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Solutions for Courseware Process Control System

Process Control System EN 02/06

Intended application

This courseware has been developed and manufactured exclusively for vocational and continuing training in process automation and control engineering. The training company and / or trainers have the duty to ensure that trainees observe all safety precautions described in the accompanying manuals and data sheets. Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. and ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH will not be liable for any damage or injury to trainees, the training company and / or other third parties resulting from use of the equipment for any other purpose than training, unless Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. or ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has caused such damage or injury willfully or through negligence.

Order no Designation Description Status Authors Translation Graphics Layout Courseware Exercises for process and control engineering 03/2005 Jrgen Helmich, Stefan Knoblauch, Andreas Wierer (ADIRO) Williams Technical Communication Pty Ltd, Brisbane Jrgen Helmich, Stefan Knoblauch (ADIRO) Jrgen Helmich (ADIRO)

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co., 03/2005 Internet: www.festo.com/didactic http://www.festo.com/didactic/de/ProcessAutomation e-mail: did@festo.com

The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the communication of its contents to others without expressed authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility model or ornamental design registration.

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Contents

Solutions for process and control engineering _____________________________ 5 Solution for Exercise 2.2 _______________________________________________ 5 Solution for Exercise 2.3.1 ______________________________________________ 9 Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 _____________________________________________ 13 Solution for Exercise 2.3.3 _____________________________________________ 14

Solution for Worksheet 3.1.1 ___________________________________________ 18 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.1 ___________________________________________ 19 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.2 ___________________________________________ 20 Solution for Worksheet 3.2.3 ___________________________________________ 21 Solution for Worksheet 3.3.1 ___________________________________________ 24 Solution for Worksheet 3.3.2 ___________________________________________ 25 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.1 ___________________________________________ 27 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.2 ___________________________________________ 29 Solution for Worksheet 3.4.3 ___________________________________________ 30 Solution for Worksheet 3.5.1 ___________________________________________ 31 Solution for Worksheet 3.6.1 for Siemens BE.SI.0193 ultrasound sensor _______ 32 Solution for Worksheet 3.6.1 for Festo 170710 ultrasound sensor _____________ 33 Solution for Worksheet 3.6.2 ___________________________________________ 34 Solution for Worksheet 3.7.1 ___________________________________________ 36 Solution for Worksheet 3.7.2 ___________________________________________ 37 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.1 ___________________________________________ 38

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Contens

Solution for Worksheet 3.8.2 ___________________________________________ 39 Solution for Worksheet 3.8.2 ___________________________________________ 40 Solution for Worksheet 3.9.1 ___________________________________________ 41 Solution for Worksheet3.9.2____________________________________________ 41 Solution for Worksheet 3.10____________________________________________ 42

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Contens

Solution for Worksheet 4.1.1 ___________________________________________ 50 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.2 ___________________________________________ 51 Solution for Worksheet 4.1.3 ___________________________________________ 52 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.1 ___________________________________________ 54 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.2 ___________________________________________ 54 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.3 ___________________________________________ 56 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.4___________________________________________ 57 Solution for Worksheet 4.2.5 ___________________________________________ 59 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.1 ___________________________________________ 60 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.2 ___________________________________________ 60 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.3___________________________________________ 62 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.4___________________________________________ 63 Solution for Worksheet 4.3.5___________________________________________ 65

Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ___________________________________________ 66 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ___________________________________________ 68 Solution for Worksheet5.1.1____________________________________________ 69 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ___________________________________________ 70 Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1 ___________________________________________ 71 Solution for Worksheet 5.2.6 ___________________________________________ 72 Solution for Worksheet 5.3.1 ___________________________________________ 74

Solutions for Courseware Process Control System

Solution for Exercise 2.2 Which components are necessary for the chosen close-loop control system?

Equipment list for level

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating X X X X X X

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Equipment list for flow rate

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating X X X X X X

ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH Process Control System

Solutions for process and control engineering

Equipment list for pressure

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating X X X X X X X

ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH Process Control System

Solutions for process and control engineering

Equipment list for temperature

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating X X X X X X X

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Exercise 2.3.1


LIC 102

PI-diagram for level.

