You are on page 1of 8

JuDEKO Koncrpyacarse

MaIIIHHa
Jurnal ofMechanical
Engineering Design
Vo1.6 No 1,2003.
pp 1- 40
I HayqHlI pa,LJ;
KAPAKTEPIICTIIKE KPETAIbA rIIIIKIIX
IIOJIY)KHIIX QETBOPOYrJIOBA 3A PEAJIII3AIJ;IIJY
IIPABOJIIIHIIJCKOrBOnEIbA
MOTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMPLIANT
FOUR-BAR LINKAGES FOR RECTILINEAR GUIDING
Nenad T. Pavlovic, Nenad D. Pavlovic
Fnnxa MexaHII3MII cy 1l0KpeTJMIBII aaxsarsyjyha penarasnoj enaCTIl'IHOCTII CBOjllX srnofioaa. Pa,LJ; ce 6aBII HeKIlM
KpYTo1J:naHlIM 1l0JIYlKHlIM 1J:eTBOpoymoBllMa II lbllXOBIlM eKBIIBaJIeHTHIlM rlIlIKIlM xonnjaaa, KO,LJ; xojax Il3BeCHa
Ta1J:Ka cnojxe MO:>Ke 6IITII npasonaaajcxa soheaa, Y pazry lie 61lT1I aHaJIII31lpaHa Ta1J:HOCT npaaorraaajcsor Boljelba
rHIIKIlX MexaHll3aMa na noxeparsy O,LJ; 5 mm II yrropeheaa ca rasnourhy Boljelba eKBIIBaJIeHTHIlX KpYT01J:JIaHlIX
MeXaHll3aMa. Billie onpeheae OITTIIMaJIHe ,L(IlMeH3lIje rHIIKllX MeXaHII3aMa ca acnexra Ta1J:HOCTII Boljelba II
MaKCllMaJIHlIX Bpe,LJ;HOCTII narronaaa casajarse.
Compliant mechanisms gain their mobility due to the relative flexibility oftheir joints. The paper deals with some
rigid-body four-bar linkages and their equivalent compliant counterparts, which a coupler point is capable to be
rectilinearly guided The rectilinear guiding accuracy ofthe compliant mechanisms on the displacement of 5 mm
will be analyzed and compared with the guiding accuracy of the equivalent rigid-body mechanism. The optimal
dimensions of the compliant mechanisms will be determined regarding guidingaccuracy and maximal values of
bending stresses.
1. YBOA
[1lIIKIl MeXaHll3MII cy IIOKpeTJbIIBII saxsarsyjyha
penarnaaoj enaCTIl'IHOCTIl CBOj IlX 3m06oBa [1].
Kopamhea,e ranxax MeXaHIl3aMa ,LJ;OHOCII MHore
rrpe,L(HOCTII. Je,L(Ha O,LJ; TIlX npenaocra CBaKaKO ne:>K1I y
TOMe ll1TO ce MeXaHll3aM MO:>Ke aanpasara Il3 jenaor
KOMa,LJ;a aKO ce rrpoasnene on noronnor MaTeplIjaJIa. To
He CaMO nrro nojenaocrasrsyje 1I3pa,LJ;y MeXaHll3Ma, Ben
-raKolje MO:>Ke CMalblITII Te:>KHHY II eJIllMIIHIlCaTII
xaoaa,e, 3a30p, rperse, 6yKY II norpefiy sa
IIO,I(Ma3IIBalbeM. C npyre crpane, nojasa IIoTeHIUijaJIHe
eaepraje y enaCTIl'IHlIM cersrearaxa II lbllXOBe
nenaaeapae ,LJ;e<l>opMaIUije 1J:IIHe aHaJIII3Y OBIlX
MeXaHll3aMa KOMIIJIIlKOBaHOM. [IIIIKIl MeXaHIl3MII MOry
,LJ;a peanasyjy CaMO MaJIa noxeparsa II OBa 1J:lIlbeHlllla
raxohe npencraarsa lbllXOB nenocrarax.
Pa,LJ; ce 6aBII 06nlIKOBalbeM II ra-rsomhy nohea,a HeKIlX
rHIIKIlX IIOJIYlKHIlX 1J:eTBOpoymoBa.
1. Introduction
Compliant mechanisms gain some or all of their
mobility from the relative flexibility of their joints [1].
There are many advantages of using compliant
mechanisms. One such advantage is that a mechanism
can be built in one piece, if manufactured from an
extrudable or injection-moldablematerial. This not only
simplifies manufacturing but can also reduce weight and
eliminate wear, clearance, friction, noise and need for
lubrication. On the other hand, energy storage in the
flexible members and nonlinearities introduced by large
deflection of flexing members complicate the analysis.
The compliant mechanisms can realize only small
displacements and it is also their disadvantage.
