Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 21

1. ABSTRACT Access control is the process of verifying a user's claimed identity and giving or denying the access..

The proposed project is a secure access control system to control the entry of various items through a door or a passage using RFID technology. At the very simplest level, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies allow the transmission of a unique serial number wirelessly, using radio waves. The two key parts of the system that are needed to do this are the RFID 'tag' and the 'reader'; attaching an RFID tag to a physical object allows the object to be 'seen' and monitored by existing computer networks. It has got a number of advantages over the current bar-coding system The main applications of RFID technology includes, automated libraries, vehicle toll collection, asset location and tracking etc., which are currently too high to justify widespread deployment across supply chains due to concerns over the potential for infringing the privacy of consumers who purchase RFIDtagged products. The cost criteria associated with implementation of the RFID system is expected to be overcome by near future itself. The flexibility of our proposed access control system makes itself suitable for various applications. 2. INTRODUCTION Any system that controls the entrance and exit to those who have been authorized may be called an access control system. The most common methods of access control which all of us are familiar with is the traditional lock and key arrangement. It is fine for small applications but has a number of pitfalls,

especially in application where there is a large number of a user or common door. A properly selected access control system can overcome these problems and can be integrated with other systems to provide a more rounded overall security solution. Microcontroller based access control using RFID is a combination of electrical, electronics, and mechanical technology. The history of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) can be tracked as far back as the 1920s with the birth of radar systems (the word radar is an acronym for radio detection and ranging). The development of the technology, a combination of radar and radio broadcast technology, is messy and convoluted but there is consensus that it developed from the work carried out during WW2 to identify enemy aircraft, known as 'Identification: Friend or Foe' (IFF) systems. In our project we will like to use 89c51 or 89c52 microcontroller. The purpose of using this microcontroller is because its cheaper and further upgrading is possible without changing the processing of the chip. 3. BLOCK DIAGRAM 1. ABSTRACT Access control is the process of verifying a user's claimed identity and giving or denying the access.. The proposed project is a secure access control system to control the entry of various items through a door or a passage using RFID technology. At the very simplest level, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies allow the transmission of a unique serial number wirelessly, using radio waves. The two key parts of the system that are needed to do this are the RFID 'tag' and

the 'reader'; attaching an RFID tag to a physical object allows the object to be 'seen' and monitored by existing computer networks. It has got a number of advantages over the current bar-coding system The main applications of RFID technology includes, automated libraries, vehicle toll collection, asset location and tracking etc., which are currently too high to justify widespread deployment across supply chains due to concerns over the potential for infringing the privacy of consumers who purchase RFIDtagged products. The cost criteria associated with implementation of the RFID system is expected to be overcome by near future itself. The flexibility of our proposed access control system makes itself suitable for various applications. 2. INTRODUCTION Any system that controls the entrance and exit to those who have been authorized may be called an access control system. The most common methods of access control which all of us are familiar with is the traditional lock and key arrangement. It is fine for small applications but has a number of pitfalls, especially in application where there is a large number of a user or common door. A properly selected access control system can overcome these problems and can be integrated with other systems to provide a more rounded overall security solution. Microcontroller based access control using RFID is a combination of electrical, electronics, and mechanical technology. In our project we will like to use 89c51 or 89c52 microcontroller. The purpose of using this microcontroller is because its cheaper and further upgrading is possible without changing the processing of the chip.

3. BLOCK DIAGRAM

3.1 RFID TAG There are two main components present in the RFID tag. Firstly, a small silicon chip or integrated circuit which contains a unique identification number (ID). Secondly, an antenna that can send and receive radio waves. These two components can be tiny: the antenna consists of a flat, metallic conductive coil rather than a protruding FM-style aerial, and the chip is potentially less than half a millimetre. These two components are usually attached to a flat plastic tag that can be fixed to a physical item. These tags can be quite small, thin and, increasingly, easily embedded within packaging, plastic cards, tickets, clothing labels, pallets and books. There are two main types of tags: passive and active. Passive tags are currently the most widely deployed as they are the cheapest to produce. 3.2 RFID READER The reader is a handheld or fixed unit that can interrogate nearby RFID tags and obtain their ID numbers using radio frequency (RF) communication (i.e. the

