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WORKBOOK FOR Tonal Harmony WITH AN INTRODUCTION TO TWENTIETH-CENTURY MUSIC FIFTH EDITION Stefan Kostka ~~ Dorothy Payne: Workbook for Tonal Harmony with an Introduction to Twentieth-Century Music Fifth Edition Stefan Kostka The University of Texas at Austin Dorothy Payne The University of South Carolina fa iti Boston Burr Ridge, IL_ Dubuque, IA Madison, Wi New York San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok Bogolé Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madd Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto PART I Fundamentals _1 CHAPTER 1 Elements of Pitch 1 CHAPTER 2 Elements of Rhythm 11 CHAPTER 3 Introduction to Triads and Seventh Chords 19 CHAPTER 4 Diatonic Chords in Major and Minor Keys 31 PART II Diatoniec Tiads 35 CHAPTER 5 Principles of Voice Leading 35 CHAPTER 6 Root Position Part Writing 41 CHAPTER 7 Harmonic Progression 55 CHAPTER 8 Triads in First Inversion 61 CHAPTER 9 Triads in Second Inversion 71 CHAPTER 10 Cadences, Phrases, and Periods 79 CHAPTER 11 Non-Chord Tones 1 87 CHAPTER 12 Non-Chord Tones 2 93 PART III Diatonic Seventh Chords 99 CHAPTER 13, The V7 Chord 99 CHAPTER 14 The II’ and VII’ Chords 117 CHAPTER 15 Other Diatonic Seventh Chords PART IV Chromaticism 1135 CHAPTER 16 Secondary Functions 1. 135 vi Contents CHAPTER 17 Secondary Functions 2 149 CHAPTER 18 Modulations Using Diatonic Common Chords 163 CHAPTER 19 Some Other Modulatory Techniques 179 CHAPTER 20 Binary and Ternary Forms 187 PART V Chromaticism 2197 CHAPTER 21 Mode Mixture 197 CHAPTER 22 The Neapolitan Chord 209 CHAPTER 23 Augmented Sixth Chords 1. 221 CHAPTER 24 Augmented Sixth Chords 2. 235 CHAPTER 25 Enharmonic Spellings and Enharmonic Modulations 239 CHAPTER 26 Further Elements of the Harmonic Vocabulary 249 PART VI Late Romanticism and the Twentieth Century 261 CHAPTER 27 Tonal Harmony in the Late Nineteenth Century 261 CHAPTER 28 An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Music 279 iz | This icon denotes a listening example, For a list ofthe recorded examples, see the last page of the workbook. Part I Fundamentals TS OF PITCH EXERCISE 1-1 HOM TT Tv a Tr B._Notate the indicated pitches on the staff in the correct octave, Student Workbook Chapter | EXERCISE 1-2 A. Notate the specified scales using accidentals, not key signatures. Show the placement of whole and half steps, as in the example, Cra to’ r br L & Ab mor G major Ch major Brnajor GE msjor Bomar Dina B. Identify these major key signatures. C_ major major major major __ major ex. 1 2 3 4 major major_ major CC. Notate the specified key signatures. Abajo E major F iajor Cmsjor Gomajor G major Eb major major 4 Tonal Harmony D. Fill in the blanks. Key signature Name of key ‘Key signature ts Dbmajor 8. seven flats 2 G major 9 3, five sharps major 10. . ES major 44. two sharps 5. two flats ___ major 42. thre flats 6. three sharps ___ major 13. S C# major 14, six sharps , Fill inthe blanks, using the example as a model Major Key Seale Is this ey signature degree note Ex. Cc 4 —_s_ —k_. eR eee 2 2 c 3 4 5 4 G@ = —— —b_ 5 3 2 6. ae 55 pra Faas Name of key _— major F major E major major major Gb major major Student Workbook Chapter 1 EXERCISE 1-3 ‘A. Notate the specified scales using accidentals, not key signatures. The melodie minor should be written both ascending and descending. (natural) (harmonic) > natura) harmonic) s (melodic) sf (eau) (harmonic) at (loaic) B. Identify the type of each scale as major, natural minor, harmonic minor, or melodic ‘minor. Any melodic minor scales will be shown in the ascending version only. 1 2. 5 6 Tonal Harmo C. Identify these minor key signatures. D. Notate the specified minor key signatures. minor cf minor sgminor ‘minor minor shir (minor minor E. Fill in the blanks. Key signature Name of key Key signature Name of key 4. three sharps, =f minor 8. minor 2 eb minor 9. two sharps minor 3 ef minor 40, seven flats minor 4, five fas minor 1 minor 6 a minor 42, one fat minor 6. four flats minor 13, ¢ minor 7. seven sharps: _—— minor 14, gt minor Student Workbook Chapter 1 EXERCISE 1-4 ‘A. Provide the numerical names of the intervals by using the numbers 1 through 8. 1 213 14 15 EXERCISE 1-5 ‘A. All the intervals below are 4ths, Sths, unisons, or octaves. Put vided only ifthe interval is a perfect interval " in the space pro- B. All the imtervals below are 2nds, 3rds, 6ths, or 7ths. Put an “M” or an “m” in each space, as appropriate 1 2 3 t4 6% 1% 1 1% 19 «62 7 8 Tonal Harmony C._ Notate the specified intervals above the given notes. Ms pk Moe? MSP Ps Ms. 14 12 13 14 «151617 18 19 20 an Ms m2 28 29 24 lz iz eM 24 2526 8 8 Siz Mo M3 ng Ma 2 a6 ot Mt Mo 37 Student Workbook Chapter 1 EXERCISE 1-6 ‘A. Most of the intervals below are either augmented or diminished. Name each interval B. Label what each interval becomes when itis inverted. 4, m3 becomes 5. M2 becomes 2. *5 becomes 6. *4 becomes 3. M6 becomes 7. PS becomes 4. °7 becomes 8. m7 becomes C._ Notate the specified interval below the given note. (You might find it helpful to invert the interval first in some cases.) m2 Ms. tM TP 1 12 13 1415 16 7 18 9 10 Tonal Harmony Mo. 40 6 Pa MS ps2 mss 31 “32 33 348586 D. Label each interval in is melody (from Wagner's Gotterddmmerung). a 10 11 12:13 14 «(15 “16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 E, Beneath each harmonic interval below, indicate whether itis consonant ("e”), disso nant ("d"), or dissonant only ifthe bass has the bottom note of the interval ("d bass”) 1. m3 2.M7 3.6 4. PS 5. M6 q _—_ a. in _—_ _ d bass =I — 6.°5 7. Pa 8. PS 9. m2 10. M3 a — a bass TS OF RHYTHM EXERCISE 2-1 A. Show how many notes or rests of the shorter duration would be required to equal the longer duration. ex. dx 2-0 w dxed a dk J 2 dk_- to. dx__-d - a &_-L) a dx ed a Gxt | @ Ts 18 wallow, | 6 =x__=x 4 yx__-k a deen ts. dx__- a &k_-h 1 dx__-o B._ Sing aloud each of the songs listed below, Then identify the meter type of each, using the terms duple, triple, and quadruple, | 4. “Auld Lang Syne™ “Star-Spangled Banne “Pop Goes the Weasel” “America” (*My Country, "Tis of Thee” “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot” ea ep 12 Tonal Harmony CC. Scale review. Fill in the blanks, using the melodic minor forall minor-key examples. ex, 6 is Fein a (M) 4. Fis Cin __(m) 8. __ isCtinb 2. 4is__in 9. 6isC in ___ (M) 3.___isAinF 10. __ is Fting 4. SisCtin __ (m) 11. 4isGin __ (M) 5. 2is__ in E 12. Sis __inG 6. FisAin ___ (M) 13. __ is Abin 7. is ine 14, 16is Ctin __ (m) Student Workbook Chapter2 13, EXERCISE 2-2 A. Fill inthe blanks. Beat and meter ype_| Beat note | Division ofthe eat _| Tine signature 1. e 2 | Simple tiple 2 . | simpe dupte fi | . | Simple quadruple d B. Renotate the excerpts from Example 2-1 using the specified time signatures. gle Belt oo "America the Beau = Home onthe Range” SSS 14 Tonal Harmony EXERCISE 2-3 ‘A. Fill in the blanks. Beat and meter type _| Beat note_| Division of the beat _| Time signature 4. | Compound triple d. 6 2 6 = 2 a Jv) 4. | Compound dupie ddd ® 8 B._ Renotate the excerpts from Example 2-2 using the specified time signatures. “Take Me Out othe Ball Game” “Down in he Vale" Pop Goes ine Wease” ——— oe EXERCISE 2-4 VA = Fill in the blanks. Student Workbook Chapter 2 Beat and meter type_| Beatnore | Division af the beat _| Time signature — 1. [Compound quadruple ii 2. |simpte tiple ial 7 3 dd p 6 4 5. ¢ 2 6 did Each measure below is incomplete. Add one or more rests to complete the measure. td 2d. .&S «BL Sd 3 8 Fl S 08 STI! red od ako. afi lid o8l ld 18d, | ef LINN 1s todbbdSAlL 2 21 ATT) «_ aod didlo J ATI LATTA 211101 of TH wo ddd dd dl s AL FTI d. ITT] AL ITITN LL 28d JIL. Jl a BIJ L1L ITI ab ITT AL dl os BATA ALDI af ddlo Idd do. ol me xo BS Student Workbook Chapter 2 E, Add stems as required, 4. Each duration isa half note. 2. Each duration isa sixteenth note, Beam them in groups of Four, F. Scale review. Fil inthe key, scale degree, or note, whichever is missing. Assume the yelodie minor form for all minor keys. ex. 1 2 3 4 mn F a ‘ a a om 4 ‘ a Bs f % m4 Bi on 6 ® « » ons G. Interval review. Notate the specified interval above the given note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 M6 “ Mo MB 6 7 Mr ” Ps H. Interval review. Notate the specified interval below the given note. