This is why we took a bioassay that had been established here in the laboratory and adapted it to the target organism, the European corn borer. We then concentrated extracts from our mirid bugs and fed them to corn borer larvae. We were able to demonstrate that 17% of the corn borer larvae we used in the test died as a result. So we can say that the proteins are bioactive.

And did you notice any abnormalities? We did not observe any differences in the feeding experiments that investigated feeding quantities. In the feeding trials where we started by keeping the bugs on Bt corn and then moved them to conventional corn we were able to see that the Bt proteins had completely disappeared from the bugs after six hours, so we can assume that there is no accumulation of Bt proteins in the bugs that could have impacts on the food web. In the full-life-cycle test, we investi-

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Response No. 731 Response No. 732

Third Quarter 2012 73

C o M M e n TA ry

The Cost of Anti-GM Zealotry


This article taken from the London Telegraph, May 23, 2012 by Professor Malcolm Elliott, founding director of the Norman Borlaug Institute for Global Food Security at Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, England. Paul Ehrlich in 1969 wrote in his book Population Bomb that mass starvation due to burgeoning population growth was inevitable. It is now too late to take action to avoid hundreds of millions of deaths in developing countries, he declared, more than 40 years ago. That Ehrlich was wrong, both morally and factually, was largely due to the efforts of one man. Norman Borlaug was as concerned about population growth as Ehrlich, but instead of making doomladen prophecies about mass death, he decided that the best course of action to stop people starving would be to help them produce more food. Now famous as the father of the Green Revolution, Borlaug has been credited with saving the lives of one billion people. During the period from 1996 to 2011, millions of farmers in 29 countries worldwide chose to plant and replant an accumulated acreage of 5.9 billion acres [of GM crops] a testimony to the fact that such crops deliver sustainable and substantial socioeconomic and A Harder Task Awaits environmental benefits. We must heed Borlaugs Malcolm Elliott Progress has not been plea to deploy the full smooth. Borlaug was forced range of cutting-edge to spend his dying years campaigning to techniques to produce higher yielding, protect agricultural innovations like GM higher quality, lower input, lower envifrom being derailed by activists who ronmental impact crops. opposed all genetic engineering for ideoAmong the techniques that Borlaug logical reasons, or were simply against highlighted are gene manipulation apmodern biotechnology on principle. proaches that promise to deliver results As Borlaug warned in 2004, success faster and more precisely than the clasfor the anti-GM lobby could be catasical crop breeding techniques.

Protest Thwarted
Scientists near London, England at Rothamsted Research one of the worlds oldest plant research centers turned public opinion against anti-GM activists and are continuing their open-air evaluation of aphid-resistant GM wheat. Since the GM spring wheat was planted in 2012, Rothamsted has been the target of a sustained anti-GM media campaign, a protest, vandalism, and even a cyber attack. During a protest in May, a group threatened to destroy the crop. It warned that if the trial was allowed to continue, the pollen from the GM wheat would fertilize conventional crops in the area making it impossible to keep GM wheat from entering the food chain. In the days before a scheduled protest in May, Rothamsted researchers launched their own media campaign to counter what they saw as the myths perpetrated by anti-GM groups. They called on the campaigners to refrain from destroying the GM crop, which they say represents a paradigm shift in GM technology. Most of the opinions I saw expressed from the general public were in favor of the scientists, says Mark Lynas, an environmentalist-turned-GM-advocate. The debate was framed not in the sense of are you pro or anti-GM, which might have had a different answer, but are you pro or anti destroying scientific research. And people are not in favor of destroying scientific experiments before the results can be yielded.
Response No. 741

74 Third Quarter 2012

Can a small, thuggish

action group take a unilateral decision to suppress the advance of knowledge which might benefit everyone?
Professor Malcolm Elliott, founding director of the Norman Borlaug Institute for Global Food Security strophic: If the naysayers do manage to stop agricultural biotechnology, they might actually precipitate the famines and the crisis of global biodiversity they have been predicting for nearly 40 years. This warning seems particularly prescient right now, as anti-GM activists threaten to destroy publicly-funded research on wheat at the Rothamsted
We d