The paper deals with the design and guiding accuracy of
some compliant four-bar linkages.
20
Anpece ayropa (Contact addresses):
dr Nenad T. Pavlovic, Masinski fakultet Nis, A. Medvedeva 14, 18000 Nis, pnenad@masfak.ni.ac.yu
Prof dr Nenad D. Pavlovic, Masinski fakultet Nis, A. Medvedeva 14, 18000 Nii, pavlovic@masfakni.ac.yu
2. KpyTOqJIaHH nOJlYiKHH xeraopoyrnoea
sa npaao.naaajcxo noherse
Taxxa cnojxe Hoecken-osor (cJI.Ia), Roberts-
qe6bIIlleB-JheBOr (cJI.l6), Watt-osor (CJI.I n) HEvans-
osor (CJI Ln) nonyscaor xeraopoyrna MO)Ke 6HTH
sohena no npH6JIIDKHO npaBOJIHHHjcKoj rryrarsa [2].
Bohena TaqKa ce HaJIa3H na xpajy cnojxe (KO,n
Hoecken-osor H Evans-osor nonyzcaor xersopoyrna),
y TeMeHY cnojxe y 06JIHK)' repaapaor xnaaa (KO,n
Roberts- qe6blIlleB-JheBOr nOJIY)KHor seraopoyrna),
O,nHOCHO y cpezrann cnojxe (KO,n Watt-osor nOJIY)KHor
xeraopoyrna).
Y Ta6eJIH 1 cy nare Jl:Y)KHHe qJIaHOBa OBHX
MexaHH3aMa, xao HnOJIO)KajH xpasaje, xojasra ce MO)Ke
peaJIH30BaTH XOpH30HTaJIHO nouepaa,e AXe = 5mm,
MaJIHM yraonaa rroxreparsexr xpnsaje (L1q> ~ 5) H
MHHHMaJIHHM oncrynaa.ea OCTBapeHe nyrarse y
oztaocyaa npasy JIHHHjy AYe [5,13].
2. Rigid-body four-bar linkages for
rectilinear guiding
The coupler point C of the Hoecken (Fig. la), Roberts-
qe6bIIlleB (Fig. lb), Watt (Fig. lc) and Evans (Fig.
1d) four-bar linkage can be guided on an approximate
rectilinear path [2]. The coupler point is located at the
end of the coupler (Hoecken, Evans four-bar linkage),
in the comer of the coupler as a ternary link (Roberts-
qe6bIIlleB four-bar linkage) and in the middle of the
coupler (Watt four-bar linkage).
The link lengths of these mechanisms, as well as the
positions of the input crank, that enable realizing of
horizontal displacement of AXe = 5mm, with the small
angular displacement of the input crank (L1q> ~ 5) and
minimal difference between realized and exact
rectilinear path AYe, have been shown in Table 1 [5,13].
6)
U;) ,n)
CJIHKa 1. KpYToqJIaHH IIOJIY)KHH xeraopoyrnoaa sa peamrsauajy npaBOJIHHHjcKor aohen,a
a) Hoecken-os; 6) Roberts - qe6bIIlleB-JheB; n) Watt-oa; ,n) Evans-on
Figure 1. Rigid-bodyfour-bar linkages for rectilinear guiding
a) Hoecken; b) Roberts - lfe6blUle8; c) Watt; d) Evans
Ta6eJIa 1. ):t!)KHHe 'lJIaHOBa KpYT0'lJIaHHX IIOJIY)KHHX qeTBOpoymoBa aa peanasanajy npasonanajcxor sohena
Table 1 The link lengths ofthe rigid-bodyfour-bar linkages for rectilinear guiding
-n
a=AoA b =BoB c=AB d = AoB
o
AC
AYe
[}.lm]
Hoecken 177 42.195mm 2.5a 2.5a 2a 5a 3.3
Roberts 35 66.585mm a 0.85a 2.44a 1.l05a 0.8
Watt 311 61.406mm a 1.04a 2.1a 0.52a 1.8
Evans 80 60mm 5.75a a 6.09a a 1.6
21
3. Tamca nOJIyiKHu xernopoyrnoea aa
peanasamrjy npaaonaaajcxor nohersa
Y pazry heMo ce 6aBHTH amlJIH30M rHnKHX MexaHH3aMa
xoje CMO <pOPMllpaJIH xao aaanorae xonaje nperxonao
nOMeHYTHX xpyro-maaax nonyaorax seraopoyrnosa.
Ha cnHUH 2 npHKa3aHH cy HeKH Oil MHornTBa
ofinaxa eJIaCTHtIHHX arnofiosa [5]: srnof y
o6nHKY urrana (en, 2a), srnofi y 06nHKY <pRnMa (en. 26)
Hsrnof y 06nHKY sapesa (cn.Zn).
