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Unit 7 Assignment Problem

Structure:

7.1 Introduction

Objectives

7.2 Mathematical Formulation of the Problem

7.3 Hungarian Method Algorithm

7.4 Routing Problem

Unbalanced AP

Infeasible assignments

Maximisation in AP

7.5 Travelling Salesman Problem

7.6 Summary

7.7 Glossary

7.8 Terminal Questions

7.9 Answers

7.10 Case Study

7.1 Introduction

In the previous unit we dealt with the formulation of Transportation Problem

(TP), transportation algorithm (MODI method), and the initial basic feasible

solution. We also discussed about how to get the optimum solution. In this

unit, we will deal with assignment problem. The assignment problem is a

special case of transportation problem, where the objective is to minimise

the cost or time of completing a number of jobs by a number of persons, and

to maximise revenue and sales efficiently.

In other words, when the problem involves the allocation of n different

facilities to n different tasks, it is often termed as an assignment problem.

This model is mostly used for planning. The assignment model is useful in

solving problems, such as assignment of machines to jobs, assignment of

salesman to sales territories, travelling salesman problem, and many more

similar situations. It may be noted that with n facilities and n jobs, there

are n possible assignments.

One way of finding an optimal assignment is to write all the n possible

arrangements, evaluate their total cost, and select the assignment model

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 133

offering the minimum cost. This method can be unfeasible due to

involvement of computational procedures. In this unit, we will study an

efficient method for solving assignment problems.

Lets say there are n jobs in a factory having n machines to process the

jobs. A job i (=1 n), when processed by machine j (=1 n) is assumed to

incur a cost C

ij.

The assignment is to be made in such a way that each job

can be associated with one and only one machine. You can then determine

an assignment of jobs to the machines to minimise the overall cost.

The cost data is given as a matrix where rows correspond to jobs and

columns to machines and there are as many rows as the number of

columns. The number of jobs and number of machines should be equal.

Assignment becomes a problem because each job requires different skills

and the capacity or efficiency of each person with respect to these jobs can

be different. This gives rise to cost differences. If each person is able to do

all the jobs with the same efficiency then all costs will be the same and each

job can be assigned to any person. When assignment is a problem it

becomes an optimisation problem. Therefore, you can compare an

assignment problem to a transportation problem. The cost element is given

and is a square matrix and the requirement at each destination is one and

the availability at each origin is also one.

Additionally, you have a number of origins, which equal the number of

destinations. Therefore, the total demand is equal to the total supply. There

is only one assignment in each row and each column. However, if you

compare this to a transportation problem, you will find that a general

transportation problem does not have the above mentioned limitations.

These limitations are peculiar to assignment problems only.

An assignment problem can be either balanced or unbalanced. Lets first

focus on a balanced assignment problem. A balanced assignment problem

is one where the number of rows = the number of columns (comparable to a

balanced transportation problem where total demand =total supply).

Minimisation case for an assignment problem

Figure 7.1 depicts the steps that must be performed to solve the

minimisation case for an assignment problem (AP).

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 134

Fig. 7.1: Steps to Solve the Minimisation Case for an Assignment Problem

Step 1: Determine the total opportunity cost matrix.

a) Arrive at a column opportunity cost matrix by subtracting the lowest entry

of each column of the given payoff matrix from all the entries in the

column.

b) Subtract the lowest entry of each row of the matrix obtained in

(a) from all the entries in its row.

The result of step 1b) gives the total opportunity cost matrix.

Step 2: Determine whether an optimal assignment can be made.

a) Cover all the zeros of the current total opportunity cost matrix with the

minimum possible number of horizontal and vertical lines.

b) If the number of lines in step 2a) equals the number of rows (or

columns) of the matrix, the problem can be solved. Make a complete

assignment so that the total opportunity cost involved in the assignment

is zero.

c) If the number of lines drawn in step 2a) is less than the number of rows

(or columns) of the matrix, proceed to step 3.

Step 3: Revise the total opportunity cost matrix.

a) Subtract the lowest entry in the uncovered cells of the current total

opportunity cost matrix from all the uncovered cells.

b) Add the same lowest entry to only those cells in which the covering lines

of step 2 cross.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 135

The result of steps 3a) and 3b) is a revised total opportunity cost matrix.

Step 4: Repeat steps 2 and 3 until an optimal assignment having a total

opportunity cost of zero can be made.