Institute here in the United Kingdom. A group called Take the Flour Back has pledged to destroy the entire trial site. The threatened decontamination by anti-GM zealots is supposedly in response to the danger of pollen from the wheat spreading to neighboring fields. The activists seem to be laboring under the misunderstanding that wheat is wind pollinated, whereas in fact it is self-pollinating, so little if any pollen ever leaves the plant. This sadly testifies to the extent of their understanding of agriculture. It is important to understand what the scientists at Rothamsted are trying to do. Their experiments test the important ecological concept that natural behavior modifying pheromones which repel sap-sucking aphids can be used to protect crops in the same way as they protect wild plants. The project is publicly-funded and, if it is successful, the results will not be patented. Indeed, if successful the trial runs counter to the interests of the agrochemical industry because it may point the way to another type of plant protec-

tion which reduces insecticide use and the effects on non-target insects, and thereby benefit both biodiversity and productivity at the same time. However, the activists seem impervious to scientific reasoning.

Ideologically Motivated Minority

Still, constant attacks by a tiny, ideologically motivated minority on work which could benefit the whole of humanity raise serious questions. Can a small, thuggish action group take a unilateral decision to suppress the advance of knowledge which might benefit everyone? If so, they will continue wilfully to deprive farmers of the benefits of a technology that is already cherished by millions of producers worldwide, and limit the response of distinguished scientists to the needs of the billion people who are already starving. This attack on both scientists and the scientific method cannot go unopposed. It is incumbent upon everyone who values science and reason to stand up to vandalism and the destruction of legitimate scientific experiments.

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Response No. 751 Response No. 752

Third Quarter 2012 75

Global biotechnoloGy notes

nigeria needs biotech crops


The Chairman of Nigerias Senate Committee on Capital Market, Senator Ayoade Ademola Adeseun, says that biotechnology presents Nigeria the opportunity of attaining food security for the nation. Adeseun spoke at a June 2012 South West Zonal Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology in Ibadan, Nigeria. He lamented the dearth of young and virile farmers who will employ biotechnology to boost agricultural production. It is only wise for us to take advantage of the new development in science and technology that will make it possible for a man to produce more food. Nigeria can feed the rest of African countries with biotechnology, if we pool our resources together; if we accept this new technology, one farmer can feed 40 people instead of one farmer feeding his family alone. In the next five years, Adeseun anticipates Nigeria can be feeding the rest of the world, not only Africa. It is only wise for us to take advantage of the new development in science and technology tor General of National Biotechnology Development Agency, says, We need a biosafety law in place, because when we have a law, we will be able to deploy this new technology to our farmers; but at the stage which we are now, we can only do confined field trials. We cannot do even multi-locational trial, not to talk of commercialization. This is a sad aspect for those of us wanting to develop biotechnology, he says.

that will make it possible for a man to produce more food. Nigeria can feed the rest of African countries with biotechnology. Professor Bamidele Solomon, Direc-

Japan

Zambia

nuclear Rice
Scientists at the Riken Nishina Centre for Accelerator-Based Science in Saitama, Japan, are using a particle accelerator to bombard rice with heavy ions in hopes of producing useful genetic mutations to create salt-tolerant plants. Using carbon atoms stripped of their electrons produces between 10 and 100 times more mutations as traditional irradiation. Of 600 seeds that underwent irradiation, 250 thrived and produced healthy seeds. Next, 50 grains from each of the successful plants will be planted and evaluated in salt-water fields. The best resulting plants will be selected for crossbreeding to concentrate desirable mutations into reproducible lines with new varieties. About a third of the worlds rice paddies have salt problems where yields may be only half of fresh water yields.

orange Maize
The HarvestPlus Campaign is hoping to develop orange maize varieties containing provitamin A carotenoids to reduce childhood morbidity in Zambia. The orange maize not only provides vital nutrients, it is also tasty and especially appealing to children because of its distinctive color.

israel

Pharma carrots
On May 1, 2012, the U.S. FDA granted approval for ELELYSO, an enzyme produced by GM carrots for long-term enzyme replacement therapy to treat a form of Gaucher disease, a rare human genetic disorder. This is the first USDA approval of a drug produced in GM plant cells. The new treatment is expected to be 25% less costly than existing enzymes produced in mammalian cell cultures. Protalix BioTherapeutics Inc., Carmiel, Israel, developed the method to create the human enzyme in carrots. ELELYSO is manufactured and distributed by Pfizer Inc., under license from Protalix.
76 Third Quarter 2012

