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Advanced Vehicle Technology

To my long-suffering wife, who has provided support and understanding throughout the preparation
of this book.

Advanced
Vehicle Technology
Second edition

Heinz Heisler MSc., BSc., F.I.M.I., M.S.O.E., M.I.R.T.E., M.C.I.T., M.I.L.T.


Formerly Principal Lecturer and Head of Transport Studies,
College of North West London, Willesden Centre, London, UK

OXFORD AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK PARIS


SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO

Butterworth-Heinemann
An imprint of Elsevier Science
Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP
225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041
First published by Edward Arnold 1989
Reprinted by Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd 2001
Second edition 2002
Copyright # 1989, 2002 Heinz Heisler. All rights reserved
The right of Heinz Heisler to be identified as the author of this work has been
asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including
photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether
or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without
the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the
provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of
a license issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road,
London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holder's written
permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed
to the publishers
Whilst the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and
accurate at the date of going to press, neither the authors nor the publisher
can accept any legal responsibility or liability for any
errors or omissions that may be made.

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data


A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress
ISBN 0 7506 5131 8

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..........................................
1 Vehicle structure

................................................................
1.1 Integral body construction
1.2.......................................................
Engine, transmission and body structures

.......................................................................
1.3 Fifth wheel coupling assembly
............................................................
1.4 Trailer and caravan drawbar couplings

..............................................................
1.5 Semi-trailer landing gear
..............................................................
1.6 Automatic chassis lubrication system

......................................
2 Friction clutch

........................................................
2.1 Clutch fundamentals
2.2 Angular driven plate cushioning
..................................
and torsional damping

............................................................
2.3 Clutch friction materials
2.4 Clutch
.....................................................
drive and driven member inspection

.......................................................
2.5 Clutch misalignment

.................................................................
2.6 Pull type diaphragm clutch
.....................................................................
2.7 Multiplate diaphragm type clutch
.................................................................
2.8 Lipe rollway twin driven plate clutch
2.9 Spicer twin driven plate
......................................
angle spring pull type clutch

...........................................................
2.10 Clutch (upshift) brake
2.11 Multiplate hydraulically operated automatic transmission
................clutches

............................................................
2.12 Semicentrifugal clutch
...................................................................
2.13 Fully automatic centrifugal clutch
..............................................................
2.14 Clutch pedal actuating mechanisms
2.15 Composite flywheel and integral single plate
....................
diaphragm clutch

.............................................................
3 Manual gearboxes and overdrives

...................................................................
3.1 The necessity for a gearbox
3.2 Five speed and
...........................................
reverse synchromesh gearboxes
...........................................................
3.3 Gear synchronization and engagement
3.4 Remote controlled gear
....................................
selection and engagement m
..............................................................
3.5 Splitter and range change gearboxes

...................................................................
3.6 Transfer box power take-off

...............................................................
3.7 Overdrive considerations

....................................................
3.8 Setting gear ratios

4 Hydrokinetic fluid couplings


...............................
and torque converters

...................................................................
4.1 Hydrokinetic fluid couplings

4.2 Hydrokinetic fluid coupling efficiency


...............................
and torque capacity

.........................................................
4.3 Fluid friction coupling
4.4 Hydrokinetic
...................................................
three element torque converter
4.5 Torque
.....................................................
converter performance terminology

..................................................
4.6 Overrun clutches
..................................................................
4.7 Three stage hydrokinetic converter
4.8
.........................................................
Polyphase hydrokinetic torque converter
4.9 Torque converter with lock-up and gear change
....................
friction clutches

5 Semi....................................................
and fully automatic transmission
.............................................................
5.1 Automatic transmission consideration

5.2 Four speed and reverse longitudinally mounted automatic transmission


.....................................................
mechanical power flow
5.3 The fundamentals
..............................................
of a hydraulic control system
5.4 Basic principle of a .......................................
hydraulically controlled gearshift
5.5.......................................................
Basic four speed hydraulic control system

5.6 Three speed and reverse transaxle automatic transmission mechanical


..................................
power flow
5.7 Hydraulic
..................................................
gear selection control components
5.8.......................................................
Hydraulic gear selection control operation
5.9 The continuously variable
...................................
belt and pulley transmission
5.10 Five speed automatic transmission with electronic-hydraulic
............ control

