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Vincent Li | B5183 | 30688121 _____________________________________________________________ Abstract

In todays times, utilizing the conveniently accessible powers of microwaves and stoves to heat food products is widely accepted as a norm in nearly all households. However, issues regarding the loss of nutritional value through the heating of food products have been deemed important as heating food is now a commonplace. Throughout the many nutritional benefits of food, vitamin C, or more accurately known as ascorbic acid, is essential to the human body. Ascorbic acid may be consumed in many forms including solid food and liquid juices. An experiment was performed to identify and evaluate the effects of heating juice which contained ascorbic acid. Various juices containing ascorbic acid -- apple juice, cranberry juice, pineapple juice, and Vitamin Water focus -- were heated to temperatures of 50 and 80 degrees celsius, using room temperature (20 degrees) as the control sample. The results of the experiment shows that there is a weak inverse proportionality between ascorbic acid content and temperature.

_____________________________________________________________ Introduction Ascorbic acid is a vitamin found naturally in food humans consume daily. Since the discovery of fire, heating food prior to consumption has become a convention. Inevitably, naturally existent ascorbic acid has also endured the effects of heating preceding ingestion. Humans, however, are currently speculating and discussing the present effects on ascorbic acid and its degradation given increasing heat. This experiment, in response, observes the effects of heating on the nutritional value and content of ascorbic acid - specifically observing the effects in Vitamin Water. Burdurlu et al. (2006) in Degradation of vitamin C in citrus juice concentrates during storage found that ascorbic acid content in citrus juices correlated negatively with increasing temperature. It was also found that degradation of ascorbic acid was increasingly faster at higher temperatures (Vikram et al., 2005). This experiment aims to examine the effects of heating Vitamin Water and its effects on the nutritional value of ascorbic acid. It was predicted that this experiment shows an inverse proportionality between ascorbic acid content and temperature; thus, heating and increasing temperature will decrease ascorbic acid content. Iodometric titration was utilized to standardize the sample solution. Experimental Section Refer to the attached Experimental Design Form for procedural steps of the performed experiment, provided a single alteration. The initial titration required 81.65 mL of standard solution to neutralize 25 mL of Vitamin Water solution. Following the initial titration, the moles of the KIO3 used to prepare the standard solution was doubled to reduce the amount of standard solution required so to increase the efficiency of the experiment.

Calculations and Tabulated Results 0.00254g Vitamin C in 25 mL sample of Vitamin Water (60mg per 591 mL bottle - as given) Mass of KIO3 required for 250 mL: 0.01028 grams (calculation in Experimental Design Form) Above mass doubled to reduce amount of standard solution required: 0.02056 grams [KIO3] = (0.02056 grams KIO3) x (mol KIO3 / 214.00 grams KIO3) x 4 0.250 L x 4 = 1 L = 3.843 x 10-4 M o Temp. ( C) 20 50 80 Trial 1 Initial 0.00 0.00 0.00 Trial 1 Final 81.65 46.95 46.55 Trial 1 Amount Used 81.65 46.95 46.55 Trial 2 Initial 0.00 0.00 0.00 Trial 2 Final 47.30 47.05 46.65 Trial 2 Amount Used 47.30 47.05 46.65

Table 1a: Tabulated results of experiment. Initial and final values reflect buret readings. All values are presented in millilitres unless otherwise specified. Temp. (oC) 20 Trial 3 Initial 0.00 Trial 3 Final 47.25 Trial 3 Amount Used 47.25

Table 1b: Tabulated results of third control sample titration. Initial and final values reflect buret readings. All values are presented in millilitres unless otherwise specified. Average standard solution used when heating sample to: 20 degrees: 47.28 mL 50 degrees: 47.00 mL 80 degrees: 46.60 mL Remaining ascorbic acid content (referring to average amounts used) 0.04660 L KIO3 x (3.843 x 10-4 mol KIO3 / L KIO3) x (3 mol C6H8O6 / 1 mol KIO3) x (176.12g C6H8O6 / mol C6H8O6 ) = 9.462 x 10-3grams per 25 mL = 9.462 mg C6H8O6 per 25 mL sample 50 degrees: 9.543 mg C6H8O6 per 25 mL sample 20 degrees (room temperature): 9.600 mg per C6H8O6 25 mL sample