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 °s 6 mt Pa Ms MT m2 Ps +6 7 IN UCTION TO TRIADS AND SEVENTH CHORDS EXERCISE 3-1 ‘A. Spell the triad, given the root and the type. te 4 70) 10. 2B af 8 af 11. BY aa” 6D) EE 12.6 B._ Fill inthe blanks. x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Si: GEA 3rd: Bo — — — 56 — F — A Root: # o Dp _ mg B Type: om OM m™ om ° m M m 20 Tonal Harmony ven the chord quality and one member of the triad, notate the remainder ofthe triad, ex. i 2 3 4 5 6 7 st sea el sth root sea sith a e 3rd sth root sth a a root sth st 3d root sth 3rd sth root id + ™ M ° M ™ root ied Sth ed root 3rd stn sit Student Workbook Chapter3 21 EXERCISE 3-2 ‘A. Identify the type of seventh chord, using the abbreviations given in Example 3-3. ex 4 2 3 4 5 6 7 Moniz B, Notate the seventh chord, given the root and type. ex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mt Mov? M7 ” Mm? »” 7 Mot " = 7 m7 7 m7 Mox? 7 22 Tonal Harmony C. Given the seventh-chord quality and one member of the chord, notate the rest of the chord. st a ed sa sin and tt root me toot ae a so root te sh °7 Mm? M? a 7 a7 7 7 Student Workbook Chapter3 23 EXERCISE 3-3 'A. Identify the root and type of each chord and show the correct inversion symbol. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Root Type Inversion sb = a — — 9 10 " 2 13 14 | : q i Root Dre Inversion ‘ymiot = —_ oe ee B. Fillinthe blanks below each figured bass with the oot and chord type that would be played atthe comesponing pont in the excerpt by using lead sheet symbol, The fi tres Sand both mean to use a rot postion ti 1. Bach, “Gott lebet noch’ (adapted) 2. Bach, “Dich bet’ ich an, mein hichster Gott” (he first C83 in the bass is not to be harmonized.) 74 6 § 1 2345 67 8 9 01 1213 14 15 16 24 Tonal Harmony 8. Corelli, Sonata V, Op. 2, Sarabande 1017 12 «13 «(14 C. Notte using half notes on the bottom staff the chords indicated by the lead sheet sym- bls. Notate all chords in root position, Bh Bim? mvs? Gin? o F By Clatk Tey, © 1958 (renewed 1986) Orpheum Music, Berkeley, CA. Student Workbook Chapter 3 EXERCISE 3-4 ‘A. Identify the root and type of each chord and show the correct inversion symbol. All the notes in each example belong to the same chord. The lowest note in each example is the bass note for the purpose of analysis. 1 2 3 4 Root Tyre Inversion ssmbor —_ — —= Root Type Inversion symbol = — — — — 26 Tonal Harmony B. The excerpts below are to be analyzed in a similar way. Each chord is numbered. Put your analysis of the chords in the blanks below the excerpt. Notes in parentheses ‘Should be ignored for the purposes of this exercise. BEM. 2s ia rein End Root Tope Inversion sii Root Tyre Inversion 1 Fe Ie 20D DW 24 25-26 27-22 30 3 «82 8S Student Workbook Chapter3 27 Schumann, “Ich will meine Seele tauchen,” Op. 48, No. 5 Ich wit Root Inversion symbol Root Type Inversion symbol” —_— 28 Tonal Harmony Root _ Tyre _ —_— — symbol 7 9 10 1" 2 son der Root Bre - — Inversion 5 16 7 18 19 symbol” —_ 13 4 15 16 Student Workbook Chapter3 29 : va va Re va eva gva Root we meson = 1 sva ' , ava ava i sva ava eee e+ Macstoso ge A en misuraxo § = he \ V v v v Root — a a te evi DI IC CHORDS IN MAJOR AND MINOR KEYS EXERCISE 4-1 |A. Given the key and the triad, supply the roman numeral, Be sure your roman numeral is ofthe comect type (uppercase or lowercase). Inversion symbols, where required, g0 to the upper right ofthe roman numeral (as i 1) ex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ® ot cr & Db: © ft c B. In the exercise below you are given the name of a key and a scale degree number (in parentheses). Without using key signatures, notate the triad on that scale degree and provide the roman numeral. In minor keys be sure to use the triad types circled in Example 4-7 (p. 61), ex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 sw o ©: « Fe e F 6 8 o o o 8 ® o o a ® a eo oe o 32 Tonal Harmony CC. Analysis. Write roman numerals in the spaces provided, making sure each roman numeral is of the correct type and includes an inversion symbol if necessary. BEB cs, sven nei Sativa ist BBB 0 vean sin sno rane is Bh ee: 1 920 8) eae Tey 7, Its D. Fill in the blanks, using the example as a model. This Has this Key chord bass note ex, 1 _E = acter, a 2 Ive a 3 tk is 4, _B —i a 5. —a D Student Workbook Chapter 33, EXERCISE 4-2 A. Given the key and the seventh chord, provide the roman numeral. Be sure your roman numeral isthe correct type and includes an inversion symbol if necessary. ex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B. Inthe exercises below you are given the name of a key and a scale degree number (in parentheses). Without using key signatures, notate the seventh chord on that scale degree in root position and provide the roman numeral. In minor keys, be sure to use the chord types shown in Example 4-9 (p. 65). ex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 o @ o o 8 o o 6 ot ‘ © ra o @ a o o a 6 Tonal Harmony C. Analysis. Put roman numerals in the spaces provided, making sure each roman ‘numeral is of the correct type and includes an inversion symbol, if needed, Con moto >— Soprano Soprano tt Ato ‘Ato Part II Diatonic Triads PLES OF VOICE LEADING EXERCISE 5-1 ‘A. Criticize each melody in terms of the rules for simple melodies discussed on | ages 71-72, 1 35 36 Tonal Harmony Student Workbook Chapter 37 EXERCISE 5-2 A. Analyze the excerpt below, using roman numerals. Then show beneath each roman humeral the structure of the chord by writing "C" or “0” for close or open structure. ‘The notes in parentheses are not part of the chord and should be ignored for the pur- pose of harmonic analysis. EBD serra ody Op 68 No.22 Madera B. Review the two conventions concerning spacing on pages 7475. Then point out in the example below any places where those conventions are not followed, 38 Tonal Harmony C. Fill in the circled missing inner voice(s) to complete each root position triad, being sure that each note of the triad is represented. Follow the spacing conventions and stay within the range of each vocal part 1 2 3 4 D. Inthe examples below you are given the soprano note for each chord. Supply the alto, tenor, and bass notes to complete the specified triad in close or open position, as indi- cated. Be sure to double the root of each chord and to follow the spacing conventions. 1 Chose 2 open 3 Close 4 Close 5 open 6 Open T Cine 8 Open Student Workbook ChapterS 39 EXERCISE 5-3 A. Label the chords in the excerpt below with roman numerals, Then label any examples of parallelism (objectionable or otherwise) that you can find BBE 5 t2man ih cn nace ss” alo dle sia B. Find and label the following errors in this passage: 41. Parallel Sves 2. Parallel Sths 8. Direct Sth 4. Consecutive Sths by contrary motion '5. Spacing error (review pp. 74-75) 40 Tonal Harmony CC. Find and label the following errors in this passage: 41, Parallel Sves 2. Parallel Sths 3. Direat Sve 4, Spacing error PART WRITING EXERCISE 6-1. Using repeated triads Fill in the inner voice or voices in the second chord of each exercise. The key is F major throughout. Double the roots of the triads in the four-voice examples. 