5.11 Semi-automatic (manual gear change two pedal control) transmission


............................ system

6 Transmission bearings and


...............................
constant velocity joints

.............................................................
6.1 Rolling contact bearings
................................................................
6.2 The need for constant velocity joints

.......................................................
7 Final drive transmission
7.1
........................................................
Crownwheel and pinion axle adjustments

.................................................
7.2 Differential locks

................................................................
7.3 Skid reducing differentials

............................................................
7.4 Double reduction axles

..................................................
7.5 Two speed axles

.....................................................................
7.6 The third (central) differential
.......................................................................
7.7 Four wheel drive arrangements
.............................................................
7.8 Electro-hydralic limited slip differential

7.9 Tyre grip when braking and accelerating with good and poor road
...............................surfaces

..............................................................
7.10 Traction control system

.......................8 Tyres
...........................................................
8.1 Tractive and braking properties of tyres

..............................................
8.2 Tyre materials

...................................................
8.3 Tyre tread design

.....................................................................
8.4 Cornering properties of tyres
..........................................................
8.5 Vehicle steady state directional stability

.................................................................
8.6 Tyre marking identification

..................................................
8.7 Wheel balancing

............................
9 Steering
.............................................................
9.1 Steering gearbox fundamental design
..............................................................
9.2 The need for power assisted steering
.............................................................
9.3 Steering linkage ball and socket joints
..........................................................
9.4 Steering geometry and wheel alignment

......................................................................
9.5 Variable-ratio rack and pinion
9.6 Speed sensitive rack and pinion
...............................
power assisted steering
9.7 Rack and pinion
............................................
electric power assisted steering

...................................
10 Suspension

............................................................
10.1 Suspension geometry

..............................................................
10.2 Suspension roll centres

..................................................................
10.3 Body roll stability analysis

........................................................................
10.4 Anti-roll bars and roll stiffness
..............................................................
10.5 rubber spring bump or limiting stops

.............................................
10.6 Axle location
.....................................................................
10.7 Rear suspension arrangements
..................................................................
10.8 Suspension design consideration

............................................................
10.9 Hydrogen suspension
10.10 Hydropneumatic automatic height
...........................
correction suspension
10.11
.......................................................
Commercial vehicle axle beam location
10.12 Variable rate leaf suspension springs.........................................................

......................................................................
10.13 Tandem and tri-axle bogies

.....................................................................
10.14 Rubber spring suspension
10.15.....................................................
Air suspensions for commercial vehicles

10.16
........................................................
Lift axle tandem or tri-axle suspension

........................................................
10.17 Active suspension
10.18 Electronic controlled pneumatic (air) suspension for on and off...road use

......................................
11 Brake system

...........................................
11.1 Braking fun
................................................................
11.2 Brake shoe and pad fundamentals
............................................................
11.3 Brake shoe expanders and adjusters
...........................................................
11.4 Disc brake pad support arrangements
.................................................................
11.5 Dual- or split-line braking systems

........................................................
11.6 Apportional braking
.....................................................................
11.7 Antilocking brake system (ABS)

..............................................
11.8 Brake servos
11.9 Pneumatic operated disk brakes
...............................
(for trucks and trailers)

12 Air operated power brake equipment and .................


vehicle retarders
...............................................................
12.1 Introductions to air powered brakes
................................................................
12.2 Air operated power brake systems
.............................................................
12.3 Air operated power brake equipment

....................................................
12.4 Vehicle retarders

......................................................................
12.5 Electronic-pneumatic brakes

..................................................
13 Vehicle refrigeration

.......................................................
13.1 Refrigeration terms
13.2 Principles of a vapour-compression cycle.....................
refrigeration system
.................................................................
13.3 Refrigeration system components

13.4 Vapour-compression cycle refrigeration system with reverse cycle


.................................
defrosting

...............................................................
14 Vehicle body aerodynamics
.......................................................................
14.1 Viscous air flow fundamentals

......................................................
14.2 Aerodynamic drag

...................................................
14.3 Aerodynamic lift

................................................................
14.4 Car body drag reduction

..............................................................
14.5 Aerodynamic lift control

.................................................
14.6 Afterbody drag
14.7 Commercial ...........................................
vehicle aeordynamic fundamentals
14.8 Commercial
...................................................
vehicle drag reducing devices

.................... Index