3. Compliant four-bar linkages for
rectilinear guiding
We have dealt with the compliant counterparts of the
above mentioned rigid-body four-bar linkages. Figure 2
shows some of plenty of different shapes of the
compliant joints [5]: beam joint (Fig. 2.a), film joint
(Fig. 2.b) and notch joints (Fig. 2.c).

CnHKa 2. srnotiona: a) y 06nHKY nrrana; y o6nHKY <pHJIMa; U) y 06JIHKY aapesa
Figure 2. The compliant: a) beamjoints; b) film joints; c) notch joints
Ilpezraocr srnofioaa y 06JIHKy nrrana (en.
2a) je lbHXOB jenaocrasaa 06JIHK. I'anxa MeXaHH3aM ca
3rno6oBHMa y o6nHKY nrrana BeOMa MHoro aa
CBOjy. xpyrosnany xonajy. MefjyrHM, aspana rHllKHX
MeXaHH3aMa ca srnotioaaaa y 06nHKY nrrana je BeOMa
cnoxeaa. C npyre crpaae, rHITKH MeXaHH3MH ca
3rno6oBHMa y o6nHKY <pHJIMa H sapeaa MOry 6HTH
aspaheaa H3 jenner KOMaila. sraof y
o6JIHKY <pHJIMa je nOTIIyHo ozrpehea ca TpH napaxerpa
(rnRpHHOM penaraaao xpyrax cerueaara WR, mapaaox
peJIaTHBHO enacrnxaax cersreaara WE H )J)')l(HHOM
enacrasnax ceraeaara I), ilOK je arnof y
o6JIHKY sapesa rrornyao onpehen ca nsa napaxerpa (WR
H WE)' 360r rora CMO sa narsy aHaJIH3Y H3a6paJIH
srnofiose y 06JIHKY aapesa. ace CHMeTpHje
srnofia y o6nHKY sapesa cexy ce Y
xoja onrosapa 06pTHOM srnofiy aHaJIOrHHX
xpyroanaaax MeXaHH3aMa.
Ha cnHIJ;H 3 npHKa3aHH cy ranxa Hoecken-os (cJI.3a),
Roberts-Hetismtea-rsea (cn.36), Watt-on (CJI.3.il)
nOJIY)l(HH seraopoyrao ca 3rno6oBHMa y o6JIHKY
sapesa, Iloroncxa cana F
s
nenyje na cpezraaa
"xpaaaje'', y TatIKH S. Ca Fe je 03HatIeHa TeXHOJIOrnKa,
ornopaa cana, tIHje nejcrso ce cynporcraarsa nejcrsy
noroncxe cane.
22
The advantage of the compliant beam joints (Fig. 2a) is
their simplicity. A compliant mechanism with beam
joints resembles very much its rigid-body counterpart.
However, manufacturing of the compliant mechanism
with the beam joints is very complicate. On the other
hand, compliant mechanisms with film and notch joints
can be made in one piece. A film joint has been fully
determined with three parameters (the width of
relatively rigid segments WR, the width of relatively
elastic segments WE and the length of the elastic
segments I), while a notch joint has been fully
determined with two parameters (WR and WE)' Therefore
the compliant notch joints have been chosen for further
analysis. The symmetry axes of the notch joints cross
each other at the point corresponding to revolute joint of
the rigid-body counterpart.
Figure 3 shows the compliant counterparts of Hoecken
(Fig. 3a), Roberts- Qe6blweB (Fig. 3b), Watt (Fig. 3c)
and Evans (Fig. 3d) four-bar linkages with notch joints.
The input force Fs acts in the middle of the "input
crank", at the point S. The technological force resisting
the motion has been denoted with Fe.
a)
c F
c
6)
B
B
The calculation of the "coupler" point displacement and
maximal bending stresses have been performed using
ANSYS Software for material piacryl [4] (modulus of
elasticity E = 3700 N/mm
2
and bending strength abs =
90 N/mm
2
) , for material thickness of 0= 4mm. The
calculation has been performed for the elements with
rectangular cross-sectional area using Two-dimensional-
eight-node Structural Solid [5] as a characteristic
ANSYS element type. The results of the displacement
and stress analysis have been shown in Table 2.