Pakistan

ht, bt corn
Two multinational companies have completed the field trials in Pakistan in compliance with government regulations, and have submitted applications seeking approval for GM corn varieties. Zeeshan Mazhar reports in Palistans Business Recorder that Gm corn has the capability to significantly reduce the losses caused by certain chewing insect pests and weeds which in turn result in higher production. Pakistani farmers are eagerly looking forward to the commercialization of GM corn because they know that it can help them in increasing yields, Mazhar says.

Worldwide

ht Weeds
Worldwide, there are currently 21 weed species resistant to glyphosate compared to 69 weed species resistant to triazine herbicides such as atrazine.

Ireland

China

GM Potatoes
Irelands Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in late July gave the goahead for a GM late blight-resistant potato to be field tested. Opponents have a three month window to lodge a judicial review of the license. Five acres will be planted over four years to assess how the GM potatoes cope with less fungicidal spray. Blight-resistant GM potatoes have been tested in the Netherlands with no unforeseen effects. Tests are also being carried out in Belgium and the United Kingdom. Some scientists consider late blight, a very common disease in Ireland, to be the most dangerous potato disease in the world because of how rapidly it can spread when conditions are warm and moist.

Developing New GM Crops


Over the past five years, research into GM crops has become a pillar of Chinas agricultural reform strategy. Government investment in the technology has increased steadily, and more and more multinationals are investing in their own research facilities, rushing to establish a foothold in a huge potential market. Its important that we are an active participant in China, says Andrew McConville, head of corporate affairs for the Asia Pacific region for Syngenta. But while scientists and government leaders have advocated for the technology, the adoption of GM crops for commercial cultivation has been hindered by growing popular concern over their safety. There is a deal of public tension, notes McConville. I think the government is making sure the safety and regulatory regimes are in place for adoption -- and they are trying to make sure that consumers are brought along on the journey. China is also using crop biotechnology in a very significant way with very large resources compared to other countries. They are looking to develop their own home-grown technology, says Clive James, founder of the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA). They have a program to increase the baking quality of wheat; theyve also got a program to look at a gene that will control the sprouting of grain, James says.

Response No. 771

Third Quarter 2012 77

PERSPECTIVES ON SEED BIOTECHNOLOGY

Nigerias Sure Way


I think in this case the feeling among a group of people campaigning very strongly against GM is that they are so very right and the scientists so very wrong that the only explanation for the GM wheat research going ahead and finding support is that there is a powerful conspiracy. Tracey Brown, Sense About Science.org, on the GM debate between Take the Flour Back and Rothamsted Research (June 1, 2012) It is only wise for us to take advantage of the new development in science and technology that will make it possible for a man to produce more food. Nigeria can feed the rest of African countries with biotechnology, if we pool our resources together; if we accept this new technology, one farmer can feed 40 people instead of one farmer feeding his family alone. And in the next five years, Nigeria can be feeding the rest of the world, not only Africa. A country that is so endowed with land, water and people, but yet we dont produce our own food. He concluded that the only way to open that door for our people is through biotechnology. Chairman of Nigerias Senate Committee on Capital Market, Senator Ayoade Ademola Adeseun at the June 2012, South West Zonal Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology in Ibadan, Nigeria.

2032 Wheat
Twenty tons per hectare ought to be an average wheat yield in England in 20 years. Under current conditions, with the germplasm that already exists, fields are getting 10 t/ha. Already, in New Zealand, trials have reached 15 t/ha, so were not far off. It may take some more changes, including improvement of genetics, plant protection, increased photosynthesis, plant architecture, root structure and therefore the improvement of nutritional capabilities. It will also be things you dont see; the root mass and how it reacts with the soil to extract nutrients in an efficient manner, increasing the growing season by six to eight weeks. If you put these things together, 20 t/ha is not a ridiculous aspiration. Dr. Maurice Moloney, Director and Chief Executive, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England

Italian Plea
Without research and innovation in agriculture Italian farming is going to disappear. Italian farms must be able to compete in the global market. A letter by 200 scientists and farmers to Italian President Napolitano and Prime Minister Monti