process does not require contact). When a passive tag is within range of a reader, the tags antenna absorbs the energy being emitted from the reader, directs the energy to fire up the integrated circuit on the tag, which then uses the energy to beam back the ID number and any other associated information. There are two main classes of RFID readers: read-only, an example being those that operate with the purely passive EPC Class 1 tags, and read/write, which can write new information back to a tag that has been equipped with a read/write memory. The readers are becoming increasingly sophisticated, acting as gateways into the network-centric communication systems of modern enterprises by supporting communication protocols such as TCP/IP and network technologies such as DHCP, UDP/IP and Ethernet (for wirelessly sending data back to the enterprise). Many models of reader are handheld devices and resemble the pricing guns or barcode scanners used in supermarkets, but readers can also be fixed in place (e.g. in doorways or at vehicle toll gateways) and even hidden, e.g. embedded into ceilings or walls. There are also readers that can be incorporated into handheld devices such as PDAs and mobile phones and, in addition, class 5 tags are also known as 'reader' tagsdevices that can read other RFID tags and exchange data with them. 3.3 MICROCONTROLLER We would like to use 89c52 or 89c51 microcontroller, since it contain reasonable amount of ROM and RAM. There is no need of adding further memory for our system. Also it has provision for adding extra memory for further expansion. The microcontroller is the main controlling element which controls the operation of this security access control system. Microcontroller is a device

which includes a microprocessor, memory and IO lines on a single chip fabricated using VLSI technology. The assembly language programs written in the microcontroller receives input data, manipulates it, and provides necessary control signals to the hardware. The microcontroller we are using is AT 89C51. The main features of AT89C51 are 1. 4 KB of in system reprogrammable memory. 2. 128 B of internal RAM. 3. 32 bit programmable I/O RAM. 4. Two16-bit timer/counter. 3.4 RELAY AND LATCH For control of the access we would like to use a relay of 5v. The latches we have to use are of two types. They are (i) Electric door strike (ii) Magnetic latch type 3.5 LCD DISPLAY For displaying of messages we would like to use a LCD display. We would like to display messages like ACCESS GRANTED and ACCESS DENIED. 4. ALGORITHM STEP1: Start. STEP2: Receive input data from the RFID reader. STEP3: Store the received data in a temporary location.

STEP4: Compare the received data with PSW of the microcontroller. STEP5: If a match found then go to STEP8. STEP6: Send input to the display to show message ACCESS DENIED. STEP7: Go to STEP10. STEP8: Send input to the display to show message ACCESS GRANTED. STEP9: Send input to the relay to switch latches. STEP10: Stop. 5. WORKING The RFID reader continuously produces radio frequency signals, when a tag comes near to it the tag get activated and it sends some data to the reader. The interface between the RFID tags and the RFID reader is RF interface. According to the data received from the reader provides an output to the microcontroller. This output is received by the microcontroller through one of its input ports. This will be compared with the data stored in the Program Status Word (PSW). According to the result of this comparison, microcontroller controls the relay for the controlling of the access. Also the required message is displayed. 6. RFID IN DETAIL The radio frequency part of RFID is the communication medium between tags and readers. With passive RFID tags, radio frequency is also used to deliver power to the tag, as they do not have on-board power systems. RFID systems

are designed to be asymmetric: readers are expensive and power hungry, whilst tags are cheap and require comparatively low levels of energy. 6.1 TYPES OF RFID TAGS RFID cards are also known as "proximity" or "proxy" cards and come in three general varieties: passive, semi-passive (also known as semi-active), or active. 6.1.1 PASSIVE TAG SYSTEMS They do not have an on-board power source so they have to scavenge power from the reader in order to run the digital logic on the chip and issue a response to the reader. They can therefore only operate in the presence of a reader. The communication range is limited by the need for the reader to generate very strong signals to power the tag, which therefore limits the reader-to-tag range. In addition, the small amount of energy that the tag is able to harvest in order to power its response to the reader, means that the tag-to-reader range is also limited (to around four or five metres in UHF). However, as passive tags do not require a continuous power source they have a much longer lifecycle, and because of their minimal on-board circuitry they are much cheaper to produce. This means that passive RFID tags are more suitable for tagging individual product items for applications such as supermarket checkouts and smart cards. The lack of an onboard power supply means that the device can be quite small: commercially available products exist that can be embedded in a sticker, or under the skin. As of 2006, the smallest such devices measured 0.15 mm 0.15 mm, and are thinner than a sheet of paper (7.5 micrometers). The RFID tags which are available today at a price of about 5 cents each. The addition of the antenna creates a tag that varies from the size of a postage stamp to the size of a post card

