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PMDG 737 THE NEXT GENERATION 737-600/700/800/900

Aircraft Operating Manual


REVISION 1.4

AIRCRAFT OPERATING MANUAL & FLIGHT MANAGEMENT COMPUTER HANDBOOK


This manual was compiled for use only with: PMDG 737: The Next Generation. The information contained within this manual is derived from multiple sources, and is not subject to revision. This manual is not be used for training or assumed to provide operating procedures for use on any aircraft. The manual is for entertainment purposes as required by the simulator software.
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The Precision Manuals Development Group Web Site can be found at: http://www.precisionmanuals.com Copyright 2004, PRECISION MANUALS DEVELOPMENT GROUP This manual and all of its contents, pages, text and graphics are protected under copyright laws of the United States of America and international treaties. Duplication of this manual is prohibited. Permission to conduct duplication of this manual will not be sub-contracted, leased or given. Microsoft, the Microsoft Logo and Microsoft Flight Simulator are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. Some graphics contained in this manual were taken directly from the simulator and altered in order to suite duplication on a printed page. All images contained in this manual were used with permission. Revision 1.4 23APR04 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM

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Precision Manuals Development Group is an organization of aviation, aeronautical and software development professionals dedicated to the task of producing software for aviation enthusiasts. PMDG products have gained worldwide recognition for the innovative use of new ideas to realistically portray the challenges of commercial aviation. PMDG simulations are designed for use by those interested to learn about commercial airliners and commercial airline operations. The simulation you have purchased represents nearly 24 months of research, testing and development work and is the first in a series of commercial airline simulations planned for use with Microsoft Flight Simulator Century of Flight. Currently PMDG is developing additional technologies to enhance the simulation of commercial airline operations within Microsoft Flight Simulator. Please visit our website for more information on future release dates, products and purchases! PMDG's product line will expand in size and range during 2004 with the introduction of PMDG 747-400, Queen of the Skies. This product, designed exclusively for Flight Simulator 9 will feature the same attention to detail and accuracy as the much smaller 737 cousin. All of us at PMDG are grateful that you have purchased this product and we stand committed to support you in your enjoyment of this software. If you find yourself in need of support, please email us or visit our customer support forum for help. PMDG staff is available to assist customers through these two venues. Thank you again for your support of PMDG. The Development Team Precision Manuals Development Group http://www.precisionmanuals.com

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MASTER TABLE OF CONTENTS


(Organized by Chapter Topic)

SUBJECT TITLE PAGE AND REVISION STATUS TAKEOFF CRUISE LANDING SPECIFICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS NORMAL PROCEDURES ABNORMAL PROCEDURES COCKPIT AND SYSTEMS FLIGHT MANAGEMENT COMPUTER

CHAPTER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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MASTER TABLE OF REVISIONS


PMDG strives for completeness and innovation in our products. On occasion we will issue free updates to our software, and we strongly encourage all customers to download and install these updates as they ensure the trouble-free operation of your software and add functionality that we may not have been able to offer in the initial release version of the product. Note: This manual is being continually updated and expanded to cover additional topic areas and to add additional depth to existing aircraft functions. You can obtain the most current version of the manual free by visiting the PMDG 737 Operators Information Center (Tech Support) at www.precisionmanuals.com

REVISION HISTORY
REVISION NUMBER 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 REVISION DESCRIPTION Manuals as originally issued Software Revision only. No manual updates Software Revised to 1.2. Manuals Replaced Replaced Appendix_1 with complete new version. Replaced Appendix_1 with updated version. Added data for 737-800/900 (see note below) ENTERED BY PMDG PMDG PMDG PMDG PMDG PMDG DATE ENTERED 01JUL03 01SEP03 15NOV03 03JAN04 26JAN04 23APR04

Note: 737-800/900 data is provided for consistency. PMDG 737-800/900 is a separate product.

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Manual Updates Version 1.4


With the addition of the 737-800/900 to the fleet, it is necessary to expand the breadth of this manual to include aircraft performance data and aircraft differences. Additionally, PMDG has added new functions to the airplane and these additions required changes to the existing manual. The follow updates have been added to this manual during revision 1.4. If you do not own the PMDG 737-800/900, then not all options will be available to you. Chapter 0: Updated PMDG Styles Menu overview Updated Key Assignments Menu Overview Explanation of Lighting Options New/Updated PMDG Functions Added Takeoff Performance Data for 737-800/900 Added Cruise Flight Performance Data for 737-800/900 Added Landing Performance Data for 737-800/900 Added weight limitation data for 737-800/900 No changes. No changes. Added 737-800/900 Cabin Temp Control Overview Added Route Offset capability. Updated current functionality (Opt/Max Alt, Cost Index, etc)

Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Chapter 8:

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Options and Customization


When airlines purchase an airplane a significant amount of customization goes into each aircraft in order to provide the airline customer with the exact options and capability that they require. When modeling aircraft for Microsoft Flight Simulator, it is often difficult to include provision for many of the options that individual airlines purchase, but at PMDG we have tried hard to provide our customers with the ability to individualize their airplane! When you run the airplane for the first time, you will notice that we have added a PMDG menu item along the top menu bar within Microsoft Flight Simulator. The PMDG menu item is the place where you can find an array of options and customizations to further enhance your PMDG 737 experience! The PMDG menu provides access to a host of options that can be selected by the user to add the specter of aircraft system and engine failures or to tweak the performance and appearance of the cockpit to match the users favorite airline configuration! To further enhance the custom experience, PMDG has produced dozens of liveries representing airlines operating the 737-600/700/800 and 900 aircraft worldwide. These liveries are provided at no cost to you, and can be downloaded from www.precisionmanuals.com PMDG has elected not to charge for airline liveries in order to provide additional value to the base product that you have already purchased. Users should feel free to download the PMDG 737 PaintKits that are also available from the PMDG web site. These paintkits were developed by PMDGs livery artists in order to assist users who wish to add their own customizations to the PMDG line of airplanes. Users are free to distribute the artwork that they create, but should carefully refrain from distributing any files that are included in the base PMDG 737 package, as these files are all copyright protected and watermarked for easy identification. PMDG aggressively prosecutes cases of theft and we offer rewards for individuals providing information that leads to successful prosecution of theft. (If you have any questions on this policy, please contact us!)

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GETTING THE MOST FROM YOUR PMDG 737


Introduction: At PMDG we have an established mission to bring a degree of realism to desktop simulation. All of us at PMDG are simulation enthusiasts who have elected to bring our day job specializations (Airline Transport Pilot, Aviation Maintenance, Software Development, Aeronautical Engineering, 3D Design and Animation, Graphic Design and Computational Mathematics) to the simulation community in the form of a comprehensive and sophisticated simulation of a modern airliner. For many years, the terms, most realistic, most accurate, and Certified by Real Pilots have been used by developers to describe offerings to the desktop simulation community. While some of these claims have merit, our own experience has generally led us to believe that marketing is always marketing, and that the value of an experience has as much to do with the perception of the customer as it does with engineering data. To this end, we have gone to great lengths to simulate the sophisticated environment that is the modern airliner cockpit. Using many of the same tools employed to teach pilots and mechanics how to support the 737 series of airplanes, we have worked to build a simulation that capitalizes on the strengths while minimizing the weaknesses of Microsoft Flight Simulator. Invariably there have been times when we needed to make choices between realism and usability. While Microsoft Flight Simulator is a wonderful and dynamic platform for modeling the 737, there are some aspects of Microsoft Flight Simulator that just do not function as well as we would like, and we have worked hard to overcome them while also enhancing the realism of the 737 simulation experience. PMDG began development of the 737 series in September of 2002 with virtually no prior Microsoft Flight Simulator development experience. Our experience developing products for the FLY community was useful, but not entirely so, as the MSFS community has significantly more options available in terms of Weather Management Products, Weight and Balance simulations, Scenery and various other addons. Currently we have not placed significant development emphasis on developing compatibility with certain types of addon products in the marketplace. (Aircraft Maintenance addons, Weight and Balance addons, etc.) These decisions have been made in order to place greater emphasis on areas of our simulation package that we feel are important to developing a complete airplane. As we proceed further with our MSFS design aims, we are certain that we will provide the required development time necessary to add compatibility with some of the related products currently on the market! In the following section we outline some of the many options that we have included to further your enjoyment of the simulator. Additionally, we outline some of the oddities that you might come across, along with an explanation of their existence. We hope you will find this information useful and that it will enhance your enjoyment of the PMDG 737!

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The PMDG Menu:

The PMDG menu has been added to the normal menu bar within Microsoft Flight Simulator in order to simplify user interaction with the PMDG airplane. From this menu the user can choose an assortment of options as described below.

PMDG 737NG Styles Menu:


The Styles menu presents the user with a context sensitive interface from which the cockpit can be customized to represent an array of options available to real world operators of the 737! The Styles menu can be used to select options in order to customize the display of information in the 737 cockpit according to personal tastes, or in order to model a specific airlines cockpit layout. IMPORTANT NOTE: The PMDG STYLES menu images and description below assumes that the user owns both the PMDG 737-600/700 and the PMDG 737-800/900. For users of only the 737600/700 some options are not enabled and the menu layout is designed to present only those options available to 6/700 users. If an option described below is not present or is not selectable, then the option is only available when the PMDG 737-800/900 is also installed. The styles menu is divided into pages. The pages group similar functions and options together in order to make cockpit and display customization simple. Currently the following Styles pages are available: Airline Selection [Airline Specific Layout Selection] PFD [Primary Flight Display Options] ND [Navigation Display Options] EICAS [EICAS Display/Layout Options] Colors [PFD/ND/Autopilot Digit Color Options] Sounds [Sound Performance Options] Various

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Airline Selection Page: The Airline Selection page allows the user to choose from a range of pre-formatted cockpit setups based upon the styles in use at many popular airlines. Although crews are unable to switch between the formats on their airplanes, we have provided you with this option in order to increase your enjoyment of the product!
NOTE: This option is cockpit setup related only and does not affect the airline livery chosen by the user.

Airline Custom Settings: To choose the layout that is used by a specific airline, simply use the drop-down menu. This will present the user with a list of representative airlines operating the 737 airplane, and will automatically customize the display layout to match that airlines preference. Pulling the menu will present an option list similar to the following:

Adding Your Own Custom Cockpit Settings: (ADVANCED USERS ONLY): If you wish to add an airline to your list of custom airlines, you can do so! Open the following file: FS\PMDG\Airlines.ini Revision 1.4 23APR04 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM

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At the bottom of the list, enter information in the following format: [DELTA AIR LINES ] Engine=CFMI CFM56-7B26 EFISMap=0 EICASSide=0 FDVBar=0 AOA=0 Lbs=1 Airline Name Engine Type 0 = PFD/ND 1=EFISMap 0 = Over/Under 1=Side/Side 0 = Pitch Roll Cues 1=Flying Wing 0 = No AoA index 1=AoA index active 0 = Kilograms 1=Lbs

EFIS Display Type: There are two types of cockpit display layouts provided by Boeing to 737 customers. The display format is not changeable in the airplane itself, but to maximize flexibility you will suffer no ill effects switching between display formats within the PMDG 737. The two formats are quite different in the presentation and layout of information: PFD/ND (Primary Flight Display / Navigation Display):

EFIS/MAP (Electronic Flight Instrumentation System / MAP):

The information presented on either display layout is formatted to allow users to switch between cockpit display types while maintaining familiarity with the presented information. The PFD/ND is a common style information layout, while the EFIS/MAP layout is very similar in presentation to a standard steam gauge layout cockpit presented with the advantages of modern computer and information processing. PMDG 737NG - AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision 1.4 23APR04

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PFD Page: The PFD Styles page allows the user to modify the amount of information that is displayed in the cockpit.

Flight Director: This option allows the user to choose between the Cross-Hair type pitch and roll cue or the Single-Cue flying V type of flight director on the Primary Flight Display. Optional Rising Runway: Selecting this option will enable the graphic rising runway on the PFD for use during autoland and instrument approaches. Show GS: Selecting this option will enable a ground speed display on the Navigation Display. VOR in LOC Scale: This option allows the user to determine if VOR bearing information will be displayed on the PFD LOC display. Show AoA: Selecting this option will enable an Angle of Attack index on the Primary Flight Display. This is an option chosen by some airlines.

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ND Page: The ND Styles page allows the user to modify the way certain types of information is
displayed on the Navigation Display.

Clip Flightplan to Compass Border: The displays in this airplane are modeled as closely to the actual aircraft as possible. Some of the animation methods used can be extremely mathematically intensive and may result in lower performance on some processors. One mathematical method that is particularly taxing to slower computers is the circular animation calculations required to display the flight path only within the compass confines on the navigation display. By un-checking this option, the flight path magenta track will be shown all the way to the edge of the Navigation display. While less realistic, this will result in a drastic reduction in the amount of mathematics required to draw the navigation display and may result in significantly higher frame rates for some users. If you find you are getting slow frame rates, try deselecting this option. ARPT shows runways longer than: This option allows the user to customize the way airports are displayed on the Navigation Display. Commonly, airlines buy only the airport navigation data for airports capable of servicing their aircraft. For the 737, we recommend setting the Airport display to only show airports with runways greater than 4,500 feet in length. Lowering this number will display a greater number of airports, (not all of which you may be able to use!) and raising the number will lower the number of airports displayed.

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EICAS Page: The EICAS Styles page allows the user to modify the way certain types of information is displayed on the EICAS Display. The EICAS screen contains all of your engine monitoring and performance data.

There are three variations in the way the EICAS screens can be drawn. Side by Side: This display format allows the user to see all available engine information in a single screen. This layout format is typically paired with the EFIS/MAP style of PFD layout. When the Side-by-Side format is used, the lower display unit is not populated with information, as all the engine monitoring is provided on a single screen.

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REGISTRATION AND REVISION INFORMATION 0 - 15 Over/Under: This display format uses two EICAS display screens to show the engine information. This results in having the engine performance data split between the upper and lower screen. In the PMDG 737, this format is most easily used when flying from the Virtual Cockpit. When flying from the 2D cockpit, only the upper Display Unit is continually visible. In order to see the lower unit, you must select LOWER EICAS from the View/Instrument Panels menu within Microsoft Flight Simulator. You will then be presented with a popup of the lower display unit. Important Note: The lower display unit will only display data if you have selected either ENG or SYS from the lower DU selector panel located on the main panel. If you have a blank lower DU popup image, it is because you are either using the Side-by-Side EICAS (in which case you do not have a functioning lower DU) or you have not selected the ENG or SYS data to be displayed!

Compact Display: A third display option is available, and shows a compact version of the Over/Under screen format. This compact version eliminates some of the dial displays in favor of text driven digital displays in order to save space. When using this version, you still have access to the lower DU for ENG/SYS data.

EICAS Draw Commanded Flaps in Zoom Panel: Selecting this option will cause the commanded flaps position to be displayed on the EICAS display. This is useful for those using the airplane with multiple monitors and unable to see the actual flap position gauge. Show Flight Control Position Indication on Lower EICAS: Some airlines have chosen the option to show the flight control positions on the lower EICAS Display Unit. You can enable this option from the menu by selecting this box. When viewing the lower DU, if SYS is displayed, the current control positions will be shown on the display. How to Use the Pop-Up displays in the 3D Cockpit: When flying from within the virtual cockpit, it is easy and intuitive to see how the display layout is used while in flight. When flying within the 2D cockpit, sometimes the screen setup is not as advantageous, especially if you have selected an EICAS setup that uses the lower display unit.

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737: THE NEXT GENERATION We generally recommend the SIDE-BY-SIDE display setup when using the 2D cockpit panels as your primary flying viewpoint. We make this recommendation because the Side-By-Side setup allows you to see more information on the screen. For those interested in using the OVER/UNDER display while in the 2D cockpit, you can bring up the lower EICAS display unit using the VIEWS / INSTRUMENT PANEL / Lower EICAS Popup menu item. This will present you with a popup on the left side of your screen that shows you the current displayed information on the lower EICAS Display Unit. To actually make information appear on the lower Display Unit pop-up, you need to press either the ENG or the SYS button located directly above the upper EICAS. If you do not press either of these two buttons your Lower EICAS Popup will appear only as a black square.

AFDS Page: There are a few options that airlines may take with regard to the Autopilot-Flight
Director System on the 737. We have modeled these options here, for those users who wish to model some very specific behaviors for the airplane.

TO/GA Roll Mode: The Take Off / Go Around Roll Mode allows users to choose between two different behavior types when the flight crew presses the TOGA button to initiate a Go-Around from approach. Wings Level: This mode will roll the wings level and initiate the programmed climb path. The crew will be required to select a roll mode such as HDG or LNAV in order to commence a turn during the missed approach climbout. Follow HDG Select: This mode, if selected, will cause the airplane to turn toward and follow whatever setting has been selected for the heading bug. Using this mode requires diligence when setting the heading bug during approaches, as an improperly set heading bug may result in unwanted turns during a missed approach. This setup is useful however, to operators who conduct operations in regions where missed approach procedures generally require immediate turns for terrain or missed approach procedures. Revision 1.4 23APR04 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM

REGISTRATION AND REVISION INFORMATION 0 - 17 VNAV ALT Option: Selecting VNAV ALT will allow the FMC to utilize the VNAV Altitude hold function during climbs and descents. VNAV ALT is an option chosen by some airlines to simplify the methods used by the crew to climb and descend the airplane. If selecting VNAV ALT to make it available in the aircraft, the crew will have the option to level the airplane during climbs or descents at altitudes other the FMC specified cruise or target End of Descent altitudes. By using either the altitude intervention switch or the MCP Altitude selector, the crew can level off at an intermediate altitude and the AFDS will show VNAV ALT to indicate that VNAV is holding the selected altitude. When climb/descent is recommenced, simply selecting the desired altitude in the FMC altitude window and pressing the altitude intervention button will recommence the previous VNAV climb/descent mode. If this option is NOT selected, leveling the aircraft at an intermediate altitude will cause the AFDS to revert to ALT HOLD mode. In order to recommence the climb/descent, VNAV must be selected manually from the Autopilot Mode Control Panel.

Colors Page: The Colors Styles page allows the user to modify the colors used on the cockpit
displays and in the Autopilot Mode Control Panel.

PFD: The SKY and GROUND options allow you to customize the colors displayed on the PFD attitude indicator. The TAPES option allows you to customize the background color of the Altitude, Mode Annunciation and Speed tapes. MCP: The Foreground color allows you to change the color of the display digits on the autopilot Mode Control Panel. CDU: The Foreground and Inv allow users to customize the FMC/CDU color display to be customized to personal preference.

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Sounds Page: The Sounds Styles page allows the user to modify the way sounds are presented to the user and allow some customization based upon user preference.

Sounds: Use these options to select the types of cockpit aural warnings that you wish to hear from within the cockpit. There are options to turn on/off three types of aural warnings, and a fourth option to turn on/off some of the ambient cockpit noise. The 737 is one of the noisiest modern airliners, with the majority of the ambient noise offense coming primarily from the Recirculation Fans, the slipstream, the trim wheel and the standby altimeter vibrometer. We have modeled these sounds as accurately as possible, but we have also provided you with a volume slider to adjust their intensity as well as a check box to turn them off if you wish! As a tribute to the accuracy of this package, these sounds, including the slipstream noise, were recorded on the flight deck of the airplane and processed for use in the simulator. For a true 737 experience, turn the sound up LOUD!

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Various Page: The Various Styles page allows the user to modify the way certain functions interface with the simulator:

TCAS: The TCAS option set allows the user to customize the manner in which TCAS interfaces with the simulator and the amount of information displayed. TCAS can display traffic by using the traffic information interface provided by FSUIPC, or directly from within the FS2004 Internal Structure. (If flying online- use the FSUIPC interface.) The TCAS module can limit the amount of traffic displayed to the user on the Navigation Display. Adjust this value to suit personal taste. The TCAS2 system used on the 737 automatically suppresses the display of aircraft traffic that is not immediately in conflict with the airplane. As such, the only time traffic will be displayed is when it presents the potential for a traffic conflict and/or a resolution advisory. Some users may wish to be able to see non-conflicting traffic, however and selecting the Show All NonThreatening Traffic option will allow the user to see all surrounding traffic rather than only conflict traffic. Weight Indiciations: Use this option to select between Pounds or Kilograms as the weight units used in the airplane. Panel Switcher: Users who wish to display the overhead panel on a second monitor should select this option in order to allow the undocked display of the overhead panel. Leave this option unchecked if you are not planning to display the overhead panel undocked.

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PMDG FAILURES MENU:


The PMDG Failures Menu allows the user to pre-program or randomly arm failures to affect the airplane during flight.

Failures are divided into category in order to simplify the selection of specific, related failures. Simply pull down the FAILURE CATEGORY menu and highlight the failure area desired. For example, selecting ENGINE from the Failure Category menu will display the following menu options:

Information in the failures menu is divided into columns for ease of use. Description: Describes the failure type. Random: Select this checkbox if you wish to experience a time random failure of this item. Counter/Timer Type: Select the time units and the amount of time desired until failure. Already Failed: Various simulations can be flown with specific items already failed. Clear Failure: Use this button to reset a failure and restore an item to functionality. Revision 1.4 23APR04 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM

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PMDG LCD TUNING and KEYBOARD COMMANDS MENU:


In order to assist users in the quest for optimal frame rates, PMDG has provided users with the ability to tune the update rates for all three of the LCDs in the cockpit. If desired the user can set varying update rates based on the importance of the screens, and thus enhance the overall performance of the airplane within the simulator.

Users can customize keyboard input to control various aspects of the simulation using this menu.

PMDGs PANEL VIEW SWITCH:


In order to fully utilize a wide array of customizable panel options, we elected not to use the stock MSFS view selection system. The development of a custom PMDG View module has allowed us to provide a greater array of view options to enhance the realism of the simulation. The Panel View Switching Tool is present on each of the panels and has been placed in areas where it can be useful while blending into the panel itself. The view switching tool is pictured below:

Due to the limited space we have elected not to use iconic graphics but instead have chosen letters in order to simplify the process of remembering which button performs which function! M: Main Panel View (Default MSFS Large Panel View) Z: Zoomed Main Panel (Removes peripheral functions of main panel to enlarge LCDs.) A: Approach Panel View (Provides a true Captains View perspective over the panel.) L: Landing View (Provides a realistic Captains View looking out the front window.) F: FMC pop-up panel. O: Overhead Panel View. T: Throttle Console. R: Radio Console. C: Chronograph pop-up window Panel Views: The PMDG 737 comes with four 2D panels that can be used according to customer preference. Main Panel: A traditional MSFS main panel view with instruments and engine gauges displayed. Zoom Panel: Similar to the Main panel, but the displays have been made larger for readability. PMDG 737NG - AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision 1.4 23APR04

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737: THE NEXT GENERATION Approach Panel: This 2D view is designed for use during visual approaches. Landing Panel: This view is designed for appropriate over the panel viewing during landing. Overhead Panel: The majority of aircraft mechanical functions are operated from here. Virtual Cockpit: Obviously, a preferred environment due to its immersive nature. Owners of the PMDG 737-80/900 will also find that most all cockpit functions are clickable Pop Ups Windows: In addition to the views listed above, we have included many pop up windows that provide additional areas of the cockpit systems/instrumentation. FMC/CDU: Both Left and Right FMC/CDUs can be displayed as pop up windows. Throttles: The throttle console and associated equipment is included here. Radio Stack: An operating radio console is provided here. PFD/ND/EICAS/LOWER EICAS Pop Up: Each of these displays can be popped up by either clicking on the display face directly, or selecting from the menu here. Chronograph: The chronograph has been made into a pop-up based on customer requests. All of these options can be selected from the VIEWS/INSTRUMENT PANEL menu within MSFS.

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REGISTRATION AND REVISION INFORMATION 0 - 23 Virtual Cockpit: The virtual cockpit concept has come a long way with the advent of Microsoft Flight Simulator 9: A Century of Flight. During the initial development of the PMDG 737, the product was planned for FS2002, and as such the 600/700 aircraft did not have clickable virtual cockpits. The PMDG 737-800/900 aircraft have clickable main panels, overhead and center console panels. The fire control panel is not clickable in the 800/900. The PMDG 737-600/700 is not clickable, but we have made the radio console pop up enabled so that users can click on the radio console, then interface with it via a pop up console. Virtual Cockpit Lighting: The system used by Microsoft Flight Simulator to model cockpit lighting is not optimal, because it assumes lighting is done primarily by an overhead dome light as in a Cessna 172. Additionally, the light rendering engine used by MSFS can occasionally make the inside of the virtual cockpit much more dark that would otherwise be expected in the actual airplane. To combat this, we have installed a dome light switch on the overhead panel. This switch ONLY OPERATES WHILE IN THE VC, and provides immediate bright illumination to the cockpit in order to prevent the MSFS over-dark condition. NOTE: This dome light DOES have an impact on frame rates, especially on less robust machines, or in areas of heavy scenery.

Without Dome Light

With Dome Light

This switch is primarily intended for daytime use in order to keep things inside the cockpit well illuminated- but it can also be used at night as a white dome light if desired. The dome light switch WILL NOT OPERATE and WILL NOT PROVIDE ILLUMINATION while in the 2D cockpit, however. (The dome light was designed using an MSFS animation technique that cannot be duplicated in the 2D cockpits.) Although we have long term plans to model multi-tiered lighting schemes in the virtual cockpit / 2D cockpit, this will take some time to effectively implement based on our desire to avoid using the ineffective MSFS lighting schemes. If the dome light is operated at night while inside the virtual cockpit, the flight deck will be brightly illuminated just as if the interior white dome lights were illuminated. This bright light will not be present in the 2D cockpit, however. Panel Lighting: At night, the panel lights switch on the overhead panel will turn on the panel back lighting to provide a realistic night illumination of the panels on the flight deck. PMDG 737NG - AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision 1.4 23APR04

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Occasionally during the transition from light/dark or dark/light times of day, the user will notice that the back lit portions of the panel retain a darker quality than surrounding areas within the virtual cockpit. This is an unavoidable result of the methods used in developing the lighting system. To eliminate this inconsistency, occasionally cycling the lights off/on will work. Additionally as the night/day transition becomes lighter, turning off the panel lights will remove the differences. It should be noted that we have inhibited the panel back lighting from being displayed during non darkness periods. This behavior is realistic in that panel backlighting is not normally visible during daylight even if turned on. In order to keep some semblance of order in the panel lighting process, we have included synchronization logic between the VC and 2D panel views. If either the panel lights or the VC Dome Light is ON in the VC- the panel lights will be on in the 2D cockpit. We continue to explore new ways of realistically including new lighting options in the PMDG 737. Tuning The Virtual Cockpit Displays: The Virtual Cockpit is becoming an increasingly popular place for simulator pilots. Recognizing that the virtual cockpit places a heavier toll on the MSFS display engine, we have provided ways for users to tune the gauge update rates according to their personal preferences and hardware capability. You can find this option under the PMDG Menu within MSFS:

Assigning MSFS Functions to your keyboard or hardware: After release of the PMDG 737600/700, many users wrote and requested the ability to map certain functions within the PMDG cockpit to hardware key commands within Microsoft Flight Simulator. We have provided a comprehensive Key Assignments menu that is available under the PMDG menu. Key assignments can be made to many critical tasks within the PMDG cockpit, and some MSFS functions such as opening/closing doors and pushback have been set up through this menu in order to provide users with access to some default MSFS functions that have been known to conflict with the PMDG 737.

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The following areas are available for keyboard assignment: MCP (Autopilot Mode Control Panel) EFIS (Electronic Flight Instrumentation) Panel Switcher Autobrakes Doors Pushback Various Users who have certain types of hardware setups will be able to map specific functions to their hardware through the use of this menu. Additionally, we have identified two functions that are default MSFS commands that do not operate well with the PMDG 737. Doors Open/Close and Pushback/Pushback Left/Pushback Right. (For those interested: The update rate of the PMDG airplane exceeds the update rate of the main MSFS engine, thus combined key commands in MSFS can sometimes be over-written before you can actually them) You can map the DOOR and PUSHBACK functions to the single key of your choice in order to use them appropriately! Additionally, we have provided the ability to make the flight control yokes in the Virtual Cockpit appear and disappear so as to facilitate easier viewing of the Flight Management Computer while flying from within the VC. You can find this option under VARIOUS, and thus the single stroke of a key will remove the yoke or replace the yoke while you use the FMC!

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Best Practices for Smooth 737 Operation


Frame Rates: We have designed the PMDG 737 Next Generation series of airplanes to provide good performance on a wide range of hardware platforms. For users with very high performance machines, you should be able to operate your PMDG 737 in Flight Simulator 9 with maximum details, heavy scenery, weather and high update rates on the VC gauges while flying primarily from the Virtual Cockpit. Users with mid to low range hardware should take a realistic approach to maximizing frame rates by reviewing the following notes: Displaying waypoints, airports, TCAS and Stations on the Navigation Display will have an impact of frame rates. This is due to the fact that the display routines must manage a tremendous amount of calculations to properly show you information on the navigation display. To minimize the impact, keep your navigation display reduced to only the information you need, and keep the range as close as feasible. Reducing the amount of information displayed will reduce the impact on your frame rates! We have included various model options to include 2D panel only, 2D panel and VC, and 2D panel with a VC and a cabin that can be walked through if you have the appropriate software installed. If you do not intend to use the cabin, dont load that model as the extra overhead in polygons will impact your frame rates. If you do not fly from the virtual cockpit, then use the 2D model only in order to maximize your frame rates! A realistic assessment of what your machine is capable of handling will greatly enhance your enjoyment of this product! Tune your Virtual Cockpit frame rates using the MSFS options and the PMDG tuning tools provided in the menu. Limit your Frames per Second in FS: We have dome substantial testing to determine the best ways to obtain smooth frame rates in MSFS. We found that setting Flight Simulator 9s frame rates to unlimited tended to cause stuttering whenever the complexity of information viewed outside the cockpit window changed. We found that limiting the target FPS to between 25-30 allowed for significantly smoother overall frame rate performance when nearing complex scenery or viewing the airplane from the outside. We have tested this product on a range of platforms and found this to be true with the current high end technology- as well as most mid-range machines.

Force Feedback: There is no industry standard for Force Feedback controls, and we have found a wide variance in the behavior of Force Feedback products when used with FS9. We STRONGLY encourage users to disable flight control feedback to the joystick, as its implementation is generally inaccurate for transport category aircraft and will create over-control situations that make the airplane harder to fly. Also, ensure that in your FS9.CFG file, stick_sensitivity_mode=0 If this entry is set to any value other than 0, aircraft controllability suffers. Saved Flights: It is not currently possible to effectively save flights in progress for simple resumption. We had hoped to add this functionality with this new version of the PMDG 737, but were unable to do so without essentially starting over in the highly complex model of the aircraft systems. We continue to examine ways to make this possible, and it is a certainty that it will be a part of future PMDG products based on customer interest! Additionally, we have provided a Cold and Dark scenario that you can use if you wish to simulate entering an aircraft that is parked and shut down. You can load the PMDG Cold and Dark saved flight, then change to your preferred location and resave the flight. We recommend against loading a non PMDG airplane, shutting it down, then switching to the PMDG airplane as weve found that differences in the way various airplanes are modeled can lead to subtle conflicts. Revision 1.4 23APR04 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM

REGISTRATION AND REVISION INFORMATION 0 - 27 Unexplainable FS9 Crashes or Error Reports: With the advent of Flight Simulator 9, Microsoft made some structural changes to the way Flight Simulator maintains its current state in the simulated world. Flight Simulator stores information in two locations: FS9.CFG Saved Flights.

The FS9.CFG file can be a great tool for managing FS9, but it is also the area of most significant failures within FS9. We have found that users who have made display/sound driver changes and/or installed/removed many addons generally have FS9.CFG files that are filled with garbage information that eventually confuses FS9. If you find that FS9 begins displaying error messages or crashes to desktop when using the PMDG 737 or any other addon, then simply delete your FS9.cfg file, and re-run FS9. This will prompt the simulator to rebuild a fresh FS9.CFG file and usually resolves most problems that users experience. Sometimes we receive email from users who have saved a flight within FS9 that they prefer to use as a starting point for all FS9 flying. Occasionally we have found that saving a flight in another aircraft then loading the PMDG 737 will create problems that prevent the proper initialization of the PMDG 737s systems and onboard computers. The PMDG 737 is a highly sophisticated product and while not fragile, it is always considered good practice to load directly into the PMDG 737 when you wish to fly the airplane. Missing Lights: In order to see all the external lights on the PMDG 737, you must set the Rendered Lights slider to 8. On many machines FS9 will default this slider to position 6, and this will cause some of the external lights on the PMDG 737 to remain dark! Also, we have provided a dome light in the Virtual Cockpit. In order to see this light, you MUST go to your OPTIONS, SETTINGS, DISPLAY, AIRCRAFT menu in FS9 and ensure that the Show Landing Lights box is checked! Using the Virtual Cockpit and Cabin: A tremendous amount of thought and effort has gone into making this PMDG product interesting and usable to the greatest number of individuals and the various hardware setups common to simulation enthusiasts. When FS9 was initially released many users were surprised to find that Microsoft had removed some functionality that allowed greater freedom for users who enjoy the Virtual Cockpit and Virtual Cabin environments. PMDG was disappointed at this design decision with FS9, but we have continued to make powerful Virtual Cockpit and Virtual Cabin models available for those customers who own products like Active Camera. Active Camera will provide you with the freedom to wander around the airplanes interior and exterior and significantly adds to the overall PMDG 737 experience. Active Camera is not required to use the PMDG 737 however. Users can use the 2D cockpit and Virtual Cockpit models as provided and still experience the full value of this complex airliner simulation. We have provided the virtual cabin model for those with the additional software installed.

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Customer Support
PMDG is committed to providing strong support to our customers after-the-sale. When you purchased this PMDG product, you also purchased the support and dedication of the entire team to provide you with the finest high quality flight simulation experience possible on a modern computer. Occasionally it is you may find it necessary to obtain help in the installation, operation or maintenance of your PMDG product. PMDG provides a number of avenues for you to receive support when you need it! PMDG 737 Operators Information Center: The PMDG 737 Operators Information Center (PMDG 737 OIC) is a located in the Support section at www.precisionmanuals.com. The PMDG 737 OIC is a continually updated page that will provide users with current information on the operation and maintenance of your PMDG 737. If you find that you are having problems from installation to operation of the airplane, please visit the PMDG 737 OIC and consult the FAQ sections contained there. When PMDG identifies a problem that is being experienced by many users, the information is posted into the FAQ in order to ensure that users are made aware of the causes and solutions for common problems. Additionally, the PMDG 737 OIC is your best source for easily ensuring that your PMDG 737 is up to date with the latest updates for functionality, Navigation Data and SID/STAR formats! If you have a problem with your airplane, start out at the PMDG 737 OIC! PMDG Customer Support Forum: PMDG supports a customer service forum that is hosted by AVSim as a courtesy to PMDG. (Thank you!) This forum is frequented by thousands of other PMDG customers and has become a welcome gathering place for experts on the operation and support of this sophisticated airplane! Additionally, all members of the PMDG team frequent the forum at different times to ensure that we are in tune with the experience our customers are having with our products! The support forum is a great place to share flying tips/tricks/tales with other PMDG 737 pilots. PMDG Technical Support Operations by Email: PMDGs technical support duties in the customer support forum are shared by a number of PMDG team members, but email support is handled directly by PMDGs Manager of Technical and Customer Support Operations, as well as by PMDGs Executive Director. Most email messages are answered within 24 hours and in most cases the direct interaction with the PMDG technical support resolves nearly all customer problems. Problems related to downloads, payments, irresolvable errors or other items of a serious nature can be addressed directly to support@precisionmanuals.com. Again, please note that while we strive to answer all email with 24hrs, both support representatives are professional airline employees whos schedules may be affected by flight schedules, inclement weather or other industry events so occasionally response times may take a bit longer. Telephone Support: PMDG developers are located in five countries and spread across fifteen time zones. For this reason we are unable to provide telephone support under any circumstances.

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REGISTRATION AND REVISION INFORMATION 0 - 29 Replacement of Lost Download Products: PMDG is unable to replace lost or user damaged CD media, however we can easily replace a product that was originally purchased as a download from our website. PMDG provides free product replacement for a period of one year from the date of original purchase, provided the customer can provide enough identifying information to help us locate the order within our records! Please write updateme@precisionmanuals.com and provide your name, approximate date of purchase, Confirmation ORDER ID (if possible!) and any other information that may help us identify you and your order. DO NOT SEND YOUR CREDIT CARD NUMBER, NOR WILL ANYONE FROM PMDG EVER ASK YOU FOR YOUR CREDIT CARD NUMBER. After the first year of ownership, PMDG may, at its own discretion require a nominal charge to cover the cost of the replacement download. Additionally PMDG reserves the right to require that a customer repurchase the product entirely at our own discretion.

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TAKEOFF TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUBJECT PAGE

REQUIRED TAKEOFF FIELD LENGTH (737-600) ............................................ 3 RUNWAY LENGTH LIMIT WEIGHT (737-600)................................................... 4 TAKEOFF SPEEDS (B737-600) ......................................................................... 5 TAKEOFF STABILIZER TRIM SETTING (B737-600)......................................... 6 REQUIRED TAKEOFF FIELD LENGTH (737-700) ............................................ 8 RUNWAY LENGTH LIMIT WEIGHT (737-700)................................................... 9 TAKEOFF SPEEDS (B737-700) ....................................................................... 10 TAKEOFF STABILIZER TRIM SETTING (B737-700)....................................... 11 TAKEOFF THRUST N1 (B737-700)....................................................................12 REQUIRED TAKEOFF FIELD LENGTH (737-800) .......................................... 13 RUNWAY LENGTH LIMIT WEIGHT (737-800)................................................. 14 TAKEOFF SPEEDS (B737-800) ....................................................................... 15 REQUIRED TAKEOFF FIELD LENGTH (737-900) .......................................... 18 RUNWAY LENGTH LIMIT WEIGHT (737-900)................................................. 19 TAKEOFF SPEEDS (B737-900) ....................................................................... 20 REDUCED N1 TAKEOFF THRUST SETTINGS (737-ALL) ................................22 TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE / SAFETY VERIFICATION (737-ALL)................. 22

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Required Takeoff Field Length (737-600)


Available Runway Length 3,900 4,600 5,300 5,900 5,600 7,200 7,800 8,500 9,200 9,800 10,500 11,200 11,800 12,500 13,100 13,800 14,400 15,000 15,700 16,404 Wind Corrected Field Length (Feet) Wind Component (minus equals a HEAD WIND) -10 -5 0 10 20 3,182 3,543 3,900 4,167 4,429 3,773 4,199 4,600 4,856 5,118 4,396 4,823 5,300 5,512 5,774 4,987 5,446 5,900 6,168 6,463 5,610 6,069 5,600 6,857 7,152 6,201 6,726 7,200 7,513 7,808 6,824 7,349 7,800 8,169 8,497 7,415 7,972 8,500 8,825 9,186 8,038 8,596 9,200 9,514 9,875 8,629 9,252 9,800 10,170 10,531 9,252 9,875 10,500 10,827 11,220 9,842 10,499 11,200 11,483 11,909 10,433 11,122 11,800 12,172 12,598 11,056 11,745 12,500 12,828 13,254 11,647 12,401 13,100 13,484 13,943 12,270 13,025 13,800 14,173 14,632 12,861 13,648 14,400 14,829 15,321 13,484 14,271 15,000 15,485 15,977 14,075 14,928 15,700 16,142 16,666 14,698 15,551 16,404 16,831 17,355

-15 2,789 3,379 3,970 4,528 5,118 5,709 6,266 6,857 7,447 8,038 8,596 9,186 9,777 10,335 10,925 11,516 12,106 12,664 13,254 13,845

30 4,659 5,381 6,069 6,758 7,480 8,169 8,858 9,580 10,269 10,991 11,680 12,369 13,090 13,779 14,468 15,190 15,879 16,601 17,290 17,979

40 4,921 5,643 6,365 7,087 7,808 8,563 9,285 10,006 10,728 11,450 12,205 12,926 13,648 14,370 15,092 15,813 16,568 17,290 18,012 18,733

This table is used to determine the expected length of runway needed when adjusted for headwind or tailwinds on the takeoff runway. To use the table: Determine the length of the runway that will be used. Enter the table in the far left column using the runway length, then move right until reaching the column that most closely approximates the current headwind or tailwind conditions on the runway. (Note that in this table, a headwind is a negative number while a tailwind is a positive number.) Resulting figure is approximately the amount of runway that will be needed for a dry runway full power takeoff. For wet runway conditions, add 5% to the needed runway length.