..the Union of Concerned Scientists (USC) asserts that a hallmark of misrepresenting science is emphasizing unknowns while simultaneously ignoring what is known. Yet this seems to be precisely the strategy that the UCS pursues in its campaign against biotech crops. Ronald Bailey Reason.com (blog June 14, 2012)

What A Waste
In reviewing the past decade of apocalyptic predictions related to all foods genetically engineered, I can only conclude, what a massive waste of well-meaning time, energy and money that could have been instead devoted to fewer people sick from microbial foodborne illness. Whatever kinds of food production, processing and distribution system we humans come up with, what matters is not the technology, but whether the results make people sick. Theres lots of food-related things that sicken 30% of all citizens in developed countries each and every year genetically engineered food isnt one of them. Dr. Doug Powell, Professor of Food Safety Kansas State University, Manhattan

Still Safe
Its fine to hope that groups traditionally opposed to GMO crops will understand and appreciate the outputs generated by transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, TAL-induced variations. [TALs remove a small stretch of DNA from a genome to achieve a desired phynotypic response.] However, 20 years of experience has shown that such hope is totally unjustified. The protest industry will never voluntarily go out of business. Theres far too much money to be made, and political power to be gained. Why indeed should crops with deletions not be considered GMOs? Call them crippled crops or something and ask for donations. If the money flows, theyre GMOs. Eric Baumholer BioFortified.com (May 17, 2012)

78 Third Quarter 2012

Response No. 791

USDA / APHIS

Field Test Permit Applications


Second Quarter 2012 APHIS permit applications to field test regulated plants
The U.S. agencies responsible for regulating biotechnology are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Within USDA, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulations provide procedures for institutions to obtain a permit or for providing notification, prior to introducing a regulated article in the United States. The following table summarizes the institutions making permit applications for each crop. Also presented is a summary of the traits included in all applications for each crop. An institution must obtain an APHIS permit prior to releasing (planting) a regulated organism into the environment. APHIS permits require the holder to follow a set of strict biosanitary procedures. Having obtained a permit, however, does not obligate an institution to release the specified organism. A list of all permit applications for field release of regulated plants including additional information is available at www.isb.vt.edu/search-release-data.aspx.

Phenotype Category Key

AP - Agronomic properties BR - Bacterial resistance FR - Fungal resistance GC - Genetic containment HT - Herbicide tolerance IR - Insect resistance MG - Marker gene NR - Nematode resistance OO - Other PQ - Product quality VR - Virus resistance

Summary of Field Testing Permit Applications Submitted to APHIS During Second Quarter 2012
Crop

Participating Institution
University of Georgia

Phenotypes Being Evaluated


FR-Chestnut Blight Resistant FR-Phytophthora Resistant OO-Altered Flowering Time AP-Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency Increased FR-Fusarium Head Blight Resistance PQ-Amylopectin-Free Starch AP-Altered Endosperm Development AP-Altered Kernel Development AP-Altered Lignin Biosynthesis AP-Altered Maturity AP-Altered Nitrogen Metabolism AP-Altered Plant Development AP-Altered Plant Hormone Response AP-Altered Stalk Attributes AP-Cold Tolerant AP-Drought Tolerant AP-Enhanced Beta Carotene Levels In Endosperm AP-Improved Stress Tolerance AP-Increased Yield AP-Increased Yield Stability AP-Iron Biofortification In Endosperm

American Chestnut

Arabidopsis Thaliana Brown University Barley Corn Arcadia Biosciences USDA-ARS Agrivida Inc BASF Plant Science Bayer CropScience Biogemma Biogemma Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Dow AgroSciences LLC DuPont Pioneer Florida State University Forage Genetics International Genective S.A. Iowa State University Monsanto Montana State University Pennsylvania State University

80 Third Quarter 2012

Crop

Participating Institutions
Plant Gene Expression Center Rutgers University Southern Illinois University Syngenta University of Florida University of Illinois University of Missouri University of Rhode Island University of Wisconsin USDA-ARS