Discussion In agreement with Burdurlu et al. and Vikram et al., the results of this experiment express support for the hypothesis. It was observed that an increase in temperature decreased the amount of ascorbic acid present in Vitamin Water. The amount of ascorbic acid found in 25 mL of Vitamin Water at room temperature was 9.600 mg. When heated to 50 degrees celsius, this nutritional content decreased to 9.543 mg per 25 mL. When heated to 80 degrees celsius, the ascorbic acid content decreased to 9.462 mg per 25 mL. Interestingly, the amount of ascorbic acid retained after heating to certain temperatures was quite high, dropping by less than 0.1 mg per 25 mL for every increase in 30 degrees. This finding agrees with the findings of the experiments performed with apple juice, pineapple juice, and cranberry juice (Carol Liu, Aaron Luu, and Victoria Ly). The experiment began by measuring out an amount of KIO3 to create a standard solution for iodometric titration. KIO3 was dissolved and transferred into a 250 mL volumetric flask which was then inverted several times to thoroughly mix the standard solution. In this experiment, the grams of KIO3 was doubled to decrease the volume of standard solution required during titration. This doubling of the amount used did not affect the results because the volume required to neutralize the sample solution was halved as the moles of KIO3 was doubled. Sample solutions of Vitamin Water were placed on hotplates to be heated to target temperatures. This allows for the ascorbic acid within the Vitamin Water to degrade. 25 mL of Vitamin Water was pipetted to an Erlenmeyer flask for titration. The beakers of Vitamin Water were immediately removed as soon as the thermometer displayed the target temperature. The method of transferring by pipet was used to accurately transport a 25 mL sample of Vitamin Water. Prior to titration, KI was added to the Erlenmeyer flask sample solution so that the KIO3will react with it to form molecular iodine which goes on to be used up by ascorbic acid. Starch was also added to form the dark blue colour when the endpoint of the reaction had been reached. HCl was also added to provide the excess acid necessary for the reaction. Titrations were performed to observe how much standard solution was required to neutralize the 25 mL sample of Vitamin Water. All the ascorbic acid was isolated because the bottle of Vitamin Water had already isolated ascorbic acid. To achieve more accurate and significant results, the sample solution could have been heated for a longer duration of time at a constant temperature. Exposing the sample to a longer duration of heat will allow the degradation of ascorbic acid to fully occur. Also, more effective methods of measuring temperature could have been used. Difficulty arose in obtaining an accurate reading of temperature because the thermometer reading rose slower compared to the actual temperature of the solution being

heated. To further investigate the research question, it is recommended that the sample solution be maintained at the target temperature for a longer duration of time before titrating. Moreover, it is suggested that different sources of heat be used to heat the sample solution to further understand and differentiate the effects of various heat sources. Our results agreed with our hypothesis. However, our hypothesis could have particularized the heat source and the duration of heating alongside the temperature. Conclusion Through the experiment, it was found that ascorbic acid content is negatively correlated with temperature at a rate of approximately -0.1 mg per 25 mL for every 30 degree increase in temperature. Bibliography Burdurlu et al. Degradation of viatmin C in citrus juice concentrates during storage. Journal of Food Engineering. [Online] 2006, 74, 2, 211-216 S0260877405001457 (accessed Jan 23, 2013). Vikram et al. Thermal degradation kinetics of nutrients in orange juice heated by electromagnetic and conventional methods. Journal of Food Engineering. [Online] 2005, 69, 1, 31-40 http:// (accessed Jan 23, 2013).