4 four pans 4 Student Workbook Chapter6 43, EXERCISE 6-2. Using roots a 4th (5th) apart A. Add alto and tenor parts to each exercise below. Each progression involves roots a P4 (PS) apart. Use one of the three methods outlined on pages 87-88 in each case and state which you have used. 1 Gg eee ee i pe 44 Tonal Harmony B. Add an alto part to each exercise. Be careful to observe conventions concerning spac- ing, parallels, and doubling. Each triad should include at least a root and a 3rd. 1 2 3 Student Workbook Chapter 45 EXERCISE 6-3. Using roots a 4th (5th) and 3rd (6th) apart A. Add alto and tenor parts to each exercise below. Use the smoothest voice leading in each case. For roots a 4th (Sth) apart, state which method you have used. 1 2 -— — 3s --—— ‘cerning parallels, spacing, and doubling, 1 2 3 Bs Wi VIo® Fo mM ws @iuviw avi Saudent Workbook Chapter 47 EXERCISE 6-4. Using all root relationships A. Complete each progression, Make two versions of each: one for three parts (adding an alto) and one for four parts (adding alto and tenor). In the four-part versions, state ‘which method you have used for any progression by 4th or Sth. 1 thre pars fourpans | — 2 - 48 Tonal Harmony B. Fill in alto and tenor parts in these exercises 1 f i ovo oto ow ‘m wy e iow om w¥ i vow Ww ve i Student Workbook Chapter6 49 CC. Name the keys and analyze the chords specified by these figured basses. Then com- pose a good melody line for each. Finally fill in alto and tenor parts to make a four- part texture. 50 Tonal Harmony D. Write the following short progressions in root position for combinations of three and four pars, 1 thre pas Eb Hoyo ek bovwow oa Ww vw 2 four pars B Hoy 1 ek bow mW vw 3 tree pars 4 tour pans Student Workbook Chapter6 SI EXERCISE 6-5 A. Notate the chords below for the specified instruments. Each chord is written at con- cert pitch, so transpose as needed for the performers, Use the correct clef for each instrument. Note that the instruments are listed in score order, the order used in Appendix A, which is not always the same as order by pitch, = ose in Asi tn Ve Cu. in Ban Tein BE $2 Tonal Harmony B. Set the following progression for combinations of three and four parts. If possible, score for instruments in your class. Use root position only. 1 te pars (reduced score) (fll seore) Student Workbook Chapter6 53 2 four pars (reduced score) (ll sore) 54 Tonal Harmony CC. Write a version of the excerpt below on a grand staif by transposing the parts to con- cert pitch. Play your version on the piano and analyze the harmonies if you can. cu inh Ben. Hn, ink NIC PROGRESSION EXERCISE 7-1 ‘A. Complete each progression to conform with the chord diagrams on pages 103-109. ‘The chord in the blank should be different from those on either side of it. In most ‘cases, there is more than one correct answer, we 2 1 (__or__) 4 ii’ 2 ve (__) BA ~f 7 FS Swi? 20 vi (__) 31 2 i (Loy) 6@v 2 i (_) B, Bracket any portions of these progressions that do not conform to the chord diagrams ‘on pages 103-109. Li iow owovooi 21 vo # Wor vot a1 ii Wo owe © Woy I 4i mow i vO wis i C. Analysis: Label all chords with roman numerals and bracket any successions of chords that do not agree with the chord diagrams on pages 103-108. 58 56 Tonal Harmony Vivaldi, Cello Sonata in G Minor, Prelude. Unfigured bass realization by S. Kostka, \Non-chord tones in the solo part have not ben put in parentheses, but the harmonic analysis ean be done by concentrating on the accompaniment. The key is g minor, despite what appears to be an incorrect key signature. Key signatures had not yet become standardized when this work was composed, Student Workbook Chapter7 57 D. Analyze the chords specified by these figured basses and add inner voices to make a four-part texture. Bracket all cicle-of-fifths progressions, even those that contain only two chords. Before beginning, review the partwriting for deceptive progressions. 58 Tonal Harmony E, Analyze this figured bass, then add a good soprano line and inner voices, Bracket all circle-of-fifths progressions, F. Add an alto part (only) to mm. 1 to 2. Then compose a good soprano line for mn 3 104 and fill in an alto part. G. Below are two unfigured bass lines. Using triads in root position and first inversion ‘only, show a good harmonization of each one by placing roman numerals beneath the bass line. Be sure to refer to the diagrams on p. 109 while you work on your harmonizations, Student Workbook Chapter? 59 H__ Harmonize the melodies below by using root position major or minor (not diminished) triads in an acceptable progression. Try to give the bass a good contour while avoid- ing parallel and direct Sths and 8ves with the melody. Be sure to include analysis. Finally, add one or two inner parts to make a version for SAB three-part chorus or SATB four-part chorus, as indicated 1 sarB 2 san 3 sae 4 sap 60 Tonal Harmony 5 sama 1. Compose a simple melody, then follow the instructions for Part H. You might need t0 revise the melody as you work on the harme SS SSS J. Review: Label the chords with roman numerals and inversion symbols (where needed). ex. 1 2 4a 8 4 5 6 7 « #6 & Bb G ‘ » E Ab Chapten, 8 TRIADS IN FIRST INVERSION EXERCISE 8-1 A. Analysis, sion) that you can find leading in the mple 8-9 (p, 122)? EER btoven sons Op. 2.80 i ——. se : be 2 Pi d P p |p ££ —* Men, D.C : ’ : 61 62 Tonal Harmony 2. Label all chords with roman numerals. Then classify the doubling in each inverted triad according to the methods shown in Example 8-10 (p. 123). |: eee 3, Label all chords with roman numerals. Bracket the circle-of-fifths progression (review pp. 101~102). B. The excerpt below is from Mozart’s String Quartet K. 428. Supply the missin line (viola in the original). tenor B: 6» 3 6 w w vt vo 4 Student Workbook Chapter 8 ‘C._ Supply alto and tenor lines forthe following passages. 1 2 3 6 a 1 wis6 & oi oy wee GB Tye vo e 1 vie 16 a6 6 Student Workbook Chapier8 65 D. Supply alto lines for the following passages. A 2 3 yw vO Bh i vie 6 ey & 4 6 we ome GO i E. Analyze the harmonies implied by the sopranofbass lines below and add one or two inner parts, as specified by your instructor. 66 Tonal Harmony F._ The following passage is reduced from Beethoven's Sonata Op. 10, No. 3, IIL Analyze the implied harmonies (more than one good solution is possible) and add an alto line (only). Use only triads in root position and first inversion. a G. Continue your solution to Part D with a second eight-measure segment. The second. part should be similar to the first, but if it starts exactly like it, objectionable parallels ‘ill result. Maintain the three-part texture. Student Workbook Chapter8 67 Hi. Review the figured bass information on pages 45-46. Then realize the figured basses below by following these steps: a. Provide the roman numerals specified by the figured bass. . Compose a simple melody that will conform to the progression and at the same time will ereate a good counterpoint with the bass. . Make two completed versions of each, one for three parts and one for four parts. 1 Thvee pans Bt Bb 2 Thee pars (The horizontal ine beneath he last measre means tha the 3rd above the bass shold be retained inthe next chord) ‘ 6 1 6 of Four puts 68 Tonal Harmony Review the chord diagrams on pages 103-109, Then assign roman numerals to each of the bass notes in the exercises below, using triads (only) in root position and first inversion to create a good tonal progression. Then follow steps b and c for Part H. If possible these settings should be for vocal or instrumental combinations found in your class ‘Student Workbook Chapter 8 69 Select roman numerals with which to harmonize this melody, changing chords every place there is a blank. Be sure your progression is a good one. Then write out the ‘melody with a bass line, using first inversion triads where appropriate. Make sure that the bass creates a good counterpoint with the melody and that there are no objection- able parallels. Finally, make a piano setting, using the bass line you composed. Keep the piano texture simple, perhaps like that in Example 8-3 (p. 118). Chapten, 9 TRIADS IN SECOND INVERSION EXERCISE 9-1 ‘A. Analysis. In addition to the specific instructions for each example, label each six-four ‘chord by type. 4. Label all chords with roman numerals. 