Hoecken, Roberts-Hetisnnea and Watt compliant
mechanism produce the best guiding accuracy (minimal
difference between realized and exact rectilinear path
Ayc) for great values of rigidity ratio wR/wE. Evans
compliant mechanism produces the best guiding
accuracy for smaller value of rigidity ratio wR/wE.
u) ,lI;)
Crraxa 3. [HIIKH nonyacaa xeraopoyrnoaa sa peanasanajy npaBOJIHHHjcKor Bofjelha
a) Hoecken-os; 6) Roberts-Hefisnuea-rsea; n) Watt-os; ,lI;) Evans-ov
Figure 3. Compliant four-bar linkages for rectilinear guiding
a) Hoecken; b) Roberts -lle6",lUe6; c) Watt; d) Evans
3.1 Ilonepaa,e Ta'1Ke cnojxe MMaKCHMaJIHH HanOHH 3.1 Displacement of Coupler Point and Maximal
canajaisa Bending Stresses
Ilpopaxya noxepaaa ra-nee "cnojxe" C M
MaKCMMaJIHMX aanona casajaaa M3BpmeH je Y3 nosroh
nporpasrcxor naxera ANSYS sa MaTepMjaJI piacryl [4]
(MO)J;)'JI eJIaCTMllHOCTM E = 3700 N/mm
2
M casojaa
xapcroha abs = 90 N/mm
2
) , aa ,lI;e6JI,MHY MaTepMjaJIa on
o = 4mm. Ilpopaxya je M3BpmeH sa eJIeMeHTe
npaaoyraonor nonpesnor npecexa, xopacreha
,L(BO,ll;MMeH3MOHaJIHO CTpYKTYPHO TeJIO ca 8 llBopoBa [5]
xao KapaKTepMCTM'lHH TMTI ANSYS-eJIeMeHTa.
Pe3YJITaTM noxepaaa MHanOHCKe aHaJIM3e npMKaJaHM
cy y Ta6eJIM 2. Hoecken-os, Roberts-Hetisnnen-rsea M
Watt-on rMnKM MeXaHH3aM pearrasyjy Haj60JI,y TallHOCT
soheaa (HajMalhe oncrynarse OCTBapeHe y O,ll;HOCY aa
rasay npaBOJIMHHjCKY nyrarsy Ayc) sa BeJIMKe
Bpe,ll;HOCTM O,ll;HOCa KPYTOCTM wR/wE. Evans-os rMIIKH
MeXaHM3aM peanasyje Haj60JI,y TallHOCT Bofjelha sa
HeIIITO Malhe Bpe,ll;HOCTM O,ll;HOCa KpYTOCTM wR/wE.
Ta6.2. Oncrynarse peaJIM30BaHe on npaBOJIMHMjcKe nyran,e rMnKMX MexaHH3aMa sa npaBOJIMHMjcKo soheae (Axc=5mm)
Table 2. Guiding inaccuracy ofthe compliant four-bar linkages for rectilinear guiding ( AXe = 5 mm)
WR WE Ayc am
[mm] [mm] [11m] [N/mm2]
Hoecken 10 0.75 18.5 58.46
Roberts 10 0.75 8.1 57.53
Watt 10 0.75 3.1 85.99
Evans 6 1 0.26 78.46 23
3.2 Koel(>HUHjeHT xopucuor )J,ejCTBa
Ynaaaa pan MOiKe na ce )J,e<pHHMllIe nouohy noroacxe
CHJIe (cHJIe xoja nenyje aa noroncxa -maa) Hrroxepatsa
nananne rasxe re CHJIe. l'I3JIa3HM pan MOiKe na ce
)J,e<pHHHIIIe rroxrohy CHJIe aa BoijeHoM qJIaHY (CHJIe xoja
ce cynporcraarsa xperan.y, ornopae CHJIe) Hrroaepaa,a
TaqKe cnojxe xoja je rrpaBOJIHHHjCKH soheaa.
Koe<pHUHjeHT xopacaor zrejcrsa MOiKe na ce aspaayaa
xao O)J,HOC H3JIa3HOr HYJIa3HOr pana [8, 11]:
(1)
rzre cy:
11 - Koe<pHUHjeHT xopacaor nejcrsa,
Fs - noroncxa CHJIa (cHJIa xoja nenyje aa rrorOHCKH
'IJIaH),
Ss- noxepaa.e nananae TaqKe noroacxe CHJIe,
Fe - CHJIa aa BoijeHoM xnaay (cHJIa xoja nenyje y TaqKH
C H cynporcraarsa ce xperarsy),
se - noaepaa,e npaBOJIHHHjCKH soheae rasxe C.
M3BpIIIeHa je aHaJIH3a Koel(>HIJ;HjeHTa xopncaor nejcrsa
aa rHIIKe MeXaHM3Me ca OIITHMaJIHHM )J,HMeH3HjaMa y
norneny TaqHOCTH soheaa (Ta6eJIa 2). Bpe)J,HOCTH
Koe<pHIJ;HjeHTa xopacnor nejcrsa, MaKCHMaJIHHX
nanoaa caaajaa,a, xao H Ta'IHOCTH Boijelba, xana y
TaqKH C ztenyje CHJIa xoja ce cyrrporcraarsa xperarsy,
npaxasaaa cy y Ta6eJIH 3.
