Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38

1 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.

ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos


WCDMA for beginners
WCDMA System Training
27-Sep-2000
2 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
WCDMA history
Evolution towards third generation's global standard since 1985
In April 1997 ITU asked for proposals for candidate technologies for IMT-2000
16 results received, e.g. following:
WCDMA - ETSI
WCDMA - ARIB
UWC-136 - UWCC
cdma2000 - CDG
3GPP was formed in December 1998 by five major standardization bodies
First public network (2002 in Japan) will be 3GPP specific
UWC-136 and cdma2000 are IMT-2000 but not 3GPP compliant
3 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Evolution to 3G
GSM
2G 2.5G
H
S
C
S
D
G
P
R
S
WCDMA (ARIB)
D-AMPS (IS-136) I
S
-
1
3
6
+
I
S
-
1
3
6
H
S
cdmaOne (IS-95) I
S
-
9
5
B
PDC
WCDMA (ETSI)
UWC-136 (UWCC)
cdma2000 (CDG)
3G
proposals
I
M
T
-
2
0
0
0
3G
4 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Multiple access techniques
FDMA=Frequency division multiple access
each user sends on his own his own frequency band
TDMA=Time division multiple access
each user sends at his own time slot
CDMA=Code division multiple access
each user sends a signal, which is multiplied by his own code
TDMA is used e.g. in GSM
CDMA will be used in so called third generation or UMTS starting from 2002
5 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Concepts
In e.g. GSM system each bit is represented by one pulse
In CDMA it takes several pulses to send one databit
Those pulses are called chips
The number of chips per symbol is called spreading factor
Because the duration of one chip is very short, CDMA system requires more
bandwidth
One the other hand, several users can use the same band simultaneously. Also
neighboring base stations can use the same band.
Here bits and chips are represented by +1 and -1 (instead of 0 and 1)
In reality signals are not ideal
+1
- 1
- 0.5
0
+ 0.5
= Signal after sampling
= Original signal
6 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Bits, symbols, chips
User bit rate e.g. 64 kbits/s
Convolution coding (R=1/3) => 192 kbits/s ( = 3 x 64 )
Channel coding => 240 kbits/s
Symbol = 2 bits (I bit & Q bit) sent simultaneously => Symbol rate
120 ksym/s ( = 240 / 2 )
Q
+1
+1
- 1
- 1
I
Chip rate = 3.84 Mchips per second
Spreading factor = Chip rate / Symbol rate = 32
7 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
From chips to slots to frames to channels
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH),
used in downlink
Fixed spreading factor, SF = 256
1 symbol represents 2 bits
Dedicated Physical Data Channel
& Dedicated Physical Control
Channel, used in uplink
Variable spreading factor,
SF = 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 or 256
1 symbol represents 1 bit
Pilot
N
pilot
bits
TPC
N
TPC
bits
Data
N
data
bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 10*2
k
bits (k=0..6)
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
DPDCH
DPCCH
FBI
N
FBI
bits
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
Pre-defined symbol sequence
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips , 20 bits = 10 symbols
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
8 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Data x
Code
Data
Code
Code
(pseudo
noise)
Data
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
Symbol
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
Chip Chip
Spectrum
Spreading and despreading
Symbol
9 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
QPSK modulation
S
Im{S}
Re{S}
cos(et)
Complex-valued
chip sequence
from spreading
operations
-sin(et)
Split
real &
imag.
