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Experiment No.

4 FRICTION LOSSES

Submitted to Engr. Christylene S. Balagtas Department of Chemical Engineering Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan

Submitted by Group 3 Maris Stella Lamorin Christine Maybuena Leonar Pabualan

February 18, 2013

I.

Introduction Fluids are usually transported in pipe or tubing, which is circular in cross section and available in widely

varying sizes, wall thickness and material of construction. When a fluid moves through a pipe or through fittings, it encounters frictional resistance and energy can only come from energy contained in the fluid and so frictional losses provide a drain on the energy resources of the fluid. The actual magnitude of the losses depends upon the nature of the flow and of the system through which the flow takes place. A common parameter used in laminar and especially in turbulent flow is the Fanning friction factor, f, which is defined as the drag force per wetted surface unit area divided by the product of density times velocity head, or
1 2 2 2

. The force is

times the cross-sectional area

and the wetted surface area is 2

. Hence, the relation

between the pressure drop due to friction and f is as follows for laminar and turbulent flow:

equation 1 However, if the velocity of the fluid is changed in direction or magnitude, additional friction losses occur, this results from additional turbulence which develops because of vortices and other factors. Pressure drop in a pipe, due to friction, is a function of the fluid flow-rate, viscosity, pipe diameter, pipe surface roughness and the length of the pipe. It can be calculated using the flowing equation: Ff = 4f ( ) (2g ) where : Ff = Friction loss f = friction factor L = pipe length D = pipe inside diameter v = fluid velocity gc = gravitational conversion factor = 32.1740 The fri io fa or i de e de given by NRe = Any obstruction to flow will generate turbulence and cause a pressure drop. So, pipe fitting such as: bends, elbows, reducing or enlargement sections, and tee junctions, will increase the pressure drop in a pipeline. There will also be a pressure drop due to the valves used to isolate equipment and control the fluid flow. o he ey o d f u
f 2
2

gi h

equation 2

er a d i e rough e

The ey o d

er i

Sudden enlargement losses: If the cross section of a pipe enlarges very gradually, very little or no extra losses are incurred. If the change is sudden, it results in additional losses due to eddies formed by the jet expanding in the enlarged section. Sudden contraction losses: When the cross section of the pipe is suddenly reduced, the stream cannot flow around the sharp corner, and additional frictional losses due to eddies occur. Losses in fitting and valves: Pipe fitting and valves also disturb the normal flow lines in a pipe and cause additional friction losses. In a short pipe with many fittings, the friction loss from these fittings could be greater than in the straight pipe. II. Objectives 1. To determine the friction losses in the pipes. 2. To o he fa i g fa or, f, III. Materials and Methods Materials: Methods 1. Take readings at 4 or more velocities for the pipe length, fittings, or test sections. Observations will include pressure, temperature, and the rate of flow by a metering device. IV. Sketch of Equipment Series of pipes Meter stick Stopwatch - Water tank - Bucket he ey o d Nu er for he f ow of f uid i a raigh i e

V. Results Table 2. Summary of Results Velocity Pipe 1 2 3 4 (ft/s) 0.420 1.271 1.100 1.277 Flow Rate (ft3/s) 0.0097 0.0292 0.0253 0.0286 Reynolds Number 8537.66 25801.02 22341.27 3373.67 Relative Roughness 8.76 x 10-4 8.76 x 10-4 8.76 x 10-4 8.76 x 10-4 Length (ft) 27.543 24.751 26.621 22.616 Friction factor 0.0085 0.0065 0.007 0.011 Friction Loss (
f

0.017 0.097 0.157 0.2430

Figure 1 Fri io Fa or, f


0.012 0.011 Fanning Friction Factor 0.01 0.009

ey o d Nu

er

0.011

0.0085 0.008 0.007 0.006 0.005 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Reynold's Number 0.007 0.0065

VI. Discussion For a New o ia f uid i a u oo h i e, he di e io a a a y i of he Fa i g fri io fa or a d ey o d er u i e g h o he i e dia e er , de i y , a d a erage e o i y er re a e he fri io a re ure dro

For smooth pipes, the friction factor is expressed only as a function of the Reynolds number. On the other hand, the relative roughness of rough pipes does affect the friction factor. For this experiment, four different pipes were used to measure the different friction losses in each pipe. Each pipe has different attributes with one other; also, the length of each pipe is uneven. As for the first pipe, it is a 2 inches schedule 40 pipe, the total length is about 27.543 ft, and the change in pressure as read by the two pressure