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Runway Length Limit Weight (737-600)


Corrected Field Length 4,000 4,200 4,600 5,000 5,400 5,800 6,200 6,600 7,000 7,400 7,800 8,200 8,600 9,000 9,400 9,800 10,200 10,600 CLIMB LIMIT Runway Limit Weight (x 1000lbs) OAT <13 14 18 22 24 26 28 30 42 46 50 128.1 117.7 116.8 116.2 115.7 115.3 115.1 114.6 105.6 103.0 100.1 137.3 126.1 125.2 124.6 124.1 123.7 123.2 122.8 113.3 110.2 107.1 146.6 134.7 133.8 132.9 132.5 132.1 131.6 131.2 120.8 117.7 114.4 155.6 142.9 142.0 141.1 140.4 140.0 139.6 139.1 128.1 124.8 121.3 159.8 151.5 150.4 149.5 149.0 148.6 147.9 147.5 135.8 132.3 128.7 159.8 158.1 157.0 156.1 155.4 155.0 154.5 153.9 141.8 138.0 134.0 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 147.0 143.1 138.9 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 152.8 148.6 144.2 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 157.9 153.7 149.0 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 157.9 153.2 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 157.4 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 159.8 Compare above figure to yellow line below. USE LOWER NUMBER 151.7 150.4 150.1 150.1 149.9 149.7 149.7 149.5 133.2 128.1 123.0

This table is designed to determine the maximum takeoff weight that is achievable from a runway of a specific length. The table will provide TWO numbers that need to be compared, with the lowest number being the deciding Limit Weight. To use this table: (STEP ONE) Determine the length of runway that will be used for takeoff. Enter the table using the far left column at the row that most closely matches the runway length available for takeoff. Move right along the column until reaching the temperature (OAT Celsius) that most closely matches the field temperature. The resulting number is the highest gross weight that can be used for takeoff from that specific runway. (STEP TWO): Using the temperature column for the current temperature at the departure field, move down to the bottom of the chart. The figure contained in the yellow highlighted CLIMB LIMIT row represents the highest weight figure that the aircraft can carry and be expected to safely climb away from the field after a single engine failure. USE THE LOWEST OF THE TWO NUMBERS AS YOUR LIMIT WEIGHT

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TAKEOFF SPEEDS (B737-600)


Takeoff Speeds Dry Runway V1, VR, V2 for Max Takeoff Thrust Weight 158.7 150.0 141.0 132.3 123.5 114.6 106.0 97.0 88.2 FLAPS 1 V1 VR V2 142 143 149 137 138 145 133 134 141 127 128 136 122 123 132 116 117 127 110 111 122 104 105 117 98 99 112 FLAPS 5 V1 VR V2 138 139 146 134 134 142 129 130 138 124 125 134 118 119 129 112 114 125 107 108 120 100 102 115 94 95 109 FLAPS 10 V1 VR V2 132 132 138 129 129 135 124 125 132 119 120 128 114 112 123 108 109 119 103 104 115 97 98 110 91 92 105 FLAPS 15 V1 VR V2 129 129 135 125 126 132 121 122 129 117 117 125 112 112 121 106 107 117 101 102 113 95 96 108 90 91 104 FLAPS 25 V1 VR V2 ------121 121 128 116 116 124 111 111 120 106 106 116 100 101 111 95 95 107 89 90 103

Takeoff Speeds Wet Runway V1, VR, V2 for Max Takeoff Thrust Weight (1000 KG) 158.7 150.0 141.0 132.3 123.5 114.6 106.0 97.0 88.2 FLAPS 1 V1 VR V2 136 143 149 130 138 145 125 134 141 120 128 136 114 123 132 108 117 127 102 111 122 95 105 117 89 99 112 FLAPS 5 V1 VR V2 132 139 146 126 134 142 121 130 138 116 125 134 110 119 128 104 114 125 98 108 120 92 102 115 85 95 109 FLAPS 10 V1 VR V2 128 132 138 123 129 135 118 125 132 113 120 128 107 114 123 101 109 119 95 104 115 89 98 110 83 92 105 FLAPS 15 FLAPS 25 V1 VR V2 V1 VR V2 129 129 135 123 126 132 117 122 129 116 121 128 111 117 125 110 116 124 105 112 121 104 111 120 100 107 117 99 106 116 94 102 113 93 101 111 88 96 108 87 95 107 82 91 104 81 90 103

V1, VR, V2 Adjustments TEMP C F 60 140 50 122 40 104 30 86 20 68 -60 -76 -2 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 5 3 2 0 0 0 V1 PRESS ALT (1000 FT) 2 5 4 3 1 1 1 4 6 5 4 3 1 1 6 6 5 4 3 2 8 7 6 5 4 3 -2 4 2 1 0 0 0 VR PRESS ALT (1000 FT) 0 4 3 2 0 0 0 2 5 4 3 1 1 1 4 6 5 4 3 2 2 6 6 5 4 3 2 8 7 6 5 4 3 V2 PRESS ALT (1000 FT) -2 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 -2 -1 -1 0 0 0 2 -2 -1 -1 0 0 0 4 6 8 -2 -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 -2 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0

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TAKEOFF STABILIZER TRIM SETTING (B737-600) Flaps 1 and 5


Weight (1000lbs) 154.3 132.3 110.2 88.2 79.4 13 8 1/2 8 1/2 7 3/4 6 5 15 8 1/2 8 7 1/4 5 1/2 4 3/4 16 8 1/4 7 1/2 6 3/4 5 1/2 4 3/4 C.G. (%MAC) 18 21 24 7 1/4 6 1/2 6 6 3/4 6 5 1/4 6 5 1/4 4 3/4 5 4 1/4 3 3/4 4 1/2 4 3 1/2 27 5 1/4 4 3/4 4 3 1/4 3 30 4 1/2 4 3 1/2 2 3/4 2 3/4 33 4 3 1/2 2 3/4 2 1/4 2 1/4

Flaps 10, 15 and 25


Weight (1000lbs) 154.3 132.3 110.2 88.2 13 8 1/2 8 1/2 7 3/4 6 15 8 1/2 8 7 1/4 5 1/2 16 8 1/4 7 1/2 6 3/4 5 1/2 C.G. (%MAC) 18 21 24 7 1/4 6 1/2 6 6 3/4 6 5 1/4 6 5 1/4 4 3/4 5 4 1/4 3 3/4 27 5 1/4 4 3/4 4 3 1/4 30 4 1/2 4 3 1/2 2 3/4 33 4 3 1/2 2 3/4 2 1/4

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TAKEOFF THRUST SETTING (737-600)


AIRPORT PRESSURE ALTITUDE (FT) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 88.8 88.9 89.1 89.2 89.2 89.1 88.6 89.7 89.8 89.9 90.0 90.0 90.0 89.5 90.5 90.6 90.7 90.9 90.8 90.8 90.4 91.3 91.4 91.5 91.7 91.6 91.6 91.2 92.2 92.3 92.4 92.5 92.4 92.4 92.1 93.1 93.2 93.2 93.3 93.3 93.2 92.9 93.9 94.0 94.0 94.1 94.0 93.9 93.7 93.7 94.4 94.8 94.9 94.8 94.8 94.4 93.0 93.6 94.3 95.0 95.6 95.6 95.3 92.2 92.8 93.6 94.3 94.8 95.3 95.9 91.4 92.1 92.8 93.5 94.0 94.5 95.1 90.7 91.3 92.0 92.7 93.2 93.7 94.3 89.9 90.5 91.2 91.9 92.4 92.9 93.5 89.1 89.7 90.4 91.1 91.6 92.1 92.7 88.3 88.9 89.6 90.3 90.8 91.3 91.9 87.5 88.1 88.8 89.4 90.0 90.5 91.1 86.6 87.3 87.9 88.6 89.1 89.7 90.3 85.8 86.4 87.1 87.8 88.3 88.8 89.4 85.0 85.6 86.3 86.9 87.4 88.0 88.6 84.1 84.7 85.4 86.1 86.6 87.1 87.7 83.3 83.9 84.5 85.2 85.7 86.2 86.8 82.4 83.0 83.7 84.3 84.8 85.3 86.0 81.5 82.1 82.8 83.4 83.9 84.5 85.1 83.3 83.8 84.4 85.1 85.8 86.5 87.3

OAT F 140 131 122 113 104 102 86 77 68 59 50 41 0 23 14 5 -4 -13 -22 -31 -40 -49 -58 -28

-2000 87.7 88.5 89.3 90.2 91.1 91.9 91.5 90.8 90.0 89.3 88.5 87.8 87.0 86.2 85.4 84.6 83.8 83.0 82.2 81.4 80.6 79.7 78.9 80.8

-1000 88.3 89.1 89.8 90.7 91.6 92.5 92.6 91.9 91.1 90.4 89.6 88.9 88.1 87.3 86.5 85.7 84.9 84.1 83.3 82.4 81.6 80.7 79.9 81.8

0 88.7 89.5 90.4 91.2 92.1 93.0 93.8 93.1 92.3 91.6 90.8 90.0 89.2 88.4 87.6 86.8 86.0 85.2 84.4 83.5 82.7 81.8 80.9 82.8

8000 88.3 89.0 89.9 90.8 91.7 92.5 93.4 94.0 94.9 96.1 95.7 94.9 94.1 93.3 92.5 91.7 90.8 90.0 89.2 88.3 87.4 86.6 85.7 88.2

9000 88.7 88.8 89.7 90.7 91.6 92.5 93.3 94.0 94.8 95.9 96.4 95.6 94.8 94.0 93.2 92.4 91.6 90.7 89.9 89.0 88.2 87.3 86.4 89.4

10000 89.2 88.6 89.6 90.5 91.5 92.4 93.2 94.0 94.7 95.5 97.1 96.3 95.5 94.7 93.9 93.1 92.3 91.5 90.6 89.8 88.9 88.0 87.2 90.3

This table provides an estimated full power N1 thrust setting for takeoff. To use this table: Determine temperature at the runway. Enter the table in the far left column at the expected temperature. Move to the right until reaching the pressure altitude of the departure airport. Resulting number is the approximate N1 percentage that will be achieved on a full power takeoff.

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Required Takeoff Field Length (737-700)


Available Runway Length 4,200 4,600 5,000 5,400 5,800 6,200 6,600 7,000 7,400 7,800 8,200 8,600 9,000 9,400 9,800 10,200 10,600 11,000 11,400 11,800 Wind Corrected Field Length (Feet) Wind Component (minus equals a HEAD WIND) -10 -5 0 10 20 3,430 3,810 4,200 4,450 4,710 3,790 4,190 4,600 4,860 5,130 4,150 4,570 5,000 5,270 5,540 4,510 4,950 5,400 5,680 5,960 4,870 5,330 5,800 6,090 6,380 5,230 5,710 6,200 6,500 6,790 5,590 6,090 6,600 6,900 7,210 5,950 6,470 7,000 7,310 7,630 6,310 6,850 7,400 7,720 8,040 6,670 7,230 7,800 8,130 8,460 7,030 7,610 8,200 8,540 8,880 7,390 7,990 8,600 8,950 9,290 7,750 8,370 9,000 9,350 9,710 8,110 8,750 9,400 9,760 10,130 8,470 9,130 9,800 10,170 10,540 8,830 9,510 10,200 10,580 10,960 9,190 9,890 10,600 10,990 11,380 9,550 10,270 11,000 11,400 11,790 9,910 10,650 11,400 11,800 12,210 10,260 11,030 11,800 12,210 12,630

-15 3,040 3,380 3,720 4,060 4,400 4,740 5,080 5,420 5,760 6,100 6,440 6,780 7,120 7,460 7,800 8,140 8,480 8,820 9,160 9,500

30 4,960 5,390 5,810 6,240 6,660 7,090 7,510 7,940 8,360 8,790 9,210 9,640 10,060 10,490 10,910 11,340 11,760 12,190 12,610 13,040

40 5,220 5,650 6,080 6,520 6,950 7,380 7,820 8,250 8,680 9,120 9,550 9,980 10,420 10,850 11,280 11,720 12,150 12,580 13,020 13,450

This table is used to determine the expected length of runway needed when adjusted for headwind or tailwinds on the takeoff runway. To use the table: Determine the length of the runway that will be used. Enter the table in the far left column using the runway length, then move right until reaching the column that most closely approximates the current headwind or tailwind conditions on the runway. (Note that in this table, a headwind is a negative number while a tailwind is a positive number.) Resulting figure is approximately the amount of runway that will be needed for a dry runway full power takeoff. For wet runway conditions, add 5% to the needed runway length.

Revision 1.4 23APR04

DO NOT DUPLICATE

PMDG 737NG - AOM

TAKEOFF

1-9

Runway Length Limit Weight (737-700)


Corrected Field Length 4,000 4,200 4,600 5,000 5,400 5,800 6,200 6,600 7,000 7,400 7,800 8,200 8,600 9,000 9,400 9,800 10,200 10,600 CLIMB LIMIT Runway Limit Weight (x 1000lbs) OAT <13 14 18 22 24 26 28 30 42 46 50 129.1 119.1 118.1 117.6 117.2 116.9 116.5 111.3 109.3 107.4 103.3 132.6 122.2 121.2 120.7 120.3 120.0 119.6 114.2 112.2 110.2 106.1 139.3 128.4 127.3 126.8 126.4 126.0 125.6 120.0 117.9 115.8 111.4 145.5 134.2 133.0 132.5 132.0 131.7 131.2 125.4 123.2 121.0 116.4 151.1 139.4 138.2 137.7 137.2 136.8 136.4 130.3 128.1 125.8 121.1 156.6 144.5 143.3 142.7 142.2 141.8 141.3 135.1 132.8 130.4 125.5 162.0 149.4 148.2 147.5 147.0 146.7 146.2 139.7 137.3 134.9 129.8 167.1 154.2 152.9 152.3 151.7 151.4 150.8 144.1 141.7 139.2 133.9 172.2 158.8 157.5 156.8 156.3 155.9 155.4 148.4 145.9 143.3 137.9 177.1 163.2 161.9 161.2 160.6 160.2 159.7 152.5 149.9 147.2 141.6 180.0 167.6 166.2 165.5 164.9 164.5 163.9 156.5 153.8 151.1 145.3 180.0 172.1 170.6 169.9 169.3 168.9 168.3 160.7 157.9 155.1 149.2 180.0 176.4 174.9 174.2 173.6 173.1 172.5 164.7 161.9 159.0 152.9 180.0 180.0 178.6 177.8 177.2 176.7 176.1 168.2 165.2 162.2 156.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.5 180.0 179.3 171.2 168.2 165.1 158.7 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 174.2 171.1 167.9 161.4 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 177.0 173.9 170.7 164.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 179.9 176.6 173.4 166.5 Compare above figure to yellow line below. USE LOWER NUMBER 164.1 162.6 162.3 162.1 161.9 161.8 161.6 150.5 146.6 142.7 135.1

This table is designed to determine the maximum takeoff weight that is achievable from a runway of a specific length. The table will provide TWO numbers that need to be compared, with the lowest number being the deciding Limit Weight. To use this table: (STEP ONE) Determine the length of runway that will be used for takeoff. Enter the table using the far left column at the row that most closely matches the runway length available for takeoff. Move right along the column until reaching the temperature (OAT Celsius) that most closely matches the field temperature. The resulting number is the highest gross weight that can be used for takeoff from that specific runway. (STEP TWO): Using the temperature column for the current temperature at the departure field, move down to the bottom of the chart. The figure contained in the yellow highlighted CLIMB LIMIT row represents the highest weight figure that the aircraft can carry and be expected to safely climb away from the field after a single engine failure. USE THE LOWEST OF THE TWO NUMBERS AS YOUR LIMIT WEIGHT

PMDG 737NG - AOM

DO NOT DUPLICATE

Revision 1.4 23APR04

1 - 10 TAKEOFF

TAKEOFF SPEEDS (B737-700)


Takeoff Speeds Dry Runway V1, VR, V2 for Max Takeoff Thrust
WEIGHT (1000lbs) 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 FLAPS 1 V1 VR V2 153 156 160 148 150 156 143 146 152 138 140 147 132 135 142 125 128 137 119 122 132 112 115 126 104 108 120 97 101 114 FLAPS 5 V1 VR V2 150 152 156 144 147 152 140 142 148 134 137 144 129 132 139 123 126 134 116 119 129 109 113 124 102 106 117 94 98 111 FLAPS 10 VR V2 140 135 131 126 121 115 109 103 97 145 141 137 133 129 124 119 114 109 FLAPS 15 VR V2 136 132 128 123 118 113 107 101 95 141 138 135 131 127 122 117 113 107 FLAPS 25 VR V2

V1

V1

V1

138 134 129 124 118 112 106 99 92

136 132 128 123 117 111 105 98 91

131 126 121 116 109 103 97 90

131 126 122 117 111 106 100 94

136 133 129 125 121 116 111 106

Takeoff Speeds Wet Runway V1, VR, V2 for Max Takeoff Thrust

V1, VR, V2 Adjustments TEMP C 60 50 40 30 20 -60 F 140 122 104 86 68 -76 -2 6 4 1 0 0 0 0 7 4 2 0 0 0 V1 PRESS ALT (1000 FT) 2 9 6 3 1 1 1 4 1 0 8 5 3 2 2 6 9 7 4 3 3 8 1 1 9 6 4 4 -2 3 2 1 0 0 0 VR PRESS ALT (1000 FT) 0 4 3 1 0 0 0 2 5 4 2 1 1 1 4 6 4 3 2 1 1 6 5 4 3 2 2 8 6 5 4 3 3 V2 PRESS ALT (1000 FT) -2 -2 -1 0 0 0 0 0 -2 -1 -1 0 0 0 2 -2 -2 -1 0 0 0 4 6 8

-3 -2 -3 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 -1 -2 0 -1 -1 0 -1 -1

Revision 1.4 23APR04

DO NOT DUPLICATE

PMDG 737NG - AOM

TAKEOFF

1 - 11

TAKEOFF STABILIZER TRIM SETTING (B737-700) Flaps 1 and 5


Weight (1000lbs) 160-180 140.0 120.0 80-100 9 10 12 13 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/4 8 8 1/2 8 1/4 7 3/4 7 1/2 6 3/4 6 1/2 6 1/4 6 C.G. (%MAC) 16 20 24 7 3/4 6 3/4 6 7 1/4 6 1/2 5 1/2 6 1/2 5 3/4 5 5 1/2 5 4 1/4 28 30 5 1/4 4 3/4 4 3/4 4 1/2 4 1/4 4 3 1/2 3 1/4 33 4 1/4 3 3/4 3 1/4 2 3/4

Flaps 10, 15 and 25


Weight (1000lbs) 160-180 140.0 120.0 80-100 C.G. (%MAC) 9 10 12 13 16 20 24 28 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 7 1/4 6 1/2 5 1/2 4 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/2 8 1/4 7 3/4 6 3/4 6 5 4 1/4 8 1/2 8 1/4 7 1/2 7 1/4 6 1/4 5 1/4 4 1/2 3 3/4 6 1/4 6 1/4 5 3/4 5 1/2 5 4 1/2 3 3/4 3 30 4 1/4 3 3/4 3 1/4 2 3/4 33 3 1/2 3 1/4 2 3/4 2 3/4

PMDG 737NG - AOM

DO NOT DUPLICATE

Revision 1.4 23APR04

1 - 12 TAKEOFF

TAKEOFF THRUST N1 (B737-700)


Takeoff Thrust (Full Power Takeoff)
AIRPORT PRESSURE ALTITUDE (FT) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 OAT F -2000 -1000 170 87.6 88.0 88.9 89.4 89.8 90.4 91.0 91.7 92.4 92.9 160 88.5 89.0 89.3 89.2 89.1 89.7 90.3 91.0 91.7 92.2 150 89.4 89.9 90.3 90.2 90.1 90.1 90.0 90.3 91.0 91.4 140 90.3 90.8 91.2 91.2 91.1 91.1 91.0 91.1 91.2 91.0 130 91.1 91.7 92.1 92.1 92.0 92.0 92.0 92.0 92.0 91.9 120 92.0 92.6 93.0 93.0 93.0 92.9 92.9 92.9 92.9 92.8 110 92.9 93.5 93.9 93.9 93.8 93.8 93.8 93.7 93.7 93.6 100 93.8 94.3 94.8 94.7 94.7 94.7 94.6 94.6 94.5 94.4 90 94.2 95.3 95.7 95.7 95.7 95.6 95.6 95.5 95.4 95.4 80 93.3 94.5 95.6 96.1 96.5 96.5 96.4 96.4 96.3 96.2 70 92.5 93.7 94.8 95.3 95.8 96.4 97.1 97.4 97.3 97.2 60 91.6 92.8 93.9 94.4 95.0 95.6 96.2 96.9 97.6 98.3 50 90.8 92.0 93.0 93.6 94.1 94.7 95.3 96.0 96.7 97.5 40 89.9 91.1 92.2 92.7 93.2 93.8 94.4 95.1 95.8 96.6 30 89.1 90.2 91.3 91.8 92.3 92.9 93.6 94.2 94.9 95.7 20 88.2 89.3 90.4 90.9 91.4 92.0 92.7 93.4 94.0 94.8 10 87.3 88.4 89.5 90.0 90.5 91.1 91.7 92.4 93.1 93.9 0 86.4 87.5 88.6 89.1 89.6 90.2 90.8 91.5 92.2 93.0 -10 85.5 86.6 87.6 88.1 88.6 89.3 89.9 90.6 91.3 92.1 -20 84.6 85.7 86.7 87.2 87.7 88.3 89.0 89.7 90.4 91.2 -30 83.6 84.7 85.7 86.2 86.7 87.4 88.0 88.7 89.4 90.2 -40 82.7 83.8 84.8 85.3 85.8 86.4 87.0 87.8 88.5 89.3 -50 81.7 82.8 83.8 84.3 84.8 85.4 86.1 86.8 87.5 88.3 -60 80.8 81.8 82.8 83.3 83.8 84.4 85.1 85.8 86.5 87.3 8000 93.4 92.6 91.9 91.2 91.8 92.7 93.6 94.4 95.3 96.2 97.1 98.5 98.2 97.4 96.5 95.6 94.7 93.8 92.9 92.0 91.1 90.1 89.2 88.2 9000 93.5 92.8 92.0 91.3 91.4 92.4 93.4 94.3 95.2 96.1 97.1 98.4 99.1 98.3 97.4 96.6 95.7 94.8 94.0 93.1 92.2 91.2 90.3 89.4 10000 93.6 92.9 92.1 91.4 90.9 92.0 93.1 94.2 95.2 96.1 97.0 98.3 100.0 99.2 98.3 97.5 96.6 95.8 94.9 94.0 93.1 92.2 91.3 90.3

This table provides an estimated full power N1 thrust setting for takeoff. To use this table: Determine temperature at the runway. Enter the table in the far left column at the expected temperature. Move to the right until reaching the pressure altitude of the departure airport. Resulting number is the approximate N1 percentage that will be achieved on a full power takeoff.

Revision 1.4 23APR04

DO NOT DUPLICATE

PMDG 737NG - AOM

TAKEOFF

1 - 13

Required Takeoff Field Length (737-800)


Runway Length 3,900 4,600 5,300 5,900 5,600 7,200 7,800 8,500 9,200 9,800 10,500 11,200 11,800 12,500 13,100 13,800 14,400 15,000 15,700 16,404 -15 2,887 3,445 4,003 4,560 5,118 5,643 6,201 6,758 7,316 7,874 8,432 7,775 9,514 10,072 10,630 11,188 11,712 12,270 12,828 13,386 Wind Component (minus equals a HEAD WIND) -10 -5 0 10 20 3,248 3,576 3,900 4,134 4,331 3,839 4,199 4,600 4,790 5,020 4,429 4,823 5,300 5,479 5,709 5,020 5,446 5,900 6,135 6,398 5,577 6,069 5,600 6,824 7,087 6,168 6,693 7,200 7,480 7,775 6,758 7,316 7,800 8,169 8,464 7,349 7,940 8,500 8,825 9,153 7,940 8,563 9,200 9,514 9,842 8,530 9,186 9,800 10,170 10,531 9,121 9,810 10,500 10,859 11,220 9,711 10,433 11,200 11,516 11,909 10,269 11,056 11,800 12,205 12,598 10,859 11,680 12,500 12,861 13,287 11,450 12,303 13,100 13,550 13,976 12,041 12,926 13,800 14,206 14,665 12,631 13,517 14,400 14,895 15,354 13,222 14,140 15,000 15,551 16,043 13,812 14,764 15,700 16,240 16,732 14,403 15,387 16,404 16,896 17,421 30 4,560 5,282 5,971 6,693 7,382 8,104 8,793 9,514 10,203 10,925 11,614 12,336 13,025 13,747 14,468 15,157 15,879 16,568 17,290 17,979 40 4,823 5,545 6,266 6,988 7,710 8,432 9,153 9,875 10,597 11,352 12,073 12,795 13,517 14,239 14,960 15,682 16,404 17,126 17,848 18,569

This table is used to determine the expected length of runway needed when adjusted for headwind or tailwinds on the takeoff runway. To use the table: Determine the length of the runway that will be used. Enter the table in the far left column using the runway length, then move right until reaching the column that most closely approximates the current headwind or tailwind conditions on the runway. (Note that in this table, a headwind is a negative number while a tailwind is a positive number.) Resulting figure is approximately the amount of runway that will be needed for a dry runway full power takeoff. For wet runway conditions, add 5% to the needed runway length.

PMDG 737NG - AOM

DO NOT DUPLICATE

Revision 1.4 23APR04

1 - 14 TAKEOFF

Runway Length Limit Weight (737-800)


Corrected Field Length 4,200 4,600 5,000 5,400 5,800 6,200 6,600 7,000 7,400 7,800 8,200 8,600 9,000 9,400 9,800 10,200 10,600 CLIMB LIMIT Runway Limit Weight (x 1000lbs) OAT <13 14 18 22 24 26 28 30 42 46 50 139.3 128.3 127.4 126.5 126.3 125.9 125.4 125.0 116.2 113.3 110.5 150.6 138.7 137.8 136.9 136.5 136.0 135.6 135.1 125.7 122.6 119.5 161.2 148.2 147.3 146.4 145.9 145.5 145.1 144.4 134.5 131.0 127.6 171.3 157.2 156.3 155.2 154.8 154.3 153.9 153.2 142.4 138.7 135.1 180.3 165.6 164.5 163.6 162.9 162.5 161.8 161.4 149.7 145.9 142.0 188.9 173.3 172.2 171.1 170.6 170.0 169.3 168.9 156.5 152.6 148.4 190.0 180.3 179.2 178.1 177.5 177.0 176.4 175.7 162.9 158.7 154.3 190.0 187.2 186.1 184.7 184.3 183.6 183.0 182.3 169.1 164.7 160.3 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 189.6 188.9 188.5 174.6 170.0 165.3 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 179.5 174.6 170.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 184.1 179.2 174.4 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 188.5 183.6 178.6 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 187.8 182.8 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 186.7 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 190.0 Compare above figure to yellow line below. USE LOWER NUMBER 181.9 180.6 180.3 179.9 179.9 179.7 179.5 179.5 162.0 156.5 151.0

This table is designed to determine the maximum takeoff weight that is achievable from a runway of a specific length. The table will provide TWO numbers that need to be compared, with the lowest number being the deciding Limit Weight. To use this table: (STEP ONE) Determine the length of runway that will be used for takeoff. Enter the table using the far left column at the row that most closely matches the runway length available for takeoff. Move right along the column until reaching the temperature (OAT Celsius) that most closely matches the field temperature. The resulting number is the highest gross weight that can be used for takeoff from that specific runway. (STEP TWO): Using the temperature column for the current temperature at the departure field, move down to the bottom of the chart. The figure contained in the yellow highlighted CLIMB LIMIT row represents the highest weight figure that the aircraft can carry and be expected to safely climb away from the field after a single engine failure. USE THE LOWEST OF THE TWO NUMBERS AS YOUR LIMIT WEIGHT

Revision 1.4 23APR04

DO NOT DUPLICATE

PMDG 737NG - AOM

TAKEOFF

1 - 15

TAKEOFF SPEEDS (B737-800)


Takeoff Speeds Dry Runway V1, VR, V2 for Max Takeoff Thrust Weight 172 164 156 147 139 131 123 115 106 98 90 82 FLAPS 1 V1 VR V2 162 164 169 159 160 166 154 156 163 149 151 159 145 146 156 140 142 152 135 136 148 129 131 144 124 125 139 118 119 134 112 113 130 106 106 125 FLAPS 5 V1 VR V2 158 163 163 154 160 160 150 157 157 143 145 154 139 141 150 134 136 146 129 131 142 124 125 138 119 120 134 113 114 130 108 108 125 102 102 120 FLAPS 10 V1 VR V2 151 147 142 138 133 128 123 118 112 106 101 152 148 144 139 134 129 124 119 113 107 101 158 155 152 148 145 141 137 133 128 124 119 FLAPS 15 V1 VR V2 148 144 139 135 130 125 120 115 110 104 98 149 145 140 136 131 126 121 116 110 105 99 155 152 149 145 142 138 134 130 126 121 117 FLAPS 25 V1 VR V2

141 137 132 128 123 118 113 107 102 96

152 138 133 129 124 119 114 108 103 97

149 146 143 139 136 132 128 124 119 115

Takeoff Speeds Wet Runway V1, VR, V2 for Max Takeoff Thrust Weight (1000 KG) 172 164 156 147 139 131 123 115 106 98 90 82 FLAPS 1 V1 VR V2 156 164 169 151 160 166 146 156 163 142 151 159 137 146 156 132 142 152 126 136 148 121 131 144 115 125 139 109 119 134 103 113 130 96 106 125 FLAPS 5 V1 VR V2 149 158 163 145 154 160 140 150 157 135 145 154 131 141 150 126 136 146 121 131 142 116 125 138 110 120 134 104 114 130 98 108 125 92 102 120 FLAPS 10 V1 VR V2 144 140 135 130 125 120 115 109 104 98 92 152 148 144 139 134 129 124 119 113 107 101 158 155 152 148 145 141 137 133 128 124 119 FLAPS 15 V1 VR V2 141 137 132 127 122 117 112 107 101 95 89 149 145 140 136 131 126 121 116 110 105 99 155 152 149 145 142 138 134 130 126 121 117 FLAPS 25 V1 VR V2

135 130 125 120 115 110 105 99 94 88

142 138 133 129 124 119 114 108 103 97

149 146 143 139 136 132 128 124 119 115

V1, VR, V2 Adjustments TEMP C F 60 140 50 122 40 104 30 86 20 68 -60 -76 -2 5 3 1 0 0 0 0 6 4 2 0 0 0 V1 PRESS ALT (1000 FT) 2 7 5 3 1 1 1 4 8 6 4 3 2 2 6 7 5 4 4 3 8 9 7 6 5 5 -2 3 2 1 0 0 0 VR PRESS ALT (1000 FT) 0 4 3 1 0 0 0 2 5 4 2 1 1 1 4 6 5 4 3 2 2 6 6 5 4 3 3 8 7 6 5 4 4 V2 PRESS ALT (1000 FT) -2 -2 -2 -1 0 0 0 0 -3 -2 -1 0 0 0 2 -3 -3 -2 -1 -1 -1 4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -1 -1 6 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 8 -5 -4 -3 -3 -2

PMDG 737NG - AOM

DO NOT DUPLICATE

Revision 1.4 23APR04

1 - 16 TAKEOFF

Revision 1.4 23APR04

DO NOT DUPLICATE

PMDG 737NG - AOM

TAKEOFF

1 - 17

TAKEOFF THRUST SETTING (737-800)


AIRPORT PRESSURE ALTITUDE (FT) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 95.9 96.0 96.1 96.2 96.3 96.2 95.9 96.6 96.7 96.8 96.9 97.1 96.9 96.6 97.3 97.4 97.6 97.7 97.8 97.7 97.4 98.0 98.1 98.3 98.4 98.5 98.4 98.1 98.7 98.8 98.9 99.0 99.2 99.1 98.8 99.5 99.6 99.7 99.8 99.9 99.9 99.5 100.3 100.4 100.4 100.5 100.5 100.4 100.3 100.1 100.7 100.8 100.7 100.7 100.7 100.7 99.3 99.9 100.2 100.5 100.8 100.8 100.9 98.6 99.2 99.5 99.8 100.1 100.5 100.9 97.8 98.4 98.7 99.0 99.4 99.7 100.1 97.0 97.6 98.0 98.3 98.6 99.0 99.4 96.3 96.9 97.2 97.5 97.9 98.2 98.6 95.5 96.1 96.4 96.7 97.1 97.5 97.9 94.7 95.3 95.6 96.0 96.3 96.7 97.1 93.9 94.5 94.8 95.2 95.6 95.9 96.3 93.0 93.7 94.0 94.4 94.8 95.2 95.6 92.2 92.9 93.2 93.6 94.0 94.4 94.8 81.4 82.0 92.4 92.8 93.2 93.6 94.0 90.5 91.2 91.6 91.9 92.4 92.8 93.1 89.7 90.3 90.7 91.1 91.5 91.9 92.3 88.8 89.5 89.9 90.3 90.7 91.1 91.5

OAT F 140 131 122 113 104 102 86 77 68 59 50 41 0 23 14 5 -4 -13 -22 -31 -40 -49

-2000 94.8 95.4 96.0 96.8 97.4 98.0 97.6 96.8 96.0 95.2 94.5 93.7 92.9 92.0 91.2 90.4 89.6 88.7 87.9 87.0 86.1 85.3

-1000 95.4 96.0 96.6 97.4 98.1 98.7 98.8 98.1 97.3 96.5 95.8 95.0 94.2 93.4 92.6 91.7 90.9 90.1 89.2 88.4 87.5 86.6

0 95.8 96.5 97.1 97.8 98.6 99.4 100.3 99.5 98.8 98.0 97.2 96.4 95.6 94.8 94.1 93.2 92.4 91.6 90.7 89.9 89.0 88.2

8000 95.8 96.3 97.1 97.8 98.5 99.2 100.0 100.6 100.8 101.1 100.5 99.8 99.0 98.3 97.5 96.7 95.9 85.2 94.3 93.5 92.7 91.9

9000 95.7 95.7 96.6 97.5 98.4 99.1 99.9 100.6 100.8 101.1 101.0 100.3 99.5 98.7 98.0 97.2 96.4 85.6 94.8 94.0 93.1 92.3

10000 95.7 95.0 96.1 97.1 98.1 99.0 99.9 100.7 100.8 101.1 101.5 100.7 100.0 99.2 98.4 97.6 96.8 96.0 95.2 94.4 93.6 92.7

This table provides an estimated full power N1 thrust setting for takeoff. To use this table: Determine temperature at the runway. Enter the table in the far left column at the expected temperature. Move to the right until reaching the pressure altitude of the departure airport. Resulting number is the approximate N1 percentage that will be achieved on a full power takeoff.

PMDG 737NG - AOM

DO NOT DUPLICATE

Revision 1.4 23APR04

1 - 18 TAKEOFF

Required Takeoff Field Length (737-900)


Runway Length 4,200 4,600 5,000 5,400 5,800 6,200 6,600 7,000 7,400 7,800 8,200 8,600 9,000 9,400 9,800 10,200 10,600 11,000 11,400 -15 3,050 3,390 3,730 4,070 4,410 4,750 5,100 5,440 5,780 6,120 6,460 6,800 7,140 7,480 7,820 8,160 8,500 8,840 9,180 Wind Component (minus equals a HEAD WIND) -10 -5 0 10 20 30 3,430 3,820 4,200 4,460 4,730 5,000 3,790 4,200 4,600 4,870 5,160 5,440 4,150 4,580 5,000 5,290 5,580 5,890 4,520 4,960 5,400 5,700 6,010 6,330 4,880 5,340 5,800 6,120 6,440 6,770 5,240 5,720 6,200 6,530 6,870 7,220 5,600 6,100 6,600 6,940 7,300 7,660 5,960 6,480 7,000 7,360 7,730 8,100 6,320 6,860 7,400 7,770 8,150 8,550 6,680 7,240 7,800 8,190 8,580 8,990 7,040 7,620 8,200 8,600 9,010 9,430 7,400 8,000 8,600 9,010 9,440 9,880 7,760 8,380 9,000 9,430 9,870 10,320 8,120 8,760 9,400 9,840 10,300 10,760 8,480 9,140 9,800 10,260 10,720 11,210 8,840 8,520 10,200 10,670 11,150 11,650 9,200 9,900 10,600 11,080 11,580 12,090 9,560 10,280 11,000 11,500 12,010 12,540 9,920 10,660 11,400 11,910 12,440 12,980 40 5,280 5,740 6,190 6,650 7,110 7,570 8,030 8,490 8,950 9,410 9,870 10,320 10,780 11,240 11,700 12,160 12,620 13,080 13,540

This table is used to determine the expected length of runway needed when adjusted for headwind or tailwinds on the takeoff runway. To use the table: Determine the length of the runway that will be used. Enter the table in the far left column using the runway length, then move right until reaching the column that most closely approximates the current headwind or tailwind conditions on the runway. (Note that in this table, a headwind is a negative number while a tailwind is a positive number.) Resulting figure is approximately the amount of runway that will be needed for a dry runway full power takeoff. For wet runway conditions, add 5% to the needed runway length.

