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GREEK

A

GRAMMAR

BY

WILLIAM W. GOODWIN, HoN. LL.D. AND D.C.L.

ELIOT

l'llOH:SSOII

OF

lUllVAlW

CIIEF.K

UN1VI::l\81TY

I.ITEIIATURE

Ill

REVISED

AND

ENLARGED

PUBLISHED

BOSTON

BY GINN & COMPL~Y

1900

CorTntOHT, 189~,

DY WILLIAM

.u.L Ri9UT8

W.

GOODWIN .

RltBBIIVlm.

TTPoGJUl'HT BT J. 8. cusUING & Co., BosToK.

l'11Eaawcnn: nY OiNN & Co., BosToN.

PREFACE.

THE present work is a revisr.ll ::mel. enlarged edition of the Greek Gr<J.mmar published in 187!), which was its~:>\f

a revised and Clllarged euitioll of the Elenwntary Greek Grammar of only 235 pages published in HHO. I trust that no one will infer from tl1is repeated iucrease in the size of the book that I attribut<~ ever increasing importance to the stu<ly of formal gra.mmar in sehool. On the cou- trary, the growth of the Look has come from a more rleeidf'd opinion th:tt tlw a.mount of granuuar which should be lr.arned by rote is cxccediugly sm;tll eompared witl1 th:tt which every real stuuent of the Classics must learn iu a very dif- ferent way. When it was thought that a pupil must first learn his Latin anll Greek Grammars and tlwn learn to read Latiu and Grf'ek, it was essential to re<lnce a school gmmm:Lr to its le:tst possible dimensions. Now when a

scnsi ble syst.cm leaves most of the details of grammar to lw Jearued U_i' the stuJy of S)Jet:i:tl points whidl arise iu reading or writing, the ease is entirely differeut; and few good teachers or goou students are any longl~r grateful for a small grammar, which uJnst soon be di!icarded as the horizon widens and new questions press for an answer. 'l'he forms of a language and the esseutial principles of its construction must ue learned iu the old-fashioned way, when the memory is vigorous aud rete uti vc; hut, these once mastered, the true time to teach eadr principle of

grammar is the

his studies, and uo grammar whic.h is not thus practically illustrated ever becomes a living reality to the student. But it is not enough for a learuer merely to meet each con- struction or form in is<•lated instanees; for he may do this repea.t.edly, and yet know little of the general principle

which the single example partially illustrates. Mt>u saw

apples fall anu the moon and planets roll ages before the

prirwiple of gmvitatiou wa

more

moment when the pupil

meets with it in

s

til ought of. It is necessary,

PREFACE.

therefore, not merely to bring the pupil face to face with the facts of a language by means of examples carefully selected to exhibit them, but also to refer him to a state- ment of the general p~:inciplcs which show the full mean- ing of the facts and their relation to other principles. 1 In other words, systematic practice in reading and writing must be supplemented from the beginning by equally sys- tematic reference to the grammar. Mechanics are not learned by merely observing the working of levers and pul- leys, nor is chemistry by watching experiments on gases; although no one would undertake to teach either without such practical illustrations. It must always be remem- bered that grammatical study of this kind is an essential part of classical study; and no one must be deluded by the idea that if grammar is not learned by rote it is not to be learned at all. It cannot be too strongly emphasized, that there has been no change of opinion among classical scholars about the importance of grammar as a basis of all sound classical scholarship; the only change concerns the time and manner of studyiug grammar and the importance to be given to different parts of the subject. What has been said about teaching 'by reference and by

example applies espedally to syntax, the chief principles of which have always seemed to me more profitable for a pupil in the earlier years of his classi<·a.l studies than the details of vowel-changes and exceptional forms which are often thought more seasonable. The study of Greek syn- tax, propflrly pursued, gives the pupil an insi~ht into the processes of thought and the mn.nner of expression of a. highly cultivated people; and while it stimulates his own powers of thought, it teaehes him haLits of more careful expression by making him familiar with many forms of statement more precise than those to which he is accus- tomed in his own language. The Greek syntax, as it was developed aml refined by the Athenians, is a most impor- tant chapter in the history of thought, and even those

studies are limited to the rudiments cannot

whose cla

afford to neglect it entirely. For these reasons the chief increase in the present work has been made in the depart- ment of Syntax.

1 These objects seem to me to be admirably attained in the Ji'irse Lusons in (h-eck, prepared by my collMgne, Professor John W. Wbite, to be used in connection with this Gra=ar. A new edition of this work is now in press.

,sical

PREFACE.