2. Label chords with roman numerals, 1 72 Tonal Harmony 3. Label the chords with roman numerals and put parentheses around all non- chord tones. FEB iss wick sctuman, seh, 0.18, No.4 1m pce pit trangia eel P ‘leels Published 1976 by Willy Mller Suddeutscher Verlag und 1994 by Bretkopf & Hartel 4, Inthis excerpt, six-four chords are formed by arpeggiations in m. 1 and by a melodic bass in m. 2 (the bass in mm, 2-3 imitates the soprano melody in mm. 1-2). Put roman numerals in the blanks provided and put parentheses around all non-chord tones, Then show where any six-four chords occur, no matter how briefly, Suudent Workbook Chapter'9 73, 5. Label the chords with roman numerals. As before, identify the type of any six- four chord you encounter. LL Vt Viet ” Tonal Harmony Label the chords with roman numerals, and identify the type of an chord you encounter Beethoven, Piano Concerto No. 1, Op. - — oe 2» dG33 A om i Student Workbook Chapter9 75 B. Fill in one or two inner parts, as specified. Identify any six-four chords by type. 1. Aud Alto and Tenor 2 Ads Ato 3 Aad Alto and Tenor @ i) ® wv vom ww gy wm ® w vi Vv 4 Add Alto and Tenor 5 Ads Ato BL (vf) rite wv ei 6 WS) ©. Realize these figured basses for thee or four voices, as specified, striving to create od outer-voice counterpoint. Notice the frequent use of | (oF the equivalent, such as }) to indicate root-position triads following an inverted chord. Analyze with roman nuseals and label six-four types. 4 Adi Soprano, Alto, and Tenor 2 Aad Soprano and Alto 6 6 ¢ ou 66 $4 $4 {8 Add Soprano, Alo, and Tenor 4A Soprano, Abo, and Tenor 66 § 64 6 § 76 Tonal Harmony D. Harmonize each unfigured bass with a good tonal progression, Then compose a soprano line that will both fit the progression and create a good outer-voice counter- point with the bass. Finally, fill in alto and tenor parts to make a four-part texture, Be sure to include a six-four chord in each one and identify the six-four type. ® E, Harmonize each melody by composing a bassline that will ereate a good counterpoint with the melody and that will imply a good harmonic progression. Complete the har- monization by filling in two inner parts. Try to include an appropriate six-four chord in each harmonization Student Workbook Chapier9 77 F. Continue the accompaniment of this violin melody. Non-chord tones are in parenthe ses. Be sure to use at least one cadential, passing, or pedal six-four chord, Include a harmonic analysis, via Bh 1 6 CES, PHRASES, AND PERIODS EXERCISE 10-1 ‘A. Cadences. Using only triads in root position and first inversion, compose examples of the following cadences. Each example should include three chords—the two cadence chords plus one chord preceding the cadence chords. Include key signatures and roman numerals. 1 twee pars 2 ‘our pans 8 tree pars 4 our pans & ® F » (oot position AC) (Ceara!) Hoy (averted 1AC) 5 tree pas 6 four pans 7 the pars 8 four pans G a Bh ® ac ec) (eading-tone IAC) (rygian HC) | 9 80 Tonal Harmony 9 tree pans 10 four pans 44 three pars 12 four pans ® © (carta) fix) B, Analysis. The cadence chords have been analyzed for you in each example. Make a diagram of each excerpt similar to the diagrams used in the text. Include phrase labels (a,b, and so on), cadence types and measures, and the form of the example. 4. Be sure to listen to this stn theme in its oF jainal orchestral version as well EBB sema, mpi X19 8 ao sion ‘Molto vivace Student Workbook Chapter 1081 Diagram and name the form of this excerpt. Also: ‘a, Bracket all sequences in the melody. ». Find the best example of imitation between the melody and the bass. c. Label the chords implied by the two voices. Non-chord tones are in parentheses in the bass (only). Note: The best choice for m. 5 is nor aii chord. (Compare m. 5 with m. 13) ‘Anonymous: Minuet in G, from the Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach ae ae Do the two phrases here begin with similar material? Compare mm. 9 to 10 with mm, 13 to 14, Diagram and name the form. Mozart, Violin Sonata K. 377, I 82 Tonal Harmony 4. Diagram and name the form of this excerpt, and copy out any rhythmic motives found in both of the phrases. The progression at x resembles an IAC in what key? What is the relationship between that key and e minor? sere mf} ong eso Student Workbook Chapter 10 83, ‘This excerpt is in the form of a three-phase period (some would call it a phrase group). ‘Would it be better to say that it has two antecedent phrases or tWo consequent phrases? Why? Which phrase features a circle-of-fifths sequence? Analyze all the chords in that phrase and diagram the form of the excerpt. BE ver sona 581 :~ > . 6 v4 84 Tonal Harmony Ww 1 6. Diagram the form of this excerpt in four ways, all of which are possible interpretations: (1) all four-measure phrases: 4-44-4444; (2) four phrases, the last one extended 4+4+4+8; (3) two long phrases plus a short final phrase: 8+8-+4; and (4) two phrases, the second extended: 8+ 12. Which interpretation do you prefer? Why? BEB ve Som st, Presto Student Workbook Chapter 1085 7. Diagram and name the form of this theme, then label the first five chords. Also, see if you can find a disguised sequence hidden in the soprano and another in the bass in mm. Adagio cantabile — ee __—_—_____—__ vk Ie 86 Tonal Harmony C._ Review. Notate the chords in the keys and bass positions indicated, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 & 6 ake? Gang pa eM « Ae ih Ekyis? ck vf astvMT ORD TONES 1 EXERCISE 11-1 AL Analysis. 1. Go back to Example 8-19 (p. 128), which shows NCTs in parentheses, and identify in the blanks below the type of each NCT found in the solo horn part. Always show the interval classification (4-3 and so on) when you analyze suspensions, m6 m7 m8 m.10 m1 2. Analyze the chords and NCTs in this excerpt. Then make a reduction similar to those seen in the text by (1) removing all NCTS, (2) using longer note values or ties for repeated notes, and (3) transposing parts bby a P8 where necessary to make the lines smoother. Study the simplified texture. Do any voice-leading problems appear to have been covered up by the embellishments? Discuss the reasons for the leap in the tenor in m. 3 BE 22 ti tenses getge Reduction 87 88 Tonal Harmony B. After reviewing pages 172-176, decide what one suspension would be best in each excerpt below, Then renotate with the suspension and at least one other embellishment. Remember to put parentheses around NCTs and to label NCTS and arpeggiations. 1 2 a 4 » vo i va wed ve i wh HPO Bh vo WO CC. The example below is a simplified excerpt from a Bach chorale harmonization. Label the chords with roman numerals and activate the texture with stepwise NCTs, inelud- ing at least one suspension. Label all embellishments. Student Workbook Chapter 11 In the figured basses below, the symbols “4 $” call for a 4-3 suspension, with a sharp applied to the note of resolution. The symbols “6 ~” indicate that a first inversion triad is to be used above both C’s in the bass. For each figured bass, do the following: 4. Analyze the harmonies with roman numerals. 2. Compose a simple but musical soprano Tine, 3. Fill in one or two inner parts, as specified. 