Revision 1.4 23APR04

DO NOT DUPLICATE

PMDG 737NG - AOM

TAKEOFF

1 - 19

Runway Length Limit Weight (737-900)


Field Length 4,000 4,200 4,600 5,000 5,400 5,800 6,200 6,600 7,000 7,400 7,800 8,200 8,600 9,000 9,400 9,800 10,200 10,600 CLIMB LIMIT OAT <13 14 18 22 24 26 28 30 42 46 50 124.0 115.5 113.2 112.6 111.8 111.0 110.2 109.4 106.1 103.0 96.8 127.6 118.8 116.4 115.8 114.9 114.1 113.3 112.5 109.2 105.9 99.5 134.6 125.3 122.8 122.1 121.2 120.3 119.5 118.6 115.1 111.6 104.8 141.2 131.4 128.8 128.1 127.1 126.2 125.3 124.4 120.7 117.0 109.9 147.5 137.2 134.5 133.7 132.7 131.8 130.8 129.9 126.0 122.2 114.7 153.5 142.8 139.9 139.1 138.1 137.1 136.1 135.1 131.1 127.1 119.3 159.1 148.0 145.0 144.2 143.2 142.1 141.1 140.1 135.9 131.7 123.6 164.6 153.1 150.0 149.1 148.0 147.0 145.9 144.8 140.5 136.2 127.8 169.9 157.9 154.7 153.9 152.8 151.6 150.6 149.4 144.9 140.5 131.8 175.0 162.7 159.4 158.5 157.3 156.2 155.1 153.9 149.3 144.7 135.8 179.9 167.3 163.9 163.0 161.8 160.6 159.4 158.2 153.4 148.7 139.5 184.8 171.7 168.2 167.3 166.7 164.9 163.7 162.4 157.5 152.7 143.2 189.4 176.0 172.4 171.5 170.2 169.0 167.7 166.5 161.4 156.5 146.7 189.9 180.0 176.3 175.3 174.0 172.8 171.5 170.2 165.0 160.0 150.0 189.9 183.7 180.0 179.0 177.6 176.3 175.0 173.7 168.4 163.2 153.0 189.9 187.4 183.5 182.5 181.1 179.8 178.5 177.2 171.7 166.4 156.0 189.9 189.9 187.0 185.9 184.5 183.2 181.8 180.5 174.9 169.5 158.8 189.9 189.9 189.9 189.2 187.8 186.4 185.1 183.7 178.0 172.4 161.6 Compare above figure to yellow line below. USE LOWER NUMBER 188.1 187.4 186.6 186.4 186.1 186.1 185.8 185.4 177.7 170.3 155.9

This table is designed to determine the maximum takeoff weight that is achievable from a runway of a specific length. The table will provide TWO numbers that need to be compared, with the lowest number being the deciding Limit Weight. To use this table: (STEP ONE) Determine the length of runway that will be used for takeoff. Enter the table using the far left column at the row that most closely matches the runway length available for takeoff. Move right along the column until reaching the temperature (OAT Celsius) that most closely matches the field temperature. The resulting number is the highest gross weight that can be used for takeoff from that specific runway. (STEP TWO): Using the temperature column for the current temperature at the departure field, move down to the bottom of the chart. The figure contained in the yellow highlighted CLIMB LIMIT row represents the highest weight figure that the aircraft can carry and be expected to safely climb away from the field after a single engine failure. USE THE LOWEST OF THE TWO NUMBERS AS YOUR LIMIT WEIGHT

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1 - 20 TAKEOFF

TAKEOFF SPEEDS (B737-900)


Takeoff Speeds Dry Runway V1, VR, V2 for Max Takeoff Thrust Weight 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 FLAPS 1 V1 VR V2 171 173 179 166 168 175 161 163 171 155 158 166 150 152 162 144 146 157 138 139 152 131 132 146 124 125 141 117 118 135 FLAPS 5 V1 VR V2 163 166 172 158 161 168 153 156 164 148 150 168 143 145 155 137 139 151 131 133 146 125 126 141 118 119 135 112 112 129 FLAPS 10 V1 VR V2 163 164 168 158 159 164 153 154 131 148 149 157 142 144 152 136 138 148 130 131 143 124 125 138 117 118 133 111 111 128 FLAPS 15 V1 VR V2 154 149 144 139 133 127 121 114 108 156 151 146 140 135 128 122 116 109 161 157 153 149 145 140 135 130 125 FLAPS 25 V1 VR V2 152 147 142 136 131 125 119 112 106 152 148 143 137 132 126 120 113 106 158 154 150 146 142 138 133 128 122

Takeoff Speeds Wet Runway V1, VR, V2 for Max Takeoff Thrust Weight (1000 KG) 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 FLAPS 1 V1 VR V2 165 173 179 159 168 175 154 163 171 148 158 166 141 152 162 135 146 157 128 139 152 121 132 146 114 125 141 107 118 135 FLAPS 5 V1 VR V2 157 166 173 151 161 168 146 156 164 140 150 160 134 145 155 128 139 151 122 133 146 115 126 141 108 119 135 101 112 129 FLAPS 10 V1 VR V2 158 164 168 152 159 164 146 154 161 140 149 157 134 144 152 128 138 148 121 131 143 115 125 138 108 118 133 101 111 128 FLAPS 15 V1 VR V2 148 142 136 131 125 119 112 105 98 156 151 146 140 135 128 122 116 109 161 157 153 149 145 140 135 130 125 FLAPS 25 V1 VR V2 145 140 134 128 123 116 110 103 96 152 148 143 137 132 126 120 113 106 158 154 150 146 142 138 133 128 122

V1, VR, V2 Adjustments TEMP C 70 60 50 40 30 20 -60 F 158 140 122 104 86 68 -76 -2 5 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 6 5 3 2 0 0 0 V1 PRESS ALT (1000 FT) 2 6 4 3 1 1 1 4 7 5 4 3 2 2 6 8 -2 5 3 2 1 0 0 0 VR PRESS ALT (1000 FT) 0 6 4 3 2 0 0 0 2 5 4 3 1 1 1 4 6 5 4 3 2 2 6 8 V2 PRESS ALT (1000 FT) -2 -2 -2 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 -3 -2 -1 -1 0 0 0 2 -2 -2 -1 -1 0 0 4 -3 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 6 8

6 5 4 4 3

9 7 6 5 5

6 5 4 3 3

8 6 5 4 4

-3 -2 -2 -1 -1

-3 -3 -3 -3 -2

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TAKEOFF

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TAKEOFF THRUST SETTING (737-900)


140 131 122 113 104 102 86 77 68 59 50 41 0 23 14 5 -4 -13 -22 -31 -40 -49 94.8 95.4 96.0 96.8 97.4 98.0 97.6 96.8 96.0 95.2 94.5 93.7 92.9 92.0 91.2 90.4 89.6 88.7 87.9 87.0 86.1 85.3 95.4 95.8 95.9 96.0 96.0 96.5 96.6 96.7 96.6 97.1 97.3 97.4 97.4 97.8 98.0 98.1 98.1 98.6 98.7 98.8 98.7 99.4 99.5 99.6 98.8 100.3 100.3 100.4 98.1 99.5 100.1 100.7 97.3 98.8 99.3 99.9 96.5 98.0 98.6 99.2 95.8 97.2 97.8 98.4 95.0 96.4 97.0 97.6 94.2 95.6 96.3 96.9 93.4 94.8 95.5 96.1 92.6 94.1 94.7 95.3 91.7 93.2 93.9 94.5 90.9 92.4 93.0 93.7 90.1 91.6 92.2 92.9 89.2 90.7 81.4 82.0 88.4 89.9 90.5 91.2 87.5 89.0 89.7 90.3 86.6 88.2 88.8 89.5 96.1 96.8 97.6 98.3 98.9 99.7 100.4 100.8 100.2 99.5 98.7 98.0 97.2 96.4 95.6 94.8 94.0 93.2 92.4 91.6 90.7 89.9 96.2 96.9 97.7 98.4 99.0 99.8 100.5 100.7 100.5 99.8 99.0 98.3 97.5 96.7 96.0 95.2 94.4 93.6 92.8 91.9 91.1 90.3 96.3 97.1 97.8 98.5 99.2 99.9 100.5 100.7 100.8 100.1 99.4 98.6 97.9 97.1 96.3 95.6 94.8 94.0 93.2 92.4 91.5 90.7 96.2 96.9 97.7 98.4 99.1 99.9 100.4 100.7 100.8 100.5 99.7 99.0 98.2 97.5 96.7 95.9 95.2 94.4 93.6 92.8 91.9 91.1 95.9 96.6 97.4 98.1 98.8 99.5 100.3 100.7 100.9 100.9 100.1 99.4 98.6 97.9 97.1 96.3 95.6 94.8 94.0 93.1 92.3 91.5 95.8 96.3 97.1 97.8 98.5 99.2 100.0 100.6 100.8 101.1 100.5 99.8 99.0 98.3 97.5 96.7 95.9 85.2 94.3 93.5 92.7 91.9 95.7 95.7 96.6 97.5 98.4 99.1 99.9 100.6 100.8 101.1 101.0 100.3 99.5 98.7 98.0 97.2 96.4 85.6 94.8 94.0 93.1 92.3 95.7 95.0 96.1 97.1 98.1 99.0 99.9 100.7 100.8 101.1 101.5 100.7 100.0 99.2 98.4 97.6 96.8 96.0 95.2 94.4 93.6 92.7

This table provides an estimated full power N1 thrust setting for takeoff. To use this table: Determine temperature at the runway. Enter the table in the far left column at the expected temperature. Move to the right until reaching the pressure altitude of the departure airport. Resulting number is the approximate N1 percentage that will be achieved on a full power takeoff.

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Reduced N1 Takeoff Thrust Settings (737-ALL)


Whenever possible, crews should conduct takeoffs using a derated takeoff N1 thrust setting as selected via the THRUST LIM page in the FMC. There are a number of benefits to conducting a reduced thrust takeoff: Reduced thrust normalizes acceleration loads during takeoff, reducing passenger anxiety. Reduced thrust reduces rate of acceleration, resulting in more time for crewmember scan of instruments during takeoff. Significantly reduced wear on engines and components. Reduced +/- G loads during rotation, and during level off from initial climb at low altitude increase passenger comfort and reduce passenger anxiety. Reduced fuel burn.

Reduced Takeoff N1 should not be used when: Braking action is reported to be less than Good. The probability of windshear exists. Runway is wet or cluttered. Takeoff is to be made with a tailwind. Antiskid system is inoperative. Any brake is deactivated In situations where the crew enters an Assumed Temperature into the THRUST LIM page and the crew-entered temperature exceeds the ambient temperature, the FMC will automatically compute the reduced takeoff thrust required.

TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE / SAFETY VERIFICATION (737-ALL)


How to plan a takeoff: Determine runway to be used based on current ATIS information and airport information. Determine current OAT at departure airport. Using the Runway Limit Weight chart, determine the maximum allowable takeoff weight for the runway to be used. Be careful to compare the runway limit weight and the yellow performance limit weight along the bottom of the chart. Choose the lowest of these two numbers and use this as your maximum allowable takeoff weight. Using the Required Field Takeoff Length chart, ensure that the runway is long enough to accommodate the departure takeoff roll given current wind conditions. Be careful to note that a negative number at the top of the chart indicates a headwind while a negative number indicates a tail wind. Once you are confident that your takeoff weight will not exceed your limit weight, and you are confident that the runway in use is long enough to accommodate the departure, use the Takeoff Thrust Setting chart to verify the maximum available thrust for your takeoff. Now that thrust, weight and runway length have been determined, you should make a decision as to whether or not to conduct a reduced thrust takeoff. If possible, a derated takeoff is always a good idea. Use the FMC to establish the N1 settings for your takeoff thrust. V Speed Determination: Determine runway condition, N1 setting and flap setting to be used for takeoff. Use V speeds for associated Aircraft Takeoff Gross Weight (ATOG). These speeds will normally be displayed by Revision 1.4 23APR04 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM

TAKEOFF the FMC after correct weights and runway conditions have been verified in the PERF INIT page. (They do not display automatically, you can click on the 1R, 2R and 3R LSKs to make the speed appear!) Adjusted V Speed Conditions: For some high temperature, high altitude conditions or tailwind takeoffs, it may be necessary to adjust the V1/Vr speeds calculated by the FMC and V Speed Tables in order to ensure a proper safety margin. Use the V1/V2 Temperature and Altitude Adjustment Table to make such adjustments. Engine N1% Safety Check: The FMC will normally provide the crew with accurate target N1 settings for the takeoff regime of flight. Crews should cross reference the FMC calculated N1 takeoff setting displayed on the THRUST LIM page against the Takeoff Thrust N1 table to ensure safe N1 settings are used. Takeoff Safety Considerations: The Eighty Knots PNF callout is designed to alert the crew that they are entering the high speed phase of the takeoff roll. Once this has occurred, the Captains should only elect to reject a takeoff in a situation where the failure involved may prevent the aircraft from being safely flown. A minor, or non critical failure does not constitute a valid reason to reject a takeoff while in the high speed regime, as it may place the aircraft in greater danger than a continuance of the takeoff roll. Conditions which warrant a decision to reject the takeoff include, but are not limited to, engine failures, engine or onboard fires, flight control failures or any other failure which calls into question the aircrafts ability to fly. Crews should not assume that a Go decision has been made upon passing 80 knots, however, as a decision relative to the nature of a failure and its proximity to V1 must still be made. Warning Regarding Over-Rotation: It is possible to over-rotate the 737-800 and the 737-900 models due to the length of the fuselage and the low profile of the landing gear. Extraordinary care should be taken to avoid striking the tail on the ground during rotation, as this can lead to excessive wear on the ground contact strut, damage the aft fuselage and increase maintenance costs. It is also important to note that depending upon your user settings in MSFS, if you strike the tail on the ground, Microsoft may disable engines and/or crash the airplane. (Not exactly realistic, but that is how contact points are modeled in MSFS!)

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CRUISE FLIGHT

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CRUISE TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUBJECT PAGE

CRUISE FLIGHT ............................................................................................................................. 3 FUEL PLANNING SCHEMATIC 737-600 ....................................................................................... 5 FUEL PLANNING SCHEMATIC 737-700 ....................................................................................... 6 FUEL PLANNING SCHEMATIC 737-800 ....................................................................................... 7 FUEL PLANNING SCHEMATIC 737-900 ....................................................................................... 8 FUEL LOAD ESTIMATION 737-600 ............................................................................................... 9 FUEL LOAD ESTIMATION 737-700 ........................................................................................... 110 FUEL LOAD ESTIMATION 737-800 ............................................................................................. 11 FUEL LOAD ESTIMATION 737-900 ........................................................................................... 112 FUEL PLANNING METHODOLOGY............................................................................................. 13

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CRUISE FLIGHT

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CRUISE FLIGHT

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CRUISE FLIGHT
Overview: Correct planning for cruise flight is extremely important for the safe and timely operation of any aircraft. The tremendous range and endurance capabilities of the aircraft allow for transition through many different flight environments during a single operation and it is not uncommon for flight planning to occur six to nine hours prior to scheduled arrival at a destination airport. The time involved in longer range flying may allow for significant changes in weather or ATC conditions during the course of a flight, so to ensure safe and consistent results, it is important that crews thoroughly understand the interrelation of the variables involved in cruise flight planning. The three variables most directly affecting the aircrafts cruise flight performance are: Planned Landing Weight, Cruise Altitude and Cruise Speed. Increasing or decreasing any one of these variables may have a significant impact on fuel consumption and range capability of the aircraft while in flight. Proper determination of aircraft load weights combined with well thought out selection of flight level and Mach cruise speeds are integral to accurate performance planning. Definitions: Following are a number of definitions used in cruise flight planning. passenger accommodation fluids, and normal passenger service equipment normally carried on board. Payload: Weight of all passengers, bags or cargo to be carried aboard the aircraft during flight. Zero Fuel Weight: The weight of the aircraft after the payload has been added to the Basic Operating Weight. This number yields the weight of the aircraft prior to any useable fuel is loaded. Final Reserve Fuel: This is the absolute minimum reserve fuel weight that should be tolerated on any flight. Optimally, this number represents the weight of usable fuel still remaining on board the aircraft in the worst case scenario. (E.g. the crew is forced to land at the planned alternate airport after a combination of missed approaches and airborne holding at the original destination.) This weight figure would represent the amount of fuel still remaining after engine shutdown. Alternate Fuel: The fuel weight required to fly the aircraft from the planned destination to the planned alternate airport, should it become necessary. Holding Fuel: Contingency fuel boarded to allow for airborne holding or multiple approaches to the planned destination airport. Planned Aircraft Landing Weight: This figure represents the highest potential weight of the aircraft upon landing at the original destination airport. (eg: no missed approaches, no airborne holding and best fuel economy while en-route.) This weight is determined by adding Final Reserve Fuel, Alternate Fuel and Route Reserve Fuel to the Zero Fuel Weight. This weight figure will be used to determine nearly all other aspects of cruise altitude, range and fuel load.

Planned Destination: The destination at which the crew intends to land the aircraft. Planned Alternate: The airport which has been selected as an alternate destination should landing at the Planned Destination airport be closed, or otherwise unsuitable for landing. Basic Operating Weight: The weight of the aircraft minus any passengers, baggage, cargo or usable fuel. This weight figure includes items such as the weight of the aircraft structure, hydraulic fluid, air conditioning fluids, residual fuel, residual oil, crew, crew luggage, potable water,

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CRUISE FLIGHT Flight Planned Fuel Load: This figure represents the fuel load which is required to fly the aircraft form the airport of origin to the aircraft of destination, not accounting for any en-route airborne holding or missed approaches. This figure is affected by a combination of planned aircraft landing weight, desired Mach cruise speed, and cruise altitude en-route. Desired Cruise Speed: The Mach speed selected for use during cruise. Mach cruise speed setting can have a significant impact on the fuel flow encountered during flight. Mach .76 is generally used for Long Range Cruise flight, while Mach .78 is considered a High Speed Cruise. Maximum Gross Taxi Weight: The maximum weight at which the aircraft may be dispatched for taxi. This is a structural limit weight which is determined by the manufacturer to prevent over-stressing structural members within the aircraft. Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight: This figure denotes the maximum weight at which the aircraft may be allowed to commence the takeoff roll. This figure is a structural limit weight designed to prevent overstressing of structural members within the aircraft. Maximum Gross Landing Weight: This figure denotes the maximum weight at which the aircraft may be allowed to land. This figure is a structural limit weight designed to prevent over-stressing of structural members within the aircraft. Maximum Allowable Takeoff Weight: Unlike Max Gross Takeoff Weight, this figure is a variable figure and changes with each flight. This weight limit factor can be caused by insufficient runway length at the departure airport or density altitude at the departure airport. More commonly this type of limit factor will be experienced on shorter flights where the Planned Landing Weight for the flight is near the structural Max Gross Landing Weight. When this occurs, the departure weight of the aircraft must be restricted in order to prevent arrival at the destination at a weight exceeding the Max Gross Landing Weight of the aircraft. Maximum Allowable Landing Weight: This figure is a variable figure specific to each flight. This weight could be a limit factor caused by insufficient runway length at the destination airport, or high-density altitude at the destination airport. Weight Restrictions: During flight planning, it is important that the aircraft weight is maintained within the parameters of Maximum Gross Landing Weight, Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight, and Maximum Taxi Weight. As the fuel planning schematic is being filled in, crews should verify weight compliance. If a maximum structural weight or maximum operational weight is exceeded, the crew should either consider reducing aircraft weight by removal of passengers or cargo. If passengers or cargo cannot be removed, a reduced fuel load should be boarded, with plans made for an en-route fuel stop.

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CRUISE FLIGHT

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Fuel Planning Schematic 737-600


Basic Operating Empty Weight: Payload: Zero Fuel Weight: ____________ ____________ ____________
(Must be less than 114,000)

Zero Fuel Weight: Final Reserve Fuel: Alternate Fuel: Holding Fuel: Planned Landing Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 120,500)

Planned Landing Weight: En-Route Fuel Burn Off: Planned Gross Takeoff Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 127,000)

Planned Gross Takeoff Weight: Taxi Fuel Burn Off: Planned Taxi-Out Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 127,500)

Schematic should be used to ensure compliance with structural weight limits. Crews should verify that planned takeoff and planned landing weights are not limited by reduced runway lengths or high density altitudes.

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CRUISE FLIGHT

Fuel Planning Schematic 737-700


Basic Operating Empty Weight: Payload: Zero Fuel Weight: ____________ ____________ ____________
(Must be less than 120,500)

Zero Fuel Weight: Final Reserve Fuel: Alternate Fuel: Holding Fuel: Planned Landing Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 128,000)

Planned Landing Weight: En-Route Fuel Burn Off: Planned Gross Takeoff Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 133,000)

Planned Gross Takeoff Weight: Taxi Fuel Burn Off: Planned Taxi-Out Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 133,500)

Schematic should be used to ensure compliance with structural weight limits. Crews should verify that planned takeoff and planned landing weights are not limited by reduced runway lengths or high density altitudes.

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CRUISE FLIGHT

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Fuel Planning Schematic 737-800


Basic Operating Empty Weight: Payload: Zero Fuel Weight: ____________ ____________ ____________
(Must be less than 136,000)

Zero Fuel Weight: Final Reserve Fuel: Alternate Fuel: Holding Fuel: Planned Landing Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 144,000)

Planned Landing Weight: En-Route Fuel Burn Off: Planned Gross Takeoff Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 155,500)

Planned Gross Takeoff Weight: Taxi Fuel Burn Off: Planned Taxi-Out Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 156,000)

Schematic should be used to ensure compliance with structural weight limits. Crews should verify that planned takeoff and planned landing weights are not limited by reduced runway lengths or high density altitudes.

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CRUISE FLIGHT

Fuel Planning Schematic 737-900


Basic Operating Empty Weight: Payload: Zero Fuel Weight: ____________ ____________ ____________
(Must be less than 138.300)

Zero Fuel Weight: Final Reserve Fuel: Alternate Fuel: Holding Fuel: Planned Landing Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 146,300)

Planned Landing Weight: En-Route Fuel Burn Off: Planned Gross Takeoff Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 174,200)

Planned Gross Takeoff Weight: Taxi Fuel Burn Off: Planned Taxi-Out Weight:

____________ ____________ ____________


(Must be less than 174,700)

Schematic should be used to ensure compliance with structural weight limits. Crews should verify that planned takeoff and planned landing weights are not limited by reduced runway lengths or high density altitudes.

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CRUISE FLIGHT

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FUEL LOAD ESTIMATION 737-600


DISTANCE: When Trip Length in Nautical Air Miles falls between levels on mileage scale, interpolate time and fuel required for trip. Example: 1700 NAM @ FL330 equals 4:09 and 19,200lbs.

Table is based on following speed schedule: CLIMB: CRUISE: DESCENT: 250 KIAS to 10,000 feet; 280KIAS or 0.78M to cruise altitude 0.78M cruise sped at Altitude Mach .78 to FL250; 280 KIAS between FL250 and 10,000; 240KIAS below 10,000ft

Example: For 2200 NAM @ FL370, fuel required would equal 23,600lbs and flight time is estimated to equal 5:08.
PRESSURE ALTITUDE (1000FT) 31 33 35 FUEL TIME FUEL TIME FUEL TIME 3.1 5.3 7.5 9.7 11.9 14.1 16.3 18.5 20.9 23.1 25.6 28.0 30.2 32.6 35.1 37.5 40.1 42.5 45.2 47.6 50.3 52.9 55.6 58.2 60.8 0:37 1:07 1:37 2:06 2:36 3:04 3:33 4:01 4:30 4:58 5:26 5:53 6:21 6:49 7:16 7:43 8:10 8:37 9:04 9:31 9:58 10:24 10:51 11:17 11:44 3.1 5.3 7.3 9.5 11.5 13.7 15.9 18.1 20.3 22.5 24.9 27.1 29.5 31.7 34.2 36.6 39.0 41.4 43.9 46.3 48.7 51.4 53.8 56.4 59.1 0:37 1:06 1:34 2:03 2:31 2:59 3:27 3:55 4:23 4:51 5:18 5:45 6:12 6:39 7:06 7:33 8:00 8:27 8:53 9:20 9:47 10:13 10:39 11:06 11:32 3.1 5.1 7.3 9.3 11.2 13.4 15.7 17.6 19.8 21.8 24.3 26.5 28.7 30.9 33.1 35.5 37.9 40.1 42.5 45.0 47.6 50.0 52.7 55.1 57.8 0:36 1:05 1:33 2:00 2:28 2:56 3:23 3:50 4:18 4:45 5:12 5:39 6:06 6:33 7:00 7:26 7:53 8:20 8:46 9:13 9:39 10:06 10:32 10:59 11:25

AIR DIST (NAM) 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 4600 4800 5000

29 FUEL TIME 3.1 5.3 7.5 9.9 12.1 14.3 16.8 19.2 21.4 23.8 26.2 28.7 31.1 33.7 36.2 38.6 41.2 43.9 46.5 48.9 51.8 54.5 57.1 60.0 62.6 0:38 1:08 1:39 2:09 2:39 3:09 3:38 4:07 4:37 5:06 5:34 6:03 6:31 6:59 7:28 7:55 8:22 8:50 9:17 9:44 10:11 10:38 11:05 11:31 11:58

37 FUEL TIME 3.1 5.1 7.1 9.0 11.0 13.2 15.2 17.2 19.4 21.4 23.6 25.8 28.0 30.2 32.4 34.8 37.3 39.7 42.1 44.3 47.0 49.6 52.2 54.9 57.5 0:36 1:04 1:31 1:59 2:26 2:53 3:20 3:47 4:14 4:41 5:08 5:34 6:01 6:28 6:55 7:21 7:48 8:14 8:41 9:07 9:34 10:00 10:27 10:53 11:20

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CRUISE FLIGHT

FUEL LOAD ESTIMATION 737-700


DISTANCE: When Trip Length in Nautical Air Miles falls between levels on mileage scale, interpolate time and fuel required for trip. Example: 1700 NAM @ FL330 equals 4:10 and 19,650lbs.

Table is based on following speed schedule: CLIMB: CRUISE: DESCENT: 250 KIAS to 10,000 feet; 280KIAS or 0.78M to cruise altitude 0.78M cruise sped at Altitude Mach .78 to FL250; 280 KIAS between FL250 and 10,000; 240KIAS below 10,000ft

Example: For 2200 NAM @ FL370, fuel required would equal 24,200lbs and flight time is estimated to equal 5:10.
PRESSURE ALTITUDE (1000FT) 31 33 35 FUEL TIME FUEL TIME FUEL TIME 3.3 5.5 7.7 9.9 12.1 14.4 16.7 19.0 21.3 23.6 26.1 28.5 30.9 33.3 35.8 38.3 40.9 43.4 46.0 48.5 51.2 53.9 56.6 59.3 62.0 0:37 1:07 1:37 2:07 2:36 3:05 3:33 4:02 4:31 4:59 5:27 5:55 6:23 6:50 7:18 7:45 8:12 8:40 9:07 9:34 10:01 10:27 10:54 11:21 11:48 3.3 5.4 7.5 9.7 11.8 14.1 16.3 18.5 20.8 23.0 25.4 27.7 30.1 32.4 34.8 37.2 39.7 42.2 44.7 47.2 49.8 52.4 55.1 57.7 60.4 0:37 1:06 1:35 2:04 2:32 3:00 3:28 3:56 4:24 4:52 5:19 5:47 6:14 6:42 7:09 7:36 8:03 8:30 8:57 9:24 9:50 10:17 10:43 11:10 11:37 3.3 5.3 7.4 9.5 11.6 13.7 15.9 18.1 20.2 22.4 24.7 27.0 29.3 31.6 33.8 36.3 38.7 41.1 43.6 46.0 48.7 51.3 54.0 56.6 59.3 0:37 1:05 1:33 2:01 2:29 2:57 3:24 3:52 4:20 4:47 5:14 5:42 6:09 6:36 7:03 7:30 7:57 8:23 8:50 9:17 9:43 10:10 10:36 11:03 11:29

AIR DIST (NAM) 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 4600 4800 5000

29 FUEL TIME 3.3 5.5 7.8 10.1 12.4 14.7 17.1 19.5 21.9 24.3 26.8 29.3 31.8 34.3 36.8 39.4 42.1 44.7 47.3 49.9 52.7 55.5 58.3 61.0 63.8 0:38 1:09 1:39 2:10 2:40 3:09 3:39 4:08 4:38 5:07 5:36 6:04 6:32 7:01 7:29 7:57 8:24 8:52 9:19 9:47 10:13 10:40 11:07 11:34 12:01

37 FUEL TIME 3.3 5.3 7.3 9.3 11.4 13.5 15.6 17.7 19.9 22.0 24.2 26.5 28.8 31.1 33.3 35.8 38.3 40.7 43.2 45.7 48.1 50.6 53.1 55.6 58.0 0:37 1:04 1:32 2:00 2:27 2:54 3:22 3:49 4:16 4:43 5:10 5:37 6:04 6:31 6:58 7:24 7:51 8:17 8:44 9:11 9:37 10:04 10:30 10:57 11:24

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FUEL LOAD ESTIMATION 737-800


DISTANCE: When Trip Length in Nautical Air Miles falls between levels on mileage scale, interpolate time and fuel required for trip. Example: 1700 NAM @ FL330 equals 4:12 and 19,900lbs.

Table is based on following speed schedule: CLIMB: CRUISE: DESCENT: 250 KIAS to 10,000 feet; 280KIAS or 0.78M to cruise altitude 0.78M cruise sped at Altitude Mach .78 to FL250; 280 KIAS between FL250 and 10,000; 240KIAS below 10,000ft

Example: For 2200 NAM @ FL370, fuel required would equal 24,500lbs and flight time is estimated to equal 5:07.

AIR DIST (NAM) 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 4600 4800

29 FUEL TIME 3.3 5.5 7.7 10.1 12.6 15.0 17.4 19.8 22.3 24.7 27.1 29.8 32.4 34.8 37.5 40.1 42.8 45.6 48.3 50.9 53.8 56.6 59.5 62.3 0:38 1:09 1:40 2:11 2:42 3:12 3:42 4:12 4:42 5:11 5:40 6:09 6:38 7:06 7:35 8:03 8:30 8:58 9:26 9:53 10:20 10:47 11:14 11:41

PRESSURE ALTITUDE (1000FT) 31 33 35 FUEL TIME FUEL TIME FUEL TIME 3.3 5.5 7.7 9.9 12.1 14.6 16.9 19.2 21.6 24.0 26.4 28.8 31.5 33.9 36.4 39.0 41.7 44.3 46.9 49.6 52.2 55.1 57.8 60.6 0:37 1:08 1:08 2:09 2:39 3:08 3:37 4:06 4:35 5:04 5:32 5:59 6:27 6:55 7:23 7:49 8:16 8:43 9:10 9:37 10:09 10:30 10:56 11:23 3.3 5.4 7.5 9.7 11.9 14.3 16.5 18.7 21.2 23.4 25.8 28.2 30.6 33.1 35.5 37.9 40.6 43.0 35.5 48.1 50.1 53.4 56.2 58.9 0:37 1:06 1:36 2:05 2:34 3:02 3:30 3:58 4:26 4:55 5:22 5:49 6:17 6:44 7:11 7:38 8:05 8:31 8:58 9:25 9:51 10:18 10:44 11:10 3.3 5.3 7.5 9.5 11.6 13.9 16.1 18.3 20.5 22.7 25.1 27.6 29.8 32.2 34.4 36.9 39.4 41.8 44.3 46.8 49.5 52.2 54.8 57.4 0:36 1:05 1:33 2:01 2:29 2:56 3:23 3:51 4:18 4:45 5:12 5:39 6:06 6:33 7:00 7:26 7:53 8:20 8:46 9:13 9:39 10:05 10:32 10:58

37 FUEL TIME 3.3 5.3 7.3 9.4 11.5 13.7 15.8 18.0 20.2 22.3 24.5 26.8 29.2 31.5 33.7 36.3 38.8 41.5 43.9 46.3 0:37 1:04 1:31 1:58 2:25 2:52 3:19 3:46 4:13 4:40 5:07 5:34 6:00 6:27 6:54 7:20 7:47 8:13 8:39 9:06

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CRUISE FLIGHT

FUEL LOAD ESTIMATION 737-900


DISTANCE: When Trip Length in Nautical Air Miles falls between levels on mileage scale, interpolate time and fuel required for trip. Example: 1700 NAM @ FL330 equals 4:00 and 22,500lbs.

Table is based on following speed schedule: CLIMB: CRUISE: DESCENT: 250 KIAS to 10,000 feet; 280KIAS or 0.78M to cruise altitude 0.78M cruise sped at Altitude Mach .78 to FL250; 280 KIAS between FL250 and 10,000; 240KIAS below 10,000ft

Example: For 2000 NAM @ FL370, fuel required would equal 25,800lbs and flight time is estimated to equal 4:36.
PRESSURE ALTITUDE (1000FT) 31 33 35 FUEL TIME FUEL TIME FUEL TIME 3.3 6.3 8.8 11.2 13.8 16.4 19.1 21.7 24.3 27.0 29.7 32.5 35.3 38.1 40.9 43.8 46.8 49.7 52.7 55.6 58.8 62.0 65.2 68.3 71.5 0:38 1:05 1:33 2:01 2:28 2:55 3:22 3:50 4:17 4:44 5:10 5:37 6:03 6:30 6:56 7:23 7:49 8:15 8:41 9:07 9:33 9:59 10:25 10:51 11:17 3.7 6.2 8.6 11.0 13.5 16.1 18.6 21.2 23.8 26.3 29.0 31.8 34.5 37.2 39.9 42.9 45.8 48.7 51.7 54.6 0:37 1:05 1:32 1:59 2:26 2:53 3:20 3:47 4:13 4:40 5:06 5:33 5:59 6:25 6:52 7:18 7:44 8:10 8:36 9:02 3.7 6.1 8.5 10.9 13.3 15.8 18.3 20.8 23.3 25.8 28.5 31.3 34.0 36.7 39.4 0:38 1:04 1:31 1:58 2:25 2:51 3:18 3:44 4:11 4:38 5:04 5:30 5:57 6:23 6:49

AIR DIST (NAM) 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 4600 4800 5000

29 FUEL TIME 3.7 6.3 8.8 11.4 14.1 16.8 19.5 22.2 24.9 27.6 30.5 33.3 36.2 39.0 41.9 44.9 47.9 51.0 54.0 57.0 60.2 63.4 66.6 69.8 73.1 0:38 1:06 1:35 2:03 2:31 2:59 3:26 3:54 4:21 4:49 5:15 5:42 6:09 6:36 7:03 7:29 7:56 8:22 8:48 9:15 9:40 10:06 10:32 10:58 11:24

37 FUEL TIME 3.7 6.1 8.4 10.8 13.2 15.7 18.3 20.8 23.3 25.8 0:38 1:04 1:31 1:57 2:24 2:50 3:17 3:43 4:09 4:36

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FUEL PLANNING METHODOLOGY


Overview: Accurate fuel planning is critical to the safe outcome of every flight. Proper and effective fuel planning will reduce the opportunity for enroute diversion and will significantly increase safety margins when flying into inclement weather. Crews should pay careful attention to the projected forecast and factor the unknown potential for changes along their route of flight. Landing with adequate fuel still on the aircraft is always preferable to landing with minimum fuel remaining. The following outlines in detail the steps necessary to ensure sound fuel planning criteria. Determine Trip Length: The first step toward planning an accurate fuel load is to determine the geographic distance covered by the route of flight. For example, assume that the flight being operated between KIAD (Washington DC) and KSFO (San Francisco) 2200nm apart. Knowing the geographic distance of the planned flight route is only half of the requirement, however. Next, it is important to take into account the wind conditions as these may significantly change the equation! For example, the prevailing winds along this route tend to be from the west which results in a nearly continual headwind along the route. Determining the effect of these winds is a three step process: Using the Trip Length column on the Flight Planning Table, determine the approximate time it will take to fly the route. (In this case, a 2,200 NM trip will take approximately 5:20.) Next, consulting an enroute wind forecast, the winds along the route of flight must be estimated. (For the purpose of this example, let us assume the winds are expected to be 75nm/hr directly opposite our direction of flight. It is not hard to conceptualize that a 75 knot headwind along the route of flight will dramatically slow down our progress over the ground and thus lengthen the amount of time it takes to reach KSFO. Since we anticipate taking longer to reach KSFO, it is also easy to conceptualize that we will burn more fuel as a result of the headwind since we will be flying a longer period of time. To determine the effect this wind will have on the flight, we multiply our expected flight time in still air (already determined in the previous step) by the expected headwind speed. Thus: (5:20 hours x 75kts) = 400. This figure is called an wind component adjustment and will always be positive when flying into a headwind, or negative when flying with a tailwind. By adding the wind component adjustment to our known flight plan distance, we are able to determine the Nautical Air Miles to be flown: (2,200nm + 400) = 2,600 NAM. Nautical Air Miles can be described as the number of miles that will be flown through air. Obviously, we will traverse 2200nm when flying from KIAD to KSFO, but since the air mass through which we are flying is moving in the opposite direction, we will spend more time flying through this air mass in order to cover the additional 400nm of air that is moving west to east along our route of flight. Nautical Air Miles is a more accurate way to estimate the time and fuel required to accomplish a given route segment because it takes into account the primary determining factor of flight time: winds! Estimate Fuel Required: Once again using the Fuel Load Estimation table, we now enter the table using Nautical Air Miles as our distance requirement. Enter the Fuel Estimation Table, being careful to select the correct flight length in NAM, as well as the planned cruising altitude. In this example, we will select FL370.

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CRUISE FLIGHT Holding your fuel: After reviewing our flight plan, assume that we feel there is a strong likelihood that we will be placed in holding before landing at KSFO as a result of the forecast fog. It is always a good idea to plan for holding fuel, as this allows you to spend some time loitering while waiting for your opportunity to shoot the approach and landing at your final destination. Determining how much fuel to add for holding is a decision that is normally made in consultation between the airline dispatcher and the crew. The decision is made based on experience, knowledge of the airplane and the severity of the conditions into which the airplane is to be flown. In our example, we will assume that an additional 2000lbs of fuel is added in case we are required to hold before landing at KSFO. Now we have a total of THREE fuel items to keep track of: Fuel needed to reach the destination: 28,000lbs. Fuel needed to reach our alternate 3,300lbs. Holding Fuel: 2,000lbs.

With a NAM trip distance of 2,600 NAM and a planned cruise altitude of 37,000 feet, we can expect to burn 28,000lbs of fuel during a 6:04 flight. It is important for crews to understand that this is an estimate of fuel required, and that the Fuel Planning Schematic Charts provided earlier in this chapter should be used to double check the required fuel load. Planning to reach the Alternate: To improve the accuracy of the fuel load planning, we must consider not only the amount of fuel required to reach our destination, but we also must consider how much fuel is required for contingencies related to weather or air traffic control. For example, assuming that weather conditions require that our flight plan include an alternate destination in the eventuality that we cannot land at KSFO as a result of fog. We have chosen KRNO as an alternate destination, and it is obviously important that we have enough fuel remaining after our approach to KSFO that we will be able to reach KRNO should it be necessary! To estimate the fuel required to reach KRNO, we employ nearly the identical process using the FUEL ESTIMATION TABLE. KRNO is approximately 200nm from KSFO, thus according to the table we can anticipate burning 3,300lbs of fuel during a 0:38 minute flight from KSFO to KRNO. We now have two fuel calculations to keep track of: Fuel needed to reach the destination: 28,000lbs Fuel needed to reach our alternate 3,300lbs.

The total fuel we need is now up to 33,300lbs. Getting to the runway: When planning an accurate fuel load, it is also important to consider the amount of fuel that is burned during taxi from the gate to the runway. For the Next Generation 737 series, 500lbs is generally considered sufficient for taxi fuel. The lowest the gauge should read: The last (and some argue most important!) factor to consider during the fuel planning is this: what is the lowest amount of fuel that I want to have on the airplane after landing? For example, if we burn 500lbs of fuel during taxi, then 28,000lbs of fuel enroute to KSFO, but get stuck in holding until weve burned all 2,000lbs of hold fuel, then divert to KRNO PMDG 737NG - AOM

This gives us a fuel requirement of 31,300lbs to make the flight to KSFO and still have enough fuel to reach KRNO should that become necessary.

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CRUISE FLIGHT and use 3,300lbs of fuel just getting there, WE HAVE NOW RUN OUT OF FUEL! In aviation it is highly important to always plan for the worst case scenario, so we are going to add just a tiny bit more fuel to our fuel calculation. Generally speaking each aircraft has a no lower than fuel figure that is used by the crew as a last fallback measure to ensure that the aircraft never lands with the low-fuel lights illuminated. This figure is called Minimum Landing Fuel or, more succinctly, the lowest amount of fuel you will ever have on the airplane at the time of touchdown. This figure is generally around 0:45 of fuel remaining in all tanks, and is the figure you would only expect to see in the very worst case scenario. For the Next Generation 737 series, this fuel amount is normally 1,800lbs. Working the problem backward: Now that we have conducted all of these calculations to determine how much fuel we need, it is sometimes helpful to consider the fuel process from the end of flight and move forward. We have the following figures that we need to consider: Whats the lowest amount of fuel I want to see on the gauges after having to hold enroute, shoot an approach (or two!) divert to an alternate destination, shoot an approach (or two!) and land? That figure is 1,800lbs. Next we consider how much fuel it takes to reach our alternate destination: That figure is 3,300lbs. Next we consider how much fuel is required in the outside change that we wind up being held enroute: That figure is 2,000lbs. Next we consider how much fuel is required to fly the planned route of flight: That figure is 28,000lbs.

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Finally we consider how much fuel is required to get from the departure gate to the runway: That figure is 500lbs. So we have: Reserve Fuel: 1,800lbs Alternate Fuel: 3,300;bs Holding Fuel: 2,000lbs Enroute Fuel: 28,000lbs Taxi Fuel: 500lbs. Total fuel required for the flight equals: 35,100lbs! It is important that crews plan their fuel loads based on the most reasonable expectations for the flight. If the forecast is calling for clear and unrestricted weather, than obviously it isnt necessary to plan for holding, or an alternate- and this dramatically reduces the fuel requirement for the flight. Most professional pilots would much prefer to carry too much fuel than too little, however as it is easier to take your time and make a sound decision when you are not worried about running out of fuel! Plan ahead! FMC Fuel Management: While entering flight data into the FMC, crews may find it beneficial to enter a RESERVES figure into the INIT PERF page of the FMC. This figure should generally consist of Final Reserve Fuel + Alternate Fuel. By entering this figure into the FMC, the crew will allow the on-board system to serve as a last resort fallback should fuel usage exceed that originally planned for the flight. The FMC will provide such warning by alerting the crew to INSUFFICIENT FUEL. THIS ALERT SHOULD NEVER BE IGNORED!

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LANDING TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUBJECT

PAGE

MINIMUM LANDING RUNWAY LENGTH (737-600)..................................................................... 2 MINIMUM LANDING RUNWAY LENGTH (737-600)..................................................................... 3 MINIMUM LANDING RUNWAY LENGTH (737-700)..................................................................... 4 MINIMUM LANDING RUNWAY LENGTH (737-800)..................................................................... 5 MINIMUM LANDING RUNWAY LENGTH (737-900)..................................................................... 6 RUNWAY WEIGHT LIMIT OVERVIEW (737-ALL) ........................................................................ 7 AUTOBRAKE SYSTEM ISSUES (B737-ALL)................................................................................ 7 LANDING SPEED TERMINOLOGY............................................................................................... 7

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Minimum Landing Runway Length (737-600)


FLAPS 40 - Landing Runway Limit Weight Table
Required Field Length ft 3300 4000 4500 5000 6000 6500 0 DRY 81.1 104.7 126.5 145.7 163.8 WET 86.2 106.7 125.9 142.0 158.5 AIRPORT PRESSURE ALTITUDE (FT) 1000 2000 DRY WET DRY WET 101.6 123.7 142.0 160.1 83.6 103.6 123.0 138.7 154.8 98.3 120.8 138.2 156.1 80.9 100.3 119.9 135.1 151.0 3000 DRY 95.5 117.5 134.9 152.3 WET

97.4 116.6 132.1 146.8

To use this table: Enter from the top of the table by selecting the pressure altitude that most closely matches the landing airport. (For airports higher than 3000ft use the 3000ft columns.) Select the DRY or WET runway column to suit circumstances, then find the weight that most closely matches the planned landing weight for your destination. Find the minimum required runway length by moving left to the first column. Example: 0ft. MSL airport with a dry runway and landing weight of 126,000lbs will result in a minimum runway requirement of 4,500ft.

Required Runway Length Wind Correction Table (Headwinds are negative numbers / Tailwinds positive) Runway WIND COMPONENT (KTS) Length ft. -15 -10 -5 0 10 3300 2657 2953 3300 3478 4000 2920 3248 3609 4000 4167 4500 3510 3871 4232 4500 4823 5000 4101 4462 4856 5000 5512 6000 4692 5085 5479 6000 6201 6500 5282 5676 6102 6500 6890 7300 5873 6299 6726 7300 7579 8000 6463 6923 7382 8000 8500 7054 7513 9200 7644

20 3707 4396 5118 5807 6496 7185

30 3937 4659 5381 6070 6791 7513

40 4167 4921 5643 6398 7119 7874

To use this table: Enter table at left edge using runway length. Adjust required landing length based on winds reported at surface. Headwinds will shorten required landing runway distance while tail winds will increase landing runway length.