Figure 7.2 depicts the various methods used to solve the assignment

problem by any of the following four methods.

- Enumeration method

- Simplex method

- Transportation problem

- Hungarian method

However, in this unit, we will focus on the most commonly used method, that

is the Hungarian method, to solve the assignment problems.

Fig. 7.2: Methods to Solve Assignment Problem

Objectives:

After studying this unit, you should be able to:

- interpret an assignment problem mathematically

- explain a routing problem

- describe the travelling salesman problem

- state the significance of the assignment problem

- compute the problem using the Hungarian method

- explain practical problems, such as routing problems and travelling

salesman problems

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 136

7.2 Mathematical Formulation of the Problem

Let x

ij

be a variable defined by

=

machine j the to assigned is job i the if

machine j the to assigned not is job

x

th th

th

ij

1

th

i the if 0

Since only one job is assigned to each machine, you have

=

n

1 i

x

ij

= 1 and

=

n

1 j

x

ij

= 1

Hence, the total assignment cost is given by

z =

= =

n

1 i

n

1 j

x

ij

c

ij

Thus the assignment problem takes the following mathematical form:

Determine x

ij

0 (i, j =1 n)

Minimise z =

= =

n

1 j

n

1 i

x

ij

c

ij

Subject to the constraints

=

n

1 i

x

ij =

1 j =1, 2, n

And

=

n

1 j

x

ij

= 1 i = 1, 2 n

With x

ij

= 0 or 1

Note: In an assignment problem, if you add a real number to or subtract a

real number from each element of a row or column of the cost matrix, then

the optimum assignment for the modified matrix is also optimum for the

original one.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 137

Self Assessment Questions

1. In an AP, the constraints are of equality type. (True/False)

2. The number of facilities should be equal to the number of resources.

(True/False)

3. A balanced assignment problem is one where the number of rows the

number of columns. (True/False)

7.3 Hungarian Method Algorithm

Hungarian method algorithm is based on the concept of opportunity cost

and is more efficient in solving assignment problems. The following steps

are adopted to solve an AP using the Hungarian method algorithm.

Step 1: Prepare row ruled matrix by selecting the minimum values for each

row and subtract it from the other elements of the row.

Step 2: Prepare column-reduced matrix by subtracting minimum value of

the column from the other values of that column.

Step 3: Assign zero row-wise if there is only one zero in the row and cross

(X) or cancel other zeros in that column.

Step 4: Assign column wise if there is only one zero in that column and

cross other zeros in that row.

Step 5: Repeat steps 3 and 4 till all zeros are either assigned or crossed. If

the number of assignments is equal to number of rows present, you have

arrived at an optimal solution, if not, proceed to step 6.

Step 6: Mark () the unassigned rows. Look for crossed zero in that row.

Mark the column containing the crossed zero. Look for assigned zero in that

column. Mark the row containing assigned zero. Repeat this process till all

the makings are done.

Step 7: Draw a straight line through unmarked rows and marked column.

The number of straight line drawn will be equal to the number of

assignments made.

Step 8: Examine the uncovered elements. Select the minimum.

- Subtract it from the uncovered elements.

- Add it at the point of intersection of lines.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 138

- Leave the rest as is.

- Prepare a new table.

Step 9: Repeat steps 3 to 7 till optimum assignment is obtained.

Step 10: Repeat steps 5 to 7 till number of allocations = number of rows.

The assignment algorithm applies the concept of opportunity costs. The cost

of any kind of action or decision consists of the opportunities that are

sacrificed in taking that action.

Example 1

Consider the problem of assigning five jobs to five persons. The

assignment costs are depicted in table 7.1.

Table 7.1: Assignment Costs Table

Determine the optimum assignment schedule.

Solution: Applying Hungarian method

Table 7.2: Row Reduced Matrix (Optimum Assignment Schedule)

Column reduced matrix will be the same as each columns minimum

value is zero. Then you can start assigning the jobs as depicted in table

7.3.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 139

Table 7.3: Column Reduced Matrix

Since the number of assignments is 5.

Therefore, the optimum assignment schedule is A to 5, B to 1, C to 4,

D to 3, and E to 2.