T

The additions made in Part I. are designed chiefly to make the principles of inflection and formation in Parts II. and III. intelligible. Beyond this it seems inexpedient for a general grammar to go. In Part II. the chief changes are in the sections on the Verb, a great part of which have been remodelled and rewritten. The paradigms and syn- opses of the verb are given in a new form. The nine tense systems are clearly distinguished in each synopsis, and also in the paradigms so far as is consistent with a proper dis- tinction of the three voices. The verbs in p.t are now inflected in close connection with those in w, and both con- jugations are included in the subsequent treatment. The now established Attic forms of the pluperfect active are given in the paradigms. The old makeshift known as the "connecting-vowel " has been discarded, and with no mis- givings. Thirteen years ago I wrote that I did not venture "to make the first attempt at a popular statement of the tense stems with the variable vowel attachment"; and I was confirmed in this opinion by the appearance of the Schulgrarnmatik of G. Curtius the year previous with the "Bindevocal" in its old position. Professor :F. D. Allen has since shown us that the forms of the verb can be made perfectly intelligible without this time-honored fic- tion. I have now adoptE'd the familiar term "thematic vowel," in place of "variable vowel" which I used in 1879, to designate the o or ~ added to the verb stem to form the present stem of verbs in w. I have att1~mpted to make the whole subject of tense stems and their inflection more clear to beginners, and at the same time to lay the venerable shade of the connecting-Yowel, by the distinction of "sim- ple and complex tense stems," which correspond generally to the two forms of inflection, the "simple" form (the p.t- form) and the "common" form (that of verbs in w). See S57-l'i65. I use the term "verb stem" for the stem from which the chief tenses are formed, i.e. the single stem in the first elass, the "strung" stem in the second class, and the sirn ple stem in the other classes· (except the anomalous eighth). Part III. is little changed, except by additions. In the Syntax I have attempted to introduce greater sim- plicity with greater detail into the treatment of the Article, the Adjectives, the Cases, and the Prepositions. In the Syntax of the Verb, the changes made in my new edition of the Greek Moods and Tenses have been adopted, so far as is possible in a school-book. The independent uses of

vi

PREFACE,

the moods are given before the dependent constructions, except in the case of wishes, where the independent opta- tive can hardly be treated apart from the other construc-

tions. The Potential Optative and Indicative are made more prominent as original constructions, instead of being

The independent use

of p.~ in Homer to express fear with a desire to avert the object feared is recognized, and also the independent use of p.~ and p.~ ou in cautious assertious and negations with both subjunctive and indicative, which is common in Plato. The treatment of WiTT£ is entirely new; and the distinction

between the infinitive with Wa-n p.~ and the indicative with Wo-n ou is explained. The usc of 7rp[v with the infinitive

is more accurately stated. The

distinction between the Infinitive with the Article and its simple constructions without the Artir.Je is more clearly drawn, and the whole t.rcatmeut of the Infinitive is im- proved. In the chapter on the Participle, the three classes are carefully marked, and the two uses of the Supplemen- tary Participle in and out of oratio obUqua are distinguished. In Part V. the principal additions are tlw sections on dac-

tylo-epitritie rhythms, with greater detail about other lyric verses, and the use of two complete strophes of Pindar to illustrate that poet's two most common metres. The Catalogue of Verbs has been carefully revised, and some- what enlargeu, especially in the Homeric forms. The quantity of long a, ~, and v is marked in Parts I., II., and Ill., and wherever it is important in Part V., but not in t1le Syntax. The examples in the Syntax and in Part V. have been referred to their sources. One of the most radical changes is the 11sc of 1691 new sections in place of the former 302. References can now be made to most paragraphs by a single number; and although special divisions are sometimes introd11.-~ed to make the nonnection of paragraphs clearer, these will not interfere with refer-

ences to the simple sections. The evil of

tinction between the main paragraphs aml notes has been obviated by prefixing N. to sections which would ordinarily be marked as notes. 1 feel that a most humble apology is due to all teachers and students who have submitted to the unpardonable confusion of paragraphs, with tlJeir divisions, subdivisions, notes, and remarks, often with (a), (b), etc., in the old edition. This a,rrangement was thoughtlessly adopted to preserve the numbering of sections in the Syntax

treated merely as elliptical apodoses.

and the finite moods

a

want of dis-

PREFACE.

vii

of the previous edition, to which many references had already been made; but this oLject was gained at far too great a cost. I regret that I can make no Letter amends than this to those who have suffered such an infliction. A complete table of Parallel References is given in pp. xxvi.-xxxv., to make referem:es to the former edition availaLle for the new sections. I have iutroduced into the text a section (28) on the probable ancient pronuneiation of Greek. While the sounds of most of the letters are well estaLlished, on many impor- tant points our knowledge is still very unsatisfactory. With

our doubts about the sounds of (), ¢, X• and '' of the double t' and ou, not to s1wak of~ and .p, and with our helplessness in expressing auythiug like the anci<!nt force of the three accents or the full distiuction of quantity, it is safe to say that no one could now pronounce a sentence of Greek so that it would have been intelligible to Demosthenes or Plato. I therefore look upon the question of Greek Pro- nunciation chietiy as it concerns the means of communication between modem scholars and Letween teachers and pupils. I see no prospect of uniformity here, unless at some future time scholars agree to 1111ite on the modern Greek pronun- ciation, with all its objeetionable features. As Athens be- comes more and more a centre of civilization and art, her claim to decide the question of the pronunciation of her ancient language may sometime be too strong to resist. In the meantime, I see no reason for changing the system of

pronunciatiou 1 which I

than thirty years, wIJich adopts what is tolerauly certain and practicable in the ancient pronunciation and leaves the

rest to modern usage or to individual judgment. This has brought scholars in the United States nearer to uniformity than any other system without external authority is likely to bring them. In England the retention of the English

have followed and advocated more

1 By this tlH' r.ongonants are sounded as in 28, 3, except that I has the sound of z; ~ andy, have the sounds of x (ks) and ps; 0, ¢,and x those