4. Add some stepwise NCTS to each example and label them, 89 90 Tonal Harmony E. Using the following progressions, compose a good soprano/bass framework, using inversions where desired. Next add one or two inner parts, as specified. Show with an -revery possible location for a 9-8, 7-6, 43, or2-3 suspension. Finally, create an elab- crated version of the simple texture, including at least one suspension. Other embell- ishments should be limited to arpeggiations and stepwise NCTs. 4. Thrce-part texture. (Remember that diminished triads should be used in first inversion.) wei eva irip rir rie rir cir a Student Workbook Chapter11 91 2. Four-part texture wi 1 err rirr erie t E.Compose your own harmonic progression and follow the instructions for part E. Try ‘a two-, three, or four-part texture 92 Tonal Harmony G. Analyze the chords implied by this two-voice framework. Then embellish the frame- ‘work in an arrangement for string quartet, A suggested beginning is given. vu Gers ————— SS H. Continue your solution to Part G to form a parallel period. Re HE aE Chapter, 12 NON-CHORD TONES 2 EXERCISE 12-1 A. Analysis 1p 3. Go back to Example 7-18 on page 108 of the text, where NCTS are shown in parentheses, ‘and identify the type of each NCT in the blanks below. Always show the interval classification (7-6 and so on) when you analyze suspensions. ml m3 Do the same for Example 10-14 on page 158 ofthe tex. mim m3 mid mS am. 16, violins pianos Do the same for Example 9-12.0n page 142. Vite m23 m2 m.25 m.26 Vit m23 m6 Label chords and NCTS in this excerpt Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 545,11 9% 94 Tonal Harmony 5. The chords in this excerpt have been labeled for you. Put parentheses around all NCTS. in mm, 1 (0 6 (only) and label them. The roman numerals in parentheses are part of a nonfunctional” series of parallel sixth chords (review pp. 120-122), and some other chords have been left unlabeled because they are too advanced for you at this point, The last three measures are included for context, but they are not part ofthis exercise BBE cose it stan, Lat, 09.15.80. Largheto as Gi hv oe + gy Published 1976 by Willy Muller Suddeutscher Verlag and 1994 by Bre thopf & Hue! 6. The chords in this excerpt have been analyzed using lead sheet symbols. Put parentheses around all NCTs and label them, ea geen) Tse RL eS - E Am a? c Bim Am Student Workbook Chapter 1295 B. Using a three-part texture, write authentic cadences in five different keys, employing different NCT from the following list in each cadence: p. n, ant, app. €. (C. Analyze the chords in this phrase with roman numerals. Then renotate the phrase on the staves below, adding at least 4 NCTs, atleast 2 of which should be suspensions. Label all the NCTs, and show the interval classifications of the suspensions. potia D. Compose a simple melody for each figured bass below and fill in inner voices to make four-part texture. Include some of the NCTs studied in this chapter. Analyze chords and NCTs. 96 Tonal Harmony In this example, use @ V chord on beat 3 of m, 1. Also, the symbols “6 — a first inversion chord is to be maintained throughout m. 2. E. Compose a passage in four parts in the key of b minor employing a 7-6 suspension rear the beginning and a tonic pedal near the end. - PE F. Compose eight measures to continue Part A, number 3, on page 72 of this workbook, Maintain a similar texture and end with a PAC. Include an NCT studied in this chapter, o fe o 5 Student Workbook Chapter 12 G. The framework below is a simplified version of a passage from Mozart's Magic Flute. Embellish the framework, turning it into a vocal part (to be sung on neutral syllables) with piano accompaniment. Try to include at least one chromatic NCT. H. Continue your solution to Part G to form a parallel period, 7 Part ITI Diatonic Seventh Chords EXERCISE 13-1 ‘A. The note given in each case is the root, 3d, Sth, or 7th of a V7 chord, Notate the chord. in root position and name the major key in which it would be the V’. 1 2 3 4 5 6 r 8 si a 1 root ed th root mm B. Analyze chords and NCTs in the excerpt below. Then discuss the voice leading in the two V? chords. (Note: You might have analyzed the B's in the V chords as passing tones, but consider them to be chord 7ths for the purposes of your discussion.) cs os | | t 100 Tonal Harmony C. Resolve each chord to a root po incomplete chord.) on I. (Note: ¢ means complete chord, / means Poe Wim Tae WW ww wo oo i 7 1 of Wo i ew 1 mw 1 og wi eo fw 0 © wo 7 Ek von ke Wma OW 0 © ow @ a) © Student Workbook Chapter 13.101 DD. Notate the key signature and the V” chord and then resolve it 1 the pats 2 twee pars 3 four punts 4 tour pans 5 four pas awo4 ava EW avd mv g o @ ® © o © tives parts 7 tc parts 8 for pars 9 four pas 10 four pas BW wi AW 4 6 vo hw ow pw ow 102 Tonal Harmony E, Analyze the chords specified by this figured bass. Then make two harmonizations, one for SAB chorus and one for SATB chorus, 1 66 + I Analyze the chords implied by the soprano and bass lines below. Then fill in inner parts. Remember that the tenor part sounds a P8 lower than written, vw ‘Swudent Workbook Chapter 13 103 G. Analyze the harmonies implied by these sopranorbass frameworks. Then make four- part versions with embellishments and atleast one root position V" choed a 104 Tonal Harmony H Seta short text for four-part chorus. The text might be a poem, a headline from a newspaper, or anything. Include at last one V7-I progression. Try to keep the motion going through the use of elaborations Student Workbook Compose a period in a simple three-part texture. End the first phrase with a V7-vi DC, the second with a V’-I PAC. Then create a version for three instruments, the top part being elaborated by arpeggiations and NCTS, the other two parts in an accompanying, role. Turn in both versions 4. Simple version Chapter 13 > RD he los 106 Tonal Harmony 2. Elaborated version Student Workbook Chapter 13 107 EXERCISE 13-2 ‘A. Notate the specified chords. Use accidentals instead of key signatures. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DB Mos vom yop Woe vor vom yok vw B. Label chords and NCTSin the excerpts below. Comment on the treatment ofthe lead ing tone and 7th in any V7 chords in toot position or inversion Notice that in Exercises 1 and 3 the key signature does not agree with the given key, ‘This is because in each case the music has modulated (changed key) to the dominant Modulation will be introduced in Chapter 18. Bach, “Ich dank’ dr, lieber Herre” (Which isthe more sensible analysis of beat 4 of m. 3 i$ or V2) FB2 bet, soa Op 2.No. 11 —_» St 108 Tonal Harmony Ei: Mozart, Quintet K. 452, (piano reduction) © a, " BBE+ scunan, tn een 0p 25.80 2 (Dot ate NCTsin is se) rian nmin Kind = kein as ed ck Stulent Workbook Chapter 13 109 CC. Resolve each chord to a tonic triad (except as indicated). Analyze both chords. 1 2 3 4 5 Student Workbook Chapter13 M1 D. Supply the key signature. Then notate and resolve the specified chord. Finally, beg the passage with a chord that will allow good voice leading and provide the indicated approach to the 7th, Notate as quarter noes. Label all unlabeled chords, 1a 2p 3 4 9 ap 10s 1p 20 112 Tonal Harmony E. Show with roman numerals the chords that this figured bass calls for. Then complete the realization in four voices. a sh Student Workbook Chapter 13.113 F. Analyze the chords implied by each soprano/bass framework. Then add inner parts and embellishments to make a four-part choral texture, Include an inverted V7 chord. a 114 Tonal Harmony G. Analyze the chords implied by this soprano/bass framework. Then ereate a piano tex ture by filling out some of the chords and adding embellishments. Arpeggiations wall be especially useful for prolonging the I chord in mm, 1 to 2. Be sure to include an inverted V" chord, Student Workbook Chapter 13, us H, Make one or more settings of the following song. 1 2 Write an arrangement fortwo Bb trumpets, unaccompanied. Analyze the har- !monies implied by the two lines, Include a last one inverted V". ‘Make an arrangement for four-part chorus. ry to elaborate the other voices slightly. Include at least one inverted V". Watch out for parallel Sves and Sths throughout ‘Compose a version for piano solo, including at least one inverted V7. Be pre- pared to play it or find someone else in the class who will do so. 116 Tonal Harmony 1. Compose a period for a string trio (violin, viola, cello) or for some other combination of instruments in your class. Include at least two inverted V" chords EXERCISE 14-1 A. Notate the following chords. Use accidentals, not key