LA+ 101.3

LS102 B102

V101

V112 V102

LS+ 101.2 LS101.1 V105


M

B101

P101

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Solutions for process and control engineering

PI-diagram for flow rate.

LA+ 101.3

V104

V106

LS+ 101.2 LS101.1 V105 B101

V109

V103

P101
M

FIC 101.1

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Solutions for process and control engineering

PI-diagram for pressure.

LA+ 101.3

PIC 103

V107 B103 V108 V106

LS+ 101.2 LS101.1 V105 B101

V109

V103

P101
M

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Solutions for process and control engineering

PI-diagram for temperature.

LA+ 101.3

TIC 104

LS+ 101.2 LS101.1 V105 E104 B101

V109

V103

P101
M

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Exercise 2.3.2 EMCS point list for level controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Ultrasonicsensor B101 Transformer

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

13 14 Rltg./Ap.Stutz DN R-KL PN D-KL

LIC102

Measure level

4..20mA

1 A1 Controller E/E N1 Relay 1 K1 Applifier A4

transform signal

4...20mA/ 0...10V PI 4..20mA 0...10V digital (0)/ analog (1)

proportional controller

preselect pump

transform signal and power

0...10V

P101

Pump M1

control level

0...24V

0...6 l/min

level controlled system

EMCS point list - solution

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ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH Process Control System

Solutions for process and control engineering

EMCS point list for flow controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

13 14 Rltg./Ap.Stutz DN R-KL PN D-KL

FIC101.1

Flow rate sensor B102

Measure flow rate

F 40...1200 Hz 0,3...9,0 l/min

Transformer A2 Controller E/E N1 Relay K1

transform signal

0...1000 Hz/ 0...10 V PI 4..20 mA 0...10 V digital (0)/ analog (1)

proportional controller

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

transform signal and power

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

Control flow rate

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

flow rate controlled system

EMCS point list - solution

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Solutions for process and control engineering

EMCS point list for pressure controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

13 14 Rltg./Ap.Stutz DN R-KL PN D-KL

PIC103

Pressure sensor B103 Controller E/E N1 Relay K1

Measure pressure

F 0...400 mbar

proportional controller

PI 4..20 mA 0...10 V digital (0)/ analog (1)

pre-select pump

Amplifier A4

transform signal and power

0...10 V

P101

Pump M1

Control flow rate

0...24 V

0...6 l/min

pressure controlled system

EMCS point list - solution

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Solutions for process and control engineering

EMCS point list for temperature controlled system.

1 Revision

2 EMCS-point

3 PCS.

4 Component symbol Temperatur sensor B104 Transformer A3 Controller E/E N1 Relay K_E104

5 EMCS task

6 Place

7 Range

8 Flow rate

9 pressure absolute

10 p

11 t C

12 material value

13 14 Rltg./Ap.Stutz DN R-KL PN D-KL

TIC104

Measure temperature

PT100 80...150 Ohm

-50...+150C

transform signal

0...100 C/ 0...10 V PI 4..20 mA 0...10 V 0/24V / Heating ON/OFF 0 l/min / 6 l/min

Controller, un-steady 2-point control Heating

Control heating

P101

Pump M1

control circulation

0 V / 24 V

Relay K1

pre-select pump

digital (0)/ analog (1)

temperatur controlled system

EMCS point list - solution

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Exercise 2.3.3

EMCS point plan for level controlled system.

N1
X2.8 PID X2.3 X2.6 X2.2

12

14

6 0...10V U 23 11

K1
22 0...10V

A1
I 4...20 mA 2 4 U

A4
U 0...24 V 14 13

5...300 mm

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

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Solutions for process and control engineering

EMCS point plan for flow controlled system.

N1
X2.7 (UE2) X2.3 X2.2 (UA1) X2.6

PID

12

14

5 (Out) U

6 (0V) 0...10V 23

K1
11 22 0...10V

A2
f 0...1000 Hz 2 (IN+) 4 (IN-) 14 U

A4
U 0...24 V 13

40...1200 Hz

A2

A1

B102

M1

P101

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Solutions for process and control engineering

EMCS point plan for pressure controlled system.