Philip, and hard German chin mach en. The vowels

are sounded as in 28, I, " bcin~ pronounced like French u or German

ii. The Jiphtlwngs follow 28,2; Lut ou always has the sound of ou in

youth, and « that of ei in hf'ight. I hold to this sound of « to avoid another chan~e from English, German, and American usage. If any change is desired, I should much prefer to adopt the sound of i (our i

in machine), which « has lwld more than 1900 years, rather than to attempt. to catch any one of the sounds through which either genuine or spurious « must have pa-ssed on its way to thil; (see 28, 2).

of th in thin,

ph in

PREFACE.

pronunciation of Greek with Latin accents has at least the advantage of local uniformity. Since the last edition was published, Allen's new edition of Hadley's Grammar has appeared and put all scholars under new obligations to both author and editor. The new edition of Monro's Homeric Grammar is of the greatest value to all students of Homer. H!ass's new edition of the first quarter of Kuhner is really a new work, abounding in valuable suggestions. From the German grammars of Koch and Kaegi I have gained many practical hints. I am also greatly indebted to many letters from teachers containing criticisms of the last edition and suggestions for making it more useful in schools, too many indeed to be acknowledged singly by name. Among them is one from which I have de- rived special help in the revision, a careful criticism of many parts of the book by Professor G. F. Nicolassen of Clarks- ville, Tennessee. Another of great value came to me with- out signature or address, so that I have been unable even to acknowledge it by letter. I must ask all who have thus favored me to accept this general expression of my thanks. Professor Herbert Weir Smyth of Bryn Mawr has done me the great service of reading the proofs of Parts I. and II. and aiding me by his valuable suggestions. His special knowledge of Greek morphology has been of the greatest use to me in a department in which without his aid I should often have been sorely perplexed amid conflicting views. All scholars are looking for the appearance of Professor Smyth's eiaborate work on the Greek Dialects, now print- ing at the Clarendon Press, with great interest and hope.

HARVARD

U!HVERBITY,

CA.HBRIDGE, MAss., June 30, 1892.

WILLIAM W. GOODWIN.

CONTEN'rS.

P.AGRS

INTRODUCTION.-THE GREEK I,ANGUAGE AND DIALECTS,

3---6

 

PART I.

 
 

LETTERS,

SYLLABLES, AND ACCENTS.

 

SECTIONS

1-4.

'l'he Alphabet

 

7,8

5-10.

Vowels and Diphthongs

8, 9

11-15.

Breathings

9

16-24.

Consonants and their Divisions

 

9,10

25, 26.

Consonants

ending Greek I'Vords

 

.

10

27.

Ionic and Athenian Alplmbets

 

10, 11

28.

Ancient l'ronunch1tion

11

29-33.

Changes of Vowcls

12, 13

34.

Collision of Vowels.- Hiatus

 

13

35-41.

Contraction of

Vowcls

 

13-15

42-46.

Crasis

.

.

.

.

.

-

 

15,16

47.

Synizesis

16

48-54.

Elision

16, 17

55.

Aphaercsis

17

56-63.

Movable Consonants

17,18

64-67.

Metathesis and Syncope

18, 19

68, 69.

Doubling of Consonants

19

70-95.

Euphonic Changes of Consmmnts

19-24

90, !l7.

Syllables and their Division

24

98-100.

Quantity of Syllables

 

.

24,25

106-ll[J,

General Principles of Accent

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

25-27

1lli.

117-WJ.

Anastroplle Accent of Contraeted Syllables anll J<:lided Words

27

27,28

121-12!l.

Accent

of

Nouns and A djectivcs

 

28, 29

130-135.

Accent

nf

Vcrbs

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

29,30

136-1:)9.

l'rocli Lies

 

31

140-146.

Enclitics

31-33

147-149.

Dialectic Changes in Letters

33

150.

Punctuation-Marks

 

33

X

CONTENTS.

PART II.

INFLECTION.

