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Chapter 2: COMPUTER HARDWARE; 2.2 System Units (also known as CPUs) Functions of the main components of a system unit No. Components Functions - A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to a system unit so that the peripheral can send data to or receive information from the computer. - An external device, such as a keyboard, monitor, printer, mouse and microphone is often attached by a cable to a port on the system unit. - The back of the system unit contains so many ports. Some newer personal computers also have ports on the front of the system unit. - Ports have different types of connectors. A connector joins a cable to a peripheral. One end of a cable attaches to the connector on the system unit and the other end of the cable attaches to a connector on the peripheral. To start on computer Kick of soft boot, instructing the computer to go through the process of shutting down, which would clear memory and reset devices to their initialized state. It simply removes power immediately. Main circuit board of the system unit, which has some electronic components attached to it and others built into it. Convert standard electrical power into the form that computer can use. If a power supply is not providing the necessary power, the computer will not function properly. A device that reads DVD-ROM, also can read audio CDs, CDROMSs, CDRs and CD-RWs. A device that reads audio CDs, CD-ROMs, CD-Rs and CD-RWs. It is a combination drive that reads DVD and CD media, it also writes to CD-RW media. This drive also allows watching a DVD or burn a CD. A high-capacity disk drive that reads from and writes on a Zip disk. A device that reads from and writes on a floppy disk Type of storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that store data, instructions and information. Also called a hard disk.

Input/Output port (I/O port)

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Power button Reset button Motherboard Power Supply Unit (PSU) DVD-ROM drive CD-ROM drive DVD/CD-RW drive Zip drive Floppy drive Hard disk drive



Is the hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. It is mainly used to process any input data from the input devices.
It is used to cool down the heat from the processor and reduce the temperatures of the motherboard.


Processor Fan


CMOS Battery

Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor. The main function is to keep the real-time clock (RTC) going even when the PC is offline.
There are 3 types of internal cards; i. Sound Card enhanced the audio quality ii. Graphics Card Improved display performance. Also known as Video Card iii. Network Interface Card Connect the PC to the network


Internal Cards


Random Access Memory (RAM) IDE/ SATA Cables

A form of computer data storage. A random-access device allows stored data to be accessed quickly in any random order. Also a temporary storage to a running program in a computer. The memory is lost when the program is closed or the PC is shut down.
Being used to connect various drives (HDD, DVD, Floppy ) to the motherboard.



Peripheral Device External hardware devices attached to the computer are called peripheral devices There are 5 types of peripheral devices : a. Input devices b. Output devices c. Storage devices d. Network Devices e. Processing Devices Input Devices - Input devices are any electronic device that are connected to a computer and produces input signals. Output Devices - Output is the result of data processing activity when it is presented externally to the system. The output from a computer can be printed or displayed form. - An output device is hardware that is capable of delivering or showing information to one or more users. An output device shows, prints and presents the results of a computers work. Storage Devices - Information and documents are stored in a computer storage so that it can be retrieved whenever they are needed later on. - Computer storage is the holding of data in an electromagnetic form for access by a computer processor. Network Devices - Also known as Networking hardware. These devices are used to connect the PC or laptop to a network (wired or wireless) Processing Devices - A device that process the instructions (data) sent by the input devices. Every raw data MUST go through this device before the data can be sent to any output devices.(refer to Data Process Cycle)

Storage Devices Data Process Cycles

Units for Data Measurement Bit Byte Kilobyte (KB) Megabyte (MB) Gigabyte (GB) Terabytes (TB)

CHAPTER 3: COMPUTER SOFTWARE Software is also called a computer program. It consists of a series of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what to do or how to do it. For example, some instructions direct the computer to allow you to input data from a keyboard and store it in the memory. Other instructions cause data stored in memory to be used in calculations. Usage Of Software Software is used so that you can interact with the program through its user interface. This user interface controls how you enter data, instructions and how information is displayed on the screen. There are two types of computer software o System Software o Application Software 3.1. System Software System software consists of programmed that control the operations of the computer and its devices. System software serves as the interface between the users, the application software and the computer hardware. System Software is also used to control and manage computer devices and operations. There are two types of system software: A. Operating System: A set of programs that coordinates all the activities among the computer hardware devices. It controls the hardware in the computer, peripherals, manages memory and files. It enables the user to communicate with the computer and other software. This program is needed to kick start a computer. (Example Windows, LINUX, DOS, UNIX, Mac OS X [Cheetah, Mountain Lion, Snow Leopard], Google Chromium OS) B. Utility Programme: A type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance tasks. Example, scandisk, antivirus programs, defrag, backup, restore, etc) 3.2. Application Software Application software is a program that performs specific tasks for users. There are many types of application software; i. Word processing software ii. Spreadsheet software iii. Database software iv. Presentation software v. E-Mail and Web browser Software vi. Media based Software

z Examples of application software.