N1
X2.15 (UE3) X2.3 X2.2 (UA1) X2.6

PID

12

14

K1
11 23 22 0...10V U

A4
U 0...24 V 14 13

0...400 mbar

A2

A1

B103

M1

P101

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Solutions for process and control engineering

EMCS point plan for temperature controlled system.

N1
X2.14 (UE4) X2.3 XMA.2 XMA.11

Out

0V 0...10V U

A3
T 0...100 C 1 2 3

XMA.0 VA

XMA.Q1

1 14

230V PE L N

-50...+150C

B104

T E104

13

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.1.1

The task is to calculate the volume of the container and to establish the relationship between volume and level. To calculate the container volume, refer to the data sheet. Here you will find the internal dimensions of the container. If this data is used to calculate the maximum volume, the result is:

Where:

Container height Container width Container depth

h = 300 mm w = 190 mm d = 175 mm

Find:

Volume at level 300 mm or 100 mm

Solution:

19 0mm 175 mm 300 mm = 9.975.000 mm 3 = 9,975 l 10l

1dm 3 = 1l Volume when scale reads 100 mm a 3.325 l


1mm a 33ml
When the scale reads 300 mm, the volume of medium in the container is 10l.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.2.1

The pump is a normally primed centrifugal pump. This type of pump requires an absolutely tight suction pipe that should always be inclined up away from the pump in order to prevent the formation of air pockets. The pump and suction pipe must be filled with medium. The following points must be taken into account during operation: Before operation, the pump must be filled with medium. The pumps must not run dry but a dry-running period of less than 30 minutes will not damage the pump. The pump must always run in the prescribed direction. The pump is suitable for continuous operation. The medium to be pumped should not contain large particles of contaminant.

1.1.1 Where: Find: Solution:

Calculating the rated current


P = 26W

V = 24V

The rated current of the pump

P =V I

I=

P 26W = = 1.083 A V 24V

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.2.2

Exploded drawing of the pump

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Part designation Housing, 20 Rotor disk O-ring Screw Motor bracket Washer Shaft Seal Magnet housing

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.2.3

To determine the delivery rate of the pump, water is pumped from the lower container to the upper container until the level reads 150 mm on the scale. This allows the average flowrate per unit time (volumetric flow) to be determined. The pump capacity is to be calculated with the aid of the volumetric flow and the delivery head. Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Commission the system: fill and vent. Switch on power supply. Close the outlet of the upper container of the level-controlled system. Switch pump ON (with Process Lab, SPS or controller) and start timer. When level of 150 mm on the scale is reached, stop timer. Read off actual scale value (if not exactly 150 mm). Determine and document pumping time and delivery head. Determine average flowrate. Determine pump capacity.

Result

61,5 s

Result of pump speed measurement

135 mm

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Measured values from diagram: Pumping time t F = 61,5s Delivery head hF = 135mm w = 190mm Container width Container depth l = 175mm
& Calculation of volumetric flow s V :

3 3 & = V = hF w l = 135mm 190mm 175mm = 4488750mm = 72987.8 mm V 61.5s 61.5s t tF s

mm 3 60 mm 3 l & = 4.379.260 = 4.38 V = 72987.8 min min s


The volumetric flow is the volume flowing through the cross-sectional area per unit time. The capacity of the pump can be calculated with the following formula:
& P = V g h with

g = 9.81

m s2

The system comprises a low and a high container and a pump between them. The maximum delivery head hmax is the distance between the inlet port of the pump and the maximum delivery head in the upper container hoB, less the minimum suction height in the lower container huB in relation to the surface of the profile plate. Distance pump inlet maximum delivery head in the upper container:
h oB = 350mm + 145mm 35mm =460mm

Minimum suction height:


huB = 155mm 35mm = 120mm

The maximum delivery head hmax is:


h max = h oB huB = 460mm 120mm = 340mm

The density of water is = 1.00

kg kg = 1000.0 3 3 dm m

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Solutions for process and control engineering

This results in the following calculation for the capacity of the pump:

& P = V g hmax = 72.99 10 3 P = 243.45 10 3 with N = m 3 kg m m s m3 s 2

m3 kg m 1000 3 9.81 2 0.340m s m s

kg m resulting in the unit s2 Nm P = 243.45 10 3 = 243.45 10 3W s

Explanation of the result No general solution for the capacity of the pump can be given as the value varies from system to system. Component tolerances in the pump, the setting of the motor regulator operating characteristic as well as differences in the piping system (curves, pumping head) can result in different delivery rates.