signatures, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ewe? ca ce wif Bf eae inf ei? a B. Analyze the following chords. Be sure your symbols indicate chord quality and ur 118 Tonal Harmony C. Analyze the chords and NCTs in the following excerpts. Whenever a ii’ (i®”) or vii®?” (vii®) chord in root position or inverted is encountered, discuss the voice leading into and out of the chord. BEM 2, es dro msn Se ® Student Workbook Chapter 14119 4, Label the chords in the blanks provided. Do not label NCTS in this excerpt. The mx: dynamic markings stand for mezza voce, “half voice.” which means approximately the same thing as mezzo forte, or my. The tempo is Poco Adagio. EBB en cues op 5, 90.6. - 120 Tonal Harmony 5. Label the chords and NCTS in this excerpt. These are the third and fourth phrases of the double period that wakes up the opening theme, Although too long to be quoted here, the entire theme (mm, 1-30) is worth studyin Student Workbook Chapter 14 at D. Notate, introduce, and resolve the specified chords. Approach each chord 7th as a sus- pension, a neighbor, or a passing tone, as specified. Include key signatures and roman numerals to 2p 3s as © if D: a a a ee en » wig a 122 Tonal Harmony E. Analyze these figured basses and continue the realizations, keeping the keyboard texture but following conventional partwriting procedures. cf 2. Bach, St. Matthew Passion, No. 20 (Andante) Student Workbook Chapter 14123 Harmonize these chorale phrases for four-part chorus. 4. Include a root position ii? ma 2. Include a root postion vii?? and a 4-3 suspension. 3, Include a i and a deceptive eadence, Some eighth-note chords will be necessary 4. Include a vile and a passing tone sé 124 Tonal Harmony G, Make a setting of the folk song below for some combination of voices and/or instru- ‘ments available in your class, Include one of the chords discussed in this chapter. ee Chapten, 15 OTHER DIATONIC SEVENTH CHORDS EXERCISE 15-1 A. Notate the following chords. Use accidentals, not key signatures, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ae og wel oe wl Mg 7 oe WM oe Mg Mg owe oe Mg wi WME av 4 9 10 1 12 13 14 15 16 o Be oOWMZ ce of ok oo ow ok ME oof dk MQ B. Analyze the following chords. Be sure your symbols indicate chord quality and inver- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 126 Tonal Harmony C._ Analyze the chords in the excerpts below. Comment on the voice leading involving any of the chords discussed in this chapter. EB opi stoasain amin op. rst 3 —_— FEM ect, cterrdesu christ, de chistes Gut” Bille cot, conto Gro 0p. 6 Ne 1 “ —, Student Workbook Chapter 1S 127 | After you finish labeling all ofthe chords, complete the three-part reduction of mm. 86-92 that follows the excerpt. The neighbor figures in 16th notes in ‘mm. 84-91 are NCTs, not the sevenths of chords. efaed “Textual reduction Saudent Workbook Chapter 1S D. Continue this four-part elaboration of Example 15-19 (p. 238), ‘ 7 vit iM vit? ie? vt i EE, Notate, introduce, and resolve the specified chords. Approach each chord 7th as sus- pension, a neighbor, ora passing tone, as specified. Include key signatures and roman numerals te 2s ap § ® 0? f ni # wf ee > 7 G8 WM eT ME Toe TTT ng 8 (circle of it) (eirce oF its) (circle of Fh) 129 130 Tonal Harmony F. Analyze the chords called for by the figured bass below. Remember that the figured bass symbols are part of the music, not part of the harmonic analysis, which should be written beneath it. Then continue the four-part realization of that figured bass Note: Be sure to review pages 176-177 before proceeding. (Figures in the fifth meas- ure added by the authors.) ve vid Concent grosso Via DB, Realization Student Workbook Chapter 1 G. Analyze this figured bass and continue the realization, keeping the keyboard texture but following conventional partwriting procedures. Corelli, Concerto Gross, Op. 6 No. 9, “Preludio” Largo H. Compose a passage for three voices or instruments containing a sequence of seventh chords similar to that used in the excerpt of Past F. 131 132 Tonal Harmony 1. The following is a simple note-against-note contrapuntal framework. Analyze the ‘implied harmonies, then elaborate it into a passage containing several seventh chords. Use four parts ora free keyboard texture. Your final version might be complex, but the original framework should be retained. Include roman numerals and NCT analysis, Dt Student Workbook Chapter15 133 Create a framework similar to Exercise [but in the minor mode, Be sure that it implies 42 good harmonic progression. Then create an elaboration that employs some of the seventh chords discussed in this chapter. If possible, score for a combination of instru- ‘ments in your class. RS Part IV Chapter, 16 Chromaticism SECONDARY FUNCTIONS 1 EXERCISE 16-1 A. Review the material on spelling secondary dominants (p. 248). Then notate these sec ‘ondary dominants in the specified inversions. Include key signatures. 1 2 3 4 5 ee BV Avy Mv «vw B vey vi VW 135 136 Tonal Harmony B. Label any chord that might be a secondary domi ‘on page 248-249. Label all others with an x int according to the steps outlined 1 2 3 4 5 Student Workbook Chapter 16 137 EXERCISE 16-2 A. Analysis 4. Label chords and NCTs. Identify any six-four chords by type. This excerpt contains a set of parallel Sths in a context that Bach must have found acceptable because he used them so often in this situation, See if you can find them, BE. Peete ir cise ate 2. Label chords and NCTs. Notice that the right hand is in bass clef throughout. Discuss the sequence implied by mm, 5 to 8. Is the excerpt an example of a period? If so, is ita parallel period or a contrasting period”? > Adagio cantabile — 138 Tonal Harmony Beethoven, Sonata Op. 2, No. 1,1 Ces o ES 4. Student Workbook Chapter 16 Label chords and NCTS. Ignore the grace notes in your harmonic and NCT analysis; for example, the EIS in m. | is an upper neighbor ornamented by the appoggiatura grace note. ‘Comment on Chopin's use of Fund Fé in this excerpt. Where do they occur? Are they ever in conflit? The form ofthe excerpt is a (paralleVcontrasting) (period/double period). Chopin, Mazurka Op. 67, No. 2 139 140 Tonal Harmony 5. Label chords and NCTS. What is the form of this excerpt? (Note: Measures introductory.) FEB) bectieven. quater op. 135,10 ule Peres Student Workbook Chapter 16 141 6 Label the chords with roman numerals. Label NCTS in the solo bassoon part only, The note under the fermata in m. 49 represents a V chord, It was at this point that the soloist improvised a cadenza, The conductor waited until he heard the soloist ative at the G3 (often tilled) at which point he would signal the orchestra to be ready for their ent in m. 50. BBE van nassonConsno K111 © a, ae DB. 142 Tonal Harmony on, He, in vil vu. ve on, Hn, ine Ben vi DB Student Workbook Chapter 16 143, B. For each of the following problems, first analyze the given chord. Next, find a smooth ‘way to lead into the chord. Although there are many possibilities, it wil often work to use a chord whose root is a PS above the root ofthe secondary dominant, Experiment with other relationships also. Then resolve each chord properly, taking special care with the leading tone and 7th resolutions. Analyze all chords. 1 2 3 4 5 ® © VV ab C. List below each note the secondary V and V" chords that could harmonize that note ‘You might find it helpful to refer to the charts on page 247. 