Phenotypes Being Evaluated


AP-Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency Increase AP-Photosynthesis Enhanced AP-Yield Enhancement AP-Yield Increased FR-Aspergillus Flavus Resistant HT-Als Inhibitor Tolerant HT-Glufosinate Tolerant HT-Glyphosate Tolerant HT-Imidazolinone Tolerant HT-Phosphinothricin Tolerant IR-Coleopteran Resistant IR-Lepidopteran Resistant MG-Anthocyanin Produced In Seed MG-Bialophos Resistance MG-Colored Sectors In Seeds MG-Seed Color Altered OO-Altered Auxin Transport OO-Altered Inflorescence Architecture OO-Anthocyanin Levels Decreased OO-Anthocyanin Levels Increased OO-Delayed Shoot Maturation OO-Fusion Protein For DNA Tethering OO-Gene Expression Altered OO-Increased Transformation Frequency OO-Method Development OO-Protein Epitope Tagging OO-Silenced Chromatin Remodeling Complex OO-Silenced DNA Methyltransferase OO-Silenced DNA Repair Protein OO-Silenced Endonuclease Protein OO-Silenced Enhancer RNA Methyltransferase OO-Silenced Histone Deacetylase OO-Silenced Histone Methyltransferase Protein OO-Silenced Lignin Biosynthesis Protein OO-Silenced Nucleosome Assembly Factor OO-Silenced Polymerase Protein OO-Silenced Protein Involved In Flowering Time OO-Silenced Regulatory Protein OO-Silenced Transcription Factor Regulating Pigment PQ-Altered Amino Acid Composition PQ-Digestibility Improved PQ-Dry Matter Content Increased PQ-Fatty Acid Level Altered PQ-Improved Seed Composition PQ-Improved Seed Fiber Quality PQ-Normal Pollen Transmission PQ-Protein Quality Altered PQ-Seed Protein Content Increase PQ-Starch Metabolism Altered AP-Adventious Root Formation Increased AP-Branching Increased AP-Cold Tolerance Increased AP-Drought Tolerance Increased AP-Flower And Fruit Set Increased AP-Flowering Time Altered AP-Longer Stems AP-Photosynthesis Enhanced FR-Alternaria Alternata Resistant FR-Fusarium Resistant

Corn (continued)

Small-scall maize production in South Africa.

Cotton

Bayer CropScience Dow AgroSciences LLC Monsanto Texas A&M University Texas Tech University USDA-ARS

Third Quarter 2012 81

Crop

Participating Institutions

Phenotypes Being Evaluated


FR-Rhizoctonia Solani Resistant FR-Verticillium Dahliae Resistant HT-Dicamba Tolerant HT-Glufosinate Tolerant IR-Hemiptera Resistance PQ-Fiber Quality Altered PQ-Seed-Gossypol Reduced

Cotton (continued)

Eucalyptus Hybrid Loblolly Pine

ArborGen ArborGen

AP-Cold Tolerance Increased AP-Growth Rate Altered BR-Kanamycin Resistant HT-Glufosinate Tolerant HT-Phosphinothricin Tolerant IR-General Insect Resistance MG-Basta Resistance MG-Gus Expression MG-Hygromycin Resistant MG-Luciferase OO-Kanamycin Resistance OO-Light Response Altered

Mouse-Ear Thale Cress University of Wyoming

Nicotiana Sylvestris Canola

North Carolina State University MG-Kanamycin Resistant OO-Modified Leaf Surface Chemistry Arcadia Biosciences BASF Plant Science Monsanto AP-Drought Tolerance Increased AP-Yield Increased HT-Dicamba Tolerant HT-Glyphosate Tolerant HT-Imidazole Tolerant HT-Imidazolinone Tolerant PQ-Improved Seed Composition AP-Drought Tolerance Increased FR-Fungal Resistance PQ-High Folate AP-Drought Tolerance OO-Non-Isoprene Emitting OO-Reduced Stature AP-Cold/Drought Tolerance AP-Increased Tuber Set FR-Phytophthora Resistant IR-Colorado Potato Beetle Resistant IR-Potato Tuberworm Resistant MG-Kanamycin Resistant OO-Increased Yield OO-Vacuolar Invertase Gene Level Decreased PQ-Alkaloids Reduced PQ-Carbohydrate Metabolism Altered PQ-Carotenoid Content Altered PQ-Increased Tuber Set PQ-Processing Characteristics Altered PQ-Vitamin C Content Increased VR-Potato Y Potyvirus Resistant AP-Drought Tolerance Increased AP-Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency Increased AP-Salt Tolerance Increased BR-Bacterial Leaf Blight Resistant MG-Hygromycin Resistant OO-Cell Wall Altered