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Solution for Worksheet 3.3.1

What does the term proportional valve mean? The solenoid valves are closed by a spring at zero current. Any current through the solenoid coil results in a state of equilibrium between the spring and the magnetic force. The strength of the solenoid current or the magnetic force determines the stroke of the armature or degree to which the valve is opened. Ideally, dependency between current and opening of the valve should be linear. In other words, the valve opens and closes to a degree proportional to an analog voltage in the range 0 to 10 V.

What electrical signals do you need to use a proportional valve? The electronics of the proportional valve require a supply voltage of 24 VDC.

The valve is opened or closed with a control voltage of 0 to 10 V.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.3.2

What is the maximum rate at which you can pump the medium used through the proportional valve? The throughput capacity of a control valve is to be determined. The maximum flowrate is calculated from the KV value and the pressure drop across the valve: Where: KVS value data sheet Delivery pressure

KVS = 0.33

m3 h

Proportional valve

p = 0.3bar
l & V = 9.0 min

Pump data sheet

Volume flowrate

Pump data sheet

Find: Maximum flowrate Solution:

p & V = 31.6 KVS with p = 0.3bar and = 1000 & V = 31.6 0.33 0.3 m 3 1000 h kg m3

m3 m3 m3 dm 3 l & V = 0.164 = 164 10 3 = 2.74 10 3 = 2.74 = 2.74 h h min min min

& The flowrate determined with Process Lab: V = 2.3

l min

What possibilities are there for adjusting this valve?

You can set the maximum and the minimum flowrate through the valve via the

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Solutions for process and control engineering

electronics with the aid of potentiometers R1 and R2.

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Solution for Worksheet 3.4.1

Equipment list for the process drive module

Item. Process drive equipment list 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ball cock Reducing sleeve Mounting bracket with cheese-head screws Semi-rotary drive Namur solenoid valve Exhaust-air flow control valve with integrated silencer Quick push-pull elbow Solenoid valve Socket with connecting cable Sensor box with connecting cable

Type " SW9/SW11 ALU Sypar

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2

7 8 9 10

G1/4

1 1

3-wire 6-wire

1 1

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

A digital signal for the solenoid valve ( (24V: switch ON, 0V: switch OFF)

Give a brief description of the modules mode of operation..

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Solutions for process and control engineering

A coil is energized by an electrical signal. This operates the Namur valve magnetically. The semi-rotary drive moves through 90 as the result of the compressed air switched by the valve. This opens or closes the ball cock.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.4.2

What function does the sensor box fulfill? Name the signals you receive from the sensor box and, where appropriate, how you can record these signals. The sensor box delivers three signals 1) a visual signal, red and yellow. Red means Ball clock closed and yellow means Ball cock open.

2) A digital signal to I5 (digital input of the I/O terminal) High means Ball cock closed.

3) A second digital signal to I6 (digital input of the I/O terminal): High means Ball cock open.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.4.3

What type of drive is it? How does it work? It is a semi-rotary drive with a scotch yoke. When the process valve is opened, the pistons move to the end caps. When the process valve is closed, the piston moves toward the shaft. The torque is generated by the scotch yoke. In contrast to rack and pinion drives is not constant throughout the angle of rotation. Benefit: The high breakaway torque of the valve is overcome. The range of motion of the drive is limited to 90 for use with equipment such as ball cocks and butterfly valves.

Function diagram

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.5.1

What are all the things you have to take into account when using the heating element?? The heating element may only be switched on if it is entirely immersed in fluid.

Caution!

The heating element is hot!

Calculate the rated current of the heating element. The following values are to be taken from the data sheet: Where: Rated voltage: Heat output at rated voltage:
230V 1000 W

Find:

Rated current of the heating element.