6.1.2 SEMI-PASSIVE TAG SYSTEMS They require the tag to use battery power for the digital logic on the chip, but still use harvested power for communication. Semi-passive tags are far more reliable and have greater read ranges than purely passive tags, but they also have shorter lives (due to their reliance on battery power), are more fragile, and are significantly more expensive. 6.1.3 ACTIVE TAG SYSTEMS They have an active radio frequency (RF) transmitter (i.e. they are capable of peer-to-peer communication) and the tags use batteries to power the logic chip and to communicate with the reader (i.e. they do not use harvested power). Many active tags have practical ranges of hundreds of meters, and a battery life of up to 10 years. Active tags can be read while moving at up to 100 miles an hour (e.g. in automatic toll-road payment systems) and the readers are capable of reading up to a thousand tags per second. Active tags can also be equipped with built-in sensors e.g. for monitoring temperature control and reporting unacceptable fluctuations on refrigerated products whilst in transit, although this does increase the cost even more to over 55 (around $100 or 80) per tag. They also have a much larger memory than passive tags and, due to their higher processing capabilities, are also more secure. 6.2 RFID SYSTEM WORKING The purpose of an RFID system is to enable data to be transmitted by a mobile device, called a tag, which is read by an RFID reader and processed according to the needs of a particular application. The data transmitted by the tag may provide identification or location information, or specifics about the product tagged, such as price, color, date of purchase, etc. The use of RFID in tracking and access applications first appeared in 1932, to identify aircraft as friendly or

unfriendly ("identify friend or foe" (IFF)). RFID quickly gained attention because of its ability to track moving objects. As the technology is refined, more pervasive and possibly invasive uses for RFID tags are in the works. In a typical RFID system, individual objects are equipped with a small, inexpensive tag. The tag contains a transponder with a digital memory chip that is given a unique electronic product code. The interrogator, an antenna packaged with a transceiver and decoder, emits a signal activating the RFID tag so it can read and write data to it. When an RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader's activation signal. The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag's integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to the host computer. The application software on the host processes the data, and may perform various filtering operations to reduce the numerous often redundant reads of the same tag to a smaller and more useful data set. 6.3. FREQUENCY RFID is fundamentally based on wireless communication, making use of radio waves, which form part of the electromagnetic spectrum (i.e. frequencies from 300 kHz to 3 GHz). It is not unlike two other wireless technologies, WiFi and Bluetooth. The three technologies are all designed for very different uses and therefore have different functionalities but there is shared ground between the three, with some hybrids starting to appear. RFID systems can utilise both WiFi and Bluetooth and need not see them as competitors. These operating frequencies are generally considered to be organized into four main frequency bands and the table shows these different radio wave bands and the more common frequencies used for RFID systems (IEE, 2005). 6.4. MEMORY

Tags come in a variety of forms with varying types of on-chip memory capability. Tags can be read-only (the unique ID code is permanently stored on the tag also known as WORM: Write Once Read Many), read/write (allowing a user to change the ID and add additional data to the tags memory), or they can be a combination, with a permanent tag ID and some storage space for the user's data. Passive tags typically have anywhere from 64 bits to 1 kilobyte of non-volatile memory. Active tags tend to have larger memories with a range of, typically, between 16 bytes and 128 kilobytes. 6.5. STANDARDS The number and use of standards within RFID and its associated industries is quite complex, involves a number of bodies and is in a process of development. Standards have been produced to cover four key areas of RFID application and use: air interface standards (for basic tag-to-reader data communication), data content and encoding (numbering schemes), conformance (testing of RFID systems) and interoperability between applications and RFID systems (RFID Journal, 2006). There are several standards bodies involved in the development and definition of RFID technologies including: Standardisation (ISO)