Peanut Petunia Poplar Potato

Ngategen Inc USDA-ARS Virginia Tech Thenell & Associates LLC Oregon State University University of Wisconsin J. R. Simplot Company Michigan State University USDA-ARS

Rice Arcadia Biosciences

Ceres Inc University of California/Davis

82 Third Quarter 2012

Crop

Participating Institutions
Arcadia Biosciences Arcadia Biosciences BASF Plant Science Bayer CropScience Danforth Plant Science Center Dow AgroSciences LLC DuPont Pioneer Iowa State University M.S. Technologies LLC Monsanto Montana State University Ohio State University Southern Illinois University Syngenta University of Georgia University of Illinois University of Kentucky University of Nebraska USDA-ARS

Phenotypes Being Evaluated


MG-Phosphinothricin Tolerant PQ-Oil Profile Altered AP-Drought Tolerant AP-Increased Triacylglycerol AP-Increased Yield AP-Iron Stress Tolerant FR-Fusarium Resistant FR-Rust Resistant HT-Als Inhibitor Tolerant HT-Dicamba Tolerant HT-Glufonisate Tolerant HT-Glyphosate Tolerant HT-Imidazolinone Tolerant HT-Isoxazole Tolerant HT-Phosphinothricin Tolerant IR-Lepidopteran Resistant MG-Hygromycin Resistant NR-Nematode Resistant NR-Soybean Cyst Nematode Resistant PQ-Altered Amino Acid Composition PQ-Altered Oil Composition PQ-Carotene Levels Increased/Omega-3 Fatty Acids Stac PQ-Carotenoid Content Altered PQ-Fatty Acid Level Increased PQ-Oil Quality Altered PQ-Omega-3 Fatty Acids Produced PQ-Seed Oil Content Increased PQ-Storage Protein Altered VR-Alfalfa Mosaic Virus Resistant AP-Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency Increase MG-Kanamycin Resistant MG-Red Color MG-Red Fluorescent Protein OO-Anthocyanin Levels Increased OO-Modified Leaf Nitrate OO-Mofidied Alkaloid Content OO-Selective Male Sterility OO-Terpene Accumulation PQ-Altered Oil Profile PQ-Anthocyanins Increased PQ-Modified Alkaloid Profile FR-Botrytis Cinerea Resistant PQ-Fruit Color Altered PQ-Fruit Firmness Increased PQ-Fruit Pectin Esterase Level Decreased PQ-Fruit Pg Expressed PQ-Fruit Polygalacturonase Level Decreased PQ-Fruit Ripening Altered PQ-Fruit Softening Enhanced AP-Altered Kernel Development AP-Drought Tolerance Increased AP-Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency Increased AP-Yield Increased FR-Fusarium Head Blight Resistant MG-Kanamycin Resistant OO-Salicylic Acid Level Reduced

Safflower Soybean

Sugarbeet Tobacco

Betaseed Inc Altria Client Services Inc LBD Coffee North Carolina State University TytonBiosciences LLC University of Kentucky University of Tennessee

Tomato

Purdue University University of California

Wheat

Arcadia Biosciences Biogemma Monsanto University of Minnesota University of North Texas

Technical modifications including MG-Selectable Marker, MG-Visual Marker, and OO-Recombinase are not included.