Ha OCHOBy pesynrara H3 Ta6eJIe 3 MOiKeMO H3ByhH
cnenehe 3aK.1J>yqKe:
Ta'IHocT Boljelba orrana ca rroaehaaeu CHJIe xoja
ce cynporcrasrsa xperarsy. M3yJeTaK rrpencraarsa
Watt-on rHIIKH MeXaHH3aM: aexe Bpe)J,HOCTH
OTIIOpHe cHJIe xosmeaaapajy HeTa'IHOCT sohersa,
MaKcHMaJIHM HarrOHM casajaaa pacry ca
nosehaaea ornopae CHJIe.
Koel(>HUHjeHT xopacaor nejcrsa pacre ca
noaeharsea ornopae CIDIe. M3Y3eTaK npencraarsa
Hoecken OB rHIIKH MeXaHH3aM sa Fe > 2N, jep
nacrajy BeJIHKa nosrepaa,a nananae Ta'IKe
rrorOHCKeCHJIe Ss; TO rrpoyspoxyje CMaIbelbe 11
npeaa peJIaIJ;HjH (1).
I'anxa MeXaHM3MH ca BoljeHoM Ta'IKOM xoja ce
HaJIa3H na xpajy cnojxe nacy norozraa sa
peanasanajy npaBOJIHHHjcKor soheaa, sana )J,enyje
CHJIa xoja ce cynporcraarsa xperaay, 360r MaJIe
TaqHOCTH soheaa (Hoecken-os rnIIKH
MexaHH3aM), O)J,HOCHO MaJIHX Bpe)J,HOCTH OTrropHe
CHJIe xoje MOry )J,a H3)J,piKe (Evans-on rHIIKH
MeXaHH3aM).
24
3.2 Mechanical Efficiency
The work performed at the input can be determined by
input force (force acting on input link) and the
displacement of the point acted by input force. The
work performed at the output can be determined by
output force (force resisting the motion, resisting force)
and the displacement of the coupler point that should be
rectilinearly guided. The mechanical efficiency can be
calculated as the ratio of the work performed at the
output and the work performed at the input [8, 11]:
(1)
where:
11 - mechanical efficiency,
F
s
- input force (force acting on input link),
Ss - the displacement of the acting point of the input
force,
Fe - output force (force acting on the point C and
resisting the motion),
Se - the displacement of the rectilinearly guided.
The analysis of the mechanical efficiency have been
performed for the compliant mechanisms with optimal
dimensions with regards to accuracy of guiding (Table
2). The values of mechanical efficiency, maximal
bending stresses, as well as guiding inaccuracy, in the
case of acting of the force resisting the motion at the
point C, have been shown in Table 3.
On the basis ofthe results in Table 3 we can conclude:
Guiding accuracy decreases with increasing of the
resisting force. An exception is Watt compliant
mechanism: some values of resisting force
compensate guiding inaccuracy.
Maximal bending stresses increase with increasing
ofthe resisting force.
Mechanical efficiency increases with increasing of
the resisting force. An exception is Hoecken
compliant mechanism for Fe > 2N because of
appearing great displacement of the acting point of
the input force Ss; it causes decreasing of 11
according to (1).
Compliant mechanisms with guided point located
at the end of the coupler are not suitable for
rectilinear guiding, in the case of acting of the
force resisting the motion, because of small
guiding accuracy (Hoecken compliant
mechanism), that is, the small values of the
resisting force that they can stand (Evans
compliant mechanism).
Ta6erra3. Koedrannjear xopncaor nejcrsa mIIKI1X IIorrY)KHI1X xeraopoyrnoaa aa peanasanajy npasonaaajcxor
sohersa
Table 3. Mechanical efficiency of the compliant four-bar linkages for rectilinear guiding
Fe F
s 11
Cf
max AYe
[N] [N] [%] [N/mm
2
] [urn]
0 1.453 - 58.5 18.5
=
0.5 2.824 44.9 60.7 158
~ 1 4.1897 58.6 62.7 298
u
Q,l
2 6.92 66.5 67.0 576 0
== 5 15.08 64.32 79.5 1407
10 28.57 53.96 100.7 2773
0 3.71 - 57.5 8.1
'"
0.5 6.14 35.67 57.9 10.1
-
'"'
Q,l
1 8.57 50.11 58.3 12.0 ..c
0
~ 2 13.42 61.71 58.9 15.8
5 28.06 66.47 61.1 26.7
0 2.70
-
85.3 3.10
0.5 3.64 25.07 85.9 2.85
-
1 4.56 39.93 85.9 2.55
-
~
:;
2 6.43 56.39 86.0 2.0
5 12.02 74.35 86.0 0.36
10 21.35 81.93 86.0 2.2
0 4.92
- 78.46 0.26
'" 0.2 5.77 12.2 79.07 9.32
=
~
;;-
0.4 6.62 20.8 79.62 15.2
~
0.6 7.47 27.0 80.17 18.7
3.3 CJIO)KeHe cTpYKTYpe rHnKHX MexaHH3aMa
Y narsy IIo6oJbIIIaIha TalJHOCTH BotjeIha epOPMHpaJIM
CMO CnO)KeHe cTpYKTYPe rHIIKI1X MexaHM3aMa [5,10].