7. RFID Vs BARCODES

It is important to understand the significant differences between RFID and bar code to appreciate the benefits RFID can provide. Bar code and RFID are both identification technologies that hold data that is accessed by some type of reader. In actuality, they complement each other very well and can be used effectively side by side in many applications. Bar code is an optical technology and RFID is a radio technology. The ways these technologies exchange data account for most of the differences between RFID and bar code and help determine where each identification technology is best put to use. As a radio technology, RFID requires no line-of-sight between the reader and the tag to exchange data. RFID tags therefore can be read through packaging, including cardboard containers and plastic wrap used to seal pallets. RFID is subject to interference however, particularly from metal, so potential sources of interference must be recognized and accounted for during system planning. Because no line-of-sight is required, tagged objects can be read regardless of their orientation through the use of optimized RFID systems. Items dont have to be placed label side up onto conveyors to be read, paving the way for unattended handling. If workers are used to place items on conveyors, they will be more productive if they dont have to locate and align labels when handling objects. RFID readers can automatically recognize and differentiate all the RF tags in their reading field. This simultaneous processing capability provides additional flexibility for material handling, packaging and sortation operations because there is no need to maintain spacing between objects to ensure they will be read. The ability to read dozens or even hundreds of tags per second makes RFID ideal for high-speed sortation, receiving, cross docking and other applications.

The data capacity of RFID tags enables them to carry all the same information as bar codes and more. Just like barcode, RFID tags are available with different memory sizes and encoding options. 8. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RFID 8.1 ADVANTAGES OF RFID SYSTEMS: RFID systems have proved to be much more beneficial and useful than the barcode system. There are many advantages for this technology. 8.1.1 CONVENIENT TO USE RFID tags do not require line of sight communication as that in the case of barcodes. The reader can identify the tag which comes anywhere in the range. RFID system supports dynamic data, i.e. The data in the tags chip can be updated. The details can be written into the chip as the product moves through the supply chain. 8.1.2 RAPID CHARGING/DISCHARGING The use of RFID reduces the amount of time required to perform circulation operations. The most significant time savings are attributable to the facts that information can be read from RFID tags much faster than from barcodes and that several items in a stack can be read at the same time. While initially unreliable, the anti-collision algorithm that allows an entire stack to be charged or discharged now appears to be working well. The other time savings realized by circulation staff are modest unless the RFID tags replace both the EM security strips or RF tags of older theft detection systems and the barcodes of the automated library systemi.e., the system is a comprehensive RFID system that combines

RFID security and the tracking of materials throughout the library; or it is a hybrid system that uses EM for security and RFID for tracking, but handles both simultaneously with a single piece of equipment. [3M has developed readers that can do both concurrently except for videotapes and audiotapes. These have to be desensitized and sensitized in a separate operation]. In either case, there can be as much as a 50 percent increase in throughput. The time savings are less for charging than for discharging because the time required for charging usually is extended by social interaction with patrons. RFID security and the tracking of materials throughout the library; or it is a hybrid system that uses EM for security and RFID for tracking, but handles both simultaneously with a single piece of equipment. [3M has developed readers that can do both concurrently except for videotapes and audiotapes. These have to be desensitized and sensitized in a separate operation]. In either case, there can be as much as a 50 percent increase in throughput. The time savings are less for charging than for discharging because the time required for charging usually is extended by social interaction with patrons. 8.1.3 SIMPLIFIED PATRON SELF-CHARGING/DISCHARGING For patrons using self-charging, there is a marked improvement because they do not have to carefully place materials within a designated template and they can charge several items at the same time. Patron self-discharging shifts that work from staff to patrons. Staff is relieved further when readers are installed in book drops. 8.1.4 HIGH RELIABILITY The readers are highly reliable. Several vendors of RFID library systems claim an almost 100 percent detection rate using RFID tags. Anecdotal evidence suggests that is the case whenever a reader is within 12 to 14 inches of the tags,