8BM'ION8 P.AGY.8 151-154. Definitions.- Inflection, Root, Stem, etc . 34 155-163. Numbers, Genders, Cases 34
8BM'ION8
P.AGY.8
151-154.
Definitions.- Inflection, Root, Stem, etc
.
34
155-163. Numbers, Genders, Cases
34
16
NOUNS.
164-106.
Three Declensions of Nouns
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
36
167.
Case-endings of Nouns
.
.
.
.
.
.
36
FIRST
DECLENSION.
168-170.
Stems and
Terminations of .Firs~ Declension
.
37
171-182.
183-187.
Paradigms of First Declension
Contract Nouns of First Declension
37-40
.
.
40
188.
Dialects of First Declension
40,41
SECOND
DECLENSION.
189-191. Stems and Terminations of Second Declension
192-Hl5. Paradigms of Sceond Declension
100-200. Attic Second Declension
41,42
42
42, 43
201-203.
Contraet Nouns of
Second Declension
43,44
204.
Dialects of ~econd Declension
·,
44
THIRD
DECLENSION.
205-208.
Stems and Case-endings of Third Declension
44
FORMATION
OJo'
CASES.
209-213. Nominative Singular of Third Declension
45,46
214-218.
Accusative Singular of Tllil·d Decleusion
46
219-223.
Vocative Singular of Third DeclL·nsion
47
224.
Dative Plural of Third Declension
47
PARADIGMS
OF
THIRD
llECLF:NSIO~.
225.
Nouns with
Mute or Liquid Stems
.
47-50
226-240.
241-24tl.
249-262.
Nouns with Stems in 2: (chietly contract)
Stems in fl or 0
Stems in I or 'I'
50-52
52,53
53-05
263-272. Stems ending in a Diphthong
273-279. Syncopated Nouns of Third Declension
55,56
67,68
280-285.
58,59
286.
59
287-291.
Gender of Third Declension
Dialects of Third Declension
Irregulaz· Nouns
59-62
292-297.
Endings -8<, -Ou, -of, -cu, -.fn, -<f!<v, etc
.
62

CONTENTS.

ADJECTIVES.

xi

P.1Gii8

298-309.

Adjectives of the :First and Second Declensions

 

63,64

310, 311.

Contract Adjectives in -•os and -oos

65,66

312-317.

Adjectives of the Third Declension

66,61

318-333.

First and Third Declensions combined

 

67-69

••• •.•

70-72

340-342.

Participles in -wv, -ovs, -as, -m, -iis, -ws Contract Participles in -awv, -•w•, -owv, -aws

 

72, 73

Adjectives with One Ending

73

346-349,

Irregular Adjectives: pl-yas, ,.o\tis, "'P~os, etc

 

.

73,74

COMPARISON'

OF'

ADJECTIVES.

 

350-3511.

Comparison by -npos, -TaTos

 

74,75

357-300.

Comparison by -iwv, -unos

• • •

75, 76

361-364.

Irregular Comparison

 

76, 77

ADVEIU3S

AND

THEIR COMPARISON.

 

361i-3()8.

Adverbs formed from Adjectives, etc

 

.

77,78

369-371.

Comparison of Adverbs

 

78

 

NUMERALS.

 

372-374.

Cardinal

and

Ordinal

Numbers,

and

Numeral

 

Adverbs

 

78-80

375-385.

Declension of Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, etc

 

.

80,81

 

THE ARTICLE.

 

386-S88.

Declension

of ci,

~. TO

• .

• • .

• •

• .

• • • • • • • • • .

• • • • • •

81,82

 

PRONOUNS.

 

389-400.

Personal and Intensive Pronouns

 

82,83

401-403. Reflexive Pronouns

 

84

404,405.

Reciprocal Pronoun

 

84,85

40()

408.

Possessive Pronouns

 

.

85

40\1-414.

Demonstrative Prououu~

 

85,8u

411i--420.

luterrogative aud Indefinite Pronouns

86,87

Helativc Pronouns

87,8!l

429-440.

Pronominal Adjectives and Adverbs

tsti--90

VERBS.

441-454. Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons

 

90-92

455--461. Tense ~ystems and Tense Stems

92,93

462,463. Principal Parts of a Greek Verb

93,94

464-468. Conjugation.-Two Forms: Verbs in w and Verbs

in

14 •

••

•.•

••

94

xii

CONTENTS.

8BCTION8

CONJUGATION OF

VERBS IN n.

469-473.

Description of following Synopses

474,475.

Synopsis of Xiiw ••.••••••.•••.••••••.••••••••••

~76, 477.

Synopsis of >

t,.w

0

•••••••••••••••

0

••••

478,479.

Synopsis 'of <f>a.lvw • • • • • • • •

• •.•.•••••••••••••••

480.

Inflection of >.6w •••••••

••••.•.•••••••.•

 

••

481.

Inflection of 2 Aor., l'erf., and l'lupcrfo of >.clll'w.•

482.

Inflection

Remarks on Verbs

of

¢a.l•w

(Liquid Forms) .•.•.• in

w ••• o.

• •

480-491.

492, 4!l3.

4!14.

495-490.

Perfect

and

Pluperfect

Middle

and

Verbs with Consonant t>tems

l'a.ssivc

0

Contract Verbs in a.w, <w, a11<l ow 0 •••••••••

Synopsis

Hemarks ou Contract Verbs

of TiJ.Ulw,

rJ><Xlwo 01)A6w, 81)p&.w 0

o

0

of

P.49BB

94,95

96,97

98

99

100-104

105

106,107

108

108-111

112-114

115

115, 116

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN J'o'·

General Character of Vcrbs in IL'·- Two Classes,

Synopois

Present and Second Aorist Systems 0 ••• o Inflect.ion of peculiar Tenses of these Verbs Secoud Perfect and Pluperfect of the ~U-form

oflKviiJ.I' in

500-503.