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LANDING

Minimum Landing Runway Length (737-700)


FLAPS 40 - Landing Runway Limit Weight Table
Required Field Length ft 3800 4200 4600 5000 5400 5800 6200 6600 7000 7400 0 DRY 92.6 106.2 120.0 134.0 147.4 158.9 170.4 180 WET 87.6 99.4 111.3 123.4 135.5 147.1 157.1 167.1 176.5 AIRPORT PRESSURE ALTITUDE (FT) 1000 2000 DRY WET DRY WET 89.8 87.0 103.0 85.0 99.9 116.5 96.4 112.9 93.4 130.1 108.0 126.2 104.7 143.3 119.7 139.2 116.1 154.8 131.6 150.8 127.6 165.9 143.0 161.4 138.9 176.4 153.2 172.1 149.2 162.8 180 158.4 172.1 167.8 3000 DRY 96.9 109.5 122.4 135.1 146.9 157.3 167.6 177.4 WET

90.6 101.5 112.6 123.8 134.8 145.1 154.4 163.4

To use this table: Enter from the top of the table by selecting the pressure altitude that most closely matches the landing airport. (For airports higher than 3000ft use the 3000ft columns.) Select the DRY or WET runway column to suit circumstances, then find the weight that most closely matches the planned landing weight for your destination. Find the minimum required runway length by moving left to the first column. Example: 0ft. MSL airport with a dry runway and landing weight of 134,000lbs will result in a minimum runway requirement of 5000ft. Required Runway Length Wind Correction Table (Headwinds are negative numbers / Tailwinds positive) Runway WIND COMPONENT (KTS) Length ft. -15 -10 -5 0 10 3000 2670 3000 3220 3400 2720 3060 3400 3630 3800 2750 3090 3440 3800 4040 4200 3110 3470 3830 4200 4450 4600 3480 3840 4210 4600 4860 5000 3840 4210 4600 5000 5270 5400 4200 4590 4990 5400 5680 5800 4560 4960 5370 5800 6090 6200 4920 5330 5760 6200 6500 6600 5280 5710 6140 6600 6910 7000 5640 6080 6530 7000 7320 7400 6000 6450 6910 7400 7730 7800 6360 6830 7300 7800 8140 8200 6720 7200 7690 8200 8550

20 3440 3870 4290 4710 5130 5550 5970 6390 6810 7230 7650 8070 8490

30 3680 4110 4540 4970 5410 5840 6270 6700 7130 7560 7990 8420

40 3910 4360 4800 5240 5690 6130 6570 7020 7460 7900 8350

To use this table: Enter table at left edge using runway length. Adjust required landing length based on winds reported at surface. Headwinds will shorten required landing runway distance while tail winds will increase landing runway length.

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Minimum Landing Runway Length (737-800)


FLAPS 40 - Landing Runway Limit Weight Table
Required Field Length ft 3300 4000 4600 5000 5400 5800 6200 6600 7000 7400 0 DRY 79.4 101.4 122.8 140.4 159.4 179.2 195.2 WET 84.2 103.4 122.1 137.3 153.4 170.6 187.4 199.3 AIRPORT PRESSURE ALTITUDE (FT) 2000 4000 6000 DRY WET DRY WET DRY WET 95.7 116.6 134.0 151.5 170.0 188.0 79.4 97.5 115.7 131.2 145.7 161.8 178.1 192 90.2 110.0 128.0 143.7 161.4 179.0 193.6 84.8 103.8 122.1 137.1 153.0 169.8 186.3 198 8000 DRY WET 79.8 97.7 115.5 130.7 145.1 160.7 176.6 188.7 194.9

91.9 109.1 125.2 138.9 153.7 169.1 184.5 195.8

86.4 103.0 119.3 132.7 145.7 160.3 174.8 188.5

86.4 103.0 119.3 132.7 145.7 160.3 174.8 188.5

To use this table: Enter from the top of the table by selecting the pressure altitude that most closely matches the landing airport. (For airports higher than 8000ft use the 8000ft columns.) Select the DRY or WET runway column to suit circumstances, then find the weight that most closely matches the planned landing weight for your destination. Find the minimum required runway length by moving left to the first column. Example: 0ft. MSL airport with a dry runway and landing weight of 134,000lbs will result in a minimum runway requirement of 5000ft. Required Runway Length Wind Correction Table (Headwinds are negative numbers / Tailwinds positive) Runway WIND COMPONENT (KTS) Length ft. -15 -10 -5 0 10 3280 2657 2952 3280 3706 3936 3280 3608 3936 4395 4592 3542 3870 4231 4592 5117 5248 4100 4461 4854 5248 5806 5904 4690 5084 5478 5904 6494 6560 5281 5674 6101 6560 7183 7216 5871 6298 6724 7216 7872 7872 6462 6888 7380 7872 8561 8528 7019 7511 8003 8528 9184 7610 8102 8626 9184 9840 8200 8692 10496 8790

20 3936 4658 5379 6068 6790 7511 8233 8922

30 4166 4920 5642 6363 7118 7839 8594

40 4166 4920 5642 6396 7118 7872

To use this table: Enter table at left edge using runway length. Adjust required landing length based on winds reported at surface. Headwinds will shorten required landing runway distance while tail winds will increase landing runway length.

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LANDING

Minimum Landing Runway Length (737-900)


FLAPS 40 - Landing Runway Limit Weight Table
Required Field Length ft 3800 4200 4600 5000 5400 5800 6200 6600 7000 7400 7800 8200 8600 9000 9400 9800 10200 10600 0 DRY 93.3 107.1 121.0 132.2 143.5 159.6 171.1 182.7 191.9 WET 88.3 100.2 112.3 123.7 133.4 143.2 157.8 167.9 177.9 187.5 194.6 AIRPORT PRESSURE ALTITUDE (FT) 2000 4000 6000 DRY WET DRY WET DRY WET 87.8 100.8 94.7 88.9 114.0 94.3 107.1 88.6 100.6 125.9 105.6 119.8 99.3 112.5 93.2 136.5 117.2 130.0 110.1 123.7 103.5 151.9 127.1 140.0 120.9 133.2 113.8 162.9 136.3 154.9 129.7 142.7 123.5 173.8 148.5 165.2 138.5 157.1 131.7 184.8 159.8 175.6 151.8 166.9 140 193 169.3 186 161 176.7 153 178.8 193.3 170 186.5 161.6 187.8 179 193.3 170.1 194.5 187.5 178.6 193.8 186.9 192.9 8000 DRY WET

94.3 105.5 116.8 126.6 135.6 146.7 158.5 167.8 177.1 186.3 190.7 194.3

84.4 97.0 106.7 116.6 125.2 133 140.9 153.5 161.5 169.6 177.7 185.7 189.9 193.1

Required Runway Length Wind Correction Table (Headwinds are negative numbers / Tailwinds positive) Runway WIND COMPONENT (KTS) Length ft. -15 -10 -5 0 10 20 3000 2640 3000 3200 3420 3400 2650 3020 3400 3620 3840 3800 2660 3020 3400 3800 4030 4260 4200 3010 3380 3770 4200 4440 4680 4600 3370 3740 4150 4600 4850 5110 5000 3730 4100 4530 5000 5260 5530 4500 4090 4470 4910 5400 5670 5950 5800 4440 4830 5280 5800 6080 6380 6200 4800 5190 5660 6200 6500 6800 6600 5160 5560 6040 6600 6910 7220 7000 5510 5920 6410 7000 7320 7650 7400 5870 6280 6790 7400 77330 8070 7800 6230 6640 7070 7800 8140 8490 8200 6590 7010 7550 8200 8550 8920 8600 6940 7370 7920 8600 8960 9340 9000 7300 7730 8300 9000 9370 9760 9400 7660 8100 8680 9400 9790 10190 9800 8010 8460 9050 9800 10200 10610 10200 8370 8820 9430 10200 10610 11030 10600 8730 9180 9810 10600 11020

30 3630 4070 4500 4940 5380 5810 6250 6680 7120 7550 7990 8420 8860 9300 9730 10170 10600 11040

40 3860 4310 4750 5200 5650 6100 6550 7000 7440 7890 8340 8790 9240 9690 10140 10580 11030

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RUNWAY WEIGHT LIMIT OVERVIEW (737-ALL)


The Landing Runway Limit Tables provided here are calculated based on a normal approach, flown at FLAPS40 at the target approach REF speed as specified by the FMC. The runway limit predictions are based upon a threshold crossing of 50ft followed by normal touchdown using spoilers, minimal braking with no reverse thrust. Crews should keep in mind that these figures were acquired using a new aircraft with new brakes and tires, so actual performance of an in-service aircraft may vary slightly. Runway Limit Weights in excess of the known structural weight limit are included for emergency use should a forced landing in excess of the Structural Limit Weight be required. Inclusion of these figures does not imply permission to land the aircraft above the Structural Limit Weight, and crews are encouraged to land the aircraft in such a condition only as a matter of last recourse. If required to land the aircraft while still above the Structural Limit Weight, crews should anticipate a hot-brake condition, and ensure that adequate ground safety precautions are taken prior to arrival.

AUTOBRAKE SYSTEM ISSUES (B737-ALL)


Unlike a simple anti-skid system, the autobrake system used aboard the Next Generation 737 aircraft is designed to modulate brake pressure to all four main gear brake systems in order to provide the aircraft with a specific rate of deceleration. This rate of deceleration will be provided and maintained regardless of the use of spoilers or reverse thrust. The rate of deceleration is provided according to the settings below: Setting 1: Setting 2: Setting 3: 4ft [1.2 M]/Second/Second 5ft [1.5 M]/Second/Second 6ft [1.8 M]/Second/Second Setting 4: MAX AUTO: 7.5ft [2.3 M]/Second/Second 11ft [3.4 M]/Second/Second

When used, spoilers and reverse thrust will reduce the total energy that would otherwise be absorbed by the brake systems. By reducing the amount of energy absorbed into the brake pads, spoilers and reverse thrust reduce the overall wear of the brake systems and aircraft tires. As such, crews are encouraged to use reverse thrust commensurate with safety and control of the aircraft on all landings.

LANDING SPEED TERMINOLOGY


__REF: The calculated reference speed for a specific flap configuration. (e.g. 30REF for a flaps 30 approach.) This speed is used to calculate the actual target speeds at which the aircraft will be flown. 40REF, 30REF, 25REF speeds etc can be found using the APPROACH page of the FMC. Target Speed: The speed at which the approach should be flown. Target speed should equal 25REF+5 or 30REF+5 knots. To this figure, add 1/2 steady wind plus the full gust factor (up to a maximum of 20 knots.) Threshold Speed: Speed crossing the threshold. Equal to 25REF or 30REF plus the full gust factor, up to a maximum of 20kts.

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Autoland Target Speeds: The speed at which the Autoland/Autothrottle approach is flown. Equal to 25REF+5 or 30REF + 5 knots, regardless of wind conditions. The Autothrottle corrects for normal wind gust conditions through the airspeed and acceleration sensing system.

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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUBJECT

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OPERATING LIMITATIONS .........................................................................................................2 AVIONICS .....................................................................................................................................3 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................................3 ENGINES ......................................................................................................................................4 FIRE PROTECTION .....................................................................................................................4 FUEL .............................................................................................................................................4 HYDRAULICS...............................................................................................................................6 ICE AND RAIN ..............................................................................................................................6 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT ...........................................................................................................7 PNEUMATICS ..............................................................................................................................7 SPEEDS........................................................................................................................................8 WEIGHT LIMITATIONS ................................................................................................................8 GENERAL LIMITATIONS .............................................................................................................9

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PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITATIONS

OVERVIEW: The following list of items have been accumulated from the aircraft manufacturers published limitations and requirements for operating the 737 aircraft. Limitations that vary by specific airframe type are listed according to their airframe version (600, 700, etc.) This body of knowledge is brought together in this section in order to condense the various aircraft requirements and performance limitations to a single reference for crew use. The following list of items is not considered to be conclusive of all operating conditions, and crews should use sound judgment and Standard Operating Principles to ensure the safe operation of the aircraft.

OPERATING LIMITATIONS
Operation Maximum Takeoff and Landing Tailwind: Maximum Crosswind No Winglets Maximum Crosswind Winglets Maximum Speeds Maximum Operating Altitude Maximum takeoff and Landing Altitude Limitation 15 Knots 36 Knots 33 Knots Observe gear and flap placard speeds 41,000 feet MSL 12,000 (if equipped with hi alt system) else 8,400 MSL

Autoland - Maximum Wind Component Maximum Wind Component True Headwind Component True Tailwind Component Maximum Crosswind Component Maximum One Engine-Out Crosswind Maximum CAT III Autoland Crosswind

Wind Speed 25 Knots 15 Knots 20 Knots 5 Knots 15 Knots

Narrow Runway (100 Feet or less) Crosswind Limitations: Model Dry Runway Wet Runway Snow 737-600 737-700 737-800/900 26 knots 24 knots 27 Knots 16 knots 13 knots 16 Knots 12 knots 11 knots 15 knots

Standing Water 6 knots 4 knots 10 knots

Icy Runway 4 knots N/A 4 knots

Runway Slope Limitations Maximum

+/- 2%

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AVIONICS
Autopilot - Minimum Altitude to Engage After Takeoff Autopilot Engagement Non-Precision Approach ILS Approach, Single Autopilot 400ft AGL or greater No Lower Than 360ft AGL Usable to 50 below DA/DH but not lower than 50 AGL when single autopilot in use.

Inertial Reference System (IRS) Without Polar Navigation Option: The inertial Reference System is capable of providing magnetic heading and track information between 82 North Latitude and 82 South Latitude. Between 80 West and 130 West Longitude the maximum operating latitude is 70 North. Between 120 East and 160 East longitude, the maximum operating latitude is 60 South. Autoland - Flap Setting Limits Autoland is only approved for settings of flap 25, flap 30 or flap 40. Autoland - Approach Glideslope Slope Limits Minimum Glideslope Angle Maximum Glideslope Angle

2.50 3.50

EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
Emergency Escape Slides - Door Mounted Whenever passengers are carried, all door mounted evacuation slides must be armed and engaged prior to taxi, and must remain so until the aircraft is being prepared for passenger deplaning. Installation of overwing exit handle covers must be verified prior to departure whenever passengers are carried. Photo Illuminescent Floor Emergency Lighting must be charged in accordance with approved procedures.

Oxygen Pressure - Correct Range Crew Oxygen System Passenger Oxygen System Portable Oxygen Bottles Oxygen Pressure Reading Adjustments: Temperature > 70F: Add 3 psi per 1F above 70F [Temperature > 21C: Add 6 psi per 1C above 21C] Temperature < 70F: [Temperature <21C: Subtract 3 psi per 1 below 70F Subtract 6 psi per 1C below 21C]

1,650 psi 1,600 psi 1,600 psi

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ENGINES
EICAS Engine Instrument Setting Indicators Maximum N1 Engine Operating Limitation Maximum Allowable Thrust (Cautionary) Current/Normal Thrust Settings RED AMBER WHITE/GREEN

Continuous Engine Ignition Continuous Ignition should be selected ON during inflight encounters with heavy precipitation, and during severe turbulence. Continuous Ignition should be ON as a safety concern during takeoff and landing if birds are present in the airport vicinity. Reverse Thrust Flight Condition In Flight On Landing Rollout while still >70kts On Landing Rollout <70kts. Power Back from Gate or Parking RPM - Maximum Allowable N1 N2 Starter Engagement Limitations Starter Engagement Activity Starter Engagement <=5 Minutes Starter Engagement =>5 Minutes

Permissible Use of Reverse Thrust Prohibited Full Reverse until 80kts, then reduce to idle. Idle only. Prohibited per engine manufacturer.

As per EICAS display As per EICAS display

Total of 15 minutes without cooling period. Until Engine De-spools to 0 RPM N2 Time Equal to Starter ON time (ex 6min=6min)

FIRE PROTECTION
Cargo Fire Protection Envelope Maximum Recommended Flight Time from Suitable Airport to ensure Cargo Fire protection.

120 Min

FUEL
Fuel Capacity Left Wing Tank Right Wing Tank Center Wing Tank TOTAL FUEL Pounds 8,630 lbs 8,630 lbs 28,803 lbs 46,063 lbs

These are structurally limited fuel quantities that can only be achieved with extremely high density fuel. MSFS LIMITATION: If the airplane is drawing fuel from the center wing tank and the user sets the CWT fuel quantity to 0 in the MSFS FUEL MENU, the engines will flame out. If you plan to change the center wing tank fuel level, PMDG recommends turning off the CWT Fuel Pumps FIRST. DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM

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Fuel Loading Load Wing tanks FIRST when boarding fuel. After wing tanks are full, load center tank. Fuel Temperature Fuel Type Jet A JP5 Jet A-1

Minimum -37 -43 -44

Maximum +49 +49 +49

If fuel temperature approaches minimum temperature in flight, crews should consider a flight level change to warmer altitudes, or increasing speed to increase TAT. After bringing fuel temperature up to, or above minimum temperatures, crews should carefully asses the use of higher, colder altitudes for flight. In cases where the fuel temperature indicator is inoperative, the fuel tank temperature should be considered to equal True Air Temperature. Fuel Usage Fuel Tank Condition All Tanks Full

Center Wing Tank Empty.

Fuel Imbalance between Wing Tanks

Required Crew Action Select All Pump switches ON. (Fuel will draw from center wing tank) Confirm Tank quantities. Select both CENTER WINTG TANK pumps to OFF. All Wing Tank Pumps ON Open Fuel Crossfeed Valve. Wing Tanks on lower quantity tank: OFF (Reverse procedure to turn off fuel crossfeed)

Landing Fuel - Minimum Allowable Fuel On Board at Touchdown (Ensures adequate boost pump coverage.) Fuel to Execute a Go-Around

2,000lb 3,000lb

Minimum Desired Landing Fuel Total: Ensures a safe quantity of fuel on board at the time the aircraft crosses the runway threshold. This is a worst-case scenario considered with maximum fuel quantity indicator error. Does not include fuel minimums required by Federal Aviation Regulations and sound flight planning.

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HYDRAULICS
Auto-Brake System Use manual braking when anti-skid is inoperative or upon any indication of system fault. Flaps/Slats Extension Altitude - Maximum Maximum Allowable Extension Altitude 20,000ft [6,100 M]

Hydraulic Quantity - Minimum Minimum Hydraulic Quantity at Dispatch Time

72% of system capacity

Inflight Spoilers Visual Meteorological Conditions Instrument Meteorological Conditions Maximum Speed for use of spoilers

Not permitted below 1,000ft AGL. Use not recommended after FAF Never at sped greater than 320KIAS or extreme vibration made damage horizontal stabilizer

Tire Pressure Nose Gear Tires Main Gear Tires

195 - 205 psi 205 - 215 psi

Tire mounted pressure indicators are only valid for pressure readings after tires, brakes and wheels have cooled to ambient temperature (allow approximately 1hr after parking for a normal landing, 2hrs after a hard braking condition.) Tire pressure requirements are based upon the design structural limit weight of the aircraft. Add 1 psi per 3F above 70F Add 2 psi per 3C above 21C] Subtract 1 psi per 3F below 70F Subtract 2 psi per 3C below 21C]

Tire Pressure Adjustments Temperature >70F: [Temperature >21C: Temperature <70F: [Temperature <21C:

ICE AND RAIN


Known Icing Conditions Icing conditions are said to exist for taxi, takeoff and landing operations when: Outside Air Temperature 10C (50F) or below and/or: Visible moisture of any form is present (clouds, fog, visibility of 1 mile or less, snow rain, sleet or ice crystals). Standing water, snow, slush or ice accumulations are present in a form which may be ingested by the engines or freeze to nacelles, blades or sensors. Icing conditions are said to exist in flight when: DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM

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Total Air Temperature and:

10C (50F) or below

Visible moisture of any form is present (clouds, fog, visibility of 1 mile or less, snow rain, sleet or ice crystals).Engine Anti-Ice Engine and Wing Anti-Ice systems should not be operated when OAT >10C during ground operations, or when TAT >=10C during flight. Engine anti-ice must be selected ON during all ground and flight operations when icing conditions exist or are anticipated. Engine anti-ice must be activated prior to, and operated during a descent in icing conditions. During ground operations lasting more than ten minutes in icing conditions, engine anti-ice capabilities must be reinforced by momentarily selected a thrust setting of 50% N1 for each engine (separately). Use caution for jet blast and FOD dangers associated with accumulated ice or snow on taxiways and runways. Wing Anti Ice should not be used to decontaminate wings while on ground. Ground Based De-Ice Operations: After any ground deicing/anti-icing of the horizontal stabilizer, airspeed must be limited to 270 KIAS until the crew has been informed that the applicable maintenance inspection procedures have been accomplish that will allow exceedance of the 270KIAS limitation. Inspection ensures that a horizontal stabilizer imbalance conditions will not exist due to the accumulation of deice/anti-ice fluids in the stabilizer drive housing which could lead to an unmovable stabilizer trim condition.

AUXILIARY POWER UNIT


APU Starter Limitations Time off between APU start attempts APU Pneumatic and Electrical Load APU Pneumatic and Electrical Load APU Pneumatic System Max Altitude APU Electrical System Max Altitude 1 Minute Max allowed altitude 10,000ft (in flight) 15,000ft (when on ground) 17,000ft 41,000ft

APU Bleed valve must be closed when Engine 1 bleed valve is open, or when engine 2 bleed valve is open and Isolation Valve is open.

PNEUMATICS
Pressurization - Cabin Differential Limits Max Differential Operating Max Differential - During Climb 9.1 psi 9.1 psi

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SPEEDS
VFE - Flaps Extension Speeds - Maximum (KIAS) As per speed schedule displayed on PFD when proper weights and initialization of FMC has been accomplished.

VLO / VLE - Landing Gear Limit Speeds - Maximum (KIAS / Mach) VLO - Retraction VLO - Extension VLE - Extended Maximum Tire Limit Speed 235 KIAS 270 KIAS / .82M 320 KIAS /.82M 204 Knots Ground Speed

Maximum Turbulent Air Penetration Speed 15,000ft [4600 meters] and higher altitude 15,000ft [4600 meters] and lower altitude

290 KIAS / .780M 250 KIAS

WEIGHT LIMITATIONS
Structural Weights 737-600 Maximum Taxi Maximum Takeoff Maximum Landing Maximum Zero Fuel Pounds 127,500 127,000 120,500 114,000

Structural Weights 737-700 Maximum Taxi Maximum Takeoff Maximum Landing Maximum Zero Fuel Structural Weights 737-800 Maximum Taxi Maximum Takeoff Maximum Landing Maximum Zero Fuel

Pounds 133,500 133,000 128,000 120,500 Pounds 174,700 174,200 144,000 138,300

Structural Weights 737-900 Maximum Taxi Maximum Takeoff Maximum Landing Maximum Zero Fuel

Pounds 174,700 174,200 146,300 140,300

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GENERAL LIMITATIONS
Certification Status The 737-600/700/800/900 aircraft are certified under the 737 Type Certificate, in the Transport Category, US FAR Parts 25 and 36. Flight Load Acceleration Limitations Flaps Up Flaps Down

+2.5 g to -1.0 g +2.0 g to 0.0 g

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NORMAL PROCEDURES TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUBJECT

PAGE

EXPANDED NORMAL CHECKLISTS Overview ..........................5-3 EXTERIOR INSPECTION .................................5-3 COCKPIT ACCEPTANCE CHECK .............5-3 EXTERIOR PREFLIGHT .................5-4 COCKPIT PREPARATION .................5-5

PUSHBACK AND START.................5-7 AFTER START ................5-8 BEFORE TAKEOFF CLIMB AND CRUISE ...............5-8 .............5-11 ...........5-12

DESCENT / APPROACH TAXI IN SHUTDOWN

................5-15 .......................................................................................................5-15

SECURE CHECK ........................................................................................................5-15 FLIGHT CHECKLISTS (Print and use in flight) ..5-16

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
OVERVIEW: The following sets of procedures follow step by step through the processes required to fly the Next Generation 737. These normal procedures are divided by major flight phase and should provide a basic guideline for accomplishing the major procedures required during flight. Although these checklists do not need to be removed from the manual and followed on a step by step basis, crews are encouraged to develop a pattern of behavior which ensures that all of the following steps are accomplished in the correct order and format. Use of the In Flight Use Checklist (located on pages 17/18 of this chapter) is required of crewmembers. (We recommend that you print page 17/18 for use in flight!) In the interest of containing operating costs, external ground power should be used during the initial cockpit preparation. This will allow the crew to delay APU start until immediately before departure. In circumstances where the quality of an external power connection is an issue, or when ground based aircraft cooling is not available, crews may elect to start the APU at their discretion in the interest of preserving an on-time departure and passenger climate comfort. In Cold Weather Operations crews should ensure that the cockpit has not been set up for aircraft deicing operations by ground crew. If this is determined to be the case, crews are advised not to begin cockpit preparation until clearing their actions with the ground crew in order to prevent damage to the aircraft or injuries to ground personnel. Exterior Safety Inspection SURFACES AND CHOCKS .........................................................................................................IN Visually check that all moveable surfaces are clear and the chocks are in place. MAINTENANCE STATUS ................................................................................................CHECKED

Cockpit Acceptance Check BATTERY SWITCH ................................................................................................................ON ELECTRICAL HYDRAULIC PUMP SWITCHES ........................................................................OFF LANDING GEAR LEVER ...................................................................................................DOWN GROUND POWER (If Available) ..................................................................................................ON LEFT/RIGHT TRANSFER BUS SOURCE LIGHTS ..OFF OVERHEAT/FIRE PROTECTION (Center Pedestal) OVERHEAT DETECTOR SWITCHES NORMAL TEST SWITCHHold to FAUL/INOP Verify the FAULT lights illuminate. FIRE/OVERHEAT WARNING .CHECK EXTINGUISHER TEST SWITCH CHECK APU START IF NECESSARY APU START SELECT SWITCH START DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision 1.4 23APR04

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NORMAL PROCEDURES APU GENERATOR SWITCHES .ON APU PNEUMATIC BLEED VALVE ..ON FLAP POSITION INDICATOR AND FLAP LEVER ..........................................................AGREE EVACUATION ACTIVATION SWITCH ..OFF REVERSER LIGHTS .EXTINGUISED PASSENGER OXYGEN switch .NORMAL / Light OFF SERVICE INTERPHONE SWITCH .AS REQUIRED IRS MODE SELECTORS ..NAV

Exterior Pre-Flight Inspection ELECTRICAL HYDRAULIC PUMP switches ..............................................................................ON System A and B pressure should equal 2800PSI approximately PARKING BRAKE ........................................................................................................SET EXTERIOR LIGHTS .............................................................................................ON/FUNCTIONAL General Airplane Condition .....................................................................................................Check Probes, sensors, ports, vents and drains..Unobstructed/Undamaged Doors latches and access panels .Closed/Secure Tires, brakes and wheels .Check/Undamaged Gear struts and doors ........................................................................................................Check Gear Pins ........................................................................................................Removed Nose gear steering lockout pin As Required Oxygen Pressure Relief Disc ...................................................................................................Check Cargo compartments ........................................................................................................Check Ram Air deflector door ...................................................................................................As Required Flight Control Surfaces ..Unobstructed/Free of fluid leaks Fuel Measuring Sticks ........................................................................................................Stowed Wing Surfaces ........................................................................................................Check A and B hydraulic reservoir quantity indicators RF or higher APU fire control handle UP Outflow valve Open Tail Skid (800/900) ..Check ELECTRICAL HYDRAULIC PUMP switches ..OFF External Lights As Required

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NORMAL PROCEDURES Cockpit Preparation FLIGHT CONTROL PANEL (OHD).CHECK ALL 5 switch guards Down ALTERNATE FLAPS position switch ..Off YAW DAMPER switch ..ON FUEL SYSTEM (OHD) CHECK ENGINE VALVE CLOSED lights .Illuminated Dim SPAR VALVE CLOSED lights..Illuminated Dim FILTER BYPASS lights OFF CROSSFEED selector .CLOSED CROSSFEED VALVE OPEN lightOFF FUEL QUANTITY CHECK FUEL PUMP switches (for tanks containing fuel) .ON LOW PRESSURE lights..OFF CABIN/UTIL power switch ..ON IFE/PASS seat power switch ........................................................................................................ON ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ........................................................................................................Check STANDBY POWER switch .AUTO (Guard DOWN) Generator Drive DISCONNECT switches .Guards DOWN BUS TRANSFER switch .AUTO (Guard DOWN) EQUIPMENT COOLING switches .....................................................................................NORMAL OFF lights ........................................................................................................Extinguished EMERGENCY EXIT lights switch ..ARMED (Guard DOWN) PASSENGER SIGNS ........................................................................................................ON WINDSHIELD WIPER SELECTORS PARK/OFF WINDOW HEAT switches ........................................................................................................ON PROBE HEAT switches ........................................................................................................OFF WING and ENGINE ANTI ICE switches OFF VALVE OPEN lights Extinguished HYDRAULICS ........................................................................................................CHECK System A HYDRAULIC PUMP switches ..ON System B HYDRAULIC PUMP switches ON Electric Pump LOW PRESSURE lights ..EXTINGUISHED SYSTEM PRESSURE 2800 psi PRESSURIZATION CHECK CABIN DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE..ZERO CABIN ALTITUDE ..Field Elevation CABIN RATE OF CLIMB ..ZERO PMDG 737NG - AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE

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NORMAL PROCEDURES FLIGHT ALTITUDE indicator ..Set to Cruise Altitude LANDING ALTITUDE .Set to landing field elevation PRESSURIZATION MODE SELECTOR .AUTO EXTERIOR LIGHT switches ......................................................................................AS REQUIRED IGNITION SELECT switch ....................................................................................IGN L or R ENGINE START SWITCHES .....................................................................................OFF RAM DOOR FULL OPEN lights..ILLUMINATED RECIRCULATION FAN switch ......................................................................................AUTO AIR CONDITIONING PACK switches ......................................................................................AUTO ISOLATIONVALVE switch ....................................................................................OPEN ENGINE BLEED AIR switches ....................................................................................ON APU BLEED AIR switch ......................................................................................As Required EFIS control panel ......................................................................................CHECK MINIMUMS reference selector ...........................................................................As Desired FLIGHT PATH VECTOR switch .........................................................................As Desired BAROMETRIC reference selector ..SET Local Altimeter VOR/ADF switches ......................................................................................As Desired MODE Selector ......................................................................................MAP CENTER switch .....................................................................................As Desired RANGE Selector ....................................................................................As Desired TRAFFIC Switch ....................................................................................As Desired MAP Switches ....................................................................................AS Desired MODE CONTROL PANEL ....................................................................................CHECK COURSE .....................................................................................SET/VERIFY FLIGHT DIRECTOR switches ......................................................................................ON AUTOTHROTTLE switch ......................................................................................OFF HEADING ......................................................................................Set to Runway Heading BANK ANGLE LIMIT switch ..........................................................................Set as Desired ALTITUDE ...........................................................................Set to Takeoff Climb Clearance AUTOPILOTS ......................................................................................Disengaged EFIS .......................................................................Verify No Flags Showing on PFD/ND

AUTOBRAKE switch ....................................................................................RTO AUTOBRAKE DISARM light ...........................................................................Extinguished ANTISKID INOP light ......................................................................................Extinguished ENGINE INSTRUMENTS ......................................................................................CHECK SPEED BRAKE LEVER .....................................................................................DOWN THRUST LEVERS ......................................................................................IDLE START SWITCHES ......................................................................................CUTOFF PARKING BRAKE ....................................................................................SET STABILIZER TRIM ....................................................................................GREEN RANGE Revision 1.4 23APR04 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM

NORMAL PROCEDURES RADIOS ....................................................................................TUNED As Required TRANSPONDER ......................................................................................Code Entered FMC/CDU ....................................................................................SET IDENT page ......................................................................................CHECK Verify airplane and engine MODEL and NAV DATA ACTIVE dates are correct. POS INIT page ....................................................................................SET Verify GMT is correct. RTE page ......................................................................................SET Enter route by company route load function or by origin/destination entry. DEPARTURES page ......................................................................................SET Select the active runway and departure/transition procedures if know. RTE page .....................................................................................SET Verify selected departure and route. Correct discontinuities. ACTIVATE and EXECUTE PERF INIT page ....................................................................................SET Verify total fuel quantity is displayed on the CDU. Validate Weight Figures, Cost Index and Cruise Altitude. EXECUTE. N1 LIMIT page ......................................................................................SET Enter OAT Select Desired Takeoff and Climb thrust modes TAKEOFF REF page .....................................................................................SET Verify Preflight is complete Enter takeoff flaps and V-speeds (click on 1R, 2R, 3R to populate)

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Pushback and Engine Start ENGINE START CLEARANCE ......................................................................................OBTAIN Captain calls for BEFORE START CHECKLIST TO THE LINE First Officer Accomplishes BEFORE START CHECKLIST to the line using The IN-FLIGHT-USE-CHECKLIST. >>>>----------------------------------CLEARED FOR START ------------------------------------------<<<< DOORS ....................................................................................CLOSED AIR CONDITIONING PACK switches ......................................................................................OFF ANTI-COLLISION light switch ......................................................................................ON Captain calls for BEFORE START CHECKLIST BELOW THE LINE First Officer completes the BEFORE START checklist

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NORMAL PROCEDURES After Start ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ....................................................................................SET BOTH GENERATOR switches ......................................................................................ON GEN OFF BUS lights ......................................................................................Extinguished SOURCE OFF lights ......................................................................................Extinguished PROBE HEAT switches ....................................................................................ON All Probe Heat lights ......................................................................................Extinguished ANTI-ICE ......................................................................................As Required

AIR CONDITIONING ...................................................................................... .......................SET PACK switches ....................................................................................AUTO APU BLEED AIR switch ......................................................................................OFF ISOLATION VALVE switch ......................................................................................AUTO HYDRAULIC PUMP switches .....................................................................................ON

Before Takeoff RECALL SWITCH ....................................................................................CHECK FLIGHT CONTROLS .....................................................................................CHECK/FREE FLAPS .....................................................................................SET _______ STABILIZER TRIM .....................................................................................SET _______ TAKEOFF BRIEFING .....................................................................................Review Captain calls for BEFORE TAKEOFF CHECKLIST TO THE LINE First Officer accomplishes BEFORE TAKEOFF checklist to the line. >>>>----------------------------------CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF ------------------------------------------<<<< ENGINE START SWITCHES ......................................................................................CONT LANDING LIGHTS .....................................................................................ON STROBE LIGHTS ......................................................................................ON AUTOTHROTTLE ......................................................................................ARM TRANSPONDER .....................................................................................ON Captain calls for BEFORE TAKEOFF CHECKLIST BELOW THE LINE First Officer completes BEFORE TAKEOFF checklist

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Takeoff Procedure Explained:


Advance thrust levers to approximately 40% N1. Observe engine instruments stabilized and normal. Push TO/GA switch to advance the thrust levers to takeoff N1. Verify mode annunciation. Note: After takeoff thrust is set, the captains hand must be on the thrust levers until V1. Hold light forward pressure on the control column, maintain directional control. Monitor engine instruments. Verify oil pressure is not in the amber band. Verify 80 knots. Monitor airspeed, noting V1, and rotate smoothly. When positive rate of climb is indicated, call GEAR UP and position landing gear lever UP. Continue rotation to takeoff pitch. Check flight instrument indications.

After Takeoff Procedure Explained:


Maintain a minimum of V2 + 15 knots during initial climb. At light gross weight a higher speed (up to V2 + 25) may be selected. Above 400 feet, select appropriate roll mode, if required. Verify proper mode annunciation. Above 1,000 feet, set flaps up maneuvering speed. Verify climb thrust is set and proper mode is annunciated. When above minimum altitude for autopilot engagement, engage A/P. Verify flight mode annunciation. Retract flaps on takeoff flap retraction speed schedule and monitor flaps and slats retraction. Position landing gear lever OFF, APU and engine start switches as required. Verify air conditioning and pressurization operating normally. Perform AFTER TAKEOFF CHECKLIST when flaps are up. Above 3,000 feet AGL, engage VNAV or select normal climb speed and verify annunciation.

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Takeoff Flap Retraction Speed Schedule


T/O FLAPS 25 SELECT FLAPS 15 5 1 UP 5 1 UP 5 1 UP 1 UP UP AT: (for all weights) V2 + 15 15 5 1 V2 + 15 5 1 V2 + 15 5 1 V2 + 15 1 1

15 10 5 1

UP Flaps up maneuvering speed 1, 5, 10, 15, 25 Number corresponding to flap maneuvering speed. Note: Limit bank angle to 15 degrees until reaching V2 + 15.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES Climb and Cruise CLIMBING THROUGH 10,000 ......................................................................................SET Alert Cabin crew Turn off non-essential external lighting TRANSITION ALTITUDE ..Set Altimeters to STANDARD FUEL MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................MONITOR When Center Fuel Tank LOW PRESSURE lights illuminate CENTER PUMPS OFF Ensure Fuel Balance during cruise flight PRIOR TO REACHING Top of Descent Set MCP altitude selector for descent At Top of Descent ......................................................................................Verify descent initiated

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Climb and Cruise Procedure Explained:


Position landing lights OFF passing through 10,000 feet. Set altimeters to standard at transition altitude. Approaching selected FMC cruise altitude, verify level off and proper mode/N1 limit annunciation. Position center tank fuel pump switches OFF when both pump LOW PRESSURE lights illuminate. During the last hour of cruise on all extended range (ETOPS) flights, perform Fuel Crossfeed Valve check. Prior to top of descent, select and verify the planned arrival procedure on the FMC. Set MCP altitude selector for descent. At top of descent point observe descent initiated and verify proper mode annunciation.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES Descent and Approach FMC/CDU .....................................................................................SET DEP/ARR page to set procedures and VREF speeds ANTI-ICE ......................................................................................As Required PRESSURIZATION . ......................................................................................Verify Cabin Descent AUTOBRAKE .....................................................................................As Desired TRASITION ALTITUDE ..Set Altimeters to local altimeter setting FINAL APPROACH COURSE ...................................................................Set COURSE as needed MINIMUMS ....................................................................................Set DA as required VHF NAV RADIOS ......................................................................Set as required for final approach DESCENDING THROUGH 10,000 .EXTERNAL LIGHTS ON Pilot Flying calls for Descent Approach Checklist Pilot Not Flying accomplishes Descent Approach Checklist

Descent and Approach Procedure Explained:


Position center tank fuel pump switches OFF when both pump LOW PRESSURE lights illuminate. Check and set VREF and approach speeds as required. Set anti-ice as required. Verify pressurization set for destination airport elevation and system operating normally. Set AUTO BRAKE select switch to desired brake setting. Set and crosscheck altimeters at transition level. Set and crosscheck course selection and RADIO/BARO minimums as required for approach. Set and verify ADF and VHF NAV radios for approach. Position fixed landing lights passing through 10,000 feet. Accomplish the DESCENT-APPROACH checklist. Call FLAPS___ according to flap speed schedule and position FLAP lever. Monitor flap and slat extension. Approaching selected FMC altitude verify level off and mode annunciation.

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Approach Procedure Explained:


Using flaps as speed brakes is not recommended. The following procedures are used for flap extensions: Select flaps 1 when decelerating through the flaps-up maneuvering speed, displayed on the airspeed display as UP. Set airspeed cursor to the flap maneuvering speed displayed as 1. When appropriate, select the next flap position and then set the airspeed cursor to that flap maneuver speed.

Landing Procedure Explained:


When on localizer intercept heading, verify ILS tuned and identified, LOC and G/S pointer displayed, arm APP mode and engage second autopilot. Verify mode annunciation. At localizer capture verify proper mode annunciation and set appropriate heading. At glide slope alive, position landing gear lever DN, FLAP lever to 15 and arm speedbrakes. Position engine start switches to CONT. Check RECALL. Perform LANDING CHECKLIST down to FLAPS. At glide slope capture, verify proper mode annunciation, check N1 reference bug at the goaround limit and set missed approach altitude. Call FLAPS ____ as required for landing and position FLAP lever accordingly. Set MCP speed selector at VREF + 5 knots. At final approach fix, OM, verify crossing altitude. Complete the LANDING CHECKLIST. Monitor approach progress and guard the controls. At 500 feet AGL, verify FLARE is armed. At approximately 50 feet AGL, verify FLARE is engaged. Ensure the autothrottle retards the thrust levers to idle by touchdown.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES

Go-Around Procedure Explained:


Push TO/GA button switch. Call FLAPS 15 and position FLAP lever to 15. Confirm rotation to go-around attitude and monitor autopilot. When positive rate of climb is indicated, position landing gear lever UP. Check flight instruments indications. Above 400 feet, select appropriate roll mode and verify proper mode annunciation. Retract flaps on speed schedule. Verify airplane levels off at selected altitude and maintain flaps maneuvering speed. Accomplish AFTER TAKEOFF checklist.