)];O)];aJIH CMO nocrojehesr eneaearapaoa rHIIKOM
MeXa.HH3MY jom jenaa MCTM TaKaB MeXaHH3aM, TaKO na
jenan .D.PyrOM npezrcrasrsajy rrHK y ornezrany (crrA).
OBM eneuetrrapaa MeXaHH3MM MOry 6HTH:
KpyTO IIOBe3aHH y soheao] TatIKH C [5,10];
IIOBe3aHH IIOMOliy HOBoYBe.D.eHOr enaCTHtIHOr
3rn06a (cn.4a); oce CHMeTpMje TOr arnofia cexy ce
y soheaoj TalJKH C;
IIOBe3aHH IIOMOliy HOBoYBe)];eHOr 1JJIaHa ca naa
enacnraaa srnofia, KojHMa ce HOBoyBe)];eHH 1JJIaH
rrosesyje ca cnojxaaa (en, 46); oce CHMeTpMje Tor
1JJIaHa cexy ce Ysoheao] TalJKM C.
CnO)KeHM rHIIKH MeXaHH3aM noxpehy nse CHMynTaHe
IIorOHCKe CMJIe F
s
MF's (err. 4). HeTatIHOCTH BotjeIha
csaxor 0)]; eneMeHTapHI1X rMIIKI1X MeXaHH3aMa ce
Metjyco6HO I<OMIIeH3Hpajy, nofiorsmaaajyha TaKO
TatIHOCT soheaa CnO)KeHOr rMIIKor MexaHM3Ma (rafiena
4).
3.3 Compound structures of the compliant
mechanisms
The compound structures of the compliant mechanisms
have been designed in order to improve guiding
accuracy [5,10]. We have added to above mentioned
single compliant mechanism another the same single
compliant mechanism as a mirror image (Fig. 4). These
single compliant mechanisms can be:
rigidly connected at guided point C [5,10];
connected by new introduced compliant joint
(Fig.4a); the symmetry axes of that joint cross each
other at guided point C;
connected by introduction of the new link with two
compliant joints, that connect the new link with the
couplers (Fig. 4b);the symmetry axes of that link
cross each other at guided point C.
The compound compliant mechanism has been actuated
with two simultaneous forces F
s
and F's (Fig. 4). The
guiding inaccuracies of both single compliant
mechanisms compensate each other producing better
guiding accuracy of the compound compliant
mechanism (Table 4).
25
a) 6)
CJIlIKa 4. CJIO)KeHH rHTIKH MexaHH3MH: a) Roberts-Hetismrea-rsea H6) Watt- OB
Figure 4. The compound compliant mechanisms: a) Roberts-Hetisuuee and b) Watt
Ta6eJIa4. Oncrynarse peaJIH30BaHe 0)]; rrpaBOJIHHHjcKe nyraa,e Ayc [1JlIl] Roberts-Hetisrurea-neeor HWatt-
osor xpyronnaaor, eJIeMeHTapHOr ranxor HCJIO)KeHOr rHTIKor MeXaHH3Ma
Table 4. Guiding inaccuracy AYe [um] ofthe Roberts-Heeutue and Watt rigid-body, single compliant and
compound compliant mechanism
KpyrO'lJIaHH eJIeMeHTapHH CJIO)KeHH
MeXaHH3aM rHTIKH rHIIKH
MeXaHH3aM MeXaHH3aM
Roberts 0.8 8.1 0.009
Watt 1.8 3.1 0.039
OBH CJIO)KeHH rHIIKH MeXaHH3MH MOry na 06e36e)];e
saasajao 60Jby Ta'lHOCT BoljelDa 0)]; onrosapajyhax
eJIeMeHTapHHX rHTIKHX MeXaHH3aMa (Ta6eJIa 4).
Tasnocr BoljelDa CJIO)KeHOr Roberts-Hefisnnes-neaor
HWatt-osor rHTIKor MeXaHH3Ma je 3Ha'lajHo seha H0)];
Ta'lHOCTH BoljelDa onrosapajyher xpyrounanor
MeXaHH3Ma, qaK H KMa ce He Y3MY Y 063Hp
HeTaQHOCTH BoljelDa xoje rrorasy 0)]; TOJIepaHUHje
)J;y)KHHa xpyrax 'lJIaHOBa H nojasy sasopa y
3rJI06oBHMa.