but there appears to be no statistical data to support the claims. There are fewer false alarms than with older technologies once an RFID system is properly tuned. The libraries contacted that have experience with both EM and RFID security systems; report a 50 to 75 percent reduction. Some RFID systems have an interface between the exit sensors and the circulation system to identify the items moving out of the library. Were a patron to run out of the library and not be intercepted, the library would at least know what had been stolen. If the patron card also has an RFID tag, the library will also be able to determine who removed the items without properly charging them. However, the author has not been able to identify a library that has implemented this security feature. Other RFID systems encode the circulation status on the RFID tag. This is done by designating a bit as the "theft" bit and turning it off at time of charge and on at time of discharge. If the material that has not been properly charged is taken past the exit sensors, an immediate alarm is triggered. Another option is to use both the "theft" bit and the online interface to an automated library system, the first to signal an immediate alarm and the second to identify what has been taken. 8.1.5 HIGH-SPEED INVENTORYING A unique advantage of RFID systems is their ability to scan books on the shelves without tipping them out or removing them. A hand-held inventory reader can be moved rapidly across a shelf of books to read all of the unique identification information. Using wireless technology, it is possible not only to update the inventory, but also to identify items which are out of proper order. 8.1.6 AUTOMATED MATERIALS HANDLING Another application of RFID technology is automated materials handling. This includes conveyor and sorting systems that can move library materials and sort

them by category into separate bins or onto separate carts. This significantly reduces the amount of staff time required to ready materials for re shelving. Given the high cost of the equipment, this application has not been widely used. There were approximately 40 systems in use in North America as of the first quarter of 2004. 8.1.7 LONG TAG LIFE Finally, RFID tags last longer than barcodes because nothing comes into contact with them. Most RFID vendors claim a minimum of 100,000 transactions before a tag may need to be replaced. 8.2 DISADVANTAGES OF RFID SYSTEMS: 8.2.1 HIGH COST The major disadvantage of RFID technology is its cost. While the readers and sensors used to read the information are comparable in cost to the components of a typical EM or RF theft detection system. 8.2.2 VULNERABILITY TO COMPROMISE It is possible to compromise an RFID system by wrapping the protected material in two to three layers of ordinary household foil to block the radio signal. Clearly, bringing household foil into a library using RFID would represent premeditated theft, just as bringing a magnet into a library using EM technology would be. It is also possible to compromise an RFID system by placing two items against one another so that one tag overlays another. That may cancel out the signals. This requires knowledge of the technology and careful alignment. 8.2.3 REMOVAL OF EXPOSED TAGS

3M, which recommends EM for security and RFID for tracking, argues that EM strips are concealed in the spines (30 percent of customers) or the gutters (70 percent of customers) of books and are, therefore, difficult to find and remove; while RFID tags are typically affixed to the inside back cover and are exposed for removal. The author found no evidence of removal in the libraries he visited, nor did any of the library administrators contacted by telephone report a problem. That does not mean that there wont be problems when patrons become more familiar with the role of the tags. If a library wishes, it can insert the RFID tags in the spines of all except thin books; however, not all RFID tags are flexible enough. A library can also imprint the RFID tags with its logo and make them appear to be bookplates, or it can put a printed cover label over each tag. 8.2.4 EXIT SENSOR PROBLEMS While the short-range readers used for circulation charge and discharge and inventorying appear to read the tags 100 percent of the time, the performance of the exit sensors is more problematic. They must read tags at up to twice the distance of the other readers. The author knows of no library that has done a before and after inventory to determine the loss rate when RFID is used for security. Lacking data, one can only conjecture that the performance of exist sensors is better when the antennae on the tags are larger. 8.2.5 PERCEIVED INVASION OF PATRON PRIVACY There is a perception among some that RFID is a threat to patron privacy. That perception is based on two misconceptions: (1) that the tags contain patron information and (2) that they can be read after someone has taken the materials to home or office. The vast majority of the tags installed in library materials contain only the item ID, usually the same number that previously has been