Self Assessment Questions

4. In Hungarian method, you prepare row-reduced matrix. (True/False)

5. The number of assignments should be equal to the number of rows for

an optimum solution. (True/False)

6. There can be more than one allocation in a row. (True/False)

7.4 Routing Problem

7.4.1 Unbalanced AP

Unbalanced assignment problem is an assignment where the number of

rows is not equal to the number of columns and vice versa. For example,

the number of machines may be more than the number of jobs or the

number of jobs may be more than the number of machines. In such a

situation, you have to introduce dummy rows or columns in the matrix. The

dummy rows or columns will contain all cost elements as zero. This

balances the problem and then you can use Hungarian method to find the

optimal assignment.

Unbalanced assignment problem: No. of rows No. of columns.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 140

Solved problem 1

Solve the following AP.

Table 7.4: Assignment Operations Table

Solution: Introducing a dummy row and applying Hungarian method,

you have:

Table 7.5: Reduced Matrix

Table 7.6: Optimum Assignment Solution

Hungarian method leads to multiple solutions. Selecting (0

3

, M

2

)

arbitrarily.

Therefore, the optimum assignment schedule is O

1

to M

1

, O

2

to M

3

, O

3

to M

2

, and O

4

to M

4

.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 141

7.4.2 Infeasible assignments

It is sometimes possible that a particular person is incapable of doing certain

work or a specific job cannot be performed on a particular machine. The

solution of the assignment problem should take into account these

restrictions so that the infeasible assignment can be avoided. This can be

achieved by assigning a very high cost (say or M) to the cells where

assignments are prohibited, thereby, restricting the entry of this pair of job

machine or resource activity into the final solution. After inserting a high

value o at the cell we need to apply Hungarian method to solve the problem.

Solved problem 2

Solve the following A.P.

Table 7.7: Assignment Table

Solution: Introducing o in places having dashes and applying

Hungarian method, you have:

Table 7.8: Assignment Table

Table 7.9: Row-reduced Matrix

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 142

Table 7.10: Column Reduced Matrix

Therefore, the optimum assignment schedule is T

1

to P

1

, T

2

to P

4

, T

3

to

P

2

, and T

4

to P

3

.

7.4.3 Maximisation in AP

Some assignment problems are phrased in terms of maximising the profit or

effectiveness or payoff of an assignment of people to tasks or of jobs to

machines. You cannot apply the Hungarian method to such maximisation

problems. Therefore, you need to reduce it to a minimisation problem.

It is easy to obtain an equivalent minimisation problem by converting every

number in the table to an opportunity loss. To do so, you need to subtract

every value from the highest value of the matrix and then proceed as usual.

You will notice that minimising the opportunity loss produces the same

assignment solution as the original maximisation problem.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 143

Solved problem 3

Solve the following maximisation assignment problem.

Table 7.11: Assignment Table

Solution: Since it is a maximisation problem, subtract every value from

the maximum value of 90. Thus you have:

Table 7.12: Opportunity Loss Table

Table 7.13: Row Reduced Matrix

Table 7.14: Column Reduced Matrix

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 144

Therefore, the optimum assignment schedule is C

1

to P

2

, C

2

to P

1

, C

3

to

P

3

, and C

4

to P

4

.

Case-let

A tailoring unit has four sewing machines of different makes. Each

machine is capable of stitching all the required designs and patterns.

However, the profit factor differs for each assignment. The unit is looking

at maximising profit.

To do so, the unit needs to carry out an optimal assignment exercise of

assigning the right jobs to the right machines.

Solved problem 4

Five different machines can do any of the required five jobs with

different profits resulting from each assignment as depicted in table

7.15.

Table 7.15: Five Different Machines and Their Jobs

Find out the maximum profit possible through optimal assignment.

Solution: To start with, convert an assignment problem of profit

maximisation type into an assignment problem of cost minimisation type.

To do so, form a new modified matrix by subtracting each entry of the

matrix from the greatest entry 62 of the matrix. Use the resulting matrix

to solve the problem of cost minimisation type.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 145

Table 7.16: Opportunity Matrix

Now apply the Hungarian method to this problem and get the row and

column reduced matrices as depicted in table 7.17 and 7.18.

Table 7.17: Row Reduction Table 7.18: Column Reduction

Then draw the minimum number of lines to suppress the zeros as

depicted in table 7.19.

Table 7.19: Lines Suppressing Zeros

Here, number of lines drawn N = 4 < number of rows (= 5).