Landing Roll Procedure Explained:


Ensure thrust levers at idle. Disengage autopilot and control airplane manually. Verify autothrottle disengages automatically. Verify SPEED BRAKE lever UP. Verify proper autobrake operation. Without delay, apply reverse thrust as required. At 60 knots, reduce reverse thrust to be at IDLE reverse when reaching taxi speed. Verify REV indication extinguished. Prior to taxi speed, disarm, the autobrake and continue manual braking as required.

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SPEED BRAKE lever ................................................................................DOWN FLAP lever ....................................................................................UP APU (if desired) ......................................................................................START PROBE HEAT switches ......................................................................................OFF ENGINE START switches ....................................................................................OFF LANDING lights ....................................................................................OFF TAXI Lights ......................................................................................As Desired STROBE lights ......................................................................................OFF FLIGHT DIRECTOR switches ....................................................................................OFF TRANSPONDER ....................................................................................OFF APU GENERATOR switches (if APU operating) .........................................................................ON APU GEN OFF BUS lights ......................................................................................OFF Shutdown Procedures PARKING BRAKE ....................................................................................SET ELECTRICAL ....................................................................................SET AS DESIRED FUEL CONTROL LEVERS ....................................................................................CUTOFF FASTEN SEATBELTS switch .....................................................................................OFF ANTI COLLISION light switch ......................................................................................OFF FUEL PUMP switches ......................................................................................OFF CAB/UTIL power switch ......................................................................................As Required IFE/PASS seat power switch .....................................................................................As Required WINDOW HEAT switchers ....................................................................................OFF WING and ENGINE ANTI-ICE switches .....................................................................................OFF ELECTRIC HYDRAULIC PUMP switches .................................................................................OFF RECIRCULATION FAN switch ......................................................................................As Desired AIR CONDITIONING PACK switches ......................................................................................AUTO ISOLATION VALVE switch ......................................................................................OPEN ENGINE BLEED AIR switches ......................................................................................OFF APU BLEED AIR SWITCH ......................................................................................As Required EXTERIOR LIGHTS .....................................................................................As Required AUTO BRAKE switch ....................................................................................OFF SPEED BRAKE lever ......................................................................................DOWN PARKING BRAKE ......................................................................................As Required SHUTDOWN CHECKLIST ......................................................................................ACCOMPLISH Secure Procedure EMERGENCY EXIT LIGHTS switch ......................................................................................OFF AIR CONDITIONING PACK SWITCHES ..................................................................................OFF APU ....................................................................................SHUT DOWN BATTERY SWITCH .....................................................................................OFF SECURE CHECKLIST ......................................................................................ACCOMPLISH

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NORMAL PROCEDURES

INFLIGHT USE CHECKLISTS EXPLAINED: The following pages comprise a two page In-Flight Use Checklist that should be printed and kept handy in the cockpit for use during flight. The procedures listed above in this chapter are designed to be studied and to serve as a useful guide for setting up the cockpit and flight process. The In-Flight Use Checklist below is designed to assist crews in checking their work and validating that proper procedures have been accomplished prior to any critical phase of flight. When following the Expanded Normal Procedures above you will notice that the process occasionally calls for the conduct of a checklist. For example: ENGINE START CLEARANCE Captain calls for BEFORE START CHECKLIST TO THE LINE First Officer Accomplishes BEFORE START CHECKLIST to the line using The IN-FLIGHT-USE-CHECKLIST. OBTAIN

In such a situation, the BEFORE START CHECKLIST that is being referenced is the In-FlightUse Checklist as described on pages 17/18 of this chapter. It is recommended that the following two pages be printed and stapled back to back for ease of use!

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NORMAL PROCEDURES BEFORE START FLIGHT DECK PREPERATION ..............................................................................COMPLETED YAW DAMPER .....................................................................................ON FUEL ______LBS/KGS PLANNED, ______ BOARDED, PUMPS ON CAB/UTIL & IFE PASS SEAT POWER ......................................................................................ON EMERGENCY EXIT LIGHTS ......................................................................................ARMED CABIN SIGNS ....................................................................................ON WINDOW HEAT ......................................................................................ON HYDRAULICS ....................................................................................NORMAL AIR CONDITIONING & PRESSURIZATION ___ PACKS, BLEEDS ON, SET AUTOPILOT .....................................................................................DISENGAGED INSTRUMENTS .....................................................................................CROSS CHECKED AUTOBRAKE ....................................................................................RTO SPEED BRAKE ......................................................................................DOWN PARKING BRAKE ....................................................................................SET STABILIZER TRIM ...................................................................................._____ SET FMC, RADIOS, TRANSPONDER ......................................................................................SET TRIM .....................................................................................SET FMC/CDU .....................................................................................SET N1 & IAS BUGS ....................................................................................SET >>>>>>>>>>-----------------------------------------THE LINE----------------------------------------<<<<<<<<<< DOORS/WINDOWS ......................................................................................CLOSED

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BEFORE TAKEOFF RECALL ....................................................................................CHECKED/CLEARED FLIGHT CONTROLS ....................................................................................FREE FLAPS ....................................................................................________ SET TRIM ......................................................................................________ SET TAKEOFF BRIEFING ......................................................................................REVIEWED >>>>>>>>>>-----------------------------------------THE LINE---------------------------------------<<<<<<<<<< ENGINE START SWITCHES ......................................................................................ON AFTER TAKEOFF AIR CONDITIONING & PRESSURIZATION ........................................................................SET ENGINE START SWITCHES ..............................................................................OFF LANDING GEAR ................................................................................UP and OFF FLAPS ..............................................................................UP

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NORMAL PROCEDURES DESCENT APPROACH

ANTI-ICE ...............................................................................AS REQUIRED AIR CONDITIONING & PRESSURIZATION .........................................................................SET ALTIMETER & INSTRUMENTS SET / CROSS-CHECKED N1 & IAS BUGS CHECKED / SET

LANDING ENGINE START SWITCHES ...............................................................................ON RECALL ..............................................................................CHECKED / CLEARED SPEED BRAKE ...............................................................................ARMED, GREEN LIGHT LANDING GEAR ...............................................................................DOWN 3 GREEN FLAPS ................................................................................_____ SET

SHUTDOWN FUEL PUMPS ...............................................................................OFF CAB/UTIL & IFE/PASS SEAT POWER SWITCHES AS REQUIRED ELECTRICAL SOURCE ..............................................................................______ FASTEN SEATBELTS SIGN ..............................................................................OFF WINDOW HEAT ..............................................................................OFF PROBE HEAT ..............................................................................OFF ANTI-ICE ..............................................................................OFF ELECTRIC HYDRAULIC PUMPS OFF AIR CONDITIONING ..AS REQUIRED ENGINE START SWITCHES ..............................................................................OFF AUTOBRAKE SWITCH ...............................................................................OFF SPEED BRAKE ..............................................................................DOWN FLAPS ..............................................................................UP PARKING BRAKE ...............................................................................AS REQUIRED FUEL SHUTOFF LEVERS ................................................................................CUTOFF TRANSPONDER ................................................................................OFF

SECURE CHECK EMERGENCY EXIT LIGHTS ...............................................................................OFF AIR CONDITIONING PACKS .............................................................................OFF APU / GROUND POWER ..............................................................................OFF BATTERY ...............................................................................OFF

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ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

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ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE CONDITION / WARNING AIR CONDITIONING SMOKE/FUMES ..6-3 AIRSPEED UNRELIABLE ...............6-3 AUTO FAIL / UNSCHEDULED PRESSURIZATION CHANGE ......6-4 EMERGENCY DESCENT ....6-4 LOSS OF THRUST BOTH ENGINES 6-5 BLEED TRIP OFF 6-5 DUAL BLEED ........6-6 DUCT OVERHEAT .....6-6 EQUIPMENT COOLING OFF ....6-6 OFF SCHEDULE DESCENT ....6-6 PACK ...6-7 PACK TRIP OFF ......6-8 WING BODY OVERHEAT .....6-8 ENGINE COWL ANTI-ICE ....6-9 PROBE HEAT ......6-9 WINDOW HEAT OFF ......6-9 WINDOW OVERHEAT .......6-9 BATTERY DISCHARGE ...6-10 DRIVE ..6-10 ELEC .....6-10 SOURCE OFF ....6-10 STANDBY POWER OFF ......6-11 TR UNIT 6-11 TRANSFER BUS OFF ...6-11 ELECTRICAL SMOKE/FUMES/FIRE .....6-12 LOSS OF BOTH ENGINE DRIVE GENERATORS ...6-13 ENGINE FAILURE/SHUTDOWN ....6-14 ENGINE OIL FILTER BYPASS .....6-14 ENGINE OVERHEAT ..6-14 ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE LANDING ....6-15 ENGINE FIRE / SEVERE DAMAGE / VIBRATION 6-16

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ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

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6-3

AIR CONDITIONING SMOKE/FUMES


Condition: Smoke or fumes coming from air conditioning system. OXYGEN MASKS / SMOKE GOGGLES CREW COMMUNICATIONS RECIRCULATION FAN SWITCH If fumes stop: Continue flight with the recirculation fan switch OFF If fumes continue: ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH R PACK SWITCH If fumes stop: Continue flight with the R PACK switch OFF and the ISOLATION valve CLOSED. If fumes continue: R PACK SWITCH L PACK SWITCH If fumes stop: Continue flight with the R PACK switch OFF and the ISOLATION valve CLOSED. If fumes continue: L PACK SWITCH >>>>DECLARE EMERGENCY >>>>LAND NEAREST SUITABLE AIRPORT DON ESTABLISH OFF

CLOSE OFF

AUTO OFF

AUTO

AIRSPEED UNRELIABLE
Condition: Pitch attitude not consistent with existing phase of flight, altitude, thrust and weight or noise and or low frequency buffeting. AIRPLANE ATTITUDE / THRUST PROBE HEAT MACH / AIRSPEED INDICATORS MAINTAIN AIRCRAFT CONTROL CHECK ON CROSS CHECK

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ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

AUTO FAIL / UNSCHEDULED PRESSURIZATION CHANGE


Condition: Automatic pressurization mode has failed, cabin altitude warning or the cabin altitude is not under control. ENGINE BLEED AIR SWITCHES PACK SWITCHES Allow cabin rate to stabilize before placing second switch ON. ON (ONE AT A TIME) ON (ONE AT A TIME)

If AUT FAIL light is illuminated or pressurization is not under control: PRESSURIZATION MODE SELECTOR Verify the AUTO FAIL light extinguishes.

ALTN

If the AUTO FAIL light remains illuminated or the ALTN mode cannot maintain cabin pressurization: PRESSURIZATION MODE SELECTOR MAN OUTFLOW VALVE SWITCH AS REQUIRED Operate the outflow valve to maintain proper cabin altitude.

EMERGENCY DECENT
Condition: Unable to control cabin pressurization with airplane above 14,000MSL or conditions require a rapid descent. EMERGENCY DESCENT ANNOUNCE THRUST LEVERS CLOSE SPEED BRAKE FLIGHT DETENT DESCENT INITIATE TARGET SPEED Mmo/Vmo If structural integrity is in doubt, limit speed as much as possible. LEVEL-OFF ALTITUDE LOWEST SAFE ALTITUDE or 10,000MSL SPEED BRAKE ENGINE START SWITCHES DOWN AS REQUIRED

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6-5

LOSS OF THRUST ON BOTH ENGINES


Condition: Loss of all thrust on both engines accompanied by illumination of both ENG FAIL alerts. ENGINE START SWITCHES ENGINE START LEVERS EGT decreasing: ENGINE START LEVERS APU Do not wait for successful engine starts prior to starting APU. If neither restart is successful and N2 is below 11%: WING ANTI-ICE SWITCH PACK SWITCHES APU BLEED AIR SWITCH IGNITION SELECT SWITCH EITHER ENGINE START SWITCH APU BLEED AIR SWITCH ENGINE START SWITCH THRUST LEVER GENERATOR SWITCH PACK SWITCH Start Second Engine FLT CUTOFF IDLE START and ON BUS

OFF OFF ON BOTH GRD OFF FLT ADVANCE ON AUTO

BLEED TRIP OFF


Condition: A BLEED TRIP OFF light illuminated indicates the related engine bleed air temperature or pressure is excessive. WING ANTI-ICE SWITCH TRIP RESET SWITCH If BLEED TRIP OFF light remains illuminated: PACK SWITCH (Affected side) >>>>Avoid Icing Conditions If the BLEED TRIP-OFF light extinguishes: WING ANTI-ICE SWITCH OFF PUSH OFF

AS REQUIRED

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ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

DUAL BLEED
Condition: The DUAL BLEED light illuminated indicates the APU bleed valve open and the Engine 1 BLEED air switch ON, or the Engine 2 BLEED air switch ON with APU bleed air valve and isolation valve open.. Limit engine thrust to idle while the light is illuminated to prevent damage to APU. APU BLEED AIR SWITCH OFF

DUCT OVERHEAT
Condition: A DUCT OVERHEAT light illuminated indicates air temperature in the related duct has exceeded limits. CABIN TEMPERATURE SELECTOR COOLER TEMPERATURE TRIP RESET SWITCH PUSH If duct temperature increases rapidly or the air mix valve indicator moves toward full hot: TEMPERATURE SELECTOR MANUAL Adjust the air mix valve position as required.

EQUIPMENT COOLING OFF


Condition: The Equipment Cooling Supply or Exhaust OFF light illuminated indicates a loss of airflow from the selected cooling fan. EQUIPMENT COOLING SUPPLY/EXHAUST SWITCH (As required) No further action is necessary in flight if the light does not extinguish. ALTERNATE

OFF SCHEDULE DESCENT


Condition: The OFF SCHEDULE DESCENT light illuminated indicates the airplane descended before reaching the planned cruise altitude set in the FLT ALT indicator. No action is necessary if the airplane is returned to the airport of departure for landing. If not landing at airport of departure: FLIGHT ALTITUDE INDICATOR

RESET / CORRECT

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PACK
Condition: A PACK light illuminated indicates both primary and standby pack controls have failed or the related pack valve is closed due to temperature exceeding limits. ALL TEMPERATURE SELECTORS WARMER TEMPERATURE TRIP RESET SWITCH PUSH If one PACK light remains illuminated: ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH CLOSE PACK SWITCH OFF If cabin altitude increases: DESCENT ACCOMPLISH Monitor cabin altitude and rate. Descend to lowest safe altitude or 10,000feet. At level off: AIRSPEED PRESSURIZATION MODE SELECTOR OUTFLOW VALVE SWITCH RIGHT RECIRCULATION FAN SWITCH LEFT RECIRCULATION FAN WITCH If flight deck and cabin temperatures are excessively warm: FLIGHT DECK DOOR CABIN LIGHTING IFE/PAX SEAT POWER SWITCH GALLEY POWER FLIGHT DECK/CABIN SHADES

290 KNOTS MINIMUM MAN FULL OPEN AUTO OFF OPEN DIM OFF OFF CLOSED

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ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

PACK TRIP OFF


Condition: A PACK TRIP OFF light illuminated indicates the related pack valve is closed due to temperature exceeding limits. TEMPERATURE SELECTORS WARMER TEMPERATURE TRIP RESET SWITCH PUSH If both PACK TRIP OFF lights remains illuminated: If cabin altitude increases: DESCENT ACCOMPLISH Monitor cabin altitude and rate. Descend to lowest safe altitude or 10,000feet. At level off: AIRSPEED PRESSURIZATION MODE SELECTOR OUTFLOW VALVE SWITCH If flight deck and cabin temperatures are excessively warm: FLIGHT DECK DOOR CABIN LIGHTING IFE/PAX SEAT POWER SWITCH GALLEY POWER

290 KNOTS MINIMUM MAN FULL OPEN OPEN DIM OFF OFF

WING BODY OVERHEAT


Condition: A WING BODY OVERHEAT light illuminated indicates a bleed air duct leak. ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH PACK SWITCH (affected side) ENGINE BLEED AIR SWITCH (affected side) WING ANTI-ICE SWITCH Avoid Icing Conditions. If the left WING-BOY OVERHEAT light remains illuminated: APU BLEED AIR SWITCH (if APU running) If the light remains illuminated: APU SWITH If the light extinguishes: ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH ENGINE 1 BLEED AIR SWITCH LEFT PACK SWITCH WING ANTI-ICE SWITCH CLOSE OFF OFF OFF

OFF OFF AUTO ON AUTO AS REQUIRED

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6-9

ENGINE COWL ANTI-ICE


Condition: An engine COWL ANTI-ICE light illuminated indicates an overpressure condition in the cowl anti-ice duct. Flight Conditions permitting: AUTOTHROTTLE (if engaged) THRUST LEVER (affected engine) Reduce thrust until the COWN ANTI-ICE light extinguishes

DISENGAGE RETRD

PROBE HEAT
Condition: Probe heat lights illuminated indicate related probe is not heated. Avoid icing conditions. NOTE: Flight in icing conditions may result in erroneous flight instrument indications.

WINDOW HEAT OFF


Condition: A window heat OFF light illuminated indicates a system failure has occurred. WINDOW HEAT SWITCH Limit airspeed to 250 knots maximum below 10,000 feet due to brittle window and possibility of bird strikes at lower altitudes. OFF

WINDOW OVERHEAT
Condition: A window OVERHEAT light illuminated indicates an overheat condition has been detected. WINDOW HEAT SWITCH (affected window) After 2-5 minutes: WINDOW HEAT SWITCH If the window OVERHEAT light re-illuminates: WINDOW HEAT SWITCH Limit airspeed to 250 knots maximum below 10,000 feet due to brittle window and possibility of bird strikes at lower altitudes. OFF ON OFF

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ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

BATTERY DISCHARGE
Condition: The BAT DISCHARGE light illuminated indicates excessive battery discharge is detected with the battery switch ON. Correct battery drain problem if possible by bringing an engine generator or APU generator online. NOTE: A fully charged battery provides approximately 30 minutes of standby power.

DRIVE
Condition: A generator DRIVE light illuminated indicates a malfunction in the related generator drive. GENERATOR DRIVE DISCONNECT SWITCH Note: Generator cannot be brought back online in flight. APU (if available) DISCONNECT

START & ON BUS

ELEC
Condition: The ELEC light illuminated indicates a fault exists in the DC or standby power system. Note: The ELEC light only illuminates on the ground.

SOURCE OFF
Condition: A SOURCE OFF light illuminated indicates the related transfer bus is not powered by the last selected source. ENGINE GENERATOR SWITCH If SOURCE OFF light remains illuminated: APU (if available) ON START & ON BUS

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STANDBY POWER OFF


Condition: The STANDBY PWR OFF light illuminated indicates one or more of the following busses are unpowered: AC STANDBY BUS DC STANDBY BUS BATTERY BUS STANDBY POWER SWITCH

ON

TR UNIT
Condition: The TR UNIT light illuminated indicates one or more TRs have failed. Do not use the AFDS approach mode as it will be unreliable.

TRANSFER BUS OFF


Condition: A TRANSFER BUS OFF light illuminated indicates the related transfer bus is not powered. ENGINE GENERATOR SWITCH If TRANSFER BUS OFF light remains illuminated: APU (if available) ON START & ON BUS

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ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

ELECTRICAL SMOKE/FUMES/FIRE
Condition: Electrical smoke/fumes/fire is identified. OXYGEN MASKS / GOGGLES DON CREW COMMUNICATION ESTABLISH RECIRCULATION FAN SWITCH OFF If smoke/fumes/fire is known: ELECTRICAL POWER (Affected equipment) REMOVE If practical remove power from affected equipment by switch or circuit breaker . If smoke/fumes/fire persist or source is unknown: BUS TRANSFER SWITCH OFF CAB/UTIL POWER SWITCH OFF IFE/PASS SEAT POWER SWITCH OFF EQUIPMENT COOLING SUPPLY/EXHAUST SWITCHES ALTERNATE CABIN READING LIGHTS & GALLEY WORK LIGHTS ON >>Instructed flight attendants to turn on cabin reading lights/galley lights. CABIN EQUIPMENT OFF >>Instruct flight attendants to turn off galley power switches cabin fluorescent light switches and IFE. >>>>DECLARE EMERGENCY. >>>>LAND AT NEAREST SUITABLE AIRPORT

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LOSS OF BOTH ENGINE DRIVE GENERATORS


Condition: All TRANSFER BUS OFF, SOURCE OFF, and GEN OFF BUS lights illuminated indicate the loss of both engine driven generators. NOTE: With main tank fuel pumps inoperative above 30,000 feet, thrust deterioration or engine flameout may occur. ENGINE GENERATOR SWITCHES ON If only one SOURCE OFF light extinguishes: APU (if available) START & ON BUS If both SOURCE OFF lights remain illuminated: If APU is available: BUS TRANSFER SWITCH OFF ELECTRICAL HYDRAULIC PUMP SWITCHES OFF Note: APU start attempts above 25,000 MSL are not recommended. APU START & ON BUS BUS TRANSFER SWITCH AUTO ELECTRIC HYDRAULIC PUMP SWITCHES ON (ONE AT A TIME) If both SOURCE OFF lights remain illuminated: Avoid icing conditions. Note: Flight in icing conditions may result in erroneous flight instrument indications. Plan to land at nearest suitable airport.

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ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

ENGINE FAILURE/SHUTDOWN
Condition: Loss of all thrust on an engine accompanied by illumination of the ENG FAIL alert or abnormal engine indications Accomplish an engine shutdown only when flight conditions permit. AUTOTHROTTLE (if engaged) DISENGAGE THRUST LEVER (affected engine) IDLE ENGINE START LEVER CUTOFF APU (if available) START & ON BUS PACK SWITCH (affected side) OFF FUEL BALANCE If wing anti-ice is required: ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH AUTO Plan to land at the nearest suitable airport. ACCOMPLISH ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE LANDING CHECKLIST (BELOW)

ENGINE OIL FILTER BYPASS


Condition: An engine OIL FILTER BYPASS alert illuminated indicates an impending bypass of the scavenge oil filter. AUTOTHROTTLE (if engaged) DISENGAGE THRUST LEVER RETARD Retard until the OIL FILTER BYPASS alert extinguishes. If the OIL FILTER BYPASS alert extinguishes: Operate the engine at reduced thrust to keep the alert extinguished. If the OIL FILTER BYPASS alert remains illuminated: ACCOMPLISH ENGINE FAILURE/SHUTDOWN CHECKLIST

ENGINE OVERHEAT
Condition: An ENG OVERHEAT light illuminated indicates an overheat is detected on the related engine. THRUST LEVER If the ENGINE OVERHEAT light remains illuminated: ACCOMPLISH ENGINE FAILURE/SHUTDOWN CHECKLIST IDLE

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ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE LANDING


Condition: Landing must be accomplished with one engine inoperative. NOTE: Plan a FLAPS15 LANDING! Set VREF 15. If any of the following conditions apply, set VREF to VREF 15 +10 knots: ->Engine anti-ice will be used during landing ->Wing Anti-Ice has been used any time during the flight ->Icing conditions were encountered during the flight/before landing. NOTE: When VREG15 + 10 Knots is required, the wind additive should not exceed 10. FOLLOWING DESCENT APPROACH CHECKLIST THAT FOLLOWS SHOULD BE USED: ANTI-ICE AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION ALTIMETERS AND INSTRUMENTS N1 & IAS BUGS GO AROUND PROCEDURE Accomplish normal go-around procedure EXCEPT: Use FLAPS1 Maintain VREF15+5 to flap retraction altitude Limit bank angle to 15 degrees until reaching VREF15+15 Accelerate to flaps1 speed prior to flap retraction. AS REQUIRED SET SET & CROSS CHECKED CHECKED & SET VREF 15 REVIEW

FOLLOWING LANDING CHECKLIST THAT FOLLOWS SHOULD BE USED: ENGINE START SWITCH ON RECALL CHECKED SPEED BRAKE ARMED LANDING GEAR DOWN, 3 GREEN FLAPS 15 FINAL FLAP SETTING

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ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

ENGINE FIRE, SEVERE DAMAGE OR SEPARATION


Condition: Fire is detected in the engine or severe vibration wich is associated with the engine or abnormal indications which occur as a result of engine separation from airplane. AUTOTHROTTLE(if engaged) DISENGAGE (Allows throttle levers to remain where manually positioned) THRUST LEVER CLOSE FUEL CONTROL LEVER (throttle console) CUTOFF ENGINE FIRE WARNING SWITCH PULL ROTATE TIMER START (Time for 30 seconds) If after 30 seconds the engine fire warning remains active, or: the ENG OVERHEAT light remains illuminated) ENGINE FIRE WARNING SWITCH ROTATE TO REMAINING BOTTLE (NOTE: If Fire indication is not extinguished within 30 seconds of discharing second bottle, assume fire is NOT CONTAINED. EVEN IF VISUAL INDICATIONS OF FIRE DO NOT EXIST. >>>>>> LANDING IS URGENT<<<<<) ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH PACK SWITCH (Affected side) APU BLEED AIR SWITCH APU (if available) APU GENERATOR FUEL CLOSE OFF OFF START SELECT ON WHEN ABLE MAINTAIN BALANCE USING CROSSFEED TA

TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTOR (Prevents climb commands resulting from TCAS that may exceed single engine climb capability.) If wing anti-ice is required: ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH (after fire has been extinguished) Accomplish the ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE LANDING checklist (page 6-15)

AUTO

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APU FIRE
Condition: A Fire has been detected in the APU. APU FIRE WARNING SWITCH PULL / ROTATE Rotate the switch to the first position to discharge first fire bottle. APU START SWITCH MOVE SWITCH TO OFF POSITION Do not restart APU as risk of uncontained fire exists.

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COCKPIT AND SYSTEMS

7-1

Table of Contents
Abbreviations Table .....................................................................................................5 Air Systems .................................................................................................................7 Controls and Indicators................................................................................................7 Bleed Air Controls and Indicators .........................................................................7 Air Conditioning Controls and Indicators (737-600/700) .......................................8 Air Conditioning Controls and Indicators (737-800/900) .....................................10 Equipment Cooling Panel ...................................................................................11 Cabin Altitude Panel ...........................................................................................11 Cabin Pressurization Panel ................................................................................12 Anti-Ice, Rain .............................................................................................................13 Controls and Indicators..............................................................................................13 Window Heat Panel ............................................................................................13 Windshield Wiper Selector Panel .......................................................................14 Probe Heat Panel ...............................................................................................14 Engine Anti-Ice Panel .........................................................................................14 Automatic Flight .........................................................................................................15 Controls and Indicators..............................................................................................15 Mode Control Panel (MCP).................................................................................15 Speed Controls...................................................................................................16 Vertical Navigation..............................................................................................18 Lateral Navigation...............................................................................................20 Autopilot / Flight Director ....................................................................................22 Autopilot / Autothrottle Indicators........................................................................23 Flight Mode Annunciations (FMAs).....................................................................24 Communications ........................................................................................................24 Controls and Indicators..............................................................................................24 VHF Communication Panel ................................................................................25 Electrical ....................................................................................................................25 Controls and Indicators..............................................................................................25 AC and DC Metering Panel ................................................................................25 Generator Drive and Standby Power Panel........................................................27 Ground Power Panel and Bus Switching Panel..................................................28 Engines and APU ......................................................................................................30 Side by Side Displays .............................................................................................30 Primary and Secondary Engine Indications ........................................................30 Thrust Mode Display and Total Air Temperature ................................................30 N1 Indications.....................................................................................................31 Thrust Reverser Indications................................................................................32 Thermal Anti-Ice Indication .................................................................................33 EGT Indications ..................................................................................................33 Engine Fail Alert .................................................................................................33 N2 Indications.....................................................................................................34 Fuel Flow/Fuel Used Indications.........................................................................34 Engine Oil Indications.........................................................................................35 Engine Vibration Indications ...............................................................................36 Engines and APU ......................................................................................................36 General Controls and Indicators ................................................................................36 Engine Start Switches ........................................................................................37
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Engine Display Control Panel .............................................................................38 Engine Controls ..................................................................................................38 APU ....................................................................................................................39 Fire Protection ...........................................................................................................41 Controls and Indicators..............................................................................................41 Overhead/Fire Protection Panel Switches and Lights.........................................41 Master Fire Warning Light ..................................................................................43 Flight Controls ...........................................................................................................43 Controls and Indicators..............................................................................................43 Flight Control Panel ............................................................................................43 Stabilizer.............................................................................................................45 Speed Brakes .....................................................................................................45 Trailing Edge Flaps.............................................................................................47 Leading Edge Devices........................................................................................47 Flight Instruments, Displays.......................................................................................48 EFIS/Map Controls and Indicators ..........................................................................48 Captain Outboard Display ..................................................................................48 Captain Inboard Display .....................................................................................49 Primary Flight Display (PFD) ...........................................................................49 PFD Airspeed Indications ...................................................................................49 Angle of Attack Indications .................................................................................50 Attitude Indications .............................................................................................51 PFD Instrument Landing System Indications......................................................52 Altitude Indications .............................................................................................53 PFD Barometric Indications ................................................................................54 Landing Altitude / Minimums Indications / Metric Indications..............................54 Heading and Track Indications ...........................................................................55 Navigation Displays ............................................................................................55 Expanded and Center MAP Modes ....................................................................55 Expanded and Center Approach Modes.............................................................57 Expanded and Center VOR Modes ....................................................................58 Plan Mode ..........................................................................................................58 Flight Instruments, Displays.......................................................................................59 EFIS Instruments Controls and Indicators ..............................................................59 EFIS Control Panel Controls Flight Instrument Displays .................................60 EFIS Control Panel Controls Navigation Displays ...........................................61 Speed Reference Selector .................................................................................63 Standby Radio Magnetic Indicator......................................................................63 Flight Management, Navigation .................................................................................64 Controls and Indicators..............................................................................................64 Flight Management System ................................................................................64 Control Display Unit (CDU).................................................................................64 Function and Execute Keys ................................................................................65 Alpha/Numeric and Miscellaneous Keys ............................................................66 CDU Page Components .....................................................................................67 FMC Alert Light...................................................................................................68 Radio Navigation Systems .................................................................................68 Automatic Direction Finding (ADF) Control.........................................................68 VHF Navigation Control......................................................................................69 Transponder Panel .............................................................................................69 Flight Management, Navigation .................................................................................70
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Flight Management System Operation ......................................................................70 Introduction.........................................................................................................70 Preflight ..............................................................................................................70 Takeoff ...............................................................................................................71 Climb ..................................................................................................................71 Cruise .................................................................................................................71 Descent ..............................................................................................................71 Approach ............................................................................................................71 Flight Complete ..................................................................................................71 LNAV ..................................................................................................................72 Waypoints...........................................................................................................72 Navaid Waypoint Names........................................................................................72 Fix Waypoint Names ..............................................................................................72 Unnamed Point Waypoint Names ..........................................................................72 Navigation Displays ............................................................................................73 Vertical Navigation (VNAV) ................................................................................73 Speed/Altitude Restrictions.................................................................................73 Takeoff and Climb ..............................................................................................73 Cruise .................................................................................................................74 Descent ..............................................................................................................74 VNAV Descent and Approach Path........................................................................75 VNAV Path Descent...............................................................................................75 VNAV Cruise and Speed Descent Profile...........................................................75 Go-Around ..........................................................................................................76 Flight Management, Navigation .................................................................................76 Flight Management Computer ...................................................................................76 Thrust Management ...........................................................................................76 Reduced Thrust Takeoff .....................................................................................77 Derated Thrust Climb .........................................................................................77 Fuel Monitoring...................................................................................................77 Flight Management, Navigation .................................................................................78 FMC Preflight.............................................................................................................78 Preflight Page Sequence....................................................................................78 Fuel............................................................................................................................78 Controls and Indicators..............................................................................................78 Fuel Control Panel..............................................................................................78 Hydraulics..................................................................................................................80 Controls and Indicators..............................................................................................80 Hydraulic Panel ..................................................................................................80 Landing Gear .............................................................................................................81 Controls and Indicators..............................................................................................81 Landing Gear Panel............................................................................................81 Autobrake Controls.............................................................................................82

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Abbreviations Table
A AC ACARS ADF AFDS AGL AI ALT ALTN AOA A/P APP APU ARPT A/T ATA ATC ATT AUTO AUX AVAIL B BARO BRT BTL DISCH B/C C CANC/RCL CDU CG CHKL CLB COMM CON CONFIG CRS CRZ D DC Direct Current IAS Cancel/Recall Control Display Unit Center of Gravity Checklist Climb Communication Continuous Configuration Course Cruise Barometric Bright Bottle Discharge (fire extinguishers) Back Course Alternating Current Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System Automatic Direction Finder Autopilot Flight Director System Above Ground Level Anti-Ice Altitude Alternate Angle of Attack Autopilot Approach Auxiliary Power Unit Airport Autothrottle Actual Time of Arrival Air Traffic Control Attitude Automatic Auxiliary Available DEP ARR DES DISC DME DSP E E/D EFIS EGPWS EGT ELEC EMER ENG ETOPS EXEC F FCTL F/D or FLT DIR FMA FMC FMS FPM FPV FREQ FT G GA GEN G/P GPS GS G/S H HDG HDG HUD HYD I Indicated Airspeed Heading Heading Select Head-Up Display Hydraulic Go-Around Generator Glidepath Global Positioning System Ground Speed Glide Slope Flight Control Flight Director Flight Mode Annunciations Flight Management Computer Flight Management System Feet Per Minute Flight Path Vector Frequency Feet End of Descent Electronic Flight Instrument System Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System Exhaust Gas Temperature Electrical Emergency Engine Extended Range Operation with Twin Engine Airplanes Execute Departure Arrival Descent Disconnect Distance Measuring Equipment Display Select Panel

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IFE IGN IND LTS ILS INOP INTC CRS IRS K KGS KIAS L LBS LDG ALT LNAV LOC M M MAG MAN MCP MDA MFD MIN MMO MTRS N ND NM NORM N1 N2 O OAT OUTBD DSPL OVHD OVHT P PA PERF INIT PFD POS INIT PREV

In-Flight Entertainment System Ignition Indicator Lights Instrument Landing System Inoperative Intercept Course Inertial Reference System Kilograms Knots Indicated Airspeed Pounds Landing Altitude Lateral Navigation Localizer Mach Magnetic Manual Mode Control Panel Minimum Descent Altitude Multifunction Display Minimum Maximum Mach Operating Speed Meters Navigation Display Nautical Miles Normal Low Pressure Rotor Speed High Pressure Rotor Speed Outside Air Temperature Outboard Display Overhead Overheat Passenger Address Performance Initialization Primary Flight Display Position Initialization Previous

R RA RECIRC REF RPM RTE RTO S SAT SEL SPD STBY STD T TAS TAT T/C TCAS T/D Temp TFR THR HOLD TO TO/GA V VMO VNAV VOR VR VREF VSI V/S V1 V2 W WPT WXR X XPDR Transponder Waypoint Weather Radar Maximum Operating Speed Vertical Navigation VHF Omnidirectional Range Rotation Speed Reference Speed Vertical Speed Indicator Vertical Speed Takeoff Decision Speed Scheduled Takeoff Target Speed True Airspeed Total Air Temperature Top of Climb Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System Top of Descent Temperature Transfer Throttle Hold Takeoff Takeoff/Go-Around Static Air Temperature Select Speed Standby Standard Radio Altitude Recirculation Reference Revolutions Per Minute Route Rejected Takeoff

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Air Systems
Controls and Indicators

Bleed Air Controls and Indicators

Forward Overhead Panel (1) DUAL BLEED Light Illuminated (amber) APU bleed air valve open and engine No. 1 BLEED air switch ON, or engine No. 2 BLEED air switch ON, APU bleed air valve and isolation valve open. (2) ISOLATION VALVE Switch CLOSE closes isolation valve AUTO closes isolation valve if both engine BLEED air switches are ON and both air conditioning PACK switches are AUTO or HIGH opens isolation valve automatically if either engine BLEED air or air conditioning PACK switch positioned OFF. OPEN opens isolation valve. (3) WING-BODY OVERHEAT Light Illuminated (amber) light indicates overheat from bleed air duct leak in engine strut, inboard wing leading edge, air conditioning bay or APU bleed air duct.
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(4) Engine BLEED Air Switches OFF closes engine bleed air valve ON opens engine bleed air valve when engines are operating. (5) APU BLEED Air Switch OFF closes APU bleed air valve ON opens APU bleed air valve when APU is operating. (6) Bleed Air DUCT PRESSURE Indicator Indicates pressure in L and R (left and right) bleed air ducts. (7) BLEED TRIP OFF Light Illuminated (amber) excessive engine bleed air temperature or pressure.

Air Conditioning Controls and Indicators (737-600/700)

Forward Overhead Panel

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(1) AIR Temperature (TEMP) Source Selector SUPPLY DUCT selects main distribution supply duct sensor for TEMP indicator. PASS CABIN selects passenger cabin sensor for TEMP indicator. (2) Control (CONT) CABIN and Passenger (PASS) CABIN Temperature AUTO automatic temperature controller controls passenger cabin or flight deck temperature as selected. MANUAL air mix valves controlled manually. Automatic temperature controller bypassed. (3) RAM DOOR FULL OPEN Light Illuminated (blue) indicates ram door in full open position. Occurs when aircraft on ground or both packs high and packs need greater airflow for cabin cooling. (4) Air Conditioning PACK Switch OFF pack signalled OFF. AUTO with both packs operating, each pack regulates to low flow. HIGH pack regulates to high flow. (5) AIR MIX VALVE Indicator Indicates position of air mix valves: controlled automatically with related temperature selector in AUTO controlled manually with related temperature selector in MANUAL. (6) Air Temperature (TEMP) Indicator Indicates temperature at location selected with AIR TEMP source selector. (7) Recirculation (RECIRC) FAN Switch OFF - fan signalled off. AUTO fan signalled on except when both packs operating with either PACK switch in HIGH.

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Air Conditioning Controls and Indicators (737-800/900)

Forward Overhead Panel (1) AIR Temperature (TEMP) Source Selector SUPPLY DUCT selects main distribution supply duct sensor for TEMP indicator. PASS CABIN selects passenger cabin sensor for TEMP indicator. (2) Control (CONT) CABIN and Passenger (FWD/AFT) CABIN Temperature AUTO automatic temperature controller controls passenger cabin or flight deck temperature as selected. MANUAL air mix valves controlled manually. Automatic temperature controller bypassed. Ranges from C (colder) to W (warmer) (3) TRIM AIR Activates trim air regulating valve between OFF and ON in accordance with TRIM AIR switch. ON: Allows bleed air from upstream of the packs to be directed to the three trim air modulating valves. OFF: L/R controllers will operate packs independently. Left pack will operate in response to the CONT CAB selector to establish teh temp for the flight deck. Right pack will supply the coldest temperature demand of the FWD or AFT cab zones.

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Equipment Cooling Panel

Forward Overhead Panel (1) Equipment (EQUIP) COOLING SUPPLY Switch NORM normal cooling supply fan activated. ALTN alternate cooling supply fan activated. (2) Equipment Cooling Supply OFF Light Illuminated (amber) no airflow from selected cooling supply fan. (3) Equipment (EQUIP) COOLING EXHAUST Switch NORM normal cooling exhaust fan activated. ALTN alternate cooling exhaust fan activated. (4) Equipment Cooling Exhaust OFF Light Illuminated (amber) no airflow from selected cooling exhaust fan.

Cabin Altitude Panel

Forward Overhead Panel

(1) CABIN Altimeter (ALT)/Differential Pressure (DIFF PRESS) Indicator


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Inner Scale indicates cabin altitude in feet. Outer Scale indicates differential pressure between cabin and ambient in psi. (2) CABIN Rate of CLIMB Indicator Indicates cabin rate of climb or descent in feet per minute.

Cabin Pressurization Panel

Forward Overhead Panel (1) Flight Altitude (FLT ALT) Indicator indicates selected cruise altitude set before takeoff. (2) Flight Altitude Selector Rotate set planned cruise altitude. (3) Landing Altitude (LAND ALT) Indicator indicates altitude of intended landing field set before takeoff. (4) Landing Altitude Selector Rotate select planned landing field altitude.

(5) Outflow VALVE Position Indicator

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indicates position of outflow valve operates in all modes (6) Outflow Valve Switch (spring-loaded to center) CLOSE closes outflow valve electrically with pressurization mode selector in MAN position. OPEN opens outflow valve electrically with pressurization mode in MAN position. (7) Pressurization Mode Selector AUTO pressurization system controlled automatically. ALTN pressurization system controlled automatically using ALTN controller. MAN pressurization system controlled manually by outflow valve switch.

Anti-Ice, Rain
Controls and Indicators

Window Heat Panel

Forward Overhead Panel (1) Window OVERHEAT Lights Illuminated (amber) overhead condition is detected. (2) Window Heat ON Lights Illuminated (green) window heat is being applied to selected window(s). Extinguished switch is OFF; or an overheat is detected. (3) WINDOW HEAT Switches ON window heat is applied to selected window(s).
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OFF window heat not in use. (4) WINDOW HEAT Test Switch (spring-loaded to neutral) OVHT simulates an overheat condition PWR TEST provides a confidence test.