stored on a barcode. The link between borrower and the borrowed material is maintained in the circulation module of the automated library system, and is broken when the material is returned. When additional information is stored on the tag, it consists of information about the item, including holding location, call number, and rarely author/title. The RFID tags can only be read from a distance of two feet or less because the tags reflect a signal that comes from a reader or sensor. It is, therefore, not possible for someone to read tags from the street or an office building hallway. Perceptions, even when mistaken, may have real consequences. It is, therefore, important to educate library staff and patrons about the RFID technology used in libraries before implementing a program. The best way to do that is to emphasize that RFID technology is not one technology, but several. E-Z pass is RFID that is meant to be read from a distance. It would be impractical to affix tags of that size and cost to library materials. The same is true of the tags used on pallets in warehouses. Several states are considering legislation that would pose restrictions on the use of RFID by retailers and libraries. It is, therefore, important to monitor legislative activity and to be prepared to inform legislators about the differences between retail and library applications. Library administrators should be sure to keep their boards informed. 9. RFID APPLICATIONS RFID has got its applications in extended fields of life. It is being introduced as the successor of bar-codes, which shall still remain in place a few years though. The various functions include tracking, tracing, anti-counterfeiting, safety, security, auto-rejection, transactions, proof of ownership, anti-tamper, anti-theft. Some of the most important applications are:i. Automatic toll collection system

ii. Supply chain traceability iii. Library automation iv. Asset locating and tracking v. Baggage tracking 9.1 AUTOMATIC TOLL COLLECTION SYSTEM Small E-Z tags attached on the windscreen of vehicles can be used for applications such as, easy toll collection. It is also recommended by the traffic department to track over speeding vehicles and automatic imposition of fines, if any. 9.2 SUPPLY CHAIN TRACEABILITY When scientists are able to increase the range and lower the price of RFID tags, it will lead to a ubiquitous network of smart packages that track every phase of the supply chain. Store shelves will be full of smart-labelled products that can be tracked from purchase to trash can. The shelves themselves will communicate wirelessly with the network. The tags will be just one component of this large product-tracking network to collect data. 9.3 RFID LIBRARY AUTOMATION For many years, libraries have used a combination of technologies to reduce the likelihood of theft, improve stocktaking, and speed up issue and return procedures. An RFID reader does not need a direct line of sight, which means that books do not have to be tipped out or even pulled out completely as with barcode scanners, so inventory checking is faster and can be done more frequently. Also, RFID tags do not need to be read individually as barcodes do as RFID scanners can read stacks of books at a time, saving time, and

potentially reducing health problems caused by RSI. Other benefits of RFID include simplified and faster issuing of books, self-return (the ATM approach to returning books), and rapid location checking of books. RFID systems allow a self-checkout process when books are borrowed: as the books pass a special RFID reader at the check-out desk the tag is scanned and the item is recorded as borrowed by the identified student or staff member. Apart from being faster, this system also frees up library and information staff from carrying out more mundane checkout tasks. 9.4 ASSET LOCATION TRACKING Places like hospitals around the world are starting to use RFID tags to track and manage assets, particularly expensive or critical items of equipment such as ventilators, electrocardiogram devices and infusion pumps. These systems, known as Real Time Location Systems or Enterprise Asset Visibility systems, tag physical items of equipment and make them visible to hospital managers via the hospitals WiFi network. This means that hospital staff can always locate valuable or important equipment very quickly, which increases efficiency. 9.5 BAGGAGE TRACKING Nowadays, the theft in airports and seaports are increasing day by day. Smuggled goods are being sold out at the market. This can be stopped with the help of RFID baggage tracking system. RFID tags are attached to the baggage boxes. RFID readers are fixed on to the conveyor belts. When the baggage passes through the frequency range, their location and identity will be traced out. 10. CONCLUSION

We feel that our project can replace the conventional systems of security access in the near future. Our project is suitable for applications where there are a large number of users. The main advantage of our project is that it is user friendly and it is easy to implement. Another highlight of our project is that it is flexible. We can change the type of control by changing the program inside the controller. So we feel that our project has a wide variety of applications in security access control systems. Future scope A hex key pad can be interfaced to microcontroller board by which user can enter his password then only the lock can be opened. This ensures even if some one has card then also without the password he cant get access.

o Connection to PC and development of PC side software to read from microcontroller

o Implementing the security systems with different levels by using different types of mifare cards.

o Cryptanalysis of the link between the card and reader.

o Study of other RFID techniques for better service and security. o Interfacing the system with a GSM so that data can be transmitted through messages.