Solution:

i = P = 1000 W 4.35 A 230 V u

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.6.1 for Siemens BE.SI.0193 ultrasound sensor

The sensor characteristic of the ultrasound sensor was recorded with FluidLab-PA. The relationship between the sensor signal and the container level can be derived from the characteristic.

Characteristic of the Siemens ultrasound sensor with FluidLab-PA

Operating range of the Siemens ultrasound sensor, programmed by ADIRO

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.6.1 for Festo 170710 ultrasound sensor

Solution and background Determining the mode of operation of an ultrasound sensor It must be borne in mind that some transducers and PLCs can only read or deliver an analog signal as a voltage signal in the range 0 to 10 V. In this case, signal conversion is required. The analog ultrasound sensor used in this system deliver an analog current signal of 4 to 20 mA based on the distance measured. This can be converted into a voltage signal by means of a load resistor. The description of the sensor indicates that the load resistor RL must be less than 400 . If, for example, RL = 390 , the resulting voltage signal is in the range 2.34 to 7.80 V.

Bildtexte: U Me = Vmeas.

Transducing a signal for example, with the aid of a resistor

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.6.2

Recording the characteristic of an ultrasound sensor

Level [mm] 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300

Signal [V] 4.46 5.49 5.5 5.62 6.03 6.43 6.78 7.13 7.52 7.82 8.18 8.51 8.75 8.8 8.82

Bildtexte: Level (mm) 2.00 4.00 etc.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Background to the exercise The technical description of analog sensors normally gives the sensors characteristic (graphically, or as an equation with tolerances). If the characteristic is not given, it must be established experimentally. This may also be necessary when operating conditions have an impact on the characteristic. The location of the sensors that is, its attitude and height above the container is of great importance for a level control. The distance measured is between the sensor head and the waters surface and not the actual level.

Bildtexte Ultrasound sensor

Location of the ultrasound sensor

d hB h a

Minimum distance between the sensor and the surface to be measured Measuring range Height of the surface Distance between the surface and the sensor

The characteristic shows that the sensor's signal is only linear in a certain range. When doing later exercises with the ultrasound sensor, it must be ensured that the level in the container is approx. 180 mm and that it remains within the usable range of the sensor.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.7.1

The medium flowing through the flowmeter drives a rotor. The sensor delivers a square-wave signal proportional to the rotational speed of the rotor. This sensor signal can be measured with an oscilloscope. The lower limit of the measuring range is 0.3 l/min. The upper limit of the measuring range is 9.0 l/min. The values are shown in the data sheet.

Measured-value table

Flowrate [l/min] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Frequency [Hz] 133 266 400 532 665 798 931 1064 1197 1330

Calculated height after 1 min 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300

Measured height after 1 min

Not possible Not possible Not possible Not possible Not possible

Not possible = Insufficient pump capacity

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.7.2

1.1.2 K factor:

From data sheet

8000 pulses 0.3 9.0 l

dm

= 8000 pulses

Measuring range:

min

1.1.3

Calculation

For 0.3 l

= 40 1 = 40 Hz min sec For 9.0 l 72000 pulses = 1200 1 = 1200 Hz min min sec min
Flowrate (l/min) Frequency (1/s)

2400 pulses

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000 1100 1200 Frequenz [1/s]

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.8.1

The analog pressure sensor is a piezoresistive relative pressure sensor with integrated amplifier and built-in temperature compensation in an aluminum housing. The pressure to be measured acts on the piezoresistive element. The resulting signal change is emitted via an integrated amplifier as a voltage at the connector. The maximum output voltage is 10V DC. The output signal can be measured with a voltmeter. The temperature of the medium to be measured must be within a certain range, namely between 25C und 100C. The measuring range is between 0 and 100 mbar or 0 and 400 mbar, depending on the sensor type (see data sheets).