Watt OB CJIO)KeHH rHIIKH MeXaHH3aM (CJI. 46) peanasyje
yjezrao HTpaHCJIaTOpHO noaepaa,e xnaaa y paBHH, jep
CBe rasse aosoyseneaor snaaa HMajy HCTa noxepaaa y
paBHH.
4.3aKJbyQaK
Y OBOM parrycy aHaJIH3HpaHe KapaKTepHCTHKe xperarsa
HeKHX rHTIKHX rroJIY)KHHX xeraopoyrnoaa, ca
3rn060BHMay 06JIHKY sapesa, sa peanasauajy
npaaonamsjcsor BoljelDa. Tanxa norryscaa
qeTBOpoyrJIOBH pa3BHjeHH cy xao aHaJIOrHe xormje
rr03HaTHX pemetsa xpyrosnaaax rroJIY)KHHX
xeraopoyrnosa.
Hajrrpe CMO H3BpmHJIH npopasya nouepaaa soheae
ra-ise H aHaJIH3Y aanoncxor craaa xopacreha
nporpaxcxn naxer ANSYS. O)];pe)];HJIH CMO OIITHMaJIHe
26
rigid-body single compound
mechanism compliant compliant
mechanism mechanism
Roberts 0.8 8.1 0.009
Watt 1.8 3.1 0.039
These compound compliant mechanisms can provide
considerably better guiding accuracy than respective
single compliant mechanisms (Table 4). The guiding
accuracy of the compound compliant Roberts-
Qe6bImeB and Watt compliant mechanism is also
considerably greater than guiding accuracy of respective
rigid-body mechanism, even if the guiding inaccuracy,
caused by the influence of the rigid link length
tolerances and clearance in the joints, has not been taken
into consideration.
The compound compliant Watt mechanism (Fig. 4b)
realizes at the same time translating planar displacement
of the new link because all the points of the introduced
link have equal planar displacements.
4. Conclusion
In this paper we have analyzed the motion
characteristics of some compliant four-bar linkages with
notch joints for rectilinear guiding. The compliant four-
bar linkages have been developed as the counterparts of
well-known rigid-body four-bar linkages.
Firstly, we have calculated the guided point
displacement and stress analysis using ANSYS
Software. We have determined optimal dimensions of
,1lJIMeH3Hje rHIIKl1X MeXaHH3aMa y l.\HJbY )],06Hjalha
Haj60Jbe Moryne TaqHOCTH sobea,a (MHHHMarIHOr
oncrynan,a OCTBapeHe 0)], rasae npaBOJIHHHjcKe
nyraise), a na MaKCHMaJIHH HanOHH casajaa,a 6y)l,y
MalhH 0)], casojae xspcrohe.
EKCIIepHMeHTaJIHa nposepa rroscepan,a soheae rasxe
nspahennx rHTIKl1X MexaHH3aMa [5,12] onroaapana je
pe3yJITaTHMa )],o6HjeHHM nosrohy nporpasrcsor naxera
ANSYS UITO 3HaqH zra ce osaj rrporpaxcxa naxer MO)l(e
KOpHCTHTH sa npopasya nosrepan,a rmrxnx
MexaHH3aMa.
HaKoH rora CMO H3BPIIIHJIH npopaxya noxeparsa
sohene ra-rxe, MaKCHMaJIHHX aanoaa casajaa,a H
Koe<jlHl.\HjeHTa xopacaor nejcrsa sana aa MeXaHH3aM
nenyje CHJIa xoja ce cyrrporcrasna xperarsy. Tasaocr
sohersa orrana, )],OK MaKCHMaJIHH HanOHH casajaa,a H
xoedranajear xopacnor nejcrsa pacry ca noseharsea
ornopae CHJIe. . Hoecken-os rHTIKH MeXaHH3aM HMa
Marry TaqHOCT nohetsa, a Evans-on rHTIKH MeXaHH3aM
MO)l(e zra H3)],p)l(H MaJIe spezmocra ornopae CHJIe, na
rHTIKH MeXaHH3MH KO)], KOjHX ce sohena TaqKa HaJIa3H
aa xpajy cnojxe nncy noronaa sa peanaaanajy
npaBOJIHHHjcKor Boljelha xazra aa MeXaHH3aM ,neJIYje
CHJIa xoja ce cynporcraarsa xperarsy.
