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Intelligence: The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with

challenges. Westerners view intelligence as the ability to establish categories and debate rationally. In contrast, people in Eastern cultures and some African communities view intelligence more in terms of understanding and relating to one another. G or G Factor: The single, general factor for mental ability assumed to underlie intelligence in some early theories of intelligence. Fluid Intelligence: Intelligence that reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory. We use fluid intelligence when were trying to rapidly solve a puzzle. Crystallized Intelligence: The accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that are learned through experience and can be applied in problem-solving situations. Theory of multiple intelligences: Gardners intelligence theory that proposes that there are eight distinct spheres of intelligence. Crystallized intelligence is more a reflection of the culture in which a person is raised. Gardner suggests that there may be even more types of intelligence, such as existential intelligence, which involves identifying and thinking about the fundamental questions of human existence. The brains of people completing intelligence test questions in both verbal and spatial domains show activation in a similar location: the lateral prefrontal cortex, area above the outer edge of the eyebrow. This area is critical to juggling many pieces of information simultaneously and solving new problems. In addition, higher intelligence is related to the thickness of the cerebral cortex.

Practical Intelligence: According to Sternberg, intelligence related to overall success in living. Practical intelligence is learned mainly through observation of others behavior. It measures the ability to employ broad principles in solving everyday problems. Sternberg argues there are two other basic, interrelated types of intelligence related to life success: analytical and creative. Analytical intelligence focuses on abstract but traditional types of problems measured on IQ tests, while creative intelligence involves the generation of novel ideas and products.

Emotional intelligence: The set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions. Intelligence Tests: Tests devised to quantify a persons level of intelligence. Galtons work did have at least one desirable result: He was the first person to suggest that intelligence could be quantified and measured in an objective manner.

Mental Age: The age for which a given level of performance is average or typical. Intelligence Quotient (IQ): A score that takes into account an individuals mental and chronological ages. Today IQ scores are determined in a different manner and are known as deviation IQ scores. The IQ tests most frequently used in the United States were devised by psychologist David Wechsler and are known as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleIV, or, more commonly, the WAIS-IV (for adults) and a childrens version, he Wechsler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenIV, or WISC-IV. Both the WAIS-IV and the WISC-IV measure verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. Reliability: The property by which tests measure consistently what they are trying to measure. Validity: The property by which tests actually measure what they are supposed to measure. Norms: Standards of test performance that permit the comparison of one persons score on a test with the scores of other individuals who have taken the same test. Tests for which norms have been developed are known as standardized tests. Mental retardation (or intellectual disability): A condition characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. Mild retardation (IQ: 55 to 69) Moderate retardation (IQ: 40 to 54) Severe retardation (IQ: 25 to 39) Profound retardation (IQ: Below 25) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: The most common cause of mental retardation in newborns, occurring when the mother uses alcohol during pregnancy. Familial Retardation: Mental retardation in which no apparent biological defect exists but there is a history of retardation in the family. Down syndrome: Results when a person is born with 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. In most cases, there is an extra copy of the 21st chromosome, which leads to problems in how the brain and body develop. Intellectually Gifted: 2%4% segment of the population who has IQ scores greater than 130. Culture-fair IQ Test: A test that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group. Heritability: A measure of the degree to which a characteristic is related to genetic, inherited factors.