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.8.2

10 V 6

U 4
2 0 -1 0 20 40 60 mbar 100

P
Characteristic of the pressure sensor 167224

Pressure [mbar] 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Voltage [V] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Measured-value table for pressure sensor 167224

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.8.2

Characteristic of pressure sensor BE.EL.0600

Increase the voltage at the pump until the desired pressure value is shown on the manometer.
Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Not possible Not possible Not possible Comment

Measured-value table for pressure sensor BE.EL.0600

Solution for Worksheet 3.9.1

This exercise involves examining the temperature sensor. Pt stands for the material out of which the measuring resistor is made.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Pt: Platinum, Ni: Nickel. 100 stands for the resistance in Ohms, when the measuring resistor has a temperature of 0C. There are also Pt1000 Sensors. Logically, these have a resistance of 1000 Ohm at a reference temperature of 0C. The temperature coefficient of the sensors is uniform at 3850 ppm/K. That means the internal resistance of the sensor changes by 0.385% for each degree change in temperature. Based on these values, the resistance of the Pt100 at 100C can be calculated as follows: Temperature change from

0C to 100C = 100 K 100 K 0.385% = 38.5% K R100 K = 38.5 R100C = R0C + R100 K = 100 + 38.5 = 138.5

The measuring resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. Solution for Worksheet3.9.2

R/

/C

Temperature [C] Value []

-100.00 60.25

0.00 100.00

100.00 138.50

200.00 175.84

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 3.10

What result do you expect? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Level [mm] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 ----0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm] 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

Time [s]

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Inflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA - Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

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Solutions for process and control engineering

What result to you expect? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 0 5 10 15 20 25 31 38 44 50 56 63 69 75 81

Time [s] 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Level [mm] 87 96 104 112 118 130 138 150 162 175 187 200 225 250 -----

Time [s]

48

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Outflow characteristic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve closed

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What result to you expect? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running

Level [mm] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 ----0 8 19 30 44 60 77 100 131 168 212 280

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

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Inflow characterstic with FluidLab-PA inlet valve open, outlet valve open

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Bildtexte: Level (mm) 1. Inflow t8s), V2 closed 2. Outflow t(s) 3. Inflow t(s), V2 open

Characteristics for container inflow and outflow

Findings from Measurement 1 The outlet valve V102/V112 is closed. As a result inflow via the inlet valve V101, the increase in the level (h) in the container is steady and linear over time. The greater the inflow, the more quickly the level in the container increases per unit time. If the quantity of water in container B101 were not limited, the amount of water would continue to increase until the container overflowed. There is not self-stabilization here. For this reason, the closed container B102 is an uncompensated controlled system. These uncompensated controlled systems are also termed integral systems (I systems), because the feed quantities add up. The level is thus the sum of all water that flows into the system. The time from empty to full is therefore also called the integration time Ti. Typical integral systems in machine-building are hydraulic cylinders and threaded spindles.

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Findings from Measurement 2 The hydrostatic pressure in the water column ensures a reduction of flowrate at the outlet. The lower the water column, the lower the hydrostatic pressure and thus the lower the amount of water outflow. This results in a non-linear characteristic. Example: Electrical engineering: discharge of a capacitor Finding from Measurement 3 Controlled systems with compensation are controlled systems whose characteristic reaches equilibrium after a time. In level-controlled systems, the compensation takes the following physical form. When filling with a constant flowrate (inflow), the pressure of the water column at the bottom of the container is proportional to the level. The pressure at the bottom increases with level. This results in an increase in outflow until equilibrium with the inflow is reached. This results in a constant level that is, it no longer increases. This is called a steady-state end value. Outflow flowrate of water = inflow flowrate Controlled systems with equilibrium are also called PT controlled systems: P because the steady-state value is proportional to the input vale T because the steady-state value is only reached after time T If only container (controlled system) is present, the controlled system is called a PT1 = 1st order controlled system. A controlled system of the 0th order would be a pure P system, for example, a lever: the force is transmitted immediately without any delay.

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Solution for Worksheet 4.1.1

Are you using close-loop or open-loop control of the level?


The level is close-loop controlled..

Is it possible to maintain a constant level manually?


It is very difficult to maintain the level accurately.