1 2 3 4 5 144 Tonal Harmony D. Provide roman numerals to show how the first note could be harmonized as a second- ary dominant. The second note should be harmonized by the tonicized chord. a 2 3 4 5 E, Analyze the chords specified by each figured bass, then make an arrangement for SATB chorus. Strive for smooth voice leading, even if this results in a dull soprano Tine 4 1 & i Student Workbook Chapter 16145 F Harmonize each chorale phrase for SATB chorus. Include one or more secondary dominants in each phrase and activate the texture with some NCTS, 1 Om 2 146 Tonal Harmony G. Analyze the harmonies implied by the following soprano/bass framework. Then make ‘8 more interesting version for piano, beginning with the two measures given below. Student Workbook Chapter 16 147 H. Continue the example below to make a total of at least eight measures. Include one or more secondary dominants and end with a PAC. Then score it for four instruments found in your class. Analyze all chords and NCTS. ty 148 L Tonal Harmony Finish the analysis of the phrase below. This phrase is to serve as the a phrase of a longer theme you will compose. The theme will be in the form of a parallel double period, Include at least one secondary dominant. TT req 7p 7 lac HC lac PAC ARY FUNCTIONS 2 EXERCISE 17-1 A. Review how to spell secondary leading-tone chords (pp. 264-265), Then notate these secondary leading-tone chords in the specified inversion. Include key signatures. 1 2 3 4 5 a | & ity, tim wR 5) © wehy Siw Be ehy fe vim és cs welav vie wiPyy 149 180 Tonal Harmony B. Label any chord that would be a secondary leading-tone chord according to the steps outlined on page 265. Label all others with an x 1 2 3 4 5 Student Workbook Chapter 17151 EXERCISE 17-2 A. Analysis 1. In the brilliant and witty concluding passage below, Mozart combines the antecedent and consequent phrases from the beginning of the minuet (marked a and b in mm. 55-58). a, Mark all occurrences of @ and b. ». Find where the b phrase is used in imitation, ©. Fi J inverted (upside down) statements of a and b. 4d. Find a place where original and inverted statements of b occur simultaneously. . Put roman numerals in the blanks provided. NCTS are parentheses, 152 Tonal Harmony 10 411 12 13 14 15 Student Workbook Chapter 17153, 2. Label the chords with roman numerals (the Italian augmented sixth chord in m. 4 will be discussed in Chapter 23). Use your imagination and your ear in analyzing the last chord inm.2. Langsam P Mitder iar ‘he ge-sdhmocktund dom Braut - geschmeid, des Wir - ters Tach = ter die ro = sige Maid, itt wo ——= ion, In dem Zin ~ ger des LO - wen, er Hiegtder Her = rin zu Fuss, vor der er sich schmigt. tart 184 Tonal Harmony 3. Label chords and NCTS. (An optional piano accompaniment is omitted from the exam- ple.) What is the form of this excerpt? BER inst es i er den Kio Opa * ooh kb = = Sern die, Win es qe = expres SS = = eet ei Me sem die cspress. Student Workbook Chapter 17 13s 4, Analyze chords and NCTS, Find two circle-of-fifths progressions that contain more than four chords. What is the form of this excerpt? : ‘Morning Prayer:” Op. 39, No. 1 156 Tonal Harmony 5. This short song is given here in its entirety. Analyze the chords and NCTS. There are some places where alternative analyses are possible—in m. 1, for example, where the line Gt-Fe-E could be analyzed as chord tones or as passing tones. Think of two analy- ses for the second chord in m. 11, one of them being a secondary function. Nicht schnell P ren Thn-ncn spiessen vel bihon-de Bluse her ~ vor, a und mei ~ ne Setzer eo = a werden cin Nach -t-gal - len-ehor Und sem dumichlieb hat, Kind = eben, schenk'eh dir die Blumen rian und vor dei tem Feneter soll Alin iar Student Workbook Chapter 17157 B. Foreach of these problems, first analyze and resolve the given chord, being especially carefull with the chord 7th and the leading tone. Then find a smooth way to lead into the given chord. Analyze all chords 1 2 3 4 5 C.Analyze the harmonies specified by each figured bass and make an arrangement for SATB chorus. Try to use smooth voice leading, even at the expense of an interesting soprano line 158 Tonal Harmony i D. Harmonize each of these chorale phrases for SATB chorus. Include at least one sec ‘ondary leading-tone chord or incorporate some other aspect discussed in this chapter in each harmonization, Student Workbook Chapter 17159 E, Each item below contains two versions of the same excerpt, one of them in a simple texture and one more elaborate, Continue the simple texture frst, including some aspect of harmony discussed in this chapter. Then continue the elaboration, using your simple version as a framework. Label chorus and NCTS. ta. Saudlent Workbook Chapter 17 61 F. Compose a setting of the following poem for chorus (three, four, or five parts) or for solo voice with piano accompaniment. Use at least one secondary leading-tone chord and one deceptive resolution of a secondary dominant. Try to put your special har- ‘monic effects at appropriate places in the text. (Use either or both stanzas.) ‘A biird came down the walk: He did not know I saw: He bit an angle-worm in halves And ate the fellow raw. ‘And then he drank a dew From a convenient grass, And then hopped sides To let a beetle pass to the wall —From “A bird came down the walk” by Emily Dickinson Reprinted by permission of the publishers and the Trustees of Amherst Colloge from THE POEMS OF EMILY DICKINSON, Thomas H. Johnson, ed, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Pres, Copyright © 1951, 1985, 1979, 1983 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College 162 Tonal Harmony DIATONIC COMMON CHORDS EXERCISE 18-1 ‘A. Name the relative key in each case. 1G 6d __ 2a a Be Bc 42 oA Bt 10. ab B. Name all the keys closely related to the given key. Be sure to use uppercase for major, lowercase for minor. 1b Reb 3G 4.8 5.F 6. ff Ih 11 Il ttl Itt Itt Itt C. Name the relationship in each case (enharmonically equivalent, parallel, relative and closely related, closely related, foreign). 1.Dle 6 AVG Rech 7. Cy 3 Am 8 etic __ 4G 9. abybb 5.BYF 10. ci 163 164 Tonal Harmony EXERCISE 18-2 AL Analysis. 1, This excerpt modulates from Bb to F, its dominant, Label the chords, being sure to show ‘wo roman numerals for the common chord. The blanks beneath the music show where the bass changes, but not where the common chord oceurs. NCTs in mm. I and 8 (only) have been identified for you. Moderato 2. Label chords and NCTS in this chorale, which is presented in its entirety, Which two phrases are very similar melodically? What portion of these phrases is harmonized simi larly? What chord is emphasized in the first half of the second of these two phrases? BBE 5 tsicin inte edn T PiPeeer es Student Workbook Chapter 18 165 imple, also a complete chorale, is in g minor, although it ends with a major triad (the “Picardy third”), Label chords, but not the NCTS. Notice how often the melody fol- ows an arch contour (inverted in the second phrase). Bracket those arch contours in the ‘melody. If you find any similar contours in the bass, bracket them also, 166 Tonal Harmony 4. Label the chords with roman numerals. How do the pickup notes at the bey excerpt help smooth the return to the frst key when the repeat is taken’? ing of the 5. Label the chords with roman numerals, Student Workbook Chapter 18 67 6. Listen to this song all the way through. Then list every tonality that is touched on in the song, either by simple tonicization or by modulation, Which (other than tonic) is referred to again at the end of the song? Decide on one or two tonalities (other than tonic) that represent modulations rather than tonicizations. Then label all chords with roman numerals. angsam P Wennich in dei-ne Au = genset so schovinet al mein Lid und Webs wenn ich kis-se dei = nen Mund, so werd ich ganz und gar 168 Tonal Harmony fe michIehn* an deh-ne Bras, omm’s = her ich wie Him = mts = ust —————». Jr# Ba. * iar. sich einen bit |, and | « vind doch wenn da Student Workbook Chapter 18 169 7. This excerpt begins in Ab and ends in g minor, modulating through yet another key in the process. Label all chords, and label the NCTs in the vocal part. The German aug~ ‘mented sixth chord in m, 49 will be discussed in a later chapter. ee 170 Tonal Harmony 8 Label the chords with roman numerals. In an Alberti bass accompaniment, such as the left hand in this example, the bass note for each chord is usually considered to be the Towest note struck. So in m. 9 the only bass notes are D and Ci oS aS a BB. Fill in the name of the new key on the second line of each exercise, te 5. ts is we a ag Student Workbook Chapter 18 B vi m 172 Tonal Harmony C. List the diatonic triads that could serve as common chords between each pair of keys. In minor keys, assume the usual chord qualities: i, ii Il, i, V, VI, vii. ex. First key, C: toi Vow Triads: Cc oe G a Secondkey,G: IV vis ii A. First key, E ‘Triads Second key, f¢ 2. First key, Dk Triads: Second key, Gk 3. First key, Triads: Second key, Bl: 4. First key, f Triads: Second key, Al: 5. First key, B Triads Second key, Fé First key, Ab Triads: Second key, Bk: D. Choose two of the progressions from Part B. Arrange one for SATB chorus and the other for SAB chorus. Activate the texture with NCTs and/or arpeggiations. Arrange the metric and rhythmic structure so thatthe last chord comes on a strong beat, Label chords and NCTS. Student Workbook Chapter 18 173 E, Harmonize the following chorale tunes for SATB chorus. 