604,505.

116

of

LO'T'IJJL<, Tl8'1!L''

olowJL<, and

116, 117

117-122

123

500. Full Synopsis of these Verbs in Indicative. 0 ••••• 123, 124

506.

607,508.

610-G12.

613-519.

620-1'>28.

520-G33.

634-530.

637-G3(l,

540-54(;.

547-550.

661.

552.

55!3.

054, [)f>[>.

AUGMENT

AND REDUPLICATION.

SyllalJic and Temporal Augment defined Augment of Imperfect and Aorist Indicative Reduplication of l'erf., Pluperf., and Fut. Attic Reduplication Reduplicate<! AoriHts and Presents Soyllal>ic Augment prefixed to a Vowel

Augment and Heduplication of Compound Verbs, Omission of Augment and Reduplication

ENDINGS.

Personal Endinf(S Personal Endings of Indic., Suuj., and Opt l'ersona.l Endings of Imperative Emliugs of Infinitive, ete

0

•••••••••••••

o

0

••••

0

••

o

124,125

125

126,127

127, 128

128

128, 129

129, 130

130, 131

131

131

131

132

550.

Hemark6 on the Ending~;

 

0

••

0

••••

0

•••••••

0

••••

 

132, 133

TENSE

STEMS

AND FORMS OF INFLECTION.

657-.560.

Simple and

Complex Tense Stems

 

133, 134

f>lll.

Tense Suffixes

 

0 • 0 •••••••••

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

134

662.

Optative Suffix. 0

 

0

o

o

 

134

663.

564.

Two Forms of Inflection of Verbs o

The

Simple

Form.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. •

.

.

.

• .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 

134

135

665.

The

Common Forrn

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

• .

.

.

.

.

.

• .

. • • • •

135,

136

CONTENTS.

xiii

FORMATION AND INFLECTION OF TENSE SYSTEMS.

8BCTION8

PJ.QB8

066.

General Statement

136

667.

Formation of the l'reRent Stem from the Verb

Stem

136

668-$22.

Eig!Jt Classes of Verbs

136-143

623-633. Inflection of Present and Imperfect Indicative

143, 144

634-05!1.

Modification of the Stem in certain Tense Systems,

14&-149

600-717.

Formation of Tense Stems, and Inflection of Tense

Systems in Indicative

149-158

FORMATION OF DEPENDENT MOODS AND PARTICIPLE.

71&-72(\.

Sulljunctive

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Hi!l, 160

730-745.

Optative

 

160-163

746-758.

Imperative

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1H3-l05

759-760.

lufinitive,

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

165, 166

770-775.

Participles

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

166, 167

776.

Verba.)~; in -ros and

-nos

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

• .

.

.

.

.

.

167

 

DIALECTS.

 

777-783.

Dialectic and Poetic Forms of Verlls in w

 

1G7-170

784-780.

Special Dialectic Forms of Contract Verbs

 

170-172

787-792.

Dialectic and Poetic Forms of Verlls in~-''

In,173

.ENUMERATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF MI-FOHMS. 793-7!l7. Enumeratiou of Presents in p.< 173, 174 i98-80:l.
.ENUMERATION
AND
CLASSIFICATION
OF
MI-FOHMS.
793-7!l7.
Enumeratiou of Presents in p.<
173, 174
i98-80:l.
Second
Aoz·i~ts of the !-'<·form
17 5,
171l
il04.
Second
l'erf,,ets and Pluperf<·ct~ of tlw
1-'•-fonn
171l, I i7
so;,,
Irrei(ular Verbs of the
}J.I·fOJ'Ill.
• •
.
.
.
• • •
• •
.
177
800-821.
Inflection of <ip.£, dp.<, i'Y)p.<, ¢YJp.l, ~p.a<, Hlp.al, anu
.
oi~a
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
177-lil3
PAR'l' III.
FORMATION
OF
WORDS.
822.
Simple an<l Cumpouu<l Worcts
184
SIMPLE
WORDS.
823-825.
Primitives and Denominatives
Suffixes
184,185
826-831.
185
FORMATION OF NOUNS.
832-840.
Primitives
186, 187
841-848.
Denuminatives
187,188

xiv

CONTENTS.

Bli:O!'!Olll

P t.GII8

849-858.

Formation of Adjectives ••.•••.••• •

 

189, 190

850, 8<10.

Formation of Adverbs

 

•.•.•

 

190

861-868.

Denominative Verbs

 

190, 191

COMPOUND

 

WORDS.

 

809, 870. Division of the Subject

 

• •

 

191

871-877.

First Part of Compound Word

 

,

192, HJ3

878-882.

Last Part of Compound Word

 

HJ3, 194

883-880.

Meaning of Compounds

 

••.•.•.••

 

194, HJ5

PART

 

IV.

 

SYNTAX.

 

890-893.

Subject, Predicate, Object

 

196

SUBJECT

AND

 

PREDICATE.

 

8!l4.

Subject Nominative of Finite Verb

 

1!17

805.