The smallest uncovered entry is 4. Therefore, subtract 4 from all

uncovered entries and add it to all the entries on the intersection of the

lines as depicted in table 7.20.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 146

Table 7.20: Lines not Suppressing Zeros

Again draw minimum number of lines to cover all the zeros as depicted

in table 7.21.

Table 7.21: Number of Lines = Number of Rows

Here the number of lines drawn N = 5 = number of rows.

Mark the zero entry with that occurs exactly once in a row and cancel

that row or column as depicted in table 7.22.

Table 7.22: Number of Lines Number of Rows

After the above steps, row 2 has zero as the last entry, mark it with .

Now row 1 will have the third entry zero uncovered. Mark it with . So

row 4 will have only one entry in cell (4, 4) with zero. This gives you the

optimal assignment as depicted in table 7.23.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 147

Table 7.23: Optimum Assignment

Thus, x

13

= x

25

= x

31

= x

44

= x

52

= 1 and rest all x

ij

= 0. The optimal

assignment is depicted in table 7.24.

Table 7.24: Optimal Assignment

Therefore, maximum profit is 214.

Self Assessment Questions

7. In unbalanced AP, the number of rows ________ to number of

columns.

8. Hungarian method cannot be applied directly to _________ problem.

9. If some jobs cannot be assigned to some machines, then it is called

_________ assignment problem.

7.5 Travelling Salesman Problem

Routing problem

Network scheduling is a technique for planning and scheduling of large

projects. It has successfully been applied in transportation and

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 148

communication problems. A typical network problem involves finding route

from one node (origin) to another (destination) between which alternative

paths are available at various stages of the journey. The problem is to select

the route that yields minimum cost. A number of different constraints may be

placed on acceptable routes for instance, not returning to the node passed

or passing through each node just once. These kinds of problems are called

as routing problems.

A wide variety of problems other than routing may be developed in

connection with the construction and utilisation of networks. Here, you are

going to consider the special type of routing problem that occurs frequently

in OR the travelling salesman problem.

Suppose a salesman has to visit n number of cities. He wishes to start from

a particular city, visit each city once, and then return to his starting point.

The objective is to select the sequence to visit the cities in such a way that

his total travelling time is minimised. Starting from a given city, the salesman

will have total of (n-1) different sequences. Further, since the salesman has

to visit all the n number of cities; the optimal solution remains independent

of selection of the starting point.

The problem can be represented as a network where the nodes and arcs

represent the cities and the distance between them respectively. Assume

that in a five city problem, a round trip of the salesman is given by the

following arcs.

(3,1), (1,2), (2,4), (4,5), (5,3)

These arcs in order are the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth directed arcs

for the trip. Generally the k

th

directed arc represents the k

th

leg of the trip that

is on leg k, the salesman travels from city i to city j.

(i, j = 1, 2 n;

j i =

)

To formulate the problem, whose solution will yield the minimum travelling

time, let the variables x

ijk

be defined as:

=

otherwise 0,

j city to i city from directed

th

k if 1, is

ijk

x

Where, i, j, and k are integers that vary between 1 and n.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 149

Following are the constraints of the problem.

a) Only one directed arc may be assigned to a specific k, thus

j k

x

ijk

= 1 k =1, 2, 3n

j i =

b) Only one other city may be reached from a specific city i, thus

j k

x

ijk

=1, i = 1, 2, n

c) Only one other city can initiate a direct arc to a specified city j, thus

i k

x

ijk

=1, j =1, 2... n

d) Given the k

th

directed arc ends at some specific city j, the (k+1)

th

directed

arc must start at the same city j; thus

i

x

ijk

=

r

x

jr

( k +1) for all j and k.

j i =

j r =

These constraints ensure that the round trip will consist of connected

arcs. The objective function is to minimise

z =

i

j k

d

ij

x

ijk

j i =

Where d

ij

is the distance from city i to city j.

Self Assessment Questions

10. In travelling salesman problem, the objective is to visit each cities

________ __________.

11. Salesman has ________ different sequences if n is the number of

cities to be visited.

7.6 Summary

Let us recapitulate the important concepts discussed in this unit:

- This unit on assignment problems focuses on a special type of

transportation problem, where the objective is to allocate n number of

different facilities to n number of different tasks.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 150

- Although an assignment problem can be formulated as a linear

programming problem, it is solved by a special method know as

Hungarian method.