parts
Pulse-
shaping
Pulse-
shaping
10 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Detecting own signal with correlator (1/2)
Code
+1
+1
+1
-1
-1
-1
Own
signal
+8
-8
Data after
Integration
Code
+1
+1
+1
-1
-1
-1
Other
signal
+8
Data after
Integration
-8
11 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Detecting own signal with correlator (2/2)
+1
+1
-1
-1
Own
signal
-2
+2
Code
+1
-1
-2
Other
signal
+8
-8
Data after
Integration
+2
Composite
signal
12 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Processing gain
Defined as
rate data
rate chip
=
p
G
Describes the improvement in SNR from received signal to the
output of the receiver
Given in dB
For example if spreading factor is 32 then processing gain is
dB 15 32 log 10
ksymbols/s 120
Mchip/s 84 . 3
log 10 ~ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
G
13 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Different types of codes
There are two different types of codes, scrambling and channelization
code
Codes are combined by multiplication:
+1
-1
Channelization
code
+1
Scrambling
code
-1
+1
-1
Combined
code
14 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Channelization codes
Walsh codes
Used in both uplink and downlink to separate different channels
Orthogonality properties => reduced interference
Limited resource
Repeats itself after each symbol
Different lengths => different spreading factors => different symbol rates
More than one simultaneous code channels between one UE and BS
=multichannel transmission
Dont have good correlation properties => scrambling code is needed
15 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Scrambling codes
Gold codes
Uplink:
Each mobile has its own scrambling codes, long and short one
Short code repeats itself after one symbol, long code after one frame
There are 2^24 codes in both groups
Downlink:
Each base station or sector has its own scrambling code
The code repeats itself after one frame
There are 2^18 codes, but only 24576 (= 3 * 8192) first ones are used
Scrambling codes have good correlation properties
16 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Use of orthogonal codes
Code
Data after
multiplication
+1
+1
+1
-1
-1
-1
Own
signal
+8
-8
Data after
Integration
Orthogonal
Code
Data after
multiplication
+1
+1
+1
-1
-1
-1
Signal
+8
Data after
Integration
-8
17 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Time shifted signal
Code
Data after
multiplication
+1
+1
+1
-1
-1
-1
Own
signal
+8
-8
Data after
Integration
Code
Data after
multiplication
+1
+1
+1
-1
-1
-1
Time-shifted
signal
+8
-8
Data after
Integration
18 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Matched Filter
E
Incoming
serial data
Predefined
(parallel) data
Register 1
Register 2
When samples of
incoming serial
data are equal to
bits of predefined
data, there is a
maximum at filter
output.
Tap 127 Tap 126 Tap 0
Sample
127
Sample
126
Sample
0
To make a successful despreading, code
and data timing must be known. It can
be detected e.g. by a matched filter.
+1
-1
19 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Delay profile (Channel impulse response)
Multipath propagation
causes several peaks
in matched filter output
20 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Rake Receiver
Finger 3
Finger 2
Input
signal
(from RF)
Matched
filter
E I
E Q
I
Q
Correlator
Channel
estimator
Phase
rotator
Delay
Equalizer
Code
generators
Timing (Finger allocation)
Finger 1
I
Q
Combiner
21 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Diversity RX antenna in UE
Fading
Time
Amplitude
= Antenna 2
= Antenna 1
22 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Diversity TX antenna in BS
Fading
Time
Amplitude
= Antenna 2
= Antenna 1
23 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Problems with many cells
24 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Power control: near-far problem
P1
P2
BS
UE2
UE1
In one cell, all mobiles are transmitting to same frequency.
In practice BS cannot separate different codes if the power
levels of the mobiles are very different
In CDMA systems accurate and wide dynamic range
power control is essential for the network capacity
Mobile starts transmission with open loop power control
where the mobile TX power is inversely proportional to the
received signal strength
Later in closed loop power control the BS adjusts
continuously mobile power by sending control bits
25 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Power control: fast responses
BS1
When UE is transmitting to BS1 with high power, it might interfere users in BS2
because cells could be in same frequency.