1. Subject Accusative of Infinitive

1117

2, 3. Subject of lutiuitive omitted

1!)7

806-898.

Subject Nom. omitted, Impersonal Verbs, etc

 

.

1117, IUS

8!1!1-006.

Subject Nominative and Verb

 

198, HIO

907-010.

Predicate in same Case as Subject

199

APPOSITION.

 

911-fl17.

,Various Forms of

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

200,201

ADJECTIVES.

 

9JR-92G.

Adjectives agreeing with Nouns

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

201,202

927-931.

Adjt<ctives belonging to omitted Subject of Infinitive, 202-204

932-034.

Adjectives

used as :"<ouns

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

• .

204

THE

A H.TICLE.

 

935-940.

Homeric Use of the Article (as Pronoun)

 

204-206

!l41-058.

Attic Use of the Article (as Definite Arlicle)

20fi-20B

flii!l-980.

Position of the Article

208-212

981-084.

l'ronomiual Article in Attic (o pb

 

o 6(, etc.)

 

212

PRONOUNS.

 

98&-992.

Personal and Intensive Pronouns

 

213,214

0{13-097.

Uefiexive l'ronouns

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

214, 21/i

•• OTIONB

CONTENTS.

XV

J'.A&KI

998-1003.

l'ossessive Pronouns

 

•••.•

 

215,216

1004-1010.

Demonstrative Pronouns

 

.

216,217

1011-1014.

Interrogative Pronoun

 

217

1016-1018.

Indefinite Pronoun

217,218

1019-1025.

Relative

Pronoun as related to its Antecedent

 

218,219

1026-1030.

Relative with omitted Antecedent

 

219,220

1031-!038.

Assimilation and Attraction of Relatives

220-222

103ll.

Relative in Exclamations

 

222

1040-!041.

Relative Pronoun not repeated in a new Case

 

222

THE

CASES.

NOMINATIVE AND VOCATIVE.

 

1042.

General Remark on the Cases

 

222

1043.

~omiuative, as Subject or Predicate

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

222

1044.

Vocative used in

address in~

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

222

1045.

Nominative used

for Vocative

 

223

ACCUSATIVE.

 

1046.

Various Functions of the Accusative

 

223

1047-1050.

Accusative of Direct

(External) Object

 

.

223

1051-1057.

Cognate Accusative (of Internal Object)

 

.

223-225

10li8, 1009.

Accusative of Specification or Limitation

 

225

1060, 1061.

Adverbial Accusative

 

.

226

1062-10(;4.

Accusative of Extent of Time or Space

 

226

1065.

Terminal Accusative (Poetic)

 

226,227

1066-10()8.

Accu.<;ativc after N-il and Mel

227

1069-1072.

Two Accusatives with Verbs signifying To ask, teach, 1·emind, clothe, conceal, deprive,

 

di1Jide,

227

1073-1075.

To do anything to or say anythillg of a person or thing

 

228

1076.

Cognate and Object Act'u~ative together

 

228

1077-1082. Predicate and Object Accusative together

 

228,229

 

GENITIVE.

 

1083.

Various Fuuctions of the Genitive

 

229

1084.

Genitive after Nouus (Attributive)

 

 

229,230

1085-1087.

Seven Classes

nf Attributive Genitive

 

230

10S8-10!J2.

Partitive Genitive (specially)

 

231,232

Genitive after Verbs: - Predicate Genitive

232,233

1097,1098. Genitive expressing Part

233

xvi

CONTENTS.

8KCTIONB

With verbs signifying

P~e••

1099-1101.

To take hold of, touch, aim at, claim, hit, misa,

.

 

begin, etc

233,234

1102-1108.

To taste, smell, hear, perceive, l'emember, for·

get, desire, spare, neglect, admi1·e, despise

234,236

110\J-1111.

To rule, lead, or direct

 

236

1112-11 W.

Ji'ulness or

00 ••••••••••••• 00.

236

1117-1120.

Genitive of Separation and Comparison

 

237,238

1121-lll!5. Genitive with Verbs of Accusing, Convicting,

 
 

Acquitting, and Condemning (with Accus.)

Genitive of Caus"

00.

 

238,239

1120-1128.

239

11:.!9. Causal Genitive in Exclamations

239

1130.

Genitive of Source

239

1131.

Genitive of Agent or Instrument (Poetic)

 

240

113:.!.

Genitive after Compound Verbs

240

1133-1135.

Genitive of Price or Value

240,241

1136.

Genitive of Time within which

00 •••••••

241

113i-113B.

Genitive of Place within whic:h (clJiefly Poetic)

00 •••• oo ••••••••••

241

1139-1142.

Objective Genitive with Verbal Adjectives

242,243

1143-1145.

·Possessive Genitive with Adjectives denoting

Possession, etc

243

1140.

Genitive with certain Adject. of Place

243

1147-1161.

Genitive with Adverbs

243,244

1152.

Genitive

Absolute (see also

1568)

.

244

1153-1156.

Genitive with Comparatives

244,246

DATIVE.

,

.

1157.