The internet or the Net is the worlds largest computer network which connects millions of computer all over the world. Many organizations including private as well as government agencies, educational institutions and individuals are connected to the Internet. More than one billion people around the world use the internet daily for a variety of reasons, including the following: Communicate with and meet other people Access a wealth of information, news, and research findings Shop for goods and services Bank and invest Take a class Access sources of entertainment and leisure, such as online games, videos, books and magazines Download music Share information ADVANTAGES OF THE INTERNET 1. Data and information rich, including a range of media. 2. Anyone can publish online (tripod.com and other hosting sites) 3. Learners can become researchers because of easier access to data 4. Search engines that are fast and powerful 5. Easy to use. 6. Smaller, faster, cheaper all the time DISADVANTAGES OF THE INTERNET 1. Information overload. 2. No librarians for quality control (with some exceptions, like Kids Click! And other sites for children). 3. Need for quality control in the data that student find and use. 4. Search engine that show result base on who pays the most. 5. Not enough training for effective use. 6. Push to upgrade constantly. REQUIREMENTS NEED TO ACCESS THE INTERNET 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Network Interface Card ( NIC ) Access Account Wireless Network Interface Card Modem ( internal and external ) Hub / Switch Router Wireless Access Point

Various forms of communications on the Internet E-mailing Chatting Conferencing (audio and video) Net Meeting Newsgroup Forum Peripherals used for communications Web camera Microphone Earphone



INTERNET APPLICATION (NOTA 2) WORLD WIDE WEB The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, a user views web pagesthat may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks. These pages are written in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Every website has an address or Uniform Resource Locator (URL). The URL is formed by the protocol, domain, directory and the document name. The World Wide Web was created in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, working at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. WEB BROWSER A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. Text and images on a Web page can contain hyperlinks to other Web pages at the same or different website. Web browsers allow a user to quickly and easily access information provided on many Web pages at many websites by traversing these links. Web browsers format HTML information for display, so the appearance of a Web page may differ between browsers. Some of the Web browsers are: Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox Safari Opera NETIQUETTE (NOTA 3) 1. Meaning of Netiquette Netiquette is etiquette on the Internet. Since the Internet changes rapidly, its netiquette does too, but it's still usually based on the Golden Rule. The need for a sense of netiquette arises mostly when sending or distributing e-mail, posting on Usenet groups, or chatting. To some extent, the practice of netiquette depends on understanding how e-mail, the Usenet, chatting, or other aspects of the Internet actually work or are practiced. 2. List out the Dos and Donts while communicating online a) Do unto others, as you'd have others do unto you Be polite and courteous at all times. Remember that you're not communicating with a computer screen, but with a human being who has thoughts and feelings just like you. So, always think of the person on the receiving end of your messages. b) Do not TYPE ALL IN CAPITAL LETTERS for emphasis IT LOOKS LIKE YOU ARE SHOUTING. If you need to emphasize a word, use asterisks, like *this* or lines, like _this_.