Ha xpajy, Pa3BHJIH CMO HOBe, CJIO)l(eHe cTpYKTYPe
rHTIKHX MeXaHH3aMa y uarsy n060JbIIIalha TaqHOCTH
nohersa, OBH CJIO)l(eHH rHTIKH MexaHH3MH MOry na
06e36e,ne saasajao 60Jby TaqHOCT soheaa 0)],
onrosapajyhax eJIeMeHTapHHX, xao H 0)], KpYTOqJIaHl1X
MexaHH3aMa. Crora npenopysyjesro aa npaaeae
npaaonaaajcxor Boljelha CJIO)l(eHH rHTIKH Roberts-
qe6b1lIIeB-JbeB MeXaHH3aM. Oaaj rHTIKH MeXaHH3aM
MO)l(e na peamrsyje TaqHOCT Boljelha 0)], AYe = 9 nm na
XOpH30HTaJIHOM rrosrepatsy 0)], AXe = 5 mm.
5. Literatura - References
the compliant mechanisms in order to get the best
guiding accuracy (minimal difference betweenrealized
and exact rectilinear path), and the bending stresses
should be smaller than bending strength.
The experimentally obtained results of the guided point
displacement of the produced compliant mechanisms
[5,12] corresponded to the results obtained by ANSYS
Software. It means that this software can be used in
displacement calculation purposes of the compliant
mechanisms.
Further, we have calculated the guided point
displacement, maximal bending stresses and mechanical
efficiency considering the force resisting the motion.
Guiding accuracy decreases, while maximal bending
stresses and mechanical efficiency increase with
increasing of the resisting force. Hoecken compliant
mechanism has small guiding accuracy, and Evans
compliant mechanism can stand small values of the
resisting force, so compliant mechanisms with guided
point located at the end of the coupler are not suitable
for rectilinear guiding considering the force resisting the
motion.
Finally, we have designed the new compound structures
of the compliant mechanisms in order to improve
guiding accuracy. These compound compliant
mechanisms can provide considerably better guiding
accuracy than respective single compliant, as well as
rigid-body mechanisms. Therefore we recommend the
compound compliant Roberts-Hetisnues mechanismto
be applied for rectilinear guiding. This compliant
mechanism can produce guiding inaccuracy of AYe = 9
nm on the horizontal displacement of AXe = 5 mm.
[ 1]
[ 2]
[ 3]
[ 4]
[ 5]
[ 6]
[ 7]
[ 8]
[ 9]
10]
11]
[12]
13]
Howell,L.L.: Compliant Mechanisms, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NewYork, 2001.
Bloch, SiSch.: Angenaherte Synthese von Mechanismen, VEB Verlag, Berlin 1951.
Pavlovic.N'Di: Mikromehanika, Masinski fakultet Nis, 1998.
Perosevic.B: Kalupi za injekciono presovanje plastomera (termoplasta), Naucnaknjiga, Beograd, 1988.
Pavlovic.N. T.: Razvoj gipkih mehanizama za realizaciju pravolinijskog vodenja, doktorska disertacija,
Masinski fakultet Nis, 2003.
Christen, G., Pfefferkorn, H.: Linear Bewegung mit nachgiebigen Mechanismen,
Festschrift zum Ehrenkolloquiumfur G. Bogelsack, TU Ilmenau, 1997,5-10.
Christen.Gi.Pfefferkorn.H: Aufbau, Gestaltung, Dimensionierungund experimentelleUntersuchung,
VDI Berichte 1423, Getriebetagung 9/1998, Kassel, 309-329.
Christen, G., Pfefferkorn,H.: Zum Bewegungsverhaltennachgiebiger Mechanismen,
WissenschaftllicheZeitschrift der Technishen Universitat Dresden, 50 (2001) Heft 3,53-58.
Pavlovic.N. T., Pavlovic,ND.: Some Compliant Four-Bar Linkages for Rectilinear Guiding, Proceedings on
the VIII International Conference on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Liberec, Chech Republik, 2000,
501 - 506.
Pavlovic.N. T., Pavlovic.N'Di: Improving of Guiding Accuracy of Compliant Mechanisms for Rectilinear
Guiding, 2
nd
International Conference "Research and development in mechanical industry" RaDMI 2002,
Vrnjacka Banja, 2002, 292-297.
Pavlovic.N. T., Pavlovic.N'Di: Mechanical Efficiency of the Compliant Four-bar Linkages for Rectilinear
Guiding, Scientific Conference "CHHTe3 HaHaJIH3Ha MexaHH3MH", Sliven, 2002, Mexaaaxa aa MaIIIHHHTe,
KHHra 5, ISSN 0861-9727, TU Varna, (2002), 110-115.
Pavlovic.N. T., Christen, G.: Experimental Research of The Compliant Four-Bar Linkage for Rectilinear
Guiding, 47. Internationales Wissentschaftliches Kolloquium, Tagungsband, TU Ilmenau, 2002, 320-321.
Pavlovic.N. T., Pavlovic.N'Di: A Design of Evans Compliant Four-Bar Linkage for Rectilinear Guiding,
3
rd
International Conference "Research and development in mechanical industry" RaDMI2003,
Herceg Novi, 2003, 425-432.
27