UE should be capable to find new cells fast and report changes to network, so it can
order change in power level or handover
BS2
26 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Hard handover
Handover between base stations on different frequencies
Usually neighbouring base stations are on same frequency so there is no need for
frequent hard handovers
Transmission and reception will stop momentarily - just like in GSM
Fixed
Network
Base
station
control
After hard handover
it operates on frequency 2
First UE operates
on frequency 1
27 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Soft handover
During soft handover, the same signal goes through two (or more) base stations or
base station sectors (=softer handover)
Fixed
Network
Both base
stations are in
same frequency
Base
station
control
28 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
About channels
There are physical channels and transport channels, just like in GSM
Physical channels are used to carry transport channels
Transport channels carry data for higher layers
Different channels for uplink and downlink
Some channels are common for many users, some are dedicated for only one
29 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Transport channels
Dedicated transport channels
DCH - Dedicated Channel
DL / UL
DL = Downlink
UL = Uplink
Common transport channels
BCH - Broadcast Channel (DL)
FACH - Forward Access Channel (DL)
PCH - Paging Channel (DL)
RACH - Random Access Channel (UL)
CPCH - Common Packet Channel
(UL)
DSCH - Downlink Shared Channel
(DL)
30 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Downlink physical channels (1/2)
DPCH - Downlink Dedicated Physical
Channel
Carries DCH
CPICH - Common Pilot Channel
Carries pre-defined symbol
sequence
There are primary and secondary
channels for different purposes
Used as channel estimation
reference for all other channels
P-CCPCH - Primary Common Control
Physical Channel
Carries BCH
S-CCPCH - Secondary Common
Control Physical Channel
Carries FACH and PCH
PDSCH - Physical Downlink Shared
Channel
Carries Downlink Shared Channel
Channels, which carry data for higher layers:
31 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Downlink physical channels (2/2)
Channels for L1 internal use:
AICH - Acquisition Indicator Channel
Carries Acquisition Indicator as
response to PRACH or PCPCH
CSICH - CPCH Status Indicator
Channel
Carries CPCH status information
PICH - Page Indicator Channel
Carries Paging Indicator which
indicates if PCH for certain paging
group is available
CPICH - Common Pilot Channel
Carries pre-defined symbol
sequence
There are primary and secondary
channels for different purposes
Used as channel estimation
reference for all other channels
SCH - Synchronization Channel
Used for cell search
32 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Uplink physical channels
DPDCH - Dedicated Physical Data channel
Carries DCH
DPCCH - Dedicated Physical Control Channel
Carries control information generated in L1
PRACH - Physical Random Access Channel
Carries RACH
PCPCH - Physical Common Packet Channel
Carries CPCH
33 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Channel mapping, overview
Transport Channels
DCH
RACH
CPCH
BCH
FACH
PCH
DSCH
Physical Channels
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH)
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)
Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)
Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)
Synchronisation Channel (SCH)
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH)
Page Indication Channel (PICH)
CPCH Status Indicator Channel (CSICH)
34 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Capasity analysis
The restricting factor is the level of noise and interference caused by e.g. other users
=> impossible to tell exactly how many users there can be simultaneously
Soft blocking
Higher bitrate (smaller spreading factor) requires more transmitting power which
means more interference to others
Same frequency can be used in neighbour cells which increases capacity
Voice activity detection => less transmission => less interference
35 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Benefits of WCDMA
Increased capasity due to new spectrum
Increasing quality
More tolerant to noise
More flexible bit rates
Imperceptile soft handovers
Easier frequency planning
Increased spectrum efficiency ?
36 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Drawbacks of WCDMA
High chip rate
Uplink power control
Needs more MIPSes in DSP than GSM
Power consumption
37 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
Printed literature
Wideband CDMA for Third Generation Mobile Communications
Tero Ojanper & Ramjee Prasad, 1998
WCDMA for UMTS
Wiley, this is quite new book (04/2000)
?? Third book
38 NOKIA COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL wcdma_basics.ppt / 27-Sep-2000 / KTuulos
3GPP specifications
http://cst.ntc.nokia.com/ESSV/stand/DataBase/default.htm
4 main development groups (Techical Specification Groups):
TSG-SA: Services and System Aspects
TSG-RAN: Radio Access Network
TSG-CN: Core Network
TSG-T: Terminals
Starting points:
21.101: "3rd Generation Mobile System Release 1999 Specifications"
25.201: "Physical layer - general description"
25.401: "UTRAN Overall Description"