Windshield Wiper Selector Panel

Forward Overhead Panel (1) Windshield WIPER Selector PARK turns off wiper motors and stows wiper blades. INT seven second intermittent operation. LOW low speed operation. HIGH high speed operation.

Probe Heat Panel

Forward Overhead Panel (1) PROBE HEAT Switches ON power is supplied to heat related system. OFF power off.

Engine Anti-Ice Panel

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Forward Overhead Panel (1) L VALVE / R VALVE / COWL VALVE Illuminated (blue) related anti-ice valve is open (switch ON). Illuminated (bright blue) related anti-ice valve/switch position disagree. Extinguished related anti-ice valve is closed (switch OFF). NOTE: If WAI selected on during taxi, it will deselect automatically if throttles are advanced to takeoff power in order to preserve takeoff thrust. (2) ENGINE / WING ANTI-ICE Switches ON related anti-ice valve is open. OFF related anti-ice valve is closed.

Automatic Flight
Controls and Indicators

Mode Control Panel (MCP)


[Option without speed and altitude intervention]

Glareshield

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Speed Controls

Glareshield (1) Autothrottle (A/T) Arm Switch ARM Arms A/T for engagement. A/T engages automatically when following AFDS modes are engages: LVL CHG V/S VNAV ALT HOLD G/S capture TO/GA OFF disengages A/T and prevents A/T engagement. (2) Changeover (C/O) Switch Push Changes IAS/MACH display between IAS and MACH Automatic changeover occurs at approximately FL260. (3) MCP Speed Condition Symbol Underspeed limiting symbol appears when commanded speed cannot be reached. Underspeed limiting (flashing character A) minimum speed. (4) IAS/MACH Display Displays speed selected by IAS/MACH selector display is blank when: o VNAV mode engaged o A/T engaged in FMC SPD mode o during 2 engine AFDS go-around displays 100 knots when power is first applied displays range is: o 100 KIAS Vmo in 1 knot increments o .60M Mmo in .01M increments.

(5) TO/GA Switch


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Pushing top left MCP screw simulates TO/GA activation. (6) N1 Switch Push (light not illuminated) engages A/T in N1 mode if compatible with AFDS modes already engages illuminates N1 switch light annunciates N1 autothrottle mode. Push (light illuminated) deselects N1 mode and extinguishes switch light engages autothrottles in ARM mode. N1 Mode A/T maintains thrust at N1 limit selected from FMC CDU. N1 mode engaged manually by pushing N1 switch if N1 mode is compatible with existing AFDS modes. N1 mode engages automatically when: o Engaging LVL CHG in climb o Engaging VNAV in climb (7) SPEED Switch Push (light not illuminated) engages A/T in SPEED mode if compatible with AFDS modes illuminates SPEED switch light annunciates MCP SPD autothrottle mode. maintains speed in MCP IAS/MACH display Push (light illuminated) deselects speed mode and extinguishes switch light engages autothrottles in ARM mode. Speed Mode Autothrottle holds speed in IAS/MACH display or a performance or limit speed. Speed mode engaged manually by pushing SPEED switch if speed mode is compatible with existing AFDS modes. Speed mode engages automatically when: ALT HOLD engages V/S engages G/S capture occurs (8) IAS/MACH Selector Rotate sets speed in IAS/MACH display and positions airspeed cursor selected speed is reference speed for AFDS and A/T not operative when IAS/MACH display is blank.

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Vertical Navigation

Glareshield (1) VNAV Switch Push VNAV switch light illuminates pitch mode annunciates VNAV SPD, VNAV PTH A/T mode annunciates FMC SPD, N1, RETARD, or ARM IAS/MACH display blanks and airspeed cursors positioned to FMC commanded airspeed. (2) ALTITUDE Display Displays selected altitude displayed altitude is reference for altitude alerting and automatic level-offs altitude range is 0 to 50,000 feet in 100 foot increments (3) Vertical Speed (VERT SPEED) Display Displays: blank when V/S mode not active present V/S when V/S mode is engaged with V/S switch selected V/S when V/S set with thumbwheel range is 7900 to +6000 fpm Display increments are: 50 fpm if V/S is less than 1000 fpm 100 fpm if V/S is 1000 fpm or greater. (4) Vertical Speed Thumbwheel Rotate DN o o UP o o

sets vertical speed in VERT SPEED display increases rate of descent or reduces rate of ascent sets vertical speed in VERT SPEED display increases rate of ascent or reduces rate of descent.

(5) LVL Change (LVL CHG) Switch


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Push LVL CHG switch light illuminates pitch mode annunciates MCP SPD for climb or descent autothrottle mode annunciates N1 for climb and RETARD followed by ARM for descent IAS/MACH display and airspeed cursors display target speed. LVL CHG Mode The LVL CHG mode coordinates pitch and thrust commands to make automatic climbs and descents to preselected altitudes at selected airspeeds. A LVL CHG climb or descent is initiated by: selected a new altitude pushing LVL CHG switch setting desired airspeed. Climb autothrottle holds limit thrust AFDS holds selected airspeed. Descent autothrottle holds idle thrust AFDS holds selected airspeed. Airspeed if a speed mode is active when LVL CHG is engages, this speed is retained as target speed if a speed mode is not active when LVL CHG is engages, existing speed becomes target speed speed can be changed with MCP IAS/MACH Selector. The LVL CHG mode is inhibited after glideslope capture. (6) Approach (APP) Switch (See Lateral Navigation) (7) Altitude Selector (SEL) Rotate sets altitude in ALTITUDE display in 100 foot increments. arms V/S mode if rotated while in ALT HOLD at selected altitude.

(8) Altitude Hold (ALT HLD) Switch

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Push engages ALT HOLD command mode commands pitch to hold uncorrected barometric altitude at which switch was pressed annunciates ALT HOLD pitch mode and illuminates ALT HLD switch light. (9) Vertical Speed (V/S) Switch Push arms or engages V/S command mode commands pitch to hold vertical speed engages A/T in speed mode to hold selected airspeed annunciates V/S pitch mode and illuminates V/S switch light.

Lateral Navigation

Glareshield (1) COURSE Display Displays course set by course selector. (2) Heading Selector Rotate sets heading in HEADING display positions selected heading bugs on the DUs. (3) HEADING Display Displays selected heading.

(4) LNAV Switch Push


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commands AFDS roll to intercept and track the active FMC route annunciates LNAV as roll mode and illuminates LNAV switch light. LNAV Mode LNAV engagement criteria on the ground: origin runway in flight plan active route entered in FMC track of first leg within 5 degrees of runway heading LNAV selected prior to TO/GA. LNAV engagement criteria in flight: active route entered in FMC within 3NM of active route, LNAV engagement occurs with any airplane heading outside of 3NM, airplane must: o be on intercept course of 90 degrees or less o intercept route segment before active waypoint LNAV automatically disconnects for following reasons: reaching end of active route reaching a route discontinuity intercepting a selected approach course in VOR LOC or APP modes (VOR/LOC armed) selecting HDG SEL (5) VOR Localizer (LOC) Switch Push commands AFDS roll to capture and track selected VOR or LOC course annunciates VOR/LOC armed or engaged as roll mode and illuminates VOR LOC switch light (6) Course Selector Sets course in COURSE display for related VHF NAV receiver, AFDS and DU. (7) Bank Angle Selector Rotate sets maximum bank angle for AFDS operation in HDG SEL or VOR modes commanded bank angle can be selected at 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 degrees.

(8) Heading Select (HDG SEL) Switch Push engages HDG SEL command mode
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commands roll to follow selected heading annunciates HDG SEL as FMA roll mode and illuminates HDG SEL switch light. (9) Approach (APP) Switch Push illuminates APP switch light arms the AFDS for localizer and glideslope capture roll mode annunciates VOR/LOC armed pitch mode annunciates G/S armed enables engagement of both autopilots. APP Mode The approach mode arms AFDS to capture and track localizer and glideslope and can be engaged for dual or single autopilot operation. One VHF NAV receiver must be tuned to an ILS frequency before approach mode can be engaged. With one VHF NAV receiver tuned, onside AFDS is enabled for guidance and operation. For dual autopilot operation, both VHF NAV receivers must be tuned to the ILS frequency and both autopilots must be selected in CMD prior to 800 feet RA.

Autopilot / Flight Director

Glareshield (1) Command Engage (CMD ENGAGE) Switch (A or B) / CWS (A or B) CMD A or CMD B Push engages A/P and autopilot control servos. enables all command modes displays CMD in A/P status display pushing an engage switch for second A/P, while not in approach mode, engages second A/P and disengages first A/P Autopilot will follow commands from Flight Director as entered via the MCP. CWS A or CWS B Push engages A/P in Control Wheel Steering mode. CWS R (Roll Mode) and CWS P (Pitch Mode) displayed on PFD. In CWS Pitch mode, aircraft pitch is adjusted using control pressure. When pressure is released aircraft will maintain established pitch.
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In CWS Roll mode, aircraft roll is adjusted using control pressure. When pressure is released, aircraft will maintain bank angle. (Note: If within 6 degrees of wings level, aircraft will level wings and maintain heading.) NOTE: Aircraft will not follow flight director cues while in respective CWS modes. CWS R and/or CWS P will be displayed if the flight controls are used to override the autopilot while engaged. CWS R and/or CWS P will be displayed on the PFD in place of the previously displayed roll/pitch modes. (2) Autopilot Disengage (DISENGAGE) Bar Pull down disengages both A/Ps prevents A/P engagement Lift up enables A/P engagement (3) Flight Director (F/D) Switch ON in flight with A/P ON and F/Ds OFF, turning a F/D switch ON engages F/D in currently selected A/P modes enables command bar display on pilots attitude indicator command bars are displayed if command pitch and/or roll modes are engaged command bars are displayed if command pitch and roll modes are engaged on ground, arms pitch and roll modes for engagement in TO/GA and wings level when TOGA switch is pushed. on ground, arms pitch and roll modes for engagement in TO/GA and HDG SEL when TOGA switch is pushed. OFF command bars retract from pilots attitude indicator.

Autopilot / Autothrottle Indicators

Forward Panel (1) Autopilot (A/P) Disengage Light Illuminated (red) flashing and tone sounds when autopilot has disengaged reset by either pushing disengage light or A/P disengage switch Illuminated (amber) steady disengage light test switch held in position 1.
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(2) Autothrottle (A/T) Disengage Light Illuminated (red) flashing autothrottle has disengaged steady disengage light test switch held in position 2. Illuminated (amber) steady disengage light test switch held in position 1. (3) Disengage Light Test (TEST) Switch TEST 1 illuminates autopilot/autothrottle disengage and FMC alert lights steady amber. TEST 2 illuminates autopilot/autothrottle disengage lights steady red and FMC alert light steady amber. Spring loaded to center position.

Flight Mode Annunciations (FMAs)

Primary Flight Display

Communications
Controls and Indicators

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VHF Communication Panel

Aft Electronic Panel (1) VHF Communication Transfer (TFR) Switch Switches standby frequency to active and active frequency to standby. (2) Frequency Indicator Indicates selected frequency. (3) Frequency Selector Rotate selects frequency in related indicator.

Electrical
Controls and Indicators

AC and DC Metering Panel

Forward Overhead Panel

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(1) DC Ammeter Indicates amperage of source selected by DC meters selector. (2) DC Voltmeter Indicates voltage of source selected by DC meters selector. (3) AC Ammeter Indicates amperage of source selected by AC meters selector. (4) Frequency Meter Indicates frequency of source selected by AC meters selector. (5) AC Voltmeter Indicates voltage of source selected by AC meters selector. (6) Battery Discharge (BAT DISCHARGE) Light Illuminated (amber) with BAT switch ON, excessive battery discharge detected. (7) TR UNIT Light Illuminated (amber) on the ground any TR has failed in flight o TR1 failed; or o TR2 and TR3 failed. (8) Electrical (ELEC) Light Illuminated (amber) a fault exists in DC power system or standby power system. (9) DC Meter Selector Selects DC source for DC voltmeter and DC ammeter indications (10) Battery (BAT) Switch OFF removes power from battery bus and switched hot battery bus when operating with normal power sources available removes power from battery bus, switched hot battery bus, DC standby bus, static inverter, and AC standby bus when battery is only power source. ON (guarded position) provides power to switched hot battery bus

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energizes relays to provide automatic switching of standby electrical system to battery power with loss of normal power. (11) AC Meters Selector Selects AC source for AC voltmeter, AC ammeter and frequency meter indications. (12) CAB/UTIL Switch OFF removes electrical power from cabin recirculation fan, fwd & aft door area heaters, drain mast heaters, lavatory water heaters, all 115V AC galley busses, logo lights, potable water compressor. ON supplies electrical power to cabin recirculation fan, fwd & aft door area heaters, drain mast heaters, lavatory water heaters, all 115V AC galley busses, logo lights, potable water compressor. (13) IFE/PASS SEAT Switch OFF removes electrical power from installed components of the passenger seats and in-flight entertainment systems. ON supplies electrical power to installed components of the passenger seats and in-flight entertainment systems.

Generator Drive and Standby Power Panel

Forward Overhead Panel (1) Generator Drive (DRIVE) Lights Illuminated (amber) Integrated drive generator (IDG) low oil pressure caused by one of the following: IDG failure engine shutdown IDG disconnected through generator drive DISCONNECT switch. (2) Generator Drive Disconnect (DISCONNECT) Switches (guarded) Disconnects IDG if electrical power is available and engine start lever in IDLE. IDG cannot be reconnected in the air. (Cannot currently be reset in sim, so be careful!) (3) STANDBY Power Off (PWR OFF) Light
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Illuminated (amber) one or more of the following busses unpowered: AC standby bus DC standby bus battery bus (4) STANDBY POWER Switch AUTO (guarded position) In flight, or on the ground, and AC transfer busses powered: o AC standby bus is powered by AC transfer bus 1 o DC standby bus is powered by TR1 and TR2. TR3 is a backup source In flight, or on the ground, loss of all AC power o AC standby bus is powered by battery through static inverter o DC standby bus is powered by battery OFF (center position) STANDBY PWR OFF light illuminates AC standby bus, static inverter, and DC standby bus are not powered. BAT (unguarded position) AC standby bus is powered by battery through static inverter DC standby bus and battery bus are powered directly by battery.

Ground Power Panel and Bus Switching Panel

Forward Overhead Panel (1) Ground Power Available (GRD POWER AVAILABLE) Light Illuminated (blue) ground power is connected and meets airplane power quality standards (simulated on ground by parking brake set). (2) Ground Power (GRD PWR) Switch Three position switch, spring loaded to neutral

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OFF disconnects ground power from AC transfer busses. ON if momentarily moved to ON position and ground power is available connects ground power to AC transfer busses. (3) TRANSFER BUS OFF Lights Illuminated (amber) related transfer bus is not powered. (4) SOURCE OFF Lights Illuminated (amber) no source has been manually selected to power the related transfer bus, or the manually selected source has been disconnected. (5) Generator Off Bus (GEN OFF BUS) Lights Illuminated (blue) IDG is not supplying power to related transfer bus. (6) Generator (GEN) Switches Three position switch, spring-loaded to neutral. OFF disconnects IDG from related AC transfer bus by opening generator circuit breaker. Note: If APU gen powering both busses after takeoff and APU is shut down, IDGs will select themselves to ON uncommanded to preserve electrical system integrity. ON connects IDG to related AC transfer bus by disconnecting previous power source and closing generator circuit breaker. (7) BUS TRANSFER Switch AUTO (guarded position) BTBs operate automatically to maintain power to AC transfer busses from any operating generator or external power OFF isolates AC transfer bus 1 from AC transfer bus 2 if one IDG is supplying power to both AC transfer busses. (8) APU Generator Off Bus (GEN OFF BUS) Light Illuminated (blue) APU is running and not powering a bus (9) APU Generator (GEN) Switches Three position switch, spring- loaded to neutral. OFF moving APU GEN switches to OFF disconnects APU generator from tie bus and removes APU power from AC transfer busses.

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ON moving APU GEN switches to ON powers the related AC transfer bus from the APU generator.

Engines and APU


Side by Side Displays

Primary and Secondary Engine Indications

Upper Display Unit (1) Primary Engine Indications (2) Fuel Quantity Indications (3) Secondary Engine Indications (4) Hydraulics Indications

Thrust Mode Display and Total Air Temperature

Upper Display Unit (1) Thrust Mode Display Displayed (green) the active N1 limit reference mode. With N1 manual select knob on engine display control panel in AUTO, active N1 limit is displayed by reference N1 bugs. Active N1 limit is normally calculated by FMC.

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Thrust mode display annunciations are: R-TO reduced takeoff R-CLB reduced climb TO takeoff CLB climb CRZ cruise G/A go-around CON continuous ---- FMC not computing thrust limit (2) Total Air Temperature (TAT) Indication Displayed (label cyan, temp white) total air temperature (degrees C).

N1 Indications

Center Forward Panel

Upper Display Unit

(1) N1 SET Outer Knob AUTOboth reference N1 bugs set by FMC based on N1 limit page and takeoff reference page displays reference N1 bugs at active N1 limit for A/T BOTHboth reference N1 bugs and readouts manually set by turning N1 SET inner knob has no effect on A/T operation 1 or 2 respective N1 reference bug and readout manually set by turning N1 SET inner knob has no effect on A/T operation (2) N1 SET Inner Knob
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Rotate positions reference N1 bug(s) and readouts when N1 SET outer knob is set to BOTH, 1 or 2. (3) Reference N1 Bugs Displayed (green) with N1 SET outer knob in AUTO, 1, 2 or BOTH position. (4) N1 Redlines Displayed (red) N1% RPM operating limit (5) N1 Command Sectors Displayed (white) momentary difference between actual N1 and value commanded by thrust lever position. (6) N1 RPM Readouts (digital) Displayed (white) normal operating range. Displayed (red) operating limit exceeded. (7) Reference N1 Readouts Displayed (green) manually set N1% RPM: set with N1 SET inner knob when N1 SET in BOTH, 1, or 2 position blank when N1 SET outer knob in AUTO position ---- when N1 SET outer knob in AUTO and FMC source invalid. (8) N1 RPM Indications Displayed N1% RPM displayed (white) normal operating range displayed (red) operating limit exceeded

Thrust Reverser Indications

Upper Display Unit (1) Thrust Reverser (REV) Indications Displayed (amber) thrust reverser is moved from stowed position. Display (green) thrust reverser is deployed.

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Thermal Anti-Ice Indication

Upper Display Unit (1) Thermal Anti-Ice (TAI) Indications Displayed (green) cowl anti-ice valve(s) open.

EGT Indications

Upper Display Unit (1) Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Redlines Displayed (red) maximum takeoff EGT limit. (2) Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Amber Bands Displayed (amber) lower end of band displays maximum continuous EGT limit. (3) Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Start Limit Lines Displayed (red) N2 less than 50%. (4) Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Readouts (digital) Displayed (white) normal operating range (degrees C). (5) Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Indications Displayed (white) normal operating range

Engine Fail Alert

Upper Display Unit

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(1) Engine Fail (ENG FAIL) Alert Displayed (amber) engine N2 below sustainable idle (less than 50%); and engine start lever in IDLE position Alert remains until engine N2 above sustainable idle (50% or greater); or start lever moved to CUTOFF; or engine fire warning switch pulled

N2 Indications

Upper Display Unit (1) N2 Redlines Displayed (red) N2 % RPM operating limit (2) N2 RPM Indications Displays N2 % RPM displayed (white) normal operating range displayed (red) operating limit exceeded. (2) N2 Readouts (digital) Displayed (white) normal operating range. Displayed (red) operating limit exceeded.

Fuel Flow/Fuel Used Indications

Center Forward Panel Upper Display Unit

(1) FUEL FLOW Switch (spring-loaded to RATE) RATE displays fuel flow to engine.
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USED pointer and shading are removed displays fuel used since last reset RESET pointer and shading are removed resets fuel used to zero (2) Fuel (FF) Readout (digital) Displayed (white) fuel flow to engine with FUEL FLOW switch in RATE position (pounds per hours x 1000) (3) Fuel Flow (FF) Dial/Index Markers & Digits (white) Displayed (white) fuel flow to engine with FUEL FLOW switch in RATE position (pounds per hour x 1000).

Engine Oil Indications

Upper Display Unit (1) Oil Pressure (OIL P) Indication Displays engine oil pressure (psi) displayed (white) normal operating range displayed (amber) caution range displayed (red) operating limit reached. (2) Low Oil Pressure (OIL P) Redline Displayed (red) oil pressure operating limit. (3) Low Oil Pressure (OIL P) Amber Band Displayed (amber) low oil pressure caution range beginning at red line. (4) High Oil Temperature (OIL T) Redline Displayed (red) oil temperature operating limit.

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(5) High Oil Temperature (OIL T) Amber Band Displayed (amber) oil temperature caution range. (6) Oil Temperature (OIL T) Indication Displays oil temperature (degrees C) displayed (white) normal operating range displayed (amber) caution range reached displayed (red) operating limit reached. (7) Oil Quantity (OIL Q)% Readout Displays usable oil quantity as a percentage of full quantity.

Engine Vibration Indications

Upper Display Unit (1) Vibration (VIB) Pointer Displayed (white) engine vibration level. (2) High Engine Vibration Indication Displayed (white)

Engines and APU


General Controls and Indicators

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Engine Start Switches

Forward Overhead Panel (1) ENGINE START Switches GRD (Use for engine starts on ground) opens start valve closes engine bleed valve for ground starts, arms selected igniter(s) to provide ignition when engine start lever is moved to IDLE for inflight starts, arms both igniters to provide ignition when engine start lever is moved to IDLE releases to OFF at start valve cutout. OFF ignition normally off CONT provides ignition to selected igniters when engine is operating and engine start lever is in IDLE FLT (Use for inflight engine restart) provides ignition to both igniters when engine start lever is in IDLE. (2) Ignition Select Switch IGN L selects the left igniter for use on both engines. BOTH selects both igniters for use on both engines. IGN R selects the right igniter for use on both engines.

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Engine Display Control Panel

(1) N1 SET Knob Refer to section Side by Side Displays (2) FUEL FLOW Switch Refer to section Side by Side Displays (3) Speed Reference Selector Refer to section Side by Side Displays

Engine Controls

Control Stand (1) Thrust Levers controls engine thrust


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cannot be advanced if the reverse thrust lever is in the deployed position (2) Reverse Thrust Levers controls engine reverse thrust cannot select reverse thrust unless related forward thrust lever is at IDLE

(3) Engine Start Levers IDLE energizes ignition system through EEC electrically opens spar fuel shutoff valve in the wing leading edge outboard of the pylon electrically opens engine-mounted fuel shutoff valve via the EEC. CUTOFF closes both spar and engine fuel shutoff valves de-energizes ignition system.

APU

Forward Overhead Panel (1) APU Maintenance (MAINT) Light Illuminated (blue) APU maintenance problem exists : APU may be operated light is disarmed when APU switch is in OFF. (2) APU Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Indicator Displays APU EGT EGT indicator remains powered for 5 minutes after shutdown. (3) APU OVERSPEED Light
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Illuminated (amber) APU RPM limit has been exceeded resulting in an automatic shutdown light is disarmed when APU switch is in OFF position.

(4) APU FAULT Light Illuminated (amber) A malfunction exists causing APU to initiate an automatic shutdown light is disarmed when APU switch is in OFF position. (5) APU LOW OIL PRESSURE Light Illuminated (amber) during start until the APU oil pressure is normal light is disarmed when APU switch is in OFF position. (6) APU Switch OFF normal position when APU is not running positioning switch to OFF with APU running trips APU generator off the bus(es), if connected, and closes APU bleed air valve. APU continues to run for a 60 second cooling period. APU air inlet door automatically closes after shutdown. ON normal position when APU is running. START (momentary) positioning APU switch from OFF to START and releasing it to ON, initiates an automatic start sequence.

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Fire Protection
Controls and Indicators

Overhead/Fire Protection Panel Switches and Lights

Aft Electronics Panel

(1) Overheat Detector (OVHT DET) Switch NORMAL detection loop A and loop B are active A detection loop A is active B detection loop B is active (2) Extinguisher (EXT) TEST Switch (springloaded to center) 1 or 2 tests bottle discharge circuits for all three extinguisher bottles. (3) Fault/Inoperative (FAULT/INOP) and Overheat/Firs (OVHT/FIRE) TEST Switch (springloaded to center) FAULT/INOP tests fault detection circuits for both engines and the APU. (4) APU BOTTLE DISCHARGE Light Illuminated (amber) indicates APU extinguisher bottle has discharged. (5) APU Fire Warning Switch
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Illuminated (red) Indicates fire in APU In normal position, mechanically locked if no fire signal. Up Arms APU extinguisher circuit closes fuel shutoff valve, APU bleed air valve, and APU inlet door trips generator control relay and breaker allows APU fire warning switch to rotate Rotate (left or right) discharges APU fire bottle. (6) Engine Fire Warning Switch Illuminated (red) Indicates fire in related engine In normal position, mechanically locked if no fire signal.

Up Arms one discharge squib on each engine fire extinguisher closes fuel, hydraulic shutoff and engine bleed air valves. trips generator control relay and breaker deactivates engine driven hydraulic pump LOW PRESSURE light allows engine fire warning switch to rotate. Rotate (left or right) discharges related fire bottle. (7) Engine BOTTLE DISCHARGE Light Illuminated (amber) indicates related fire extinguisher bottle has discharged. Two engine fire bottles are provided. Use only one bottle, time for 30 seconds to determine if fire has extinguished. If fire continues to be indicated, consider using second bottle by twisting fire control level to opposite side.

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Master Fire Warning Light

Glareshield (1) Master Fire Warning (FIRE WARN) Lights Illuminated (red) indicates a fire warning in engine or APU. Push extinguishes both master FIRE WARN lights

Flight Controls
Controls and Indicators

Flight Control Panel

Forward Overhead Panel (1) FLIGHT CONTROL Switches STBY RUD activates standby hydraulic system pump and opens standby rudder shutoff valve to pressurize standby rudder power control unit.

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OFF closes flight control shutoff valve isolating ailerons, elevators and rudder from associated hydraulic system pressure. ON (guarded position) normal operating position. (2) FLIGHT CONTROL Switches Illuminated (amber) indicates low hydraulic system, (A or B) pressure to ailerons, elevator and rudder

(3) Flight SPOILER Switches ON (guarded position) normal operating position OFF closes the respective flight spoiler shutoff valve. Note: Used for maintenance purposes only. (4) YAW DAMPER Light Illuminated (amber) yaw damper is not engaged (5) YAW DAMPER Switch OFF disengages yaw ON engages main yaw damper to main rudder power control unit if the B FLT CONTROL switch is in the ON position (6) ALTERNATE FLAPS Master Switch OFF (guarded position) normal operating position. ARM closes TE flap bypass valve, activates standby pump, and arms the ALTERNATE FLAPS position switch. (7) ALTERNATE FLAPS Position Switch Functions only when the ALTERNATE FLAPS master switch is in ARM. (8) Feel Differential Pressure (FEEL DIFF PRESS) Light Armed when the TE flaps are up or down.

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Illuminated (amber) indicates excessive differential pressure in the elevator feel computer. (9) Speed Trim Failure (SPEED TRIM FAIL) Light Illuminated (amber) indicates failure of the speed trim system. (10) Mach Trim Failure (MACH TRIM FAIL) Light Illuminated (amber) indicates failure of the mach trim system. (11) Automatic Slat Failure (AUTO SLAT FAIL) Light Illuminated (amber) indicates failure of the auto slat system.

Stabilizer

Control Stand (1) Stabilizer Trim Green Band Range Corresponds to allowable range of trim settings for takeoff. (2) Stabilizer Trim Main Electric (MAIN ELECT) Cutout Switch NORMAL normal operating position. CUTOUT deactivates stabilizer trim switch operation. (2) Stabilizer Trim AUTOPILOT Cutout Switch NORMAL normal operating position. CUTOUT deactivates autopilot stabilizer trim operation.

Speed Brakes

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Control Stand (1) SPEED BRAKE Lever

Forward Panel

DOWN (detent) all flight and ground spoiler panels in faired position. ARMED automatic speed brake system armed upon touchdown, the SPEED BRAKE lever moves to the UP position and all flight and ground spoilers extend. FLIGHT DETENT all flight spoilers are extended to their maximum position for inflight use. UP all flight and ground spoilers are extended to their maximum position for ground use. (2) SPEED BRAKE ARMED Light Illuminated (green) indicates valid automatic speed brake system inputs. (3) SPEED BRAKE DO NOT ARM Light Illuminated (amber) indicates abnormal condition of the automatic speed brake system.

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Trailing Edge Flaps

Control Stand Center Forward Panel

(1) FLAP Lever selects position of flap control valve, directing hydraulic pressure for flap drive unit flap positions 30 and 40 arm the flap load relief system. (2) Flap Gates Prevents inadvertent flap lever movement beyond: position 1 to check flap position for one engine inoperative go-around position 15 to check flap position for normal go-around. (3) Flap Position Indicator indicates position of left and right TE flaps (4) FLAPS LIMIT Placard Indicates maximum speed for each flap setting.

Leading Edge Devices

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Center Forward Panel (1) Leading Edge Flaps Transit (LE FLAPS TRANSIT) Light Illuminated (amber) any LE device in transit (2) Leading Edge Flaps Extended (LE FLAPS EXT) Light Illuminated (green) all LE flaps extended and all LE slats in extended position (TE flap positions 1, 2 and 5) all LE devices fully extended (TE flap positions 10 through 40).

Flight Instruments, Displays


EFIS/Map Controls and Indicators

Captain Outboard Display

Left Forward Panel (1) Flight Mode Annunciator (2) Airspeed Indications (3) Autopilot, Flight Director System Status
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(4) Autopilot, Flight Director System Status (5) Altitude Indications (6) Vertical Speed Indications (7) Heading/Track Indications

Captain Inboard Display

Left Forward Panel (1) Navigation Display Displays map, approach, VOR, or plan modes as selected on the EFIS control panel.

Primary Flight Display (PFD) PFD Airspeed Indications

(1) Selected Speed (magenta) Displays target airspeed: indicates the airspeed manually selected in the IAS/MACH window indicates the FMC computed airspeed when the IAS/MACH window is blank.
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(2) Speed Trend Vector (green) Tip of arrow indicates the predicted airspeed in the next 10 seconds based on the current airspeed and acceleration. (3) Current Airspeed (white) Indicates current calibrated airspeed in knots. (4) Maximum Speed (red and black) Bottom of the bar indicates the maximum airspeed as limited by the lowest of the following: Vmo/Mmo landing gear placard speed flap placard speed. (5) Maximum Maneuver Speed (amber) Bottom of the bar indicates the airspeed that provides a 0.3 g maneuver margin to high speed buffet. May be displayed at high altitude with flaps up, at relatively high gross weights. (6) Speed Bug (magenta) Points to the airspeed: manually selected in the IAS/MACH window indicates the FMC computed airspeed when the IAS/MACH window is blank. When the selected speed is off scale, the bug is parked at the top or bottom of the tape, with only one half bug visible. (7) Current Mach/Groundspeed (white) Indicates current Mach or groundspeed: displays Mach when airspeed is 0.40 Mach and above displays groundspeed when airspeed decreases below 0.40 Mach

Angle of Attack Indications

(1) Digital AOA Readout (white)

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Indicates digital AOA value to the nearest 0.2 degrees. When on the ground and ground speed less than 80 knots, the readout is fixed at 0.0 degrees. (2) Analog Needle (white) Indicates analog AOA value. needle travel is limited to a range of 6 degrees and +21 degrees fixed at 0.0 degrees when on the ground and ground speed less than 80 knots. (3) Zero Degree Reference Line (white) Indicates zero degrees angle of attack. Reference lines are displayed every 5 degrees from 5 degrees to +20 degrees.

Attitude Indications

(1) Bank Scale (white) Provides fixed reference for the bank pointer; scale marks are at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 degrees. (2) Flight Director Bar (magenta) Indicates flight director steering commands. (3) Horizon Line and Pitch Scale (white) Indicates the horizon relative to the airplane symbol; pitch scale is in 2.5 degree increments. (4) Bank Pointer Indicates bank angle; fills and turns amber if bank angle is 35 degrees or more. (5) Slip/Skid Indication Displaces beneath the bank pointer to indicate slip or skid. fills white at full scale deflection turns amber if bank angle is 35 degrees or more; fills amber if the slip/skid indication is also at full scale deflection. (6) Airplane Symbol
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Indicates airplane attitude relative to the horizon.

PFD Instrument Landing System Indications

(1) Approach Reference Displays the selected ILS identifier or frequency, approach front course, and ISL/DME distances. (2) Approach Reference The pointer: indicates localizer position relative to the airplane in view when the localizer signal is received fills in solid magenta when within 2 dots from center. The scale: indicates deviation in view when the localizer frequency is tuned expands when the localizer is engaged and deviation is slightly more than one-half dot. (3) Approach Reference The pointer:
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indicates glide slope position in view when the glide slope signal is received fills in solid magenta when within 2 dots from center. The scale: indicates deviation in view when the localizer frequency is tuned.

(5) Rising Runway (green with magenta stem) Displayed when: localizer signal usable and pointer is in view radio altitude is less than 2,500 feet. Rises towards airplane symbol when radio altitude is below 200 feet.

Altitude Indications

(1) Selected Altitude Bug (magenta) Indicates the altitude set in the MCP altitude window. When the selected altitude is off scale, the bug is parked at the top or bottom of the tape, with only one half bug visible. (2) Current Altitude Displays current altitude in increments of thousands, hundreds and twenty feet. for positive values of altitude below 10,000 feet, a green crosshatch symbol is displayed. readout box becomes bold to denote altitude acquisition
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readout box is highlighted in amber and flashes to denote altitude deviation. (3) Selected Altitude (magenta) Displays the altitude set in the MCP altitude window. The selected altitude box appears in white during an altitude alert.

PFD Barometric Indications

(1) Barometric Settings (green) Indicates the barometric setting in either inches of mercury (IN) or hectopascals (HPA) as selected on the EFIS control panel. STD is displayed when the Barometric Standard (STD) switch is selected on the EFIS control panel.

Landing Altitude / Minimums Indications / Metric Indications

(1) Metric Selected Altitude Readout (readout-magenta, metric symbol-cyan) Displays MCP altitude in meters when MTRS is selected on the EFIS control panel. (2) Metric Digital Readout (readout and box-white, metric symbol-cyan) Displays current altitude in meters when MTRS is selected on the EFIS control panel.
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(3) Minimums Reference/Altitude (green) Displays approach minimum reference and altitude set by the MINS selector on the EFIS control panel.

Heading and Track Indications

(1) Current Heading Pointer (white) Indicates current heading. (2) Track Pointer (white) Indicates current track. (3) Selected Heading (magenta) Digital display of the selected heading bug. (4) Selected Heading Bug (magenta) Indicates the heading selected on the mode control panel. If the selected heading exceeds the display range, the bug parks on the side of the compass rose in the direction of the shorter turn to the heading. (5) Magnetic/True Heading Annunciation (green) MAG indicates display is oriented relative to magnetic north.

Navigation Displays Expanded and Center MAP Modes

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Expanded Map

Center Map (1) Groundspeed / True Airspeed (2) Heading Pointer (3) Track Line and Range Scale (4) Map Options (5) Airplane Symbol (6) Active Waypoint/ETA/Distance-To-Go (7) Compass Rose (8) Selected Heading Bug (9) Active LNAV Route (10) Position Trend Vector (11) Wind Direction/Speed/Arrow
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(12) Current Track (13) Number 1 VOR/ADF Pointer (14) Number 2 VOR/ADF Pointer (15) VOR/ADF Selection, Ident/Frequency, VOR DME

Expanded and Center Approach Modes

Expanded Approach Mode

Center Approach Mode (1) Wind Direction/Speed/Arrow (2) Selected Course Pointer (3) Track Line
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(4) Localizer Deviation Indication and Scale (5) Glideslope Pointer and Scale

Expanded and Center VOR Modes

Expanded VOR Mode

Centered VOR Mode (1) Wind Direction/Speed/Arrow (2) Selected Course Pointer (3) Track Line (4) Courser Deviation Indication and Scale

Plan Mode

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(1) Range Circle (2) Airplane Symbol (3) True North Up Arrow (4) Center Waypoint The waypoint located at the display center is identified as CTR on the CDU RTE LEGS page. Mode/Frequency Disagree Annunciation

(1) EFIS MODE/NAV FREQ DISAGREE (amber) The ILS or VOR source annunciation corresponds to the position selected on the EFIS control panel and the tuned VOR/ILS frequency. The annunciation is displayed: if APP is selected with a VOR frequency tuned If VOR is selected with an ILS frequency tuned.

Flight Instruments, Displays


EFIS Instruments Controls and Indicators

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EFIS Control Panel Controls Flight Instrument Displays

Glare shield (1) Minimums (MINS) Reference Selector (outer) (two positions) RADIO selects radio altitude as the minimums reference. BARO selects barometric altitude as the minimums reference. (2) Minimums (MINS) Selector (middle) ROTATE adjusts the radio or baro minimums altitude. (3) Minimums (MINS) Reset (RST) Switch (inner) (momentary action) PUSH blanks radio height ALT alert resets the radio altitude minimums alert display on the attitude indicator (4) Meters (MTRS) Switch (momentary action) PUSH displays altitude indications in meters. (5) Barometric (BARO) Reference Selector (outer) (two position) IN selects inches of mercury as the barometric altitude reference. HPA selects hectopascals as the barometric altitude reference. (6) Barometric (BARO) Selector (middle) (slew) ROTATE adjusts the barometric altitude setting on the altimeter. (7) Barometric (BARO) Standard (STD) Switch (inner) (momentary action) PUSH selects the standard barometric setting (29.92 inches Hg/1013 HPA) for barometric altitude reference. (8) Flight Path Vector (FPV) Switch (momentary action) PUSH displays flight path vector on the attitude indicator.

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EFIS Control Panel Controls Navigation Displays

(1) VOR/ADF Switch (three position) Displays VOR or ADF information on the respective RDMI. VOR displays the selected VOR bearing pointer and VOR bearing pointer source indicator. OFF removes the VOR or ADF displays and displays OFF in place of the bearing pointer source indicators. ADF displays the selected ADF pointer and ADF bearing pointer source indicator. (2) Center (CTR) Switch (inner) PUSH displays the full compass rose (center) for APP, VOR and MAP modes subsequent pushes alternate between expanded and center displays. (3) Mode Selector (outer) Selects the desired display. APP displays localizer and glideslope information in heading-up format displays reference ILS receiver, ILS frequency, course and DME. VOR displays VOR navigation information in heading-up format displays reference VOR receiver, VOR frequency, course, DME and TO/FROM information.

MAP displays FMC generated route and MAP information, airplane position, heading and track, in a heading-up format displays waypoints, including the active waypoint, within the selected range displays VNAV path deviation. PLN displays a non-moving, true north up, route depiction
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the airplane symbol represents actual airplane position allows route step-through using the CDU LEGS page (4) Range Selector (outer) Selects desired display range in nautical miles for APP, VOR, MAP or PLN modes. (5) Traffic (TFC) Switch (inner) (6) MAP Switches (momentary action) The MAP switches: add background data/symbols to MAP and center MAP modes displays can be selected simultaneously second push removes the information STA (station) displays all FMC data base navigation aids if on map scales 5, 10, 20 or 40 nm. WPT (waypoint) displays the waypoints in the FMC data base which are not in the flight plan route if the selected range is 40 nm or less. ARPT (airport) displays all airports which are stored in the FMC data base and which are within the viewable map area. DATA displays altitude constraints, if applicable, and estimated time of arrival for each active route waypoint. POS (position) displays VOR and ADF bearing vectors extended from the nose of the airplane symbol to the stations.

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Speed Reference Selector

Center Forward Panel (1) Speed Reference Selector (outer) Sets the reference airspeed bugs on the Mach/airspeed indicator: AUTO the reference airspeeds and gross weight are provided automatically through the FMC V1 used to manually set decision speed on the ground; in flight, displays INVALID ENTRY VR - used to manually set rotation speed on the ground; in flight, displays INVALID ENTRY WT allows manual entry of reference gross weight VREF - used to manually set landing reference speed in flight; on the ground, displays INVALID ENTRY Bug 5 used to manually set the white bug 5 to the desired value SET removes the digital readout above the Mach/airspeed indicator. (2) Speed Reference Selector (inner) ROTATE Manually sets the appropriate reference airspeed or gross weight The digital display appears above the Mach/airspeed indicator.

Standby Radio Magnetic Indicator

Center Forward Panel (1) Bearing Pointers narrow pointer uses signals from the VHF NAV receiver No. 1 or ADF receiver No. 1. wide pointer uses signals from the VHF NAV receiver No. 2 or ADF receiver No. 2. (2) VOR/ADF Bearing Pointer No. 1 Switch

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ROTATE selects VOR or ADF for the bearing pointer. (3) VOR/ADF Bearing Pointer No. 2 Switch ROTATE selects VOR or ADF for the bearing pointer.