Pump voltage measured at mean measured value


Mean measured value [mm]

Pump voltage [V]

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Solution for Worksheet 4.1.2

Determining the operating range and operating point of the control


Transducer output signal U [V]

Level h [mm]

Sensor signal I [mA]

Max. measured value

25

Mean measured value

150

Min. measured value

300

10

The mean measured value can be taken as the operating point for the dynamic response of the control. The operating point should always be in the linear part of the sensor characteristic. The relationship between the input variable and the output variable that is the actual value and the manipulated variable is determined for the static response of the control when stationary. The manipulated variable should also be in the linear part of the actuator (pump).

Transient response of a level-controlled system (Compact Workstation) static response

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Solution for Worksheet 4.1.3

A functioning control always comprises at least two elements: a controller and a controlled system. For control tasks it is essential to know which variable in the system is to be controlled. In a level-controlled system, the controlled variable is the level its current status (actual value) is interrogated by a sensor. How does the system respond with the outlet valve closed? The level (actual value) slowly approaches the setpoint. Once the setpoint is reached, the controller ensures that the speed of the pump is reduced as required to maintain the desired level. How does the system respond with the outlet valve open? Opening the outlet valve acts as a disturbance variable. Water is suddenly removed from the container. The level of the container is maintained, however. The pump runs faster (higher RPM) than with the outlet valve closed. Background The controller has the task of controlling the system in such a way that the controlled variable (that is, the level), remains as constant as possible. In the event of a disturbance (sudden removal of water), the controller increases the speed of the pump to pump more water into the container and thus compensate the loss. The controller is informed of a change in level by the signal from the sensor. This signal is termed the actual value.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Dynamic response setpoint step-change to operating point with PI controller, outlet valve open

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Solution for Worksheet 4.2.1

It is not possible to maintain a constant flowrate manually.

Solution for Worksheet 4.2.2 Determining the measuring chain of the flow-controlled system with a pump as final control element
Flow-controlled system Pump operating range Flowrate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Flowrate Q [l/min] Sensor

Transducer Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min]

MAX

4.3

266

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

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Mean value of the operating range of the control system with a pump as the final control element
Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

2,0

0,35

6,0

Convert the measured value into a dimensionless value in the range [0-0 1.0]. This means that the maximum measurable pressure of 400 mbar would have the value 1.0.

System response for a flow-controlled system with pump at operating point, input voltage jump of 6.0V

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 4.2.3

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a pump and PI controller

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Solution for Worksheet 4.2.4

Determining the operating range of a flow-controlled system with a proportional valve as final control element
Sensor Transducer

Flow-controlled system Proportional value operating range Signal f [Hz] Flowrate Q [l/min] Output signal f [Hz]

Signal f [Hz]

Flowrate Q [l/min]

Output signal f [Hz]

Signal f [Hz]

MAX

2.3

306

9.0

1200

1000

10.0

7.5

MIN

0.0

0.0

0.4

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

Determining the flowrate characteristic of the proportional valve (light blue = pump voltage, green = flowrate)

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Mean value of the operating range of the control system with a proportional valve as the final control element
Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

1,2 (153 Hz)

0,15

6,0

System response for a flow-controlled system with proportional valve at operating point, input voltage jump of 5.0 V.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 4.2.5

System response for a setpoint jump of a flow-controlled system with a proportional valve and a PI controller

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 4.3.1

It is not possible to maintain a constant pressure manually.

Solution for Worksheet 4.3.2 Determining the measuring chain of a pressure-controlled system with a pump as final control element
Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V]

MAX

220

5.45

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

Determining the pressure characteristic of the pump (light blue = pump voltage, green = container pressure)

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Mean value of the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a pump as the final control element
Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

110

0.28

8.0

Convert the measured value into a dimensionless value in the range [0-0 1.0]. This means that the maximum measurable pressure of 400 mbar would have the value 1.0.