- If the number of persons is the same as the number of jobs, the

assignment problem is said to be balanced. The unit also explains the

travelling salesman problem in brief.

7.7 Glossary

Opportunity cost matrix: A cost matrix that depicts the lost opportunity

when allocating resource to activity.

7.8 Terminal Questions

1. Four jobs are to be done on four different machines. The cost in rupees

for producing i

th

on the j

th

machine is given below:

Machines

M

1

M

2

M

3

M

4

J

1

15 11 13 15

J

2

17 12 12 13

J

3

14 15 10 14

J

4

16 13 11 17

Assign the jobs to different machines to minimise the total cost.

2. A marketing manager has 5 salesmen and 5 sales districts. Considering

the capabilities of the salesman and the nature of districts, the marketing

manager estimates that the sales per month (in hundred rupees) for

each salesman in each district would be as follows.

Sales districts

A B C D E

1 32 38 40 28 40

2 40 24 28 21 36

3 41 27 33 30 37

4 22 38 41 36 36

5 29 33 40 35 39

Find the assignment of salesman to districts that will result in maximum

sales.

Job

s

Salesman

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 151

3. In a plant layout, there are five vacant places. The plant orders four

machines to be installed in the vacant places. The cost of installing is as

follows:

M/G A B C D E

M

1

9 11 15 10 11

M

2

12 9 - 10 9

M

3

- 11 14 11 7

M

4

14 8 12 7 8

Find the optimum assignment.

4. Find the assignment that maximises the total sale.

Zone

Sales men 1 2 3 4

M

1

42 35 28 21

M

2

30 25 20 15

M

3

30 25 20 15

M

4

24 20 16 12

7.9 Answers

Self Assessment Questions

1. True

2. True

3. False

4. True

5. True

6. False

7.

8. Maximisation problem

9. Infeasible

10. Only once

11. (n-1)

Terminal Questions

1. The optimum assignment policy is

Job1 to machine 2, Job 2 to machine 4

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 152

Job 3 to machine1, Job 4 to machine 3

And the minimum assignment cost = Rs. (11+13+14+11) = Rs. 49.

Refer 7.3

2. Optimal assignment policy is salesman 1 to district B, 2 to A, 3 to E,

4 to C, and 5 to D. Hence the maximum sales = Rs.

(38+40+37+41+35)

3. M

1

A

2

; M

2

B; M

3

E; M

4

D Total 38. Refer 7.4.2

4. M

1

1; M

2

2; M

3

3; M

4

4 Total 99. Refer 7.4.3

7.10 Case Study

Move-It Company

The Move-It company has two plants producing fork-lift trucks that are then

shipped to three distribution centres. The production costs are the same at

the two plants, and the cost of shipping for each truck is shown for each

combination of plant and distribution centre:

Distribution Centre

1 2 3

Plant

A Rs. 800 Rs. 700 Rs. 400

B Rs. 600 Rs. 800 Rs. 500

A total of 60 fork-lift trucks are produced and shipped per week. Each plant

can produce and ship any amount up to a maximum of 50 trucks per week,

so there is considerable flexibility on how to divide the total production

between the two plants so as to reduce shipping costs. However, each

distribution centre must receive exactly 20 trucks per week.

Assume that distribution centres 1, 2, and 3 must receive exactly 10, 20,

and 30 units per week respectively. For administrative convenience,

management has decided that a single plant will supply each distribution

centre totally, so that one plant will supply one distribution centre and the

other plant will supply the other two distribution centres. The choice of

assignments of plants to the distribution centres is to be made solely on the

basis of minimising total shipping cost.

Operations Research Unit 7

Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 153

Discussion Questions:

1. Formulate this case as an assignment problem by constructing the

appropriate cost table, including identifying the corresponding assignee

and tasks.

2. Obtain an optimal solution.

References:

- Kapoor V. K. (2005). Operations Research. Sultan Chand and Sons.

- Sharma J. K. (2006). Operations Research. Macmillan India Limited.

- Taha H. Operations Research. Prentice Hall.

- Kanti Swarup & Gupta P. K., & Hira D. S., & Manmohan (2004).

Operation Research. Sultan Chand and Sons.

- Sharma S.C. Operation Research: Simulation and Replacement Theory.

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