Flight Management, Navigation


Controls and Indicators

Flight Management System


Note: This airplane is capable of displaying two CDUs simultaneously. Select CDU1 by clicking on the F key in the panel switcher window. Select CDU2 by selecting it from the VIEW menu within Microsoft Flight Simulator. (Each CDU updates individually within the simulator and within the VC. You cannot alter a function simultaneously on two CDUs, as the CDU logic will prevent it.)

Control Display Unit (CDU)

Forward Electronic Panel (1) Control Display Unit (CDU) Display Shows FMS data pages (2) Line Select Keys

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Push moves data from scratchpad to selected line moves data from selected line to scratchpad select page, procedure, or performance mode as applicable deletes data from selected line when DELETE is shown in scratchpad. (3) Brightness Control Rotate controls display brightness

Function and Execute Keys

CDU (1) CDU Function keys Push INIT REF shows page for data initialization or for reference data RTE shows page to input or change origin, destination, or route CLB shows page to view or change climb data CRZ shows page to view or change cruise data DES shows page to view or change descent data MENU shows page to choose subsystems controlled by CDU LEGS o shows page to evaluate or modify lateral and vertical data o shows page to control PLAN mode display DEP ARR shows page to input or change departure and arrival procedures HOLD shows page to create holding patterns and show holding pattern data PROG shows page to view dynamic flight and navigation data, including waypoint and destination ETAs, fuel remaining, and arrival estimates. N1 Limit shows page to view or change N1 thrust limits FIX shows page to create reference points on map display PREV PAGE shows previous page of related pages (for example, LEGS pages) NEXT PAGE shows next page of related pages. (2) Execute Light Illuminated (white) active data is modified but no executed (3) Execute (EXEC) Key Push
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makes data modification(s) active extinguishes execute light.

Alpha/Numeric and Miscellaneous Keys

CDU (1) Alpha/Numeric Keys Push puts selected character in scratchpad Slash (/) key puts / in scratchpad Plus Minus (+/-) key first push puts - in scratchpad. Subsequent pushes alternate between + and -. (2) Delete (DEL) Key Push puts DELETE in scratchpad. (3) Clear (CLR) Key Push Clears the last scratchpad character Clears scratchpad message.

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CDU Page Components

CDU

(1) Page Title Subject or name of data shown on page. ACT (active) or MOD (modified) shows whether page contains active or modified data. (2) Line Title Title of data on line shown (3) Line Shows Prompts Selections Options Data (4) Scratchpad Shows messages, alpha-numeric entries or line selected data. (5) Page Number Left number is page number. Right number is total number of related pages. (6) Boxes Data input is mandatory. (7) Dashes
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Data input is optional. The data is not mandatory. (8) Prompts Shows pages, select modes, and control displays. Cared < or > is before or after prompt.

FMC Alert Light

Forward Panel (1) FMC Alert Light Illuminated (amber) An alerting message exists for both CDUs, or Test switch is in position 1 or 2. Push FMC alert light extinguishes.

Radio Navigation Systems

Automatic Direction Finding (ADF) Control

Aft Electronic Panel (1) Frequency Indicator Shows the frequency selected. (2) Frequency Selector Rotate outer knob set the hundreds number middle knob sets the tens number inner knob sets the tenths and ones number.
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(3) Mode Selector Switch ADF ADF bearing sent to the DUs and the standby radio magnetic indicator. OFF removes power from selected receiver.

VHF Navigation Control

Aft Electronic Panel (1) Frequency Indicator Indicates the frequency selected by the frequency selector tuned frequency displayed in STANDBY display TFR switch moves STANDBY frequency to ACTIVE frequency. (2) Frequency Selector Rotate manually selects the standby frequency.

Transponder Panel

Aft Electronic Panel (1) Air Traffic Code (ATC) Code Indicator Shows transponder code. (2) Transponder Mode Selector TEST starts ATC transponder functional test. STBY (standby) does not transmit. XPDR (Transponder) Transponder operates with altitude reporting. (3) Air Traffic Code (ATC) Code Selector
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Rotate sets transponder code in transponder.

Flight Management, Navigation


Flight Management System Operation

Introduction
When first powered, the FMS is in the preflight phase. As a phase is completed, the FMS automatically transitions to the next phase in this order: preflight takeoff climb cruise descent approach flight complete.

Preflight
During preflight, flight plan and load sheet information are entered into the CDU. The flight plan defines the route of flight from origin to the destination and initializes LNAV. Flight plan and load sheet information provide performance information to initialize VNAV. Required preflight information consists of: initial position route of flight performance data takeoff data. Optional preflight data includes: navigation database SID STAR Reduced takeoff and climb thrust limit. Each required or optional data item is entered on specific preflight pages. Preflight begins with the IDENT page. If the IDENT page is not displayed, it can be selected from the IDENT prompt on the INIT/REF INDEX page. Preflight pages can be manually selected in any order.
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After entering and checking the necessary data on each preflight page, the lower right line select key is pushed to select the next page. When ACTIVATE is selected on the RTE page, the execute light illuminates. The EXEC key is then pushed to complete the task of making the route active before continuing with the preflight. If a standard instrument departure (SID) is to be entered into the route, the departure/arrival (DEP/ARR) page is selected (SIDSTAR procedures available at www.precisionmanuals.com). After selecting the desired SID, the resulting modification must be appropriately linked to the existing route and executed. This can be accomplished on the RTE or RTE LEGS page. When all required preflight entries are complete, the preflight status prompts on the TAKEOFF REF page are no longer displayed.

Takeoff
The takeoff phase begins with selection of TO/GA and extends to the thrust reduction altitude where climb thrust is normally selected.

Climb
The climb phase begins at the thrust reduction altitude and extends to the top of climb (T/C) point. The T/C point is where the airplane reaches the cruise altitude entered on the PERF INIT page.

Cruise
The cruise phase begins at the T/C point and extends to the top of descent (T/D) point. Cruise can include step climbs and en route descents.

Descent
The descent phase begins at the T/D point or when either a level change or vertical speed descent is initiated. The descent phase extends to the beginning of the approach phase.

Approach
The approach phase begins two miles from the first waypoint of a published approach or approach transition selected from the ARRIVALS page.

Flight Complete

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After landing, the flight complete phase clears the active flight plan and load data. Some preflight data fields initialize to default values in preparation for the next flight.

LNAV
LNAV provides steering commands to the next waypoint. If selected, LNAV engages when laterally within 3 nautical miles of the active route leg. If outside of 3 nautical miles of the active route leg, LNAV engages if on an intercept heading of 90 degrees or less and the intercept will occur before the active waypoint. FMC LNAV guidance normally provides great circle courses between waypoints. However, when an arrival or approach from the FMC database is entered into the active route, the FMC can supply commands to fly a constant heading, track, or follow an arc, as required by the procedure.

Waypoints
Waypoint (navigation fix) identifiers are displayed on the CDU and navigation display. The CDU message NOT IN DATA BASE is displayed if a manually entered waypoint identifier is not stored in the database. Navaid Waypoint Names VHF waypoints located at VHF navaids (VOR/DME/LOC) are identified by the official one, two, three or four character facility identifier. Example: Las Angeles VORTAC LAX. NDB waypoints located at NDBs are identified by use of station identifier. Example: Hanau, Germany HU. Fix Waypoint Names Fixes with one-word names waypoints located at fixes with names containing five or fewer characters are identified by the name. Example: ALPHA. Unnamed Point Waypoint Names Unnamed oceanic control area reporting points positions in the northern hemisphere use the letters N and E, while positions in the southern hemisphere use the letters S and W. Latitude always precedes longitude. For longitude, only the last two digits of the three digit values are used. Placement of the designator in the five character set indicates whether the first longitude digit is 0 or 1. The letter is the last character if the longitude is less than 100 and is the third character if the longitude is 100 or greater. N is used for north latitude, west longitude. E is used for north latitude, east longitude. S is used for south latitude, east longitude. W is used for south latitude, west longitude. Examples: N50 W040 becomes 5040N
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N50 E020 becomes 5020E S52 W075 becomes 5275W S50 E020 becomes 5020S.

Navigation Displays
The route is displayed on the navigation display in the map, map center, and plan modes. The display color and format represent the following status: an inactive route is displayed as a cyan dashed line an inactive but not yet executed route is displayed as a cyan dashed line the active route is displayed in magenta modifications to an active route are displayed as dashed white lines modified waypoints are displayed in white

Vertical Navigation (VNAV)


VNAV provides vertical profile guidance through the climb, cruise, and descent phases of flight.

Speed/Altitude Restrictions
VNAV controls the path and speed to comply with waypoints crossing restrictions. Waypoint crossing restrictions are entered on the LEGS page waypoint line by pushing the applicable key on the right side of the CDU. Barometric altitude restrictions must be below the cruise altitude to be valid. Values entered as part of a procedure and manually entered restrictions are shown in large font. FMC predicted values do not act as restrictions, and are shown in small font.

Takeoff and Climb


No diagram provided for explanation

VNAV Operation during takeoff and climb. (1) Thrust Reduction Climb thrust is selected by pushing the N1 switch or automatically upon reaching the thrust reduction altitude. (2) VNAV Engagement VNAV commands an airspeed increase to the planned climb speed profile, limited by configuration.
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(3) VNAV Climb The VNAV climb profile uses VNAV SPD at the default climb speed or pilot selected climb speed to remain within all airspeed and altitude restrictions that are part of the SID entered into the active route. Autothrottle uses selected climb thrust limit. If the climb speed profile cannot achieve an altitude restriction, the UNABLE NEXT ALTITUDE scratchpad message is shown. (4) Climb Restrictions VNAV enters the VNAV PTH mode to remain within departure or waypoint restrictions. Speed maintained during this time can be: procedure based speed restriction waypoint speed restriction default VNAV climb speed manually entered climb speed (5) Top Of Climb (T/C) The point where the climb phase meets the cruise altitude is called the top of climb. Approach this point, the FMC changes from the climb phase to the cruise phase. The T/C is shown any time the FMC calculates a change from a climb phase to a cruise phase, such as a step climb.

Cruise
At cruise altitude, the FMC sets cruise speed at the default or pilot entered speed until reaching the top-of-descent (T/D) point. Cruise thrust is set as required to maintain level flight at the target speed, with the autothrottle engaged. Fuel and ETA predictions are based on a constant altitude cruise unless a step climb altitude is entered.

Descent
VNAV can perform a descent in either of two modes path descent or speed descent. During a path descent, the FMC uses idle thrust and pitch control to maintain a vertical path. During a speed descent, the FMC uses idle thrust and pitch control to maintain a target descent speed, similar to a level change descent.

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Top Of Descent (T/D) The point where the cruise phase changes to the descent phase is the top of descent. The T/D point is shown on the map as a green open circle with the label T/D. T/D is calculated from an end of descent (E/D) point. End Of Descent (E/D) The FMC calculates a descent path based on airspeed restrictions, altitude restrictions and the end of descent (E/D) point. The E/D point is shown on the map as a green open circle with the label (E/D). VNAV Descent and Approach Path The descent path starts at the calculated top of descent (T/D) point and includes waypoint altitude restrictions. The path is based on: idle thrust speedbrakes retracted applicable target speed Normally, the target speed is economy speed above the airspeed restriction altitude and 240 knots below that altitude, until deceleration for approach. VNAV will not permit descent below the airspeed restriction altitude until the airspeed is at or below the restricted value plus ten knots. VNAV Path Descent The path descent normally begins automatically at the calculated T/D point, provided the MCP altitude is reset for the descent. If descent is not initiated by the T/D, a path descent may not be available. At the T/D, the FMC commands idle thrust and pitch to follow the descent path. The descent complies with waypoint altitude restrictions by following the calculated vertical path. A path descent will automatically revert to a speed descent, or VNAV will disengage, if all required parameters are not maintained during descent. The CDU message DRAG REQUIRED is displayed if an unexpected tailwind results in a significant increase in airspeed to maintain path.

VNAV Cruise and Speed Descent Profile


No diagram provided for explanation

VNAV Operation during cruise and descent. (1) Cruise

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Before the top of descent, FMC is in cruise mode and uses VNAV PTH and ECON cruise speed. (2) Descent After top of descent, FMC is in descent mode and VNAV changes to economy descent speed and descends in VNAV SPD. (3) Speed Restriction Deceleration Before the speed restriction altitude, VNAV decelerates to commanded speed using VNAV SPD. When at restricted speed, VNAV commands decreased pitch and descends in VNAV SPD. (4) VNAV Path During a speed descent, VNAV may not maintain the FMC computed VNAV path. However, if E/D shows, a VNAV path is available.

Go-Around
Below 2000 feet radio altitude, a go-around can be initiated by pushing the TO/GA switch while in a descent. Once the go-around is initiated the thrust limit changes to go-around thrust.

Flight Management, Navigation


Flight Management Computer

Thrust Management

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The autothrottle operates in response to flight crew mode control panel inputs or to automatic FMC commands. Reference thrust can be selected on the N1 LIMIT page. Automatic FMC autothrottle commands are made while VNAV is engaged. Thrust limits are express as N1 limits. The FMC calculates a reference thrust for the following modes: takeoff derated takeoff climb reduced climb cruise continuous go-around. The thrust reference mode automatically transitions for the respective phase of flight. These modes can be selected on the N1 LIMIT page. The selected thrust reference mode is displayed on the thrust mode display. The flight crew can specify the thrust reduction height where the transition from takeoff to climb thrust takes place by making an entry on TAKEOFF REF page 2. Allowable entries are 800 feet to 15,000 feet.

Reduced Thrust Takeoff


Fixed takeoff derates can be selected on the N1 LIMIT page.

Derated Thrust Climb


Two fixed climb thrust derates can be selected on the N1 LIMIT page. CLB-1 provides a climb reduced by 3% N1. CLB-2 provides a climb limit reduced by 6% N1. The reduced climb setting gradually increases to full rated climb thrust by 15,000 feet. In cruise, the thrust reference automatically changes to CRZ. The reference can be manually selected on the N1 LIMIT page.

Fuel Monitoring
Fuel quantity values show on the PERF INIT page and on PROGRESS page. The CDU message INSUFFICIENT FUEL is displayed if predicted fuel at destination will be 2000 lb (900 kg) or less.

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Flight Management, Navigation


FMC Preflight

Preflight Page Sequence


The normal preflight sequence follows paging prompts on each CDU page. The normal FMC power-up page is the identification page. Preflight flow continues in this sequence: identification (IDENT) page position initialization (POS INIT) page route (RTE) page DEPARTURES page (no automatic prompt) Performance initialization (PERF INIT) N1 LIMIT page Takeoff reference (TAKEOFF REF) page. Some of these pages are also used in flight.

Fuel
Controls and Indicators

Fuel Control Panel

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Forward Overhead Panel (1) Engine Valve Closed (ENG VALVE CLOSED) and SPAR VALVE CLOSED Lights Extinguished related engine or spar fuel shutoff valve is open. Illuminated (blue) related engine or spar fuel shutoff valve is closed Illuminated (bright blue) related engine or spar fuel shutoff valve position in transit or disagrees with commanded switch position. (2) FUEL Temperature (TEMP) Indicator Indicates fuel temperature in No. 1 tank. (3) Crossfeed VALVE OPEN Light Extinguished crossfeed valve is closed. Illuminated (blue) crossfeed valve is open. Illuminated (bright blue) valve in transit or disagrees with commanded position. (4) CROSSFEED Selector Controls fuel crossfeed valve. Closed isolates engine No. 1 and No. 2 fuel feed lines. Open connects engine No. 1 and No. 2 fuel feed lines. (5) Center Tank FUEL PUMP LOW PRESSURE Lights Illuminated (amber) fuel pump output pressure is low and FUEL TEMP switch is ON.
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Extinguished fuel pump output pressure is normal, or FUEL PUMP switch is OFF. (6) FUEL PUMP Switches ON activates fuel pump. OFF deactivates fuel pump. NOTE: The 737 is not capable of crossfeeding fuel tank to tank. The airplane can feed both engines from a single tank, however. To crossfeed fuel, select Left/Right pumps ON and open cross feed valve. Turn off pumps on the side fuel should NOT be drawn from. To stop cross feeding, turn Left/Right fuel pumps ON then close crossfeed valve.

Hydraulics
Controls and Indicators

Hydraulic Panel

Forward Overhead Panel (1) Electric Hydraulic Pump OVERHEAT Lights Illuminated (amber) Hydraulic fluid used to cool and lubricate the corresponding electric motor driven pump has overheated or the pump itself has overheated. (2) Hydraulic Pump LOW PRESSURE Lights Illuminated (amber) output pressure of associated pump is low. (3) ELECTRIC HYDRAULICS PUMPS Switches ON provides power to associated electric motor-driven pump. OFF electrical power removed from pump. (4) ENGINE HYDRAULIC PUMPS Switches ON de-energizes blocking valve in pump to allow pump pressure to enter system. OFF energizes blocking valve to block pump output.
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NOTE: EDPs are generally left on to promote lubrication of pumps.

Landing Gear
Controls and Indicators

Landing Gear Panel

Center Forward Panel (1) Landing Gear Indicator Lights (top) Illuminated (red) landing gear is not down and locked. Extinguished landing gear is up and locked with landing gear lever UP or OFF landing gear is down and locked with landing gear lever DN. (2) Landing Gear Indicator Lights (bottom) Illuminated (green) related gear down and locked. Extinguished landing gear is not down and locked. (3) LANDING GEAR Lever UP landing gear retract OFF hydraulic pressure is removed from the landing gear system

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DN landing gear extend.

Autobrake Controls

Center Forward Panel (1) AUTO BRAKE DISARM Light Illuminated (amber) manual brakes applied during RTO or landing. Extinguished AUTO BRAKE select switch set to OFF Autobrakes armed. (2) AUTO BRAKE Select Switch OFF autobrake system deactivated 1, 2, 3, or MAX selects desired deceleration rate for landing. RTO automatically applies maximum brake pressure when thrust levers are retarded to idle at or above 90 knots.

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FMC USERS MANUAL

8-1

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT COMPUTER TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUBJECT PAGE

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT COMPUTER CONVENTIONS AND USAGE.............8-3 FMC DISPLAY PAGES ACCESSED WITH MODE KEYS.................................8-7 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM INTERNAL FUNCTIONS .........................8-12 PRE-FLIGHT INITIALIZATION PROCESS......................................................8-14 ARRIVAL / DEPARTURE PROCEDURES ......................................................8-24 REVIEWING THE ROUTE OF FLIGHT ...........................................................8-27 FIXES AND CUSTOM WAYPOINTS IN THE FMC..........................................8-30 FMC FLIGHT PLAN MODIFICATION ..............................................................8-33 FMC TAKEOFF PROCEDURES .....................................................................8-37 FMC CLIMB OPERATIONS.............................................................................8-41 FMC CRUISE OPERATIONS ..........................................................................8-43 FMC DESCENT OPERATIONS.......................................................................8-45 FMC APPROACH PROCEDURES..................................................................8-48 FMC FLIGHT REFERENCE AND CREW SUPPORT......................................8-49

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8-3

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT COMPUTER CONVENTIONS AND USAGE


Overview: The Next Generation 737 uses a fully integrated Flight Management System that is comprised of the following core equipment: Autopilot Flight Director System Flight Control Computers Flight Management Computer CDUs Autothrottle Inertial Reference System Navigation Equipment Digital Clock Mode Control Panel FMC Database FMC/CDU (Crew inputs)

Input from these systems is combined to conduct comprehensive aircraft control calculations. Output from the FMC/CDU is sent to the following systems: Integrated Display System (PFD & ND) Autopilot Flight Director System Mode Control Panel Autothrottle Servo Electronic Engine Controls

Together these systems provide a fully automatic, full regime flight control and information display system. The FMS is capable of providing flight control from takeoff to rollout. There are two primary tools that crewmembers use to interface with the FMS: the Flight Management Computer/Control Display Units (FMC/CDU) and the Autopilot Mode Control Panel (MCP). The backbone of the FMS is the Flight Management Computer/Control Display Unit. The FMC/CDU performs the following major functions. Flight Planning Navigation Computation Navigation Display Guidance Commands (pitch, roll and thrust) Interface to Inertial Reference System (IRS) Performance Optimization Thrust Limit Calculation Autothrottle Control

Launching the FMC/CDU: The Next Generation 737 cockpit has two FMC/CDUs mounted at the forward end of the throttle pedestal. To closely model the functionality of the 737 Next Generation cockpit, the PMDG 737 is capable of displaying two FMC/CDUs on the screen at one time. To activate the captains FMC/CDU, press the F key on the panel switch device:

The FMC takes input and sensory information from many aircraft systems, including the following: Flight Control Computers (FCCs) Air Data Computer Fuel Quantity Indicating System Weight and Balance Computer VOR/DME/ILS Receivers Inertial Reference System DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision 1.4 23APR04

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8-4

FMC USERS MANUAL The second FMC/CDU can be activated on screen by selecting it from the VIEWS/PANELS menu within Microsoft Flight Simulator. display screen is capable of showing 14 lines of data 24 characters wide in both large and small fonts. Numeric and Alphabetic keys are provided for crew input. Fifteen function and mode keys are provided to assist the crew in selecting and managing FMC modes.

Both FMC/CDUs can be operated from within the Virtual Cockpit as well. Each FMC/CDU is linked to its own Flight Management Computer mounted in the aircrafts electronics bay. Each FMC is comprised of five processors, and integrates data received from the air data sensors, crew input, navigation radios, engine and fuel sensory systems, inertial reference system and internal navigation database. This information is then used to provide steering commands to the autoflight systems in both roll and pitch modes, as well as to the autothrottle servos. Navigation and positional data is provided to the Navigation Display. Each FMC is capable of receiving input independent of the other, and both systems will continually compare input/process results to ensure information consistency on both FMCs. If inconsistencies are detected, a resynchronization process is automatically initiated. FMC/CDU Layout: The FMC/CDU is comprised of a data display screen with six line select keys located on the left and right sides of the screen respectively. The data Revision 1.4 2APR04 FMC/CDU Display: The MCDU display screen is comprised of 14 data lines capable of displaying 24 characters across in large or small font. The display is broken into three distinct areas: Page Title Line Text Lines (1-6) Scratch Pad

The title line is present on every page and describes the current page that is being viewed along with that pages data status. (ACTive, MODified, etc.) The text lines contain information that is aligned against the left and right sides of the display, and can be manipulated by the Line Select Keys. The Scratchpad is where crew data entry will take place. All entries that are made by the crew for entry into the FMC must first be entered into the scratch pad. PMDG 737NG - AOM

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FMC USERS MANUAL (Obviously, some information cannot be down/up-selected. Most lines that require information input from the crew will accept down/up selection of information, however.) Scratchpad: The last line of the display is a scratchpad which allows for alpha numeric input by the crew, or down-selection of FMC data from other lines. Data Lines: Six pairs of lines that contain data and information. Lines may also contain prompts for data input by the crew. The upper line in each line pair is called the Title Line (small font), while the lower line is called the Data Line (large font). Lines and line pairs are referenced by the associated LSK on either side of the display. (Hence 1L, 2L, 3L or 1R, 2R, 3R, etc.)

8-5

Title Line: Top line of the display. Shows title of current page display. You can use this line to tell immediately what page of the FMC you have displayed. Line Select Keys: The FMC/CDU has six LSKs on each side of the screen in order to facilitate data input and manipulation. The keys are identified by their position relative to the display and their sequence from top to bottom. (e.g. The LSKs are identified as either Left or Right and are numbered from 1 to 6 starting at the top.) The LSKs are used for the following functions: Down-selection of data from a particular line to the scratchpad (if the scratchpad is empty.) Data Entry from scratchpad into selected line. Access to data or function identified by LSK.

Display Norms and Prompts: The FMC/CDU has certain norms that, if recognized, make the unit easier to use.

To down-select information into the scratch pad, simply press the LSK next to the data you desire to copy. This will cause the information to be copied to the scratch pad line. To up-select information from the scratch pad to a line in the display, simply press the LSK for the line to which the information is targeted. This will cause the information to be copied from the scratch pad to the desired line in the display.

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FMC USERS MANUAL Required Entry Boxes: In order to operate, the FMC requires certain information to be entered. Gross Weight, Fuel Reserves and Cruising Altitude are examples of information that the FMC needs in order to operate correctly. Boxes in any FMC/CDU display line indicate that information is required by the FMC. Examples include Gross Weight, Startup Position, etc.

Page Numbers: Many pages of information contain more information that the FMC/CDU screen is able to show at one time. In these cases, the FMC/CDU will display a page counter at the upper right corner of the screen. (In this case, 1/3 indicates that the display is currently showing screen one of three total screens for POS IDENT. Using the CLR key: Pressing the CLR key a single time is similar to pressing the backspace key on a conventional keyboard. In order to facilitate erasing the scratch pad, we have added the ability to press and hold the CLR key to delete the entire contents of the scratch pad. To remove all items in the scratchpad, simply press and hold the CLR key for one second.

LSK Prompts: At any time a < or a > carat is used adjacent to a line select key, this indicates that an additional or related menu can be accessed by pressing the associated LSK. For example, the <INDEX prompt above indicates that pressing the 6L LSK will take you to the INDEX page. Crew Data Entry/Selection Lines: Dashed lines allow for crew entry of specific data which is unique to each individual flight, such as departure airport, destination airport, speed/altitude restrictions, flap acceleration heights, etc.

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FMC DISPLAY PAGES ACCESSED WITH MODE KEYS


Overview: The PMDG 737: The Next Generation uses an FMC that has fifteen mode keys available on the FMC/CDU. These keys provide direct access to a number of functions within the FMC that will be used by the crew during various phases of flight. <ACT> Indicates that the sub-system is currently active and operating. <HLD> Indicates that the pilot has selected the sub-system but the FMC/CDU has not yet established active communications with that sub-system. (In this case because ACARS functionality is not currently available in the PMDG FMC.) INIT REF Key: When pressed, the INIT REF key will provide access to one of the following pages: IDENT POS PERF THRUST LIM TAKEOFF APPROACH

MENU Key: The MENU key provides access to the FMC and other aircraft subsystems that use the FMC/CDU for input or control. When pressed, the MENU key brings up the following display screen on the FMC/CDU:

The FMC will automatically display the page which is most appropriate for the current phase of flight. During the preflight phase, for example, the FMC will begin by displaying the IDENT or POS pages so as to allow the crew to begin initializing the FMC. During the approach phase of flight, the FMC will automatically choose the APPROACH page, etc. If the page displayed is not the page desired by the crew, pressing the LSK which has the <INDEX prompt (usually 6L) will return the MCDU to the following screen:

In the current version of the PMDG FMC, not all functions are active from this screen, as evidenced by the grayed out items in the menu. Currently only the FMC function is available by the FMC/CDU, but ACARS functionality is planned. If pressed during flight, the <FMC prompt will bring up the last displayed FMC page. When the MENU page is active, a <STATUS> prompt will be shown adjacent to each FMC/CDU function. PMDG 737NG - AOM

The INIT/REF INDEX page allows crew access to the following initialization and reference pages: IDENT: Aircraft identification and nav database verification page. POS: Position Initialization (on ground) or Position Reference page (in flight). PERF: (Located on page 2/2 of PERF page) Performance initialization page (Gross weight, Fuel Loading, Cost Index, etc.) Revision 1.4 23APR04

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FMC USERS MANUAL The route being displayed is described by the title line of the RTE display, and can be any of the following: RTE or ACT RTE or MOD RTE Route 1 was displayed. Route 1 is active. No route was activated. Note: Currently the PMDG FMC is only capable of displaying a single route entry. The actual aircraft allows two. The RTE page displays the waypoint fixes and the method that the FMC will use to reach each successive fix. (Jet Route, Victor Airway, Direct, etc.) CLB Key: The CLB key is used to display the FMC/CDU page dedicated to climb thrust and altitude control. The CLB page is used to monitor the progress and performance of the climb, as well as to set the desired performance or adjust the speed of the climb.

TAKEOFF: Takeoff parameter reference and initialization page. APPROACH: Approach reference and initialization page. NAVDATA: Display and list navdata information and saved flight plans. Other functions listed on this page are not implemented, but are included here for completeness and growth of future functionality. If the INIT/REF INDEX is reached via the MENU key, the following menu will be presented. (Grayed out items are not yet implemented.)

RTE Key: When pressed, the RTE key provides access to the ROUTE page. The ROUTE page will be blank if a new route has not yet been loaded, or it will display ACT RTE (route is activated) or MOD RTE (route has been modified and needs confirmation.)

CRZ Key: The CRZ key is used to monitor and adjust the parameters that are being used to manage flight during cruise.

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FMC USERS MANUAL The LEGS page is used frequently during the course of flight to manage altitude and speed constraints Additionally the legs page is used to modify individual fixes along the route of flight, or to enter customer waypoints into the flight plan.

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The CRZ page provides information related to altitude, fuel and speed that can be used by the crew to plan and manage decisions effectively. DES Key: The DES page provides descent speed, fuel and planning information that can be used to control the descent portion of flight. There are two methods used to calculate the descent phase of flight, and the active method is displayed as part of the DES page title.

DEP/ARR Key: The DEP/ARR key accesses the DEPARTURES and ARRIVALS pages and the DEP/ARR INDEX page. These pages are used to select published departure procedures (Standard Instrument Departures, or SIDs) and published terminal arrival procedures, (Standard Terminal Arrivals, or STARs).

LEGS Page: The LEGS page is similar in function to the RTE page in that it displays the loaded route of flight. The LEGS page differs, however in that the LEGS page will show every single fix over which the flight will cross, while the RTE page only shows the major route fixes that connect the individual navigation methods to make up the route.

The DEP/ARR INDEX page allows the crew to select (using the appropriate LSKs) either the appropriate DEP procedure, or an ARR procedure for either of the two possible routes stored in the FMC HOLD: The hold key provides control pages through which the crew can establish and control the addition of holding procedures to the active flight plan. Revision 1.4 23APR04

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FMC USERS MANUAL

N1 LIM Key: The N1 LIMIT page allows for the selection and control of engine performance limits during takeoff, climb, cruise and descent.

PROG Page: The PROGRESS page is used to monitor the progress of flight and parameters such as time, distance and fuel consumption. FIX Key: The FIX page allows the crew to enter desired visual waypoints onto the Navigation display by defining them in relation to known points within the Navaid database. The fixes are no required to be a part of the active flight plan, and are displayed as green information on the display.

EXEC Key: The EXEC key is only active when the light bar contained within the key is illuminated. The key is used to confirm and changes to the vertical and lateral route plan.

At any time the EXEC key is active, an <ERASE prompt will appear on the MCDU display in order to facilitate cancellation or deletion of a proposed action.

NEXT PAGE/PREV PAGE Keys: The NEXT PAGE and PREV PAGE keys are used in conjunction with MCDU displays which occupy more than one page on the MCDU display. Multiple page MCDU displays are indicated by the use of page numbering in the upper right hand corner of the MCDU display.

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FMC USERS MANUAL A wrap around feature is included so that if the NEXT PAGE key is pressed again when the current page is the last in the display, (e.g. 5/5) then the first page of the display (1/5) will be displayed next. This feature also works for the PREV PAGE key

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FMC USERS MANUAL

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM INTERNAL FUNCTIONS


Performance Management: The FMS is capable of managing nearly all aspects of aircraft performance so as to optimize precision and economy of flight. The FMS is only capable of providing such information if the gross weight, cost index target altitude and a route have been entered into the FMC/CDU by the crew.. Vertical Navigation can only be accomplished if the performance initialization page is complete. The performance model uses input from fuel flow, engine data, altitude, gross weight of the aircraft, flaps, airspeed, Mach, temperature, vertical speed, acceleration and location within a programmed flight plan to determine the optimum performance for the aircraft at any given moment. The performance management modeling used by the FMS attempts to provide a least cost performance solution for all phases of flight, including climb, cruise and descent. The default cruise performance management setting is ECON, or economy cruise. The airplane and engine data models are used to provide an optimum vertical profile for the selected performance mode, even if ECON has been overridden by the crew. During the climb, an optimum Mach speed target and a corresponding thrust target are computed by the FMS, with the speed target transmitted to the vertical guidance function of the autoflight director system. The AFDS will then generate commands to the elevator in order to maintain the correct pitch for the required speed. Thrust setting commands are delivered to the autothrottle servos by the FMS, and used in conjunction with the pitch setting commands to maintain the optimum speed and climb as directed by the FMS. During cruise, an optimum Mach setting is computed and thrust setting commands are delivered to the autothrottle. During descent, a vertical path is computed based on the flight plan entered into the FMC/CDU. The FMS will evaluate expected wind conditions, aircraft speed, altitude, position relative to the planned end-ofRevision 1.4 2APR04 descent point and any intermediate altitude or speed constraints between the aircraft and the end-of-descent point. This information will be passed to the AFDS for pitch based speed and vertical speed control and the autothrottles for vertical speed and thrust management. In ideal conditions, an idle thrust optimum descent profile is flown, however in many cases thrust and pitch will be varied to account for wind conditions or to ensure proper tracking of the vertical descent profile. Important Note Regarding MSFS: It should be noted that the PMDG FMC uses realistic algorithms to compute the effect of wind conditions and reported wind conditions on the planned descent profile. Some weaknesses in the modeling of weather transitions within MSFS may cause rapid shifts in reported wind-speed and direction, which may have the effect of changing the predicted descent path. For this reason, PMDG urges caution when using this airplane with any third party weather generation software, as we have found large variances in manner in which these software packages attempt to manage sudden wind shifts within MSFS, thus causing unreliable descent angle and wind effect prediction. Navigation Accuracy: The FMS automatically selects and tunes VHR OmniRange (VOR) and Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) in order to constantly update the position and speed of the aircraft. This information is used in conjunction with the Inertial Reference System (IRS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) to ensure accuracy in all phases of flight. The FMS will primarily attempt to GPS position information, then combine range information corrected for slant range from two separate DME locations, and finally position from three Inertial Reference Units (IRUs). If no usable VOR/DME information is available, the FMS will monitor aircraft position based on IRS/GPS data only, until the aircraft is determined to be in a location where DME/VOR information is once again PMDG 737NG - AOM

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FMC USERS MANUAL available for position and velocity cross checking. The FMS navigation management system will also compute and provide true and magnetic track information, drift angle, magnetic variation for the current aircraft location and vertical flight path information. The FMC automatically determines which VOR/DME combinations will yield the best result given their position relative to the aircraft. Guidance Management: Two dimensional flight path management is available along an FMC programmed flight path in either the vertical navigation mode (VNAV) or lateral navigation mode (LNAV). Both of these modes are selected by using the LNAV/VNAV buttons on the Autopilot Mode Control Panel (MCP). When used in conjunction with one another, the FMS is capable of providing fully integrated three dimensional flight path management along the FMC defined flight path. The LNAV guidance function issues steering commands to the AFDS in order to keep the aircraft navigating correctly along the programmed route of flight. Deviations from the center of the desired flight track are corrected using intercept procedures and flight track adjustments. Normal lateral flight path deviation should not exceed 0.1nm in most phases of flight. In all phases of an LNAV managed flight, the FMS will monitor cross track error, which is defined as the lateral distance separating the aircraft from its desired path of flight. Roll and steering commands are provided to the AFDS Flight Control Computers in order to correct the cross track error. The FMS is capable of providing a great circle Direct-To track to any point programmed into the FMC/CDU displayed flight path. The VNAV guidance function controls the aircraft along the vertical flight path as defined by the FMC/CDU entered flight path and the aircrafts performance limitations. VNAV takes position data from the navigation system and compares it to the vertical profile as defined in the FMC/CDU entered flight plan. The vertical navigation function then provides pitch and thrust commands to the AFDS in order to intercept and maintain the defined vertical profile for the current phase of flight. For vertical performance modes where vertical speed is unconstrained (most climbs) the VNAV system will provide pitch and thrust commands to the AFDS so as to maintain the most efficient climb based on the current thrust mode selected. This results in the most economically beneficial climb gradient, not necessarily the most rapid climb gradient. VNAV uses essentially two basic pitch control modes to manage the vertical flight profile: speed or rate of climb/descent. When speed the controlled factor the AFDS autothrottle will be given a target thrust setting by the vertical navigation function, and the elevator will be used to control speed, resulting in a variable rate of climb or descent based upon conditions. When vertical speed is the controlled factor, the AFDS will issue commands to the elevator for vertical speed control, and the AFDS will adjust the autothrottle to maintain speed, resulting in a fixed rate of climb/descent and variable speed based upon conditions. Thrust Management: The FMS thrust management function is capable of performing autothrottle control law calculations based upon commands from the navigation function, as well as direct crew input from the FMC, manual adjustment of throttle position, or AFDS autothrottle commands. The autothrottle control law function provides automatic N1 equalization in all modes of flight, as well as thrust limit protection and N1 thrust requirement calculations to maintain MCP or AFDS speed and thrust settings. Autothrottle modes can be selected or overridden by the crew as required. PMDG 737NG - AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE

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FMC USERS MANUAL

PRE-FLIGHT INITIALIZATION PROCESS


Overview: When power is first applied to the aircraft, the FMC/CDU conducts a full self test and is then ready for preflight initialization. The preflight portion of FMC operation prepares the flight management system with information that is needed in order to manage flight. Note: Tremendous effort has been placed into the development of a high fidelity FMC/CDU interface, AFDS, MCP and predictive algorithms for flight planning and conduct. An FMC is not simply a sophisticated GPS, but should be viewed as a highly sophisticated scientific instrument. The complexity of mathematics contained in real FMCs has been reproduced here to an extensive degree using actual engineering methods and principles. In some cases we have not included certain functions within the FMC/CDU as they were not deemed to be reasonably usable within the confines of MSFS. As we continue development of the airplane and its systems, some new functions will of course be added. Please keep your PMDG 737 up to date by ensuring you always have the most current Service Updates installed! IDENT Page: When first powered, the FMC will display the IDENT page. The IDENT page is easily identified by the IDENT title page line at the top of the display screen. Helpful Hint: Pay close attention to the information that appears in the TITLE LINE of the FMC/CDU screen. You will find that the pages are intuitively named, and learning the name of pages with specific information will help you quickly master the sophisticated FMC/CDU! The data displayed on the IDENT page identifies the aircraft by type, engine thrust rating, navdata cycle FMC Operating Program. The data appearing on this page should not change on a regular basis, but it is important that this preflight check be accomplished in order to protect against system faults or improper system reloads during updates and/or changes to the FMS or FMC navdata information. The following information is provided on the IDENT page: MODEL: The airplane model is displayed in line 1L. ENG RATING: The thrust rating of the engines current installed is displayed in line 1R. NAV DATA: The current navdata cycle and effective dates are displayed. PMDG has selected Richard Stefans venerable AIRAC navdata cycle database system to power the PMDG FMC. This decision was made based on the wide acceptance of this navdata system within the simulation community, and the dedication and accuracy of Richard Steffans work. The navdata cycle information is displayed in the NAV DATA line, and the active dates for the database are displayed under the ACTIVE title on the right side of the screen.

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FMC USERS MANUAL currently modeled however, the information is provided below in anticipation of the IRS position update capability being added at a later date. The POS INIT page is selected by pressing LSK at the POS INIT> prompt, or by selecting <POS INIT from the INIT/REF INDEX page.