c) Remember that the written word is hard to interpret When you speak to someone, that person can hear the tone of your voice. If they can see you, they can take visual clues from your face and body to better understand your meaning. All of this is lost in text, and sometimes responses can come across as mean or rude, even when you did not intend them this way. This is the reason some people use emoticons (visual clues) in their e-mails, it saves a lot of confusion. d) Be careful not to use rude or bad language online Many providers will terminate your account. e) Don't break any laws When you're on the net, follow the same rules of behaviour that you would in real life. Remember, if it is against the law in the real world, it is against the law in cyberspace. f) Be universal Other users have different Web browsers, different online services, different e-mail programs etc. So don't, for example, send out e-mail with text formatting -- boldface, italics, indentations, etc. -- because many other programs will not be able to read the formatting and the recipients will receive your e-mail filled with muddled codes. g) Be brief whenever possible No one wants to read through a lot of unnecessary information. If you are replying to an e-mail, try editing out unimportant information and anything that is repeated. h) Always identify yourself If your parents require you to use an online name instead of your real one, that's fine - use your online name consistently. Never send e-mail without including your name at the bottom of the e-mail. Similarly, don't post forum messages without identifying yourself, this is seen as rude. i) Make a good impression Remember that the written word is the only way you can represent yourself online, so spelling and grammar count. If you are going to be writing a large amount of text for other people to see, make sure you break it up using paragraphs, it will make it easier on the eye for those that will read it. j) Be patient with newcomers Once you have become an Internet expert, it is easy to forget that you started out as a newbie too. Learning the rules of cyberspace is much like learning a new language; it takes practice, and includes making mistakes. So if you come across someone else's mistakes on the net, don't put them down, just politely point them in the right direction for guidance (send them a copy of these rules to get them started on their way!). 3 Adhere to netiquette in various forms of online communications Listing netiquette items: Avoid spamming

Spam is a term used on the Internet to refer to unsolicited e-mail and Usenet postings. These messages are usually intended to entice the recipient into buying a product or service of some kind or into participating in a get-rich-quick scheme. The senders (known as spammers) usually distribute their messages to thousands or even millions of people at once, and they do not ask their recipients beforehand if they want to receive such mail. Therefore, you will often hear these messages called bulk e-mail, unsolicited e-mail, or junk e-mail.

Avoid Flaming

Abusive or insulting massages sent using the internet. Do not send rude or offensive e-mails or postings. It's bad manners and can get seriously out of hand (flame wars). So don't flame others and if you are flamed, do not respond: you will never win. If you are flamed in a forum or chat room, or if you receive hateful e-mail, let your parents or teachers know. Use emoticons wisely

Basic Emoticons :) or :-) :( or :-( :] or :-] :[ or :-[ :D or :-D :I or :-I <G> <J> <L> Happy Sad Really Happy Really Sad Laughing Indifference Grinning Joking Laughing :-/ or :\ :Q or :-Q :S or :-S :@ or :-@ :O or :-O <S> <Y> Confused Questioning At a loss for words Shock or screaming "Uh Oh" or "oh no" Smiling Yawning

CYBER LAW (NOTA 5) Various forms of communications on the Internet (NOTA 4) E-mailing Chatting Conferencing (audio and video) Net Meeting Newsgroup Forum ACTIVITY : CREATE AN EMAIL CHAT WITH SKYPE (NEEDS COMMUNICATION PERIPHERALS) CREATING WEBSITE USE WITH MS WORD

What is Cyber Law? Cyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the Internet and other online communication technologies. The Cyber Law Acts In Malaysia The Malaysian Government has already passed several cyber laws to control and reduce Internet abuse. These cyber laws include: Digital Signature Act 1997 Computer Crimes Act 1997 Telemedicine Act 1997 Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 Beside these cyber laws, there are three other cyber laws being drafted. Private Data Protection Bill Electronic Government Activities Bill Electronic Transactions Bill


Digital Signature Act 1997 Digital Signature is an identity verification standard that uses encryption techniques to protect against e-mail forgery. The encrypted code consists of the users name and a hash of all the parts of the message. By attaching the digital signature, one can ensure that nobody can eavesdrop, intercept or temper with transmitted data. Computer Crimes Act 1997 Gives protection against the misuse of computers and computer criminal activities such as unauthorised use of programmes, illegal transmission of data or messages over computers, hacking and cracking of computer systems and networks. Users can protect their rights to privacy and build trust in the computer system. The government can have control at a certain level over cyberspace to reduce cyber crime activities. Telemedicine Act 1997 The Telemedicine Act 1997 ensures that only qualified medical practitioners can practice telemedicine and that their patient's rights and interests are protected. This act provides future development and delivery of healthcare in Malaysia. Communications And Multimedia Act 1998 The implementation of Communication and Telecommunication Act 1998 ensures that information is secure, the network is reliable and affordable all over Malaysia. NEEDS FOR CYBER LAW

Examples of Cyber abuse on the users sending a computer virus via e-mail hacking into your schools database to change your examination results. selling pirated software in a night market