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# Experiment No.

4 FRICTION LOSSES

Submitted to Engr. Christylene S. Balagtas Department of Chemical Engineering Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan

## February 18, 2013

I.

Introduction Fluids are usually transported in pipe or tubing, which is circular in cross section and available in widely

varying sizes, wall thickness and material of construction. When a fluid moves through a pipe or through fittings, it encounters frictional resistance and energy can only come from energy contained in the fluid and so frictional losses provide a drain on the energy resources of the fluid. The actual magnitude of the losses depends upon the nature of the flow and of the system through which the flow takes place. A common parameter used in laminar and especially in turbulent flow is the Fanning friction factor, f, which is defined as the drag force per wetted surface unit area divided by the product of density times velocity head, or
1 2 2 2

. The force is

## . Hence, the relation

between the pressure drop due to friction and f is as follows for laminar and turbulent flow:

equation 1 However, if the velocity of the fluid is changed in direction or magnitude, additional friction losses occur, this results from additional turbulence which develops because of vortices and other factors. Pressure drop in a pipe, due to friction, is a function of the fluid flow-rate, viscosity, pipe diameter, pipe surface roughness and the length of the pipe. It can be calculated using the flowing equation: Ff = 4f ( ) (2g ) where : Ff = Friction loss f = friction factor L = pipe length D = pipe inside diameter v = fluid velocity gc = gravitational conversion factor = 32.1740 The fri io fa or i de e de given by NRe = Any obstruction to flow will generate turbulence and cause a pressure drop. So, pipe fitting such as: bends, elbows, reducing or enlargement sections, and tee junctions, will increase the pressure drop in a pipeline. There will also be a pressure drop due to the valves used to isolate equipment and control the fluid flow. o he ey o d f u
f 2
2

gi h

equation 2

er a d i e rough e

The ey o d

er i

Sudden enlargement losses: If the cross section of a pipe enlarges very gradually, very little or no extra losses are incurred. If the change is sudden, it results in additional losses due to eddies formed by the jet expanding in the enlarged section. Sudden contraction losses: When the cross section of the pipe is suddenly reduced, the stream cannot flow around the sharp corner, and additional frictional losses due to eddies occur. Losses in fitting and valves: Pipe fitting and valves also disturb the normal flow lines in a pipe and cause additional friction losses. In a short pipe with many fittings, the friction loss from these fittings could be greater than in the straight pipe. II. Objectives 1. To determine the friction losses in the pipes. 2. To o he fa i g fa or, f, III. Materials and Methods Materials: Methods 1. Take readings at 4 or more velocities for the pipe length, fittings, or test sections. Observations will include pressure, temperature, and the rate of flow by a metering device. IV. Sketch of Equipment Series of pipes Meter stick Stopwatch - Water tank - Bucket he ey o d Nu er for he f ow of f uid i a raigh i e

V. Results Table 2. Summary of Results Velocity Pipe 1 2 3 4 (ft/s) 0.420 1.271 1.100 1.277 Flow Rate (ft3/s) 0.0097 0.0292 0.0253 0.0286 Reynolds Number 8537.66 25801.02 22341.27 3373.67 Relative Roughness 8.76 x 10-4 8.76 x 10-4 8.76 x 10-4 8.76 x 10-4 Length (ft) 27.543 24.751 26.621 22.616 Friction factor 0.0085 0.0065 0.007 0.011 Friction Loss (
f

## Figure 1 Fri io Fa or, f

0.012 0.011 Fanning Friction Factor 0.01 0.009

ey o d Nu

er

0.011

0.0085 0.008 0.007 0.006 0.005 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Reynold's Number 0.007 0.0065

VI. Discussion For a New o ia f uid i a u oo h i e, he di e io a a a y i of he Fa i g fri io fa or a d ey o d er u i e g h o he i e dia e er , de i y , a d a erage e o i y er re a e he fri io a re ure dro

For smooth pipes, the friction factor is expressed only as a function of the Reynolds number. On the other hand, the relative roughness of rough pipes does affect the friction factor. For this experiment, four different pipes were used to measure the different friction losses in each pipe. Each pipe has different attributes with one other; also, the length of each pipe is uneven. As for the first pipe, it is a 2 inches schedule 40 pipe, the total length is about 27.543 ft, and the change in pressure as read by the two pressure

This experiment does have two (2) objectives: 1) To determine the friction losses in the pipes, and 2) To plot the fanning factor, f, he ey o d Nu er for he f ow of f uid i a raigh i e As for the first objective, the friction losses for the first pipe up to the fourth pipe were 0.017, 0.0971, 0.157, and 0.2430 ft lbf / lbm, respectively. A for he e o d o je i e, he fri io fa or VIII. References Geankoplis, C. (1993). Transport Process and Unit Operations 3rd Edition. Prentice-Hall International, Inc. IX. Appendix A. Raw Data Pressure Reading (psi) Pipe 1 2 3 4 B. Sample Calculation Constants and values used: H2O Temperature Density of H2O Viscosity of H2O = 31C = 62.1407 lb / ft3 = 5.27 x 10 -4 lb / ft-s = 0.1722 ft = 0.0833 ft ; ; Area = 0.023 ft2 Area = 0.022 ft2 P1 42 16 23 17 P2 37 22 27 P3 20 Volume H2O (mL) 1550 2400 2200 3500 Time (s) 5.66 2.90 3.07 4.32 Length of Pipe (ft) 27.543 24.751 26.621 22.616 he ey o d u er wa o ed i Figure 1

Inner Diameter (2-in sched. 40) Inner Diameter (1-in sched. 40) From Table 2.10-1 of Geankoplis

Friction loss, # of velocity heads, Kf For elbow, 45 Elbow, 90 Gate Valve, wide open 0.35 0.75 0.17

## For pipe 1: Rate of discharge =

o u e of 2 i e area o u e of 2 i e

1550 5 66 0 023 f
2

=0 420 f
3

## Volumetric flow rate =

1550 5 66

=0 0093 f

So i g for he ey o d

er:
f

N e=

## 0 1722 f 0 420 62 1407 /f 3 5 27 10-4

f-

=8537 66

From Figure 2.10-3 of Geankoplis For commercial pipes: equivalent roughness, = 4.6 x 10-5 Solving for relative roughness: Relative roughness =
4 6 10-5 0 1722 f

3 2808 f 1

=8 76 10

-4

From Figure 2.10-3 of Geankoplis Fiction factor, f = 0.0085 Solving for total friction loss: Ff =fri io o o he i e fri io o
2 2 f

o he fi i g a d ga e a e
2

=4f
27 54 0 420
2

2g

2g

2g
2

=0 017 f
f

0 420

0 420

2(32 1740)