transducer was about 5 psi. It only has one (1) fitting, which is a 90 elbow and two (2) gate valves. The rate of the di harge or he f uid e o i y wa he o u ed y di idi g he o u e of wa er o e ed y he rodu of he time it took to gather that amount of water and the area of the pipe (taking into consideration the consistency of the units. The temperature of the water was found out to be 31C, thus having specific values of its density and viscosity. At 31C, the density of the water is about 62.1407 lb/ft3 and a viscosity of 5.27 x 10-4 lb/ft-s. Substituting these values and the obtained f uid e o i y o he ey o d u er for u a NRe = / , a a ue of 8,537 66 wa o ai ed From this value, it shows that the fluid flowing through the first pipe is turbulent. Using Figure 2.10-3 of Geankoplis, the friction factor of the first pipe was found to be 0.0085. Also, using the same figure, the equivalent roughness of the pipe was obtained. All the four pipes was considered to be commercial pipe thus having an equivalent roughness of 4.6 x 10-5 m. The relative roughness which is the ratio of the equivalent roughness of the pipe to its diameter was calculated, and was found out to be 8.76 x 10-4. Lastly, after obtaining all the values needed to solve for the friction loss as expressed by equation 2, the friction loss of the first pipe was 0.017 ft lbf / lbm. As for the second pipe, three pressure transducers were attached to it. Again, it is a 2 inches schedule 40 pipe, the total length is about 24.751 ft, and the pressure reading as read by the three pressure transducer were about 16 psi, 22 psi, and 20 psi. It has three (3) gate valves, and one (1) 90 elbow fitting. The rate of discharge of the fluid in the pipe was 1.271 ft/s, the volumetric flow rate was 0.029 ft3 / , he ey o d u er wa 25,801 01, he fri io factor was found to be 0.0065, and the total friction loss calculated was found to be 0.0971 ft lbf / lbm. As for the third pipe, two pressure transducers were attached to it. Again, it is a 2 inches schedule 40 pipe, the total length is about 26.621 ft, and the pressure reading as read by the two pressure transducer were about 23 psi, and 27 psi. It has two (2) gate valves, two (2) 45 elbow and four (4) 90 elbow fitting. The rate of discharge of the fluid in the pipe was 1.10 ft/s, the volumetric flow rate was 0.025 ft3 / , he ey o d u er wa 22,341.27, the friction factor was found to be 0.007, and the total friction loss calculated was found to be 0.157 ft lbf / lbm. As for the fourth pipe, one (1) pressure transducer was attached to it. It is a combination of a 2 inches schedule 40 and a 1 inch pipe schedule 40 pipes, the length of the first pipe was about 16.13 ft and 6.49 ft for the latter, and the pressure reading was about 17 psi. It only has two (2) gate valves. The rate of discharge of the fluid in the pipe was 1.28 ft/s, the volumetric flow rate was 0.029 ft3 / , he ey o d u er wa 3,373 67, he fri io fa or wa found to be 0.011, and the total friction loss calculated was found to be 0.2430 ft lbf / lbm. VII. Conclusion The summary of the results of the observations was summarized in the table above (Table 2). It was observed ha he fri io fa or a d he ey o d u er were i dire y re a ed I i ie ha a he ur u e e of he wa er increases, the friction of the water and the pipe decreases. Also, it was observed that as the pipe contains more fittings or gate valve, there is also a greater friction loss.

This experiment does have two (2) objectives: 1) To determine the friction losses in the pipes, and 2) To plot the fanning factor, f, he ey o d Nu er for he f ow of f uid i a raigh i e As for the first objective, the friction losses for the first pipe up to the fourth pipe were 0.017, 0.0971, 0.157, and 0.2430 ft lbf / lbm, respectively. A for he e o d o je i e, he fri io fa or VIII. References Geankoplis, C. (1993). Transport Process and Unit Operations 3rd Edition. Prentice-Hall International, Inc. IX. Appendix A. Raw Data Pressure Reading (psi) Pipe 1 2 3 4 B. Sample Calculation Constants and values used: H2O Temperature Density of H2O Viscosity of H2O = 31C = 62.1407 lb / ft3 = 5.27 x 10 -4 lb / ft-s = 0.1722 ft = 0.0833 ft ; ; Area = 0.023 ft2 Area = 0.022 ft2 P1 42 16 23 17 P2 37 22 27 P3 20 Volume H2O (mL) 1550 2400 2200 3500 Time (s) 5.66 2.90 3.07 4.32 Length of Pipe (ft) 27.543 24.751 26.621 22.616 he ey o d u er wa o ed i Figure 1

Inner Diameter (2-in sched. 40) Inner Diameter (1-in sched. 40) From Table 2.10-1 of Geankoplis

Friction loss, # of velocity heads, Kf For elbow, 45 Elbow, 90 Gate Valve, wide open 0.35 0.75 0.17

For pipe 1: Rate of discharge =


o u e of 2 i e area o u e of 2 i e

1550 5 66 0 023 f
2

1f3 28,317 1f3 28,317

=0 420 f
3

Volumetric flow rate =

1550 5 66

=0 0093 f

So i g for he ey o d

er:
f

N e=

0 1722 f 0 420 62 1407 /f 3 5 27 10-4


f-

=8537 66

From Figure 2.10-3 of Geankoplis For commercial pipes: equivalent roughness, = 4.6 x 10-5 Solving for relative roughness: Relative roughness =
4 6 10-5 0 1722 f

3 2808 f 1

=8 76 10

-4

From Figure 2.10-3 of Geankoplis Fiction factor, f = 0.0085 Solving for total friction loss: Ff =fri io o o he i e fri io o
2 2 f

o he fi i g a d ga e a e
2

=4f
27 54 0 420
2

2g

2g

2g
2

)( ) 0 75 ( ) 2 0 17 =4(0 0085) ( 0 1722 2(32 1740) 2(32 1740)


=0 017 f
f

0 420

0 420

2(32 1740)