Third Quarter 2012 83

BAGS/CONTAINERS

Buckhorn Inc.
CenterFlowTM Seed Box 800-543-4454
Buckhorns

CenterFlow seed box is the most efficient bulk container available to safely handle, transport and dispense seed. It provides a safer work environment and eliminates the need for flexible bulk bags. CenterFlows unique design features a smooth, sloped interior and center discharge port that allows safe emptying of contents up to 2,500 lbs. of seed in as quickly as 30 seconds. Buckhorn is a leading provider of reusable plastic bulk boxes, hand-held containers and pallets ideally-suited for harvesting, processing packing, transporting and retailing all types of food.
Response No. 841 www.buckhorninc.com/centerflow See ad on p. 37

Lawgix International
Bulk Bags, Multiwall Paper and Wov. Poly Bags 866-289-5558

New and reconditioned bulk bags (single and multi-use). Plastic SlipTray pallets and Ex-Pallets (alternatives to wood). Thread, crepe tape, sewing machines, and heat sealers. Small woven poly bags 25 lbs. to 100 lbs. sizes, stock plain, and custom printing/graphic design available. BOPP and Paper On Poly laminated bags.
Response No. 842 www.lawgixintl.com See ad on p. 31

DETASSELERS

Hagie Manufacturing Co.


204SP Detasseler 800-247- 4885 Customizable for varied row configurations. Hagies LS Tasseltrol automatically adjusts the height of the detasseling head to take a set amount of the corn plants top. Exceptional visibility from operators seat. Automatic steering option provides precision row alignment. Quick coupler allows for easy changeover from cutter to puller. 65 years of history behind our proven technology.
Response No. 843 www.hagie.com See ad on p. 11

HARVESTERS

Oxbo International Corporation


Oxbo 50 Series Corn Heads 800-628-6196 Consistently deliver more seed, less trash, and higher productivity. Exclusive Soft TouchTM technology cuts ears off cleaner, and removes them gently. Reduces ear shelling, conveys more efficiently, and operates quieter.

Response No. 844 www.oxbocorp.com See ad on p. 27

84 Third Quarter 2012

Chantland-MHS
Model 4260 Bulk Bag Filler 515-332-4045

Basic to automatic designs available. Modular components allow fitting to any system configuration. Base frame capacity of 4,000 lbs. Rates exceeding (45) 2,000 lb. bags per hour. Pallet dispenser, pallet squaring, and transfer conveyors. Experiencequalityperformancesince 1943.
Response No. 851 www.chantland.com See ad on p. 36

PACKAGING EQUIPMENT

Columbia/Okura LLC
Robotic Overlap Bag Stacking 360-735-1952

Requires less floor space than conventional palletizers. Stacks loose-filled bags in overlapping patterns enhancing load stability. No load crowning, can stack palletized loads three or four loads high for efficient use of warehouse space. Easy to program stacking patterns with Windows-based software. Can easily stack up to 50 kg./110 lb. bags. Capable of speeds up to 28 bags per minute.
Response No. 852 www.columbiaokura.com See ad on p. 69

Hamer, LLC

Model RPM Low Cost Robot Bag Palletizing 800-927-4674 Up to 20 bags per minute. Small foot print takes less plant space. Simple programming for multiple stacking patterns. Can be used with hand or automated bagging lines. Low cost, fast delivery, fast ROI. Wide variety of designs available.
Response No. 853 www.hamerinc.com See ad on p. 33

Taylor Products
Automatic Bagging System 888-882-9567

Designed for free flowing materials. Fully automatic operation. Packages 20-110 lbs (10-50 kg). Accommodates paper, poly woven (coated or laminated) of varying sizes. Capacity up to 1200 bags per hour. Total Bag Top control at all times.
Response No. 854 www.taylorproducts.com See ad on p. 25 Third Quarter 2012

85

SEED TENDERS

Meridian Manufacturing Group


Bulk Seed Seed ExpressTM Seed TitanTM 800-437-2334 The most complete line of bulk seed tenders available. Fill faster and protect your seed with Meridians cleated belt. Various scales options available. The longest running seed tender in America.
Response No. 861 www.meridianmfg.com See ad on p. 43

TRANSPORTATION

Fullen Transportation Services, Inc.


Domestic and Export Shipments 800-826-2010 Since 1986, we have been developing relationships with our shippers and carriers to provide a high level of service. Highly trained staff to cover all your customer service needs. Extensive background checks of carriers to ensure prompt and professional service. Specializing in van, flatbed and hopper bottom freight.

Response No. 862 www.fullentrans.com See ad on p. 70

86

Third Quarter 2012

EDITORS CHOICE

Additional Photos

Hows It Made p.34


Main assembly area LMC, Inc., Donalsonville, GA.