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump at operating point, input voltage jump of 8.0 V

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 4.3.3

System response for a pressure-controlled system with pump and PID controller

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Solution for Worksheet 4.3.4

Determining the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve as final control element
Pressure-controlled system Pump operating range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar] Sensor Measuring range Signal [V] Pressure p [mbar]

MAX

210

5.35

400

10V

MIN

0.0

0.0

Determining the pressure characteristic of the proportional valve (light blue = pump voltage, green = container pressure)

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Mean value of the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve as the final control element
Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

105

0.26

1.3

System response for pressure-controlled system with proportional valve at operating point, input voltage jump 1.3 V

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Solution for Worksheet 4.3.5

System response for a setpoint jump of a pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve and PID controller

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Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1

The order of the controlled system can be determined from the transient response curve of the controlled system:

Transient responses of systems of different order

Once the order of the controlled system has been established, the time constant T of the controlled system can be determined graphically. For controlled systems of the 1st order, the time constant is determined as follows:

Bildtexte S = output variable When t = T, T = 63%


Determining the time constant

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Bildtexte: The irrational number e the characteristic value for a steadily decreasing rate of increase calculated? The number e is the final value of the series: Final value Time steps e = 2.71832 (bitte Dezimalpunkt statt komma verwenden) How is the number e, the In the language of mathematics, the time constant is also termed a subtangent. PT1 elements smooth fast-changing signals (high frequencies) but let low frequencies pass. For this reason, they are also known as low-pass filters of the first order. They also generate a phase shift between the input signal and the output signal. The determination of time constants for higher-order controlled systems is described in detail in the workbook Control of temperature, flowrate and level), Chapter 2.3.3, Process analysis and modelling . The controlled system is in steady state after 5T. A controller for the controlled system should always be 8 10 times faster than the time constant to allow correct control.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1

Transient response of the level-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the level-controlled system is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances .The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation level-controlled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

The level-controlled system (with open discharge valve) is a controlled system of the first order.

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Solution for Worksheet5.1.1

Transient response of the flow-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the flow-controlled system with a pump as final control element is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances. The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation levelcontrolled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

The flow-controlled system is a controlled system of the first order.

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Solutions for process and control engineering

Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1

Transient response of the pressure-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the pressure-controlled system with pump as final control element is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances. The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation levelcontrolled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

The pressure-controlled system is a controlled system of the first order.

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Solution for Worksheet 5.1.1

Transient response of the temperature-controlled system at the operating point The transient response of the temperature-controlled system is shown as an example. Please note that the same measurement taken on different systems can lead to deviation. Such deviation is caused by component tolerances .The measurement was made using the Compact Workstation level-controlled system and recorded with FluidLab-PA and EasyportDA.

Note:

The jump is only shown for a temperature change of 5K compared to the start temperature, then the heater is switched off again.

The temperature-controlled system is a controlled system of the first order.

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Solution for Worksheet 5.2.6

Which controller is suitable for which controlled system?


Permanent control deviation P Temperature Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Pressure Mostly unusable PD Simple controlled systems with unsophisticated requirements Mostly unusable Well suited. Also I controllers for controlled systems with large delay time Flow Unsuitable Unsuitable Usable, but I controller alone often better Level In the case of short dead time Transport Unsuitable because of dead time Unsuitable Usable, but I controller alone often better Has little advantage over PI Suitable Suitable Very suitable Suitable Suitable if controlled variable does not pulsate too much No permanent control deviation PI Suitable PID Very suitable

Selection of controller types for the most important controlled variables

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Controlled system P Unsuitable because of dead time PD Unsuitable

Controller type PI Usable, but I controller normally sufficient PID Has little advantage over PI

Pure dead time

1st order with short dead time 2nd order with short dead time

Suitable if control deviation acceptable Control deviation normally too large for required Xp

Suitable if control deviation acceptable Control deviation normally too large for required Xp

Well suited

Suitable

Worse than PID

Well suited

Higher order Without compensation with delay time

Unsuitable Suitable

Unsuitable Suitable

Worse than PID Suitable

Well suited Very suitable

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Solution for Worksheet 5.3.1

Procedure used in the Ziegler-Nichols method

Configure the controller as a P controller

Vary the amplification factor Kr until the controlled system approaches the limit of stability. (Until it just starts to oscillate.)

Read the periodic time of an oscillation.

Use the Ziegler-Nichols table to calculate the necessary parameters for the controller.

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