4. In the first phrase, modulate from i to III. The second phrase should return toi mS a 2. Modulate from I to vi in phrase 1. Return to Lin phrase 2 F. Analyze the chords specified by this figured bass and then make an arrangement for SATB chorus 6 6 ¢ ‘ 4 174 Tonal Harmony G. Continue this sopranofbass framework, analyzing the implied harmonies. Phrase 1 (mm. 1-4) should end with a HC in f. Phrase 2 (mm, 5-8) should end with a PAC in A. The resulting form is a modulating period. Then arrange for some combination of instruments in your class, filling in as many inner parts as needed. Elaborate your final version with NCTs and arpeggiations, Student Workbook Chapter 18 Vs H. Compose a double period for some solo instrument with piano accompaniment. As the diagram indicates, the first phrase stays in A, whereas the second tonicizes (or modu- lates to) E, Phrase 3 returns briefly to A but turns quickly to D. The fourth phrase retums to A for the final cadence. res ceS 1116 A AsTAC E: PAC A: D: IAC A: PAC [—9-12— (rin the larger view: ae) pen oe ee ol I o v ay) 1 ‘The beginning of phrase 1 is given below. Compose the sopranofbass framework fist Andante con moto va 176 Tonal Harmony Student Workbook Chapter 18 7 1. Using a text of your own choosing, compose a passage for chorus (three or four parts). If in major, it should have a tonal scheme of I-vi-I-ii-L. If in minor, use THER LATORY TECHNIQUES EXERCISE 19-1 ‘A. Analysis. (Note: Some of the modulations below might be of the diatonic common- chord type.) 1. a. What three keys are implied in this excerpt? ». How would you explain the modulations’? ©. Continue the two-voice reduction below the score but avoid the change of register in m. 36. FEB estore stop 10,80 1 Aes aa Geel gene Testurl rection 180 Tonal Harmony There are two modulations in this excerpt. Label chords and NCTS. At what point does Bach not follow the conventions of spacing discussed on pages 60-61? What is achieved by the spacing he uses? Where is there a sonority used in an unusual bass position? How is the reason for this bass position related to the question about the spacing? T y y 3. What two keys are found inthis excerpt? How are they related? What isthe best way 10 describe the modulation? Label the chords with roman numerals 1S sere legato Snudent Workbook Chapter 19 181 4. Two distantly related keys are found in this passage. Label chords and NCTs, BEB sere rem sop 950.7 4 8 sehr ver star = re e tor = deck nd an e+ sett 182 Tonal Harmony ‘This excerpt modulates from F major to what other key? Of excerpts | through 4, which modulation most closely resembles this one? In what ways? (The chords in mm, 35-36 are labeled for you because some of them involve concepts discussed in later chapters.) | ee i ert v smaay-sam =p Student Workbook Chapter 19 183, B. Analyze the harmonies implied by this sopranofbass framework. Add an alto part to create a three-part texture. Embellish the texture with a few NCTs, including a 4-3 suspension, Identify the modulatory technique used, ‘C. Analyze the implied harmonies and then add alto and tenor parts. Enliven the texture With NCTs and/or arpeggiations. Identify the modulatory technique used. a | 184 Tonal Harmony Use the framework below as the basis for a repeated period. The second phrase should begin and end in D major (phrase modulation). Compose a first ending that modulates back to F using some modulatory technique discussed in this chapter. Include NCTs and arpeggiations in your final version. Score for piano or some combination of instruments found in your class. ‘Student Workbook Chapter 19185 ‘The framework below is also to be used as the basis for a repeated period for piano (or other instruments). The first phrase is in E, and the second should be a sequen- tial repetition of the first, in Ab. Write out the repeat of phrases 1 to 2. Use more embellishments in the repeat than you used in the first eight measures, — EXERCISE 20-1 A. Diagram tis excerpt down othe pase level and name the for. Assume al phrases are four measures long. Aso, answer the following questions: 4. What isthe form of mm, 1-82 2. Find and label a vii°{/V and a vi°Yvi. 3. Why do you think Mozart cho to use a double stop inthe vila in m, 14? (A double stp isa technique that allows a stringed instrument o ply two nots at once.) ee Alereto & 2 ay Tt vel 187 188 Tonal Harmony B. Name the form of this piece (do not diagram phrases and cadences). Watch out for ‘written-out repeats. Also, do or answer the following: 1. Label the chords in mm, 5 to 8 2. What chord forms the basis of mm, 33 to 397 8. Analyze the last chord in m. 34 4 Allegretto J = 144 PD rubaio Re Te 4 4 To & TD x FD # Stuctent Workbook Chapter 20 Ae ioe Sf pt eB. a Se. 4D. * Fe. HD Be. ae Be. a RD Be. ae BD. eB. ae BD BED =< 189 190 Tonal Harmony tempo Student Workbook Chapter 20191 c excerpt is the first part of a scherzo and trio (a scherzo is much like a minuet, only faster). The tro is not shown. 4. Diagram this scherzo at the phrase level. The key implied by mm. 17 to 20 is d minor, not A major. 2. Identify the form. Do not be misled by the written-out repeat in mm. 9 t0 16—this is a two-reprise form. 3. Find two examples of chromatic mediant relationships. EB 2c. tn Sona op. 24 Scherzo poole : 192 Tonal Harmony D._ Diagram this piece down to the phrase level and name the form. Also, answer the fol- lowing questions: 4. Where is a sequence involving both hands? Bracket it 2. What does the Gi4 in m. 6 accomplish? 3. What material in mm. 10 to 22 is obviously derived from mm. 1 to 9 Student Workbook Chapter 20193 194 Tonal Harmony ‘This excerpt, the final movement of a piano sonata, is a minuet and trio, although Haydn did not label it as such, 4. Diagram phrases and cadences, treating the minuet and trio as separate pieces. Be sure to play or listen to the musie because some of the returns are disguised. (A melodically varied return of phrase a is still labeled phrase a, not phrase a’.) 2. Name the forms of the minuet and the trio, 3. In performance, the trio is followed by a return to the minuet (although the repeats ane omitted), ending at the fermata, What is the form of the movement as a whole? 4, Find the one phrase in this movement that is not four measures long and compare it to its earlier four-measure version. How does Haydn extend this phrase? 8. Provide roman numerals for the following chords: a 1m. 17, beats 1 102 (in EB) b ‘m, 19, beat 3 (in Eb) © 1m, 35, beat 3 (in AS) am 4 Gin A e 1m. 46, beat 3 (in AS) FE 00. Soman 38, Finale Allegro (voy Student Workbook Chapter 20 195 Part V Chromaticism 2 EXERCISE 21-1 A, Notate these chords in the specified inversions. Include key signatures. 1 2 3 4 5 | B we? peg com Bi Ae wr Biv ft 1 DM Cr B. Label these chords. Include inversion symbols. 1 2 3 4 5 197

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