RiceTec, Inc. p.12


(right) Pneumatic conveyor tubes (with green anti-abrasion elbows) at the RiceTec hybrid rice seed production facility, Eagle Lake, TX.

Case Study p.16


(left) Platform scale used to check weight of seed boxes that supply refuge seed to the RIB packaging.

Gaylord National Resort & Convention Center, National Harbor, MD. Site of the ASTAs 129th Annual Convention June 20 - 23, 2012.

Indiana corn shown sever drought stress in July 2012. (Purdue University photo)

Third Quarter 2012

Ad Index
Advanta U.S. Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 AGRA Industries, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . .68 AGRI-associates Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Agrihouse Brands Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . .62 Agronomix Software Inc. . . . . . . . . .21 American Seed Trade Assn. . . . . . . .56 Anchor Paper Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Applewood Seed Co. . . . . . . . . . . . .30 ArrowCorp Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Atlantic Seed Association . . . . . . . .63 Hagie Manufacturing Co. . . . . . . . . . 11 Hamer, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Hutchinson/Mayrath . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Q-Sage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Gamet Manufacturing, Inc.. . . . . . . .73 Gateway Building Systems . . . . . . .50 Farm Chem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Ferrell-Ross Roll Manufacturing Co. .71 Fullen Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Packing & Palletizing Co. . . . . . . . . .72 Pauls Machine and Welding . . . . . . 41 Prairie Engineering Inc. . . . . . . . . . .58 Process Vision LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Profile Industries Inc. . . . . . . . . . . .40 Oliver Manufacturing Co. . . . . . . . . .15 Oxbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

BASF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54, 55 Becker Underwood Inc. . . . . . . . . . 107 Bestprotek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 BioDiagnostics Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Bratney Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Buckhorn Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Buhler Sortex Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

ICIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 IL Crop Improvement . . . . . . . . Insert Illinois Foundation Seed. . . . . . . . . .42 Independent Professional Seed Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Iowa State Seed Laboratory . . . . . . .30

Rapat Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 RBH Mill & Elevator. . . . . . . . . . . . .67

Satake USA Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Sensient Colors Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . .45 SGS Brookings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Spear Envelope Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

Jiuquan OK Seed Machinery Co., Ltd. . Central Software Solutions Inc. . . . .64 Chantland-MHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Clipper Separation Technologies . . . .66 Columbia/Okura LLC . . . . . . . . . . . .69 CompuWeigh Corporation . . . . . . . . .46 Crippen Northland Superior Supply. .31 Crustbuster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Curtis & Curtis Seed Inc. . . . . . . . . .71 Lawgix International . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Lundell Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 K-F Seeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Krauter Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 KSi Conveyors Inc.. . . . . . . . . . .48, 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

Summit Seed Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Taylor Products div. Magnum Sys. . .25 The Weitz Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Tom-Cin Metals Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .74

USC LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

Valent U.S.A. Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

Dow AgroSciences LLC . . . . . . . . . .19

Maljohn Co.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Meridian Manufacturing . . . . . . . . .43

Walinga Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69

Ernst Conservation Seed . . . . . . . . .66 Eurofins STA Laboratories . . . . . . . .24 OMara Ag Services Inc. . . . . . . . . .57

106 Third Quarter 2012

InnovatIve SolutIonS. SuPeRIoR PeRfoRmance.


Advanced high-value genetics, seed-applied protection products and the pressure of increased marketplace competition require effective, innovative and individualized seed enhancement solutions to deliver superior seed performance. Becker Underwood is the global leader in developing innovative and customized solutions to handling, colorant, appearance, dust control, plantability and performance challenges for seed companies worldwide. Our new all-in-one products lead the industry in the delivery of one-application colorants, polymers and biologicals. And our new Seed Technology Center lets us collaborate even closer with customers in the development of individualized solutions. Were inventing the future to meet the needs of an ever-changing global seed industry. Call us about developing an innovative solution for your seed-enhancement needs.

1.800.892.2013 beckerunderwood.com
801 Dayton Avenue P.O. Box 667 Ames, IA 50010

Dust Control Appearance Flowability Plantability Performance


Response No. 1071
The Becker Underwood logo is a registered trademark of Becker Underwood, Inc., Ames, IA. 2011 Becker Underwood, Inc.

Response No. 1081

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