Various Functions of the Dative

 

246

1158.

Dative expressing to or fol':- Dative of Indirect Object

00 •• oo oo ••••••••••

00 oo •• 00

.

.

24()

1159-1163.

Dative after certain Intransitive Verbs

246,246

1164.

Dative with Verbs of Ruling, etc. ,

247

1165-1170.

Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage

247,248

1171.

1172.

Ethical Dative Dative of Relation

248

248

1173.

Dative of Possession (with <i!"l, etc.)

248

1174.

Dative after Adjectives kindred to preceding

Verbs

249

1175-1178.

Dative of Resemblance, Union, and Approach

249,250

1179, 1180.

Dative after Compound Verbs

260,261

1181, 1182.

Dative of Cause, Manner, Means, and Instru-

ment. •.•••

,.,

•••. ••••• •.•

261

1183.

1184,1186.

Dative after xpdof.'a•, use Dative of Degree of Difference (with Compan.-

••

 

26]

tives) 1 1 1

1

1

1

1

t

1

I

I

Itt

f

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

Iff

261,262

CONTENTS.

xvii

8SOTION8

PA.OE8

1180, 1187.

Dative of Agent (with Perfect and Pluperfect

Passive)

262

1188.

Dative of Agent (with Verbal in ·r<os or -Tio•)

252

1189-ll!H.

Dative of Accompaniment (sometimes with

au76s)

•.•

 

252,263

1192-1195.

1100.

Dative of Time

Dative

of Place (Poetic)

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

263

253

1197.

"

"

Uceasional L" se

in !'rose (Names

JHI8.

of Attic Derues)

. Local Datives as Adverbs

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. •

254

254

PHEPOSITIO:'-l'S.

 

1190.

Prcpositioas originally Adverbs

 

2[>4

1200. Improper

 

254

1201. Prepositions with Genitive, Dative, and Accusa. tive

.

254

1202-1219. uses of the l'r!'positions

 

204-262

1220.

Uses

of

the Improper Prepositions.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

262

1221-12:.!0.

1227.

Remark on the Prepositions I'repositions in Compositjon taking their own

.

.

.

.

2G2,203

Cases.

264

 

ADVERBS.

1228,1229.

Adverbs qualifying Verbs, Adjectives, and Ad-

 

verbs

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

264

SYNTAX OF THE VERR

VOICES.

1230-1232.

Active Voice

264,265

1233.

Passive Voice

2(15

1234-12:37. Agent after Passive Verbs (i.,-6 and Genitive)

2(l5

1238. Dative of Agent (see also 118G-l 188)

265

1239. Pa.~sive Construction when Active has two Cases

2C5,266

1240. Cognate Accusative made Subject of Passive

266

1241. Intra.usitive Active forms userl as PaRsives

266

1242-1248.

Middle Voice (three uses) .

 

267,268

 

TENSES.

 

1249.

Two relations denoted by the Tenses

.

.

.

.

268

I.

TENSES

OF

THE

INDICATIVE.

1260-1266.

Tenses of the Indicative (Time of each) • . • • • • 268-271

XVlll

CONTENTS.

II.

TENSES

01•'

'l'l!Jo;

DEPENDENT

MOODS.

811CTION8

A.

NOT

IN

IN V!Rl:CT

DlSCOU HSl:.

P.lOitB

1271.

272

Present and Aorist chiefly used Distinction between l'r~Sl<nt and Aorist here

. 1273-1275. Perfect not in Indirect Disconrse (seldom used)

127:.!.

272

272,273

1270-1:278.

Future 1ufinitive not in ludirect Discourse (ex- ceptional)

273

B.

I:'<DIHECT

ll!SCOU!tSl:.

1279.

Definition of Jndirer.t Di,•cou1·se

273

1280-12~;.1. Optative and

Infinitive in Indirect Discourse

2i4

 

1285.

128G.

Present Infin. and Optative include lmperfer.t

2i4

Infinitive after Verbs of Hoping, l'romisiug, etc.

(two Constructions allowed)

276

1287. Future Optative used ouly in Indirect Discourse

III.

TE:'>SES

OF

THE

PARTICIPLE.

1288. Expressing time relatively to leading Verb

1289. Present Participle as Imperfect

1290. Aorist sometimes deuoting same time as leading Verb

275

276

275,276

276

1291.

1292-1294.

1295.

1290-1298.

1299-13Q1.

1302.

130:t

130-1.

1::!05.

IV.

GNOMIC

AND

ITERATIVE

TENSES.

Gnomic Present, expressing Habit or General Truth "

Gnomic Aorist Gnomic Perfect Iterative Imperfect and Aorist with IJ.v ••••••••

276

276

276

2i6, 277

"

THE PAETICLE "Av.

Two Uses of

"Av with the Indicative:-

/J.v

• • • • .

• • • .

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Never with Present or Perfect With Future (chiefly Homeric) With Secondary Tenses with the Subjunctive

• A•

277

277

277,278

278

278

130u, 1307.

Av with the Optative (always Poteutial)

 

278

1!~08, 130!1.