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Helpful Hint: If you see the phrase INSTALLATION REQUIRED under the NAV DATA title, this means that you do not have the AIRAC navdata information properly installed, and your FMC/CDU will not operate correctly! To install the navdata information correctly: 1) Got to www.navdata.at 2) Download and install the 767PIC/PMDG All-In-One installer 3) Install the navdata into the following directory: FlightSimulator/FMCWP/NAVDATA (replace FlightSimulator with the location of your FS installation!) 4) Download the SID/STAR database from our 737 Operators Information Center 5) Place all the SID/STAR files into the FS/PMDG/SIDSTARS directory. Now you will have access to the full range of navdata and sid/star information for the FMC/CDU! OP PROGRAM: The operational program identifier is displayed in line 4L. This number is the part number of the FMC operational software program. If this number is not matched identically by both FMCs, then the system will remain locked at the IDENT page. (Call Maintenance! You cannot fix this from the airplane!) Toward the bottom of the screen, Line 6 contains two prompts, <INDEX (on the left) and POS INIT> (on the right.) Pressing the 6L LSK adjacent to the <INDEX prompt will display the INIT REF INDEX page. Pressing the 6R LSK adjacent to the POS INIT> prompt will display the Position Initialization page of the FMC. POS INIT Page: The POS INIT page allows for position initialization of the Inertial Reference System (IRS). In the current version of the PMDG FMC, the IRS is not PMDG 737NG - AOM

The fields displayed on the POS INIT page are as follows: LAST POS: This reference position is the last recorded position of the aircraft at the time the aircraft was powered down, or at the time the brakes were last set. If determined to be applicable, this information can be down-selected via the scratchpad to satisfy the position initialization requirements of line 4R. Crews are advised to use caution when down-selecting the LAST POS reference position, as it may contain accumulated IRS drift inaccuracy from the previous flight. In addition, if the aircraft has been towed to a new gate or moved while the IRS was not aligned, the reference position will be inaccurate. REF AIRPORT: Entry of a reference airport ICAO code (International Civil Aviation Organization) will cause a reference position to become available in 2R. This reference position can be down-selected via the scratchpad to satisfy the position needs of 4R if desired. GATE: The gate position reference is not currently modeled in the AIRAC database but is used to provide exact gate position Revision 1.4 23APR04

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FMC USERS MANUAL reference to the IRS during position initialization. SET IRS POS: The prompt boxes at 4R indicate that current aircraft position has not be initialized, or that any of the IRS modules is in the align mode. (If neither of these conditions is true, then 4R will be blank.) To satisfy the prompt boxes at line 4R, the reference latitude/longitude position can be entered directly into the scratch pad, then line selected to 4R, or by -selection of the LAST POS or REF AIRPORT reference position via the scratch pad. Helpful Hint!: The IRS is not currently modeled in the PMDG 737. As such, it is not necessary to pass the current airplane location to the FMC via the POS/INIT page of the FMC. Once the PMDG 737 IRS is installed, this function will become necessary. by selecting the ROUTE> prompt from the POS INIT page. The fields displayed on the RTE page are as follows: ORIGIN: The airport of origin for the flight. Valid entries include any four letter ICAO airport code. Type the desired entry into the scratch pad using the FMC keyboard, then upselect to the ORIGIN by pressing the 1L LSK. (Note that the boxes indicate that origin and destination are required entries!) DEST: Airport of destination. Valid entries include any four letter ICAO airport code. CO ROUTE: To load a previously saved flight plan into the FMC/CDU, simply type the name of the saved flight plan into the scratch pad and upload it to the 2L LSK. Helpful Hint!: Saving and loading flight plans is covered in greater detail on page 18 FLT NO: Airline code and flight number. Valid entries are any alpha numeric combination not including + or -. The flight number will automatically be displayed on the PROGRESS page as well, and may be changed but not deleted. REVERSE: (not always displayed) the REVERSE cue allows you to load a saved flightplan between to points, and to reverse the plan in order to effect a return flight, for example. ACTIVATE: Once a valid origin/destination have been added to the RTE page and a flight plan has been entered, the FMC/CDU will display the ACTIVATE> prompt at the 6L LSK. Note: Once the ACTIVATE prompt is selected, the FMC will activate the flight plan to make it usable. This will also trigger the EXEC key on the FMC/CDU to illuminate, indicating that the EXEC key should be pressed in order to confirm the action!

GMT MON/DAY: Line 5L displays the current time in GMT according to the airplanes clock. RTE Page: The RTE page is used to program the route to be followed during flight. On this page information such as origin, destination, company route name (for saved flight plans) flight number and planned departure runway can be added.

The RTE page is accessed either by pressing the RTE key on the FMC/CDU or Revision 1.4 2APR04 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM

FMC USERS MANUAL Programming the Route of Flight: Once the ORIGIN, DEST, and FTL NO. have been entered into the RTE page it will look similar to this: example, assume that the route of flight to be used is described as follows: Depart KIAD and fly direct to WOOLY intersection, then follow V214 to the SWANN intersection. WOOLY is located approximately 20nm north of KIAD, and V214 is a route that has two distinct turns while crossing a half dozen fixes and VORs before reaching SWANN intersection. Since KIAD has already been entered as the origin airport, it does not need to be entered again into the route. Type the first fix name (WOOLY) into the scratch pad, and upload the fix to the 1R LSK. The FMC/CDU will check the database for the intersection name that you have entered, and if it is found to be unique, it will populate the fix name to the appropriate place on the screen. (Depending upon which LSK you pressed.) In the case of WOOLY, there are more than one intersections that bear this name. Geographically they are very far apart, but the FMC/CDU will always present them to you for validation before using one in a flight plan! As such, you will be presented with a screen the looks similar to this:

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Notice that the page indication has changed from 1/1 to 1/2 this indicates that a second page is now available and can be accessed using the NEXT PAGE key on the FMC/CDU. Pressing the NEXT PAGE key will display RTE page 2/2 as follows:

The RTE page 2/2 is where crewmembers manually enter the route of flight. This is accomplished by typing fix names individually into the scratch pad, then uploading them in order to the right LSKs. The RTE page 2/2 should be viewed as two distinct columns based on their titles: VIA and TO. The TO column is where individual fixes along the route of flight are entered. The VIA column describes how to get there. For PMDG 737NG - AOM The FMC/CDU will always sort the fixes so that the fix closest to your position will be listed FIRST in the list. This makes Revision 1.4 23APR04

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FMC USERS MANUAL selection easy, but crewmembers are still responsible for verifying fix locations prior to using them for flight! To select the desired fix, press the LSK adjacent to the name of the fix you wish to use. (In this case 1L LSK.) The FMC will then populate the fix name to the RTE page 2/2 as follows: On longer routings, a flight path may turn in many places or cross upwards of 40 navigation fixes before reaching desired fix, so the FMC/CDU allows crewmembers to define the route to follow in the VIA column of the RTE page 2/2 in order to prevent the typing of every fix name along a route of flight. In our example, we wish to follow V214 between WOOLY and SWANN. This, we upload SWANN as the fix following WOOLY, but then take the additional step of adding V214 to the VIA column describing how we should reach SWANN.

WOOLY is now displayed under the TO column on the RTE page 2/2. You will note that DIRECT is displayed under the VIA column, as the FMC/CDU assumes that it should fly DIRECT to any fix entered into the RTE page. The next fix described in the flight plan is SWANN. When SWANN is entered into the RTE page, the FMC/CDU also assumes that DIRECT is the desired method to reach SWANN after passing WOOLY.

Examining the RTE page 2/2, now shows that our programmed flight is: DIRECT WOOLY then V214 to SWANN. When the entire route of flight is entered, the RTE 2/2 page will look something like this:

This would not be a correct according to our clearance as the cleared route of flight was to follow V214 from WOOLY to SWANN. (The BAL VOR is located between WOOLY and SWANN, but is not on a direct path between the two, so the route of flight turns slightly at BAL.) Revision 1.4 2APR04

Note: KIAD-KJFK is a very short route of flight. On longer routes it is possible to have 5 or 6 pages of navigation information added. Simply use the NEXT PAGE key to reach those pages of information. Saving a Flight Plan: Once the desired route of flight has been entered it is always a PMDG 737NG - AOM

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FMC USERS MANUAL good idea to save the route of flight for future use. To save a flight plan, return to the RTE page 1 and notice that the <SAVE prompt is now active at the 5L LSK. (You may need to activate your flight plan first!)

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Select the NAV DATA> prompt by pressing the 1R LSK. This will take you to the NAV DATA screen as follows:

By pressing the <SAVE prompt, your flight plan will be saved in a directory as a text file. The file is saved in the following location: C:\flightsim\PMDG\FLIGHTPLANS (C:\flightsim is replaced by the root directory of your MSFS installation!) Your flight plan save will be confirmed by the following message in the scratchpad of the FMC/CDU:

The REF NAV DATA page is used to review information about individual navigation wapoints, navaids and airports from within the navigation database. Additionally you can review the names of saved flight plans from this location by pressing the FLT PLANS> prompt at the 3R LSK.

Loading a saved flight plan: Loading saved flight plans is simple to do and very closely mirrors the initialization process used by flight crews around the world to initialize the FMC/CDU prior to flight. To load a flight plan, press the MENU key to bring up the FMC/CDU main menu as follows:

This will present you with a list of flightplans that are currently saved in your PMDG/FLIGHTPLANS directory as follows:

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FMC USERS MANUAL Saved flight plans cannot be loaded from this page, as the page is for display purposes only. From this page, you can downselect to the scratchpad the name of the flight plan that you wish to load and activate within the FMC/CDU. places required entry boxes in all locations where information is needed.

To load and activate the flight plan, you simply return to the RTE page, and upselect the flight plan name to the Company Route prompt as follows:

Note: The title line on this page displays PERF INIT until the initialization is completed, at which point the title changes to ACT PERF INIT to indicate that it is ACTIVE. The fields displayed on the PERF INIT page are as follows: GW/CRZ CG: Aircraft Gross Weight in thousands of pounds must be entered at the 1L LSK, followed by the cruise flight CG percent of MAC (Mean Aerodynamic Chord) setting. Aircraft Gross Weight must always equal the aircraft Zero Fuel Weight plus the weight of boarded fuel. Normally, the gross weight figure that needs to be entered into the GW/CRZ CG line is reported to the crew by the airline load planner who has calculated aircraft mass based on the items loaded and passengers/fuel boarded. To simulate this process, PMDG has allowed for manual crew entry based on crew flight planning, or crewmembers may alternately press the 1L LSK to automatically populate the current aircraft gross weight to the display. When the Gross Weight has been confirmed, it is displayed in large font. FUEL: The FUEL indicator displays the current weight of fuel boarded in thousands PMDG 737NG - AOM

This will load the saved flight plan, and trigger the ACTIVATE> prompt so that crewmembers can confirm the route and EXEC it into active memory. Note that when the route has been successfully loaded, activated and executed, the RTE page title changes to ACT RTE as displayed above. ACT RTE indicates that the route is ACTIVE.

PERF INIT Page: The performance initialization page allows entry of critical aircraft performance factors needed by the FMS in order to accurately predict aircraft performance. It is easy to determine which items remain to be entered as the FMC Revision 1.4 2APR04

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FMC USERS MANUAL of pounds. Total Fuel Quantity is sensed by the Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) and reported to the FMS. If the FQIS is deactivated or inoperative, prompt boxes will alert the crew to enter fuel quantity manually in line 2L. ZFW: The aircraft zero fuel weight is displayed in line 3L. Weight is displayed in the thousands of pounds, with an optional decimal point. Prompt boxes alert the crew that the ZFW must be entered manually, however confirmation of GR WT and FUEL fields will automatically update the ZFW field. Again, optionally pressing the 3L LSK will automatically populate this information to the FMC/CDU. RESERVES: The reserve fuel weight is displayed at line 4L. Prompt boxes alert the crew that a reserve fuel weight in thousands of pounds must be entered. Even if no reserve fuel is to be carried the crew must enter a figure. (0 or greater) Helpful Hint: The value entered for fuel reserves is used by the FMS to determine when there is no longer sufficient fuel remaining to reach the programmed destination with the desired amount of reserve fuel remaining. Lowering this figure will cause the warning to cease, or lowering current fuel burn rates will also cease the warning. Occasionally it is possible to trigger the low fuel warning during initial climb out when a combination of factors such as current fuel burn, length of flight, fuel on board and reserve fuel desired create only a small margin of extra fuel on the airplane for current conditions. Once the aircraft is stable at cruise flight and current fuel burn is reduced to cruise levels, the warning will normally cease. Continued INSUFFICIENT FUEL warnings should not be ignored, however as they may be an indication of an impending problem such as excessive headwinds, higher than normal fuel consumption or an undetected fuel leak. Cost Index: The cost index number is a scale value from 0 to 1000 that helps to determine a level of economy for aircraft performance calculation. Cost index is calculated as the aircraft operating cost divided by fuel cost. [($/hour aircraft operating cost) / (Fuel Cost in Cents/Pound)] A cost index of 00 will result in the maximum fuel cost. Some costs associated with aircraft are directly related to flight hours, so the cost of operation of the aircraft reaches its Min Cost Curve point at a different figure, generally about 350 cost index points greater. The higher the cost index, the fast the airplane will be flow with a commensurately increased cost for fuel and reduced cost for aircraft operating. A low cost index with slow climb rates, maximum range cruise and slow descent speeds predicted by the FMC will minimize fuel burn. A high cost index will result in higher climb rates, cruise and descent speeds. The cost index is designed to provide a relative index of the cost of aircraft operation vs. time en-route. The cost index model used in the PMDG 737 is based upon the CI model used in each of the four airframes simulated. TRIP/CRZ ALT: Planned cruise altitude for the flight can be entered in the CRZ ALT section. (Note: Do not exceed the TRIP altitude described here, or you will be planning a cruise altitude that is not economically acceptable for current aircraft conditions and configuration.) TANS ALT: This entry allows for manual adjustment of the transition altitude for the area of flight. The completed PERF INIT page follows:

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FMC USERS MANUAL Selecting a lower thrust rating will reduce acceleration forces, deck angle during the climb, and result on lower rates of wear and tear on the engines over time. When the N1 LIMIT page is brought up during preflight planning, an <ACT> cue is placed in he left-center column of the display in a position to indicate that full takeoff thrust is selected. Pressing either the 2L LSK or 3L LSK will move the <ACT> prompt down to the associated line. Upon completion of the PERF INIT page, the N1 LIMIT> prompt will be displayed at the 6R LSK. N1 Limit Page: The N1 Limit page is used to select the thrust performance desired during takeoff and climb. When the takeoff phase of flight is active, the climb thrust cue will show <SEL> to indicate that the thrust mode is not active, but is selected to become active at the thrust rating associated on the right side of the display. For example, in the image shown above, a TO-1 derate to 22,000lbs of thrust has been selected, with a CLB-2 derated thrust performance The expected engine N1 percentages for the selected takeoff and climb (given current conditions) are displayed in the upper right corner of the N1 LIMIT page. After takeoff and climb thrust rates have been selected, the TAKEOFF> prompt at the 6R LSK will complete the preflight process. Available takeoff power derates are listed on the left side of the display while the climb power derates are available on the right side of the display. Thrust derates are normally used when the aircraft is lighter than maximum gross weight and serve to normalize acceleration forces, takeoff roll and climb rates provided that runway length and climb clearance are not a factor. For example, if very few passengers are boarded a full thrust takeoff will result in excessive acceleration during takeoff roll and high deck angles due to the overabundance of thrust based on the light weight of the airplane. TAKEOFF REF Page: The Takeoff page is where final aircraft takeoff configuration is programmed into the FMC/CDU.

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FMC USERS MANUAL The following information is displayed by the TAKEOFF REF page: FLAPS: The flap setting for takeoff should be entered into the scratch pad and upselected to the 1L LSK. Thrust Setting: (note: Displayed as 24KN1, 22KN1, 20KN1, etc depending upon thrust setting selected for takeoff.) The expected N1 RPM percentage for takeoff and climb id displayed at the 2L LSK. These entries cannot be modified except by changing the thrust setting selected on the N1 LIMIT page. CG: As described earlier, CG and Trim settings described within the FMC are not yet functional within the PMDG FMC. Future updates are planned to bring these capabilities online in a realistic fashion. V1/Vr/V2: The Next Generation 737 does not automatically populate the FMC with VSpeeds based on crew input to the FMC/CDU. V-Speeds are normally entered manually into the TAKEOFF REF page to control the speed bugs on the Primary Flight Display. To simplify the process of looking up takeoff performance data, PMDG has automated the process for crewmembers. Simply click on the 1R, 2R and 3R LSKs to automatically populate the correct V1, Vr and V2 speeds to the FMC. Helpful Hint!: The Next Generation 737 is a small yet powerful airliner. It is not uncommon to find V1 and Vr speeds that are identical when operating the airplane at low takeoff weights! The selected speeds for takeoff are affected by many things, including the runway selected, climb clearances, selected takeoff thrust, aircraft weight and desired flap settings. If any of these variables are changed after the V-Speeds are selected into the FMC, you will receive a V-SPEEDS DELETED message in the FMC/CDU scratch pad and the speed bugs will be removed from the primary flight display. This is to prevent the crew from using the incorrect speeds after a change has been made that will affect takeoff performance. When V-Speeds are correctly selected, the aural warning system on the airplane will automatically call out V1 and V2 speeds. The Pilot Not-Flying should call out the V1 speed at the appropriate time. The TAKEOFF REF page is normally that last page that is used for preflight and departure. If, when loading this page, the PREFLIGHT COMPLETE descriptor is not seen across the center of the screen, then important data for the FMC/CDU preflight process must still be entered. Return to the INIT REF page and review all entries to ensure that the missing data is found, entered and a PREFLIGHT COMPLETE message is received on the TAKEOFF REF PAGE.

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ARRIVAL / DEPARTURE PROCEDURES


Overview: Many large airports throughout the world have standardized arrival and departure procedures in order to maximize aircraft flow into and out of the airport terminal control area. These procedures are know as Standard Instrument Departures (SID) and Standard Terminal Arrivals (STAR). The PMDG FMC is designed to maximize the realism of user experience by including access to many of the SID/STAR procedures used throughout the world. Note: We have included a sample of procedures that covers approximately 1300 airports worldwide with runways greater than 5000 feet in length. This procedure database realistically represents approximately 1/3 of all the SID/STAR airports worldwide, and in some cases may not contain all the procedures for any given airport. Additionally because the procedures change continually you may find them to be out of date with currently published procedures. We have developed a comprehensive and easy to use programming lexicon to that will allow even novice users to program their own SID/STAR procedures. (see later in this guide!) PMDG regularly updates the SID/STAR database for the PMDG FMC, and the most current versions of this database will always be available at the PMDG 737 Operators Information Center at www.precisionmanuals.com Using SID/STARS: Loading a SID/STAR procedures can at first appear complicated to users who do not understand how SID/STAR procedures and TRANSITIONS are used to manage aircraft traffic flow. The design theory behind SID/STAR procedures is really quite simple: Guide aircraft into and out of the airport terminal space using predicted flight paths in order to Revision 1.4 2APR04 keep arrival and departure traffic from conflicting in controlled airspace. To do this, SIDs are traditionally linked to specific navigation fixes across which departing aircraft fly. For example, a major international airport may have as many as a few dozen pre-defined fixes to across which all departing traffic must cross. Arriving traffic into an airport will be treated similarly, with aircraft being routed along specific routes to bring them into position from where they can be inserted into the final approach corridor for specific runways. By publishing these procedures, air traffic control is able to quickly and efficiently assign aircraft to known routes with very little radio work or interaction with the flight crew. In order to understand how the FMC/CDU manages information related to SID/STARs, it is helpful to imagine the flight linearly. The first navigation fix that the airplane will use is a runway. Thus, the FMC/CDU will need to know which runway it the aircraft will depart from. The FMC/CDU will also want to know the ROUTE OF FLIGHT that is being used to reach the destination. (Route entry is covered earlier in this chapter) At the end of the flight, the FMC/CDU will want to know what runway the airplane will land on. A SID and (sometimes) a TRANSITION is used to show the FMC/CDU how the airplane will get from the departure runway to the ROUTE OF FLIGHT. At the other end of the flight, a TRANSITION (sometimes) and a STAR is used to show the FMC how it will get from the end of the ROUTE OF FLIGHT to the landing runway. It is important to recognize that not all SID/STARs serve every runway at any specific airport. In fact it is common to find a PMDG 737NG - AOM

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FMC USERS MANUAL specific SID or STAR that only serves a portion of the runways at any given airport and thus it is not unusual to find that selecting certain runways will eliminate some SID/STAR procedures from availability. Note: The assignment of a SID/STAR and TRANSITION procedure is normally always handled by ATC, as the procedures are designed to assist ATC traffic flow processes. Crews almost never select and load a SID/STAR without it having been assigned by ATC, but for the purpose of MSFS the use of these procedures is entirely at crew discretion. DEP/ARR INDEX Page: The DEP/ARR INDEX page allows for selection of the published arrival and departure procedures at the origin and destination airports. The DEP/ARR INDEX page is accessed by pressing the DEP/ARR key on the FMC/CDU keypad. from your departure airport. This will load the STAR as requested and allow it to be followed to your departure airport. DEPARTURES Page: SID selection is made by pressing the <DEP prompt on the DEP/ARR INDEX page. Pressing the <DEP prompt key will display a DEPARTURES page for the selected airport. The DEPARTURES page allows the crew to select the SID and associated runway to be used. A sample DEPARTURES page is shown below:

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SIDS: The SIDS are listed on the left side of the display at 1L through 5L. A SID can be selected by pressing the associated LSK. Once a SID is selected, a <SEL> indicator will appear next to the associated SID to indicate that it has been selected by the crew. When a SID is selected the FMC/CDU will change the list of available runways on the right side of the screen to reflect only those runways that are compatible with the selected SID. To deselect a SID, simply press the LSK a second time. Runways: The available departure runways for the selected airport are listed at 1R through 5R. Pressing the associated LSK will illuminate a <SEL> indicator on the selected runway to indicate that it has been selected by the crew. Selection of a departure runway before selection of a SID cause the FMC to display only those SID that are compatible with the selected runway. Revision 1.4 23APR04

The 1L, 3L and 6L keys allow for selection of SID procedures stored in the FMC SID database. Keys 1R through 4R and 6R allow for selection of STAR procedures stored in the FMC STAR database. The center of the display shows the crew entered or COMPANY ROUTE entered arrival and departure ICAO airport codes. Helpful Note!: The PMDG FMC now allows the selection of arrival procedure STARs at your departure airport. If a return to field is necessary, simply pull up the DEP/ARR INDEX and select the STAR as you normally would, except that you should select the star PMDG 737NG - AOM

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FMC USERS MANUAL approaches/runways that are compatible with the selected STAR. To deselect a STAR, simply press the LSK a second time. Approaches: The available approaches for the selected airport and STAR are listed at 1R through 5R. Pressing the associated LSK will illuminate a <SEL> indicator on the selected approach to indicate that it has been selected by the crew. When an approach/runway is selected the FMC/CDU will change the list of available STARs on the left side of the screen to reflect only those STARs that are compatible with the selected approach/runway. To deselect a STAR, simply press the LSK a second time. If the ARRIVALS page displayed is for the active route or for the airport of destination, selecting a STAR or an approach will automatically insert the appropriate fixes into the flight plan. To alert the crew that these changes have been made, and to allow for verification, the EXEC key will illuminate. Pressing the EXEC key will confirm the selections. Selection of an ARRIVALS procedure does not need to be accomplished during the preflight process, but is included here for balance and clarity. Arrival procedures are normally selected during the initial approach planning phase of the flight. TRANSITIONS: In some airport environments it is necessary to use a TRANSITION route to move airplanes between the end if a SID and the route of flight, or the end of the route of flight and the beginning of a STAR. In cases where transitions are defined, the DEP INDEX and ARR INDEX pages will also list the available transitions. Transitions, like the SID/STARS/RUNWAY/APPROACHES, will cause the FMC to display only those SIDs, STARS or runways with which they are compatible at the time they are selected.

To deselect a runway, simply press the LSK a second time. If the DEPARTURES page displayed is for the active route or for the airport of origin, selecting a SID or runway will automatically insert the appropriate fixes into the flight plan and update the runway selection on the RTE page. To alert the crew that these changes have been made, and to allow for verification, the EXEC key will illuminate. Pressing the EXEC key will confirm the selections, but a route discontinuity will be inserted into the route to ensure that the route is verified by the crew prior to being flown. ARRIVALS Page: STAR selection is made by pressing the appropriate <ARR prompt on the DEP/ARR INDEX page. Pressing the <ARR prompt key will display an ARRIVALS page for the selected airport. The ARRIVALS page allows the crew to select the STAR and associated runway to be used. A sample ARRIVALS page is shown below.

Standard Terminal Arrival Route: The STARs are listed on the left side of the display at 1L through 5L. A STAR can be selected by pressing the associated LSK. Once a STAR is selected, a <SEL> indicator will appear next to the associated STAR to indicate that it has been selected by the crew. When a STAR is selected the FMC/CDU will change the list of available approaches/runways on the right side of the screen to reflect only those

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REVIEWING THE ROUTE OF FLIGHT


Overview: After a route is loaded and a departure runway, SID and (if desired) STAR and landing runway are selected, it is always convenient to review the flight plan in detail to ensure that it is accurate. The Next Generation 737 includes two primary tools to review a flight plan in detail: FMC/CDU LEGS pages Navigation Display Information displayed on the RTE LEGS page includes: FIX NAME: The name of each fix along the route of flight is displayed in the left-most column of the RTE LEGS page. Entries that will be seen in this column include any VOR, NDB, Navaid, waypoint or other geographic fix which is defined within the navdata database. Additionally, conditional waypoints such as altitudes or locations will be displayed here contained in parenthetic. Above each fix name, the Desired Track that connects each fix to the next is described in small text.

Used in conjunction with one another, the 737 provides a powerful suite of tools to ensure that route entry into the FMC is accurate and matches the clearance received by the crew prior to departure. RTE LEGS Page: The RTE LEGS page is accessed by pressing the LEGS key on the FMC/CDU. The RTE LEGS page is similar to the RTE pages in that it displays the route of flight as entered into the FMC/CDU. The RTE LEGS pages vary, however in that they do not display airway (jet route or victor airway) information, and instead will display for the crew every single fix along a route of flight, no matter how long or how many fixes may exist along an airway. The RTE LEGS pages also provides valuable navigation information such as distance to fix, distance between fixes as well as planned altitude and speed information.

For example, after crossing WOOLY, the desired track to BAL is 130 degrees. This is the ground track that the airplane should fly when transiting between these two fixes. Leg Distance Information: The center of the RTE LEGS display provides leg distance information for each leg of the flight plan. Once again, the distance displayed at 1L is the distance from the current aircraft position to the first navigation fix in the flight plan. All other distance indications represent the distance between the previous and next legs of the flight plan. Speed/Altitude Predictions or Constraints: When the FMC flight plan is fully initialized, the FMC will calculate a set of predicted altitude and speed values for each leg of the flight plan. These predictions appear in small font in lines 1R through 5R. The FMS will provide these predicted altitude and speed values for each navigation fix unless the crew manually enters constraint values into the flight plan. Constraint (or desired) values may need to be entered by the crew in order to adhere to

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FMC USERS MANUAL published approach procedures or ATC clearances. Constraint values are entered by typing them manually into the scratchpad, then up-selecting them to the desired flight plan leg. Altitude Constraints: The use of altitude constraints allows the crew to enter either ATC assigned waypoint/altitude constraints, or to program waypoint/constraints assigned by published approach procedures. Altitude constraints are entered by direct entry into the scratchpad, the up-selecting them to the desired line of the flight plan. The available altitude constraints are as follows: AT constraints. AT OR ABOVE constraints. AT OR BELOW constraints. Speed Constraints: Speed constraints can be used by the crew to comply with ATC assigned speed constraints directly associated with a particular navigation fix. E.g. Cross HFD at 250 knots. Speed constraints must always be entered in association with an altitude constraint, and are entered numeric format from 100 to 400 knots Calibrated Air Speed, followed by the / indicator which separates the speed constraint from the altitude constraint. (e.g. XXX/FL180A) ABOVE and BELOW modifiers are not possible for airspeed constraints. According to the sample page shown, the flight plan calls for crossing WOOLY at 250 knots at 9000 feet, then accelerating to 275 knots while crossing BAL at 15000 feet. Speed information entered into the RTE LEGS page will affect VNAV operation, and altitude information will serve to feed the FMC with vertical planning information even though it is still the crews responsibility to manage the altitude assignment and altitude change assignments from ATC. Helpful Hint! When updating the speed and/or altitude constraints, the following formats are usable: /FL180 (updates altitude only) /18000 (updates altitude only) 310/FL180 (updates speed and altitude) 310/18000 (updates speed and altitude) 310/ (updates speed only) The RTE LEGS page and the ND: Coupled with the navigation display, the RTE LEGS page becomes a powerful tool that can be used to review the entire route of flight that has been entered into the FMC/CDU. When the Navigation Display is placed PLN mode, (rotate the selector to PLN on the EFIS MCP) a <CTR> cue will appear in the center column of the RTE LEGS page. The <CTR> cue identifies the fix that is currently used to center the navigation displays Flight Plan Display. PMDG 737NG - AOM

AT constraints are used to indicate that the airplane must be at a specific altitude when crossing the associated fix. Entry of AT constraints can be in feet or flight level. (e.g. 18000 or FL180) AT constraints are simply entered into the scratchpad and up-selected to the desired navigation fix LSK. AT OR ABOVE constraints are used to indicate that the airplane should cross the associated fix at a specific altitude, but may also cross at a higher altitude if the FMS calculates that it is more efficient to do so given the current flight disposition. The AT OR ABOVE altitude constraint can be entered in feet or flight level. (e.g. 18000 or FL180) AT OR ABOVE constraints are entered into the scratchpad in the format XXXXXA or FLXXXA and up-selected to the desired navigation fix LSK. AT OR BELOW constraints are used to indicate that the airplane should cross the associated fix at a specific altitude, but my also cross at a lower altitude if the FMS calculates that it is more efficient to do so given the current flight disposition. The AT OR BELOW altitude constraint can be entered in feet or flight level. (e.g. 18000 or FL180) AT OR BELOW constraints are entered into the scratchpad in the format XXXXXB or FLXXXB and up-selected to the desired navigation fix LSK. Revision 1.4 2APR04

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FMC USERS MANUAL The <CTR> indicator can be cycled through all points of the flight plan in order to display portions which may not be visible using the standard range display settings of the ND. To cycle the <CTR> cue forward, simply press the STEP> prompt that is displayed at the 6R LSK. The navigation display ND PLAN MODE display is always oriented in a north-is-up mode, and can be modified using the EFIS MCP keys to display VOR stations, airports and nav fixes.

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With each successive press of the STEP> prompt, the Navigation Display will move further along the flight plan with the center of the display being focused on the fix that is currently identified by the <CTR> cue in the RTE LEGS page.

The fix that is currently the <CTR> cue in the FMC/CDU will be highlighted in white on the navigation display, and will be located at the center of the ND PLAN MODE display.

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FMC USERS MANUAL

FIXES AND CUSTOM WAYPOINTS IN THE FMC


Overview: The FMC/CDU is a highly sophisticated navigation tool that can be used to navigate the airplane to almost any point in three-dimensional space. The database contains tens of thousands of predefined navigation fixes that describe the location of airports, approach fixes or reference points in the database. As a tool, the FMC would be slightly limited if it were not possible for crewmembers to define their own navigation waypoints from within the database when needed. The FMC is capable of navigating the aircraft to any point in space that can be defined using geographic reference, or reference to a fix already included in the FMS database. This provides endless opportunity for crews to define points in space that can be used for navigation. For example, when given ATC instructions to cross 15 miles west of XYZ at and maintain seven-thousand a fix can be described in the FMC/CDU in order to facilitate compliance with the instructions. Additionally, the crew can define waypoints simply for their convenience, or for improved accuracy of navigation along extended routes. FMC Database Waypoints: Waypoints are entered into the left side of the RTE LEGS page individually via the scratchpad. Navigation identifiers/Fixes can be represent the following: Airport Waypoint NDB VOR VOR/DME VORTAC DME/TACAN Runway Final approach fixes Navigation fixes can be entered into the RTE LEGS page in a number of formats. In most cases, crew embers will navigate using existing navigation fixes such as published waypoints and VORs. These types of navigation fixes can be entered directly into the RTE LEGS page by name, and will be called from the stored FMC navigation database. FMC Custom Waypoints: In some cases, however, it becomes necessary for crewmembers to provide unique navigation fixes or waypoints to the FMC in order to satisfy the changing ATC requirements, or in order to clearly define an unusual published approach for the FMS. In such cases, it is possible for the crew to define navigation waypoints in the FMC using position and altitude data relative to existing waypoint entries. Currently, the PMDG FMC is capable of accepting custom waypoint entry in the following formats: Place Bearing Distance waypoints (PBDs) Bearing / Bearing waypoints (BBs) Along Track waypoints (ATWs) Latitude Longitude Waypoints (LLWs)

The process for entering these three types of waypoints is described below. Place Bearing/Distance Waypoints: PBD waypoints can be entered into the left fields of the LEGS page by entering the fix description into the scratchpad and upselecting to the desired line. PBD waypoints describe a geographic point that is at a specific bearing and a specific distance from a navigation fix that is already defined in the FMC navigation database. For example, a PBD waypoint can be described as being on a bearing of 180 degrees and 50 miles from the XYZ VOR.

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FMC USERS MANUAL PBD waypoints can be defined from any point in the navigation database. The proper format for entering a PBD waypoint into the scratchpad is as follows: PPPPPBBB/DDD Where PPPPP is the existing navigation waypoint (1 to 5 alphanumeric characters), BBB.B is the bearing and DDD.D is the distance. The decimal place is considered to be optional for both bearing and distance. Latitude/Longitude Waypoints: Latitude/Longitude waypoints are pilot entered waypoints defined by a specific geographic reference in a latitude/longitude format. The proper format for entering a Latitude/Longitude waypoint into the scratchpad is as follows: NXXXXX/EXXXXXX SXXXXX/WXXXXXX For example, entry for a latitude/longitude waypoint at the geographic location N33 30.9 W115 56.6 would be entered as follows:

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PBD bearing entries from 0 to 360 degrees and distance entries from 0 to 999 miles are valid Once entered, a PBD is displayed in the route as PPPSS, where PPP represents the first three characters of the navigation fix and SS represents an FMC assigned code number. In the example above, the fix will be displayed as HNK01, and the FMC/CDU will insert a route disconnect that needs to be resolved and EXECUTED by the crew.

The entry is then up-selected to the desired line in the RTE LEGS display, where it will be condensed for display in the route, as shown below. The expanded entry can be redisplayed on the scratchpad by pressing the associated LSK. Place Bearing/Place Bearing Waypoints: PB/PB waypoints are fixes defined by the intersection of courses from two waypoints. For this reason, PB/PB waypoints are also described as Course Intersection Waypoints. The PB/PB waypoint garners its name from the fact that the waypoint is being defined at a point which is one bearing from one place and one bearing from another. For example, the geographic location where a course of 010 from one navaid intersects a course of 270 from a second navaid is a PB/PB waypoint.

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FMC USERS MANUAL Along Track Waypoints are the simplest of the custom waypoints, because they are entered exactly as issued by ATC. For example, if ATC were to issue the following climb restriction, best rate of climb until ten miles beyond HNK the crew simply enters the restriction into the FMC as an along track fix by using the following format: FFF/#DD XXXXXBBB/YYYYYBBB XXXXX and YYYYY represent the existing navigation fixes which are being used to describe the PB/PB waypoint. BBB.B represents the bearing from each existing fix. The decimal point is optional in the bearing entries. (Note: The # above should be replaced with either a + or a sign. + signifies beyond the waypoint while a signifies before the waypoint.)

PB/PB waypoints are useful when a navigation fix is defined by the intersection of two courses, or when called upon to navigate a specific radial from one navaid until intercepting a specific radial of a second navaid. The proper format for entering a PB/PB waypoint into the scratchpad is as follows:

Once entered into the scratchpad, the PB/PB waypoint can be up-selected into the route by pressing desired LSK. The PB/PB waypoint is described in the route by the format XXXSS, where XXX represents the first three letters of the first waypoints name, and SS is an FMC assigned sequence number. In the example above, HFD01 PB/PB waypoints can be defined from any fix within the navaid database. Along Track Waypoints: Along track waypoints are commonly used to mark a descent or climb restriction that is issued by ATC in reference to a navigation fix that exists along the route of flight.

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FMC FLIGHT PLAN MODIFICATION


Overview: During the course of a flight it often becomes necessary to adjust a flight plan in the FMC in order to keep it consistent with ATC clearances, shortened routings or route deviations. Using the appropriate FMC function entry to modify a flight plan greatly reduces crew workload when route of flight changes are necessary. Direct-To: Direct-To flight plan entries instruct the FMC to fly a course direct to a particular fix. The fix may be part of the active flight plan, active modified flight path, or it may be off the intended path of flight. Direct-To routings are often used when ATC issues a shortcut for the route of flight as shown below: The simplest way to perform a DIRECT-TO change is to downselect or type the desired fix into the scratchpad:

Then simply upselect the desired fix to the 1L LSK. This will cause the modified route to be displayed on the Navigation Display as a dashed white line, and will illuminate the EXEC key on the FMC/CDU to indicate that the route of flight change must be EXECUTED in order to take effect.

Direct-To routings are most easily accomplished by pressing the LEGS key on the FMC/CDU, and using the ACT RTE LEGS pages.

During the modification there are some important changes to notice on the LEGS page of the FMC. First, when the desired fix is uploaded to the 1L position, the FMC recognizes that a modification has been made to the route. As such, the TITLE LINE of the page changes to MOD RTE LEGS to indicate that the route has been modified, but is not yet active because it has not been EXECUTED. Additionally, the FMC will offer an ABEAM PTS> prompt at the 5R LSK and an INTERCEPT CRS at the 6R LSK. PMDG 737NG - AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision 1.4 23APR04

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FMC USERS MANUAL the fix to the 1L LSK. This in effect tells the FMC/CDU that you are planning to cross that fix as the next point along your flight path. If you were to press the EXEC key at this time, the FMS will provide you with a routing directly from your present position to the fix displayed at 1L. (This would be a Direct-To entry!) The clearance provided requires that a specific radial be tracked toward the fix, however so an additional step is required.

To intercept a specific inbound course to a fix, (Intercept the course 080 TO BOS, for example.) the crewmember simply needs to enter the desired course TO the fix at the 6R LSK. This will cause the FMS to calculate and fly an heading to intercept the inbound radial specified in the INTC CRS prompt. Pressing the EXEC key will confirm the change, or pressing <ERASE will cancel the Direct-To selection. Once the <EXEC key has been pressed, the FMS will be updated to fly Direct-To the desired fix. Intercept Course: An intercept course is similar to the Direct-To operation. An intercept course instructs the FMC to intercept a particular course that should be followed TO a specified fix. (It is always helpful to keep in mind that for purposes of the FMC, it must always intercept a course TO a fix.) Intercept Course entries are useful for complying with SID and STAR transitions, or for complying with an ATC instruction such as, fly heading 090 until intercepting the 230 degree radial of BTY Fly that radial to BTY then the remainder of route as filed. Any time ATC or published route procedures call for the crew to intercept a specific course or heading to/from a navigation fix, the Intercept Course entry can solve the navigation problem via the FMC.

6R will show the current course to the desired waypoint. If a different intercept course is desired, it should be entered into the scratchpad, then up-selected to 6R by pressing the 6R key. This will instruct the FMS to intercept the desired course to the fix. The FMS will compute a great circle course between the current airplane location and the closest point of intercept to the desired course, and display that course on the ND as a dashed white line. Pressing the EXEC key will confirm the change, or pressing <ERASE will cancel the Intercept Course selection. Once the <EXEC key has been pressed, the FMS and flight plan will be updated. If the crew wishes to fly a particular heading until intercept, this can be accomplished by selecting that heading in the MCP heading selector window. If LNAV is armed, LNAV will engage and begin tracking the inbound course when the aircraft approaches the intercept course entered into 6R.

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FMC USERS MANUAL Inserting A Navigation Fix: During flight it may become necessary to insert a new navigation fix into the flight plan in order to comply with ATC procedures or instructions. This task is also accomplished using the LEGS page in the FMC/CDU. Enter the name of the fix directly into the scratchpad. associated LSK. This fix identifier can then be up-selected to the line containing the disconnect prompt boxes. The FMC will then re-sort the flight plan to allow the updated routing.

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The fix identifier is then up selected into the ACT RTE LEGS page at the position that is desired along the route of flight. When up-selecting a navigation fix to an existing flight plan, the FMC will add the new fix to the line selected, and move all following navigation fixes down in the sequence. When inserting fixes into a flight plan, the FMC will display a set of prompt boxes in the line immediately following the new fix, along with the message ROUTE DISCONTINUITY. This alerts the crew that they must confirm for the FMC which navigation fix will follow the newly added fix.

Pressing the EXEC key will confirm the change, or pressing <ERASE will cancel the Intercept Course selection. Once the <EXEC key has been pressed, the FMS and flight plan will be updated. Deleting a Navigation Fix: Navigation fixes can be deleted from the active flight plan using similar methods. From the RTE LEGS page, use the NEXT PAGE/PREV PAGE keys until the desired fix is displayed on the page, then press the DEL key on the FMC/MCDU keypad. The DELETE prompt will appear in the scratchpad, indicating that the next LSK pressed will cause deletion of that associated flight plan navigation fix. The desired fix can then be deleted by pressing the associated LSK. This will cause the FMC produce a modification to the active route that eliminates that fix from the flight plan. When deleting fixes from a flight plan, the FMC will display a ROUTE DISCONTINUITY that needs to be connected using the same technique described above.

To confirm the continuation of the route, the waypoint identifier for the next fix in the desired route sequence should be downselected to the scratchpad by pressing the PMDG 737NG - AOM

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FMC USERS MANUAL Storm cells along the route of flight might make it beneficial to fly left or right of the actual route centerline in order to avoid building cells. The FMC provides a very effective method for managing the offset route automatically in order to comply with a requested ATC clearance. For example, if a route offset 3.0 miles north of the planned flight path would keep the aircraft clear of storm cell activity, an offset can be programmed directly into the FMC using the OFFSET command found in the INIT/REF INDEX of the FMC/CDU. Once this information is provided, the FMC/CDU will prompt the crew for the START WAYPOINT and END WAYPOINT for the offset:

In this example case, the airplane