Av

with tl1e Infinitive aud Participle (Potential)

2i8,279

1310, 131 I.

!'osition of d• .•••.•.••

••

••.•

270,280

1312.

"A• repeated in long Apouosis

 

280

1313-131U.

Special Uses of /J.v • ••••••••••••••••••••••••••

280

GENERAL

THE

MOODS.

STATEMENT

A!\D

CLASSIFICATION.

1317-1319.

Various Uses of Indicative

1320, 1321.

Variou:; Uses of Subjunctive

••

•.••

280,281

281

8:IOTION8

CONTENTS.

xix

PAG:I8

1322, 1323. Various Uses of Optative

 

281,282

1324.

The Imperative

282

1325.

The Infinitive, Participle, etc

 

.

283

1320.

Classification of Constructions of the MoodH

283

 

J.

POTENTIAL

OPTATIVE

ANJ>

JNJ>IGATIVE.

 

1327-J!l:H.

Potential Optative with ll.v

••.•.••

•.••

28:3-285

1335-1341.

Potential

ludicative

with

28fl, 28<i

II.

!Ml'ERATIVE

AND

SUJJJIJNCTIVE

II'

!~DEPENDENT ~EX-

TE!'\CES.- INDEPENDE!\'T

SENTE!\CES

WITH

p.~ OR

chrws;.

1:342, 1343.

Imperative in Commands, Exhortations,

287

1344,

1345.

First Person of Suhjuuctive in Exhortatiom;

287

1346,

134 7.

Present Imper. or Aorist Su!Jj. in Prohibitions

287

1348, 134D.

Independent Subjunctivr. in Homer with p.T], ex-

1350, 1:l5l.

. Subjunctive or Indicative with 1-'TJ or J.<iJ ov in

.

pressing fear

or anxiety

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

287, 2H8

cautious assertions or negatio11~ 1352-1354. Future Indicative with lirrws alld o1rws l'r, in

288

 

Commands and

Prohibitions

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2H8

III.

HOMERIC

St:JJJUNCTIVE

1~11\E

FUTURE

1::-<"TE!tROGATIVE

SUll,TUN'C'f!VE.

INDICATIVE.-

1355-1357.

Homeric Use of the Subjunctive ;tS simple Future

288,28()

1358, 13[,\1.

lnterrog;ttive Suhjuu(:tive (<.\uestions of Doubt)

:2B9

IV.

SUlJJIJNCTJVE

ANI>

FUTURE

INDICATIVE

WITH

ou p.~.

1360, 13(ll.

V.

FINAL

1302, 1.163.

l:lu4.

As Emphatic Future and ia l'rollibitious

AND

ODJECT

CLA USF.S

AFTER

AND p.~.

Three Classes of these Clauses Negative: Particle in t.hese Clauses

iva.,

.

.

.

.

.

~'

.

.

.

07rw<;;,

.

.

.

.

28!)

ocppa.,

290

290

I.

Pl'l\E FISAL CLAIJSE~ (AFTER ALI, TilE FISAI. !'ARTICLES):-

Jll65-J~~(l8. With

~ubjunctive and Optnivc

,

2()0, 2a1

130!), l:l7\J.

With

~uLjunctive after SPcnmlary Teu~~s

291

1371.

With the Past Teuses of the Indicative

 

202

11.

OliJlcCT CLAUSE~ WITH 61rwr AFTER VEI<HS OF Striving ETC.:-

1372.

With Future Indicative or

202

1373.

Same coustructic>n with Vcrbs of exhorting etc.

2D2

1374-1376.

Present or Aorist Subjunctive or Optative here

292, 2D3

8:&CTION8

III. CLA.USES WITII

CONTENTS.

p.~ AFTER VERBS OF Fearing:-

I'AGIIII

1378.

With

Subjunctive and Optative,

 

,

293

1379.

With

Future Indicative (rare)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

293

1380.

With

Present or Past Tenses of Indicative

 

294

 

VI.

CONDITIONAL

SENTENCES.

 

1381.

Definition of Protasis and Apodosis

 

204

1382.

Use of l!v (Hom. •l) in l'rotasis and Apodo~is

294

1383.

Negative Particles in Prota.sis and A poliosis

204

1384.

Distinction of Particular and G(,neral Sup·

 

positions

 

294,295

1385-138!l.

Classification of Conditional Sentences

29fl, 200

I.

PRESEST

OR

PAST

CONVITIOI<S

WITH

NOTIIING

IMPLIED.

1;390.

Simple Supposition (chiefly Particular) with

 

Indicative

206,297

l:lfil.

Future Indicative denoting Present Int-ention

297

1393-13!l6.

l'rr.st'nt auri Past General Suppositions

297,298

II.

l'III!:SE:-!T

AND

PAST

 

CONDJTWSS

 

WITH

 

Sl!PI'OSJTIONS

CONTIIAI!Y

 

TO

 

FACT.

 

13(17.

l'ast Tenses of Indicative (l!v in Apodosis)

2!l8, 299

13!Jfl.

Preseut Optative used hr.re in Homer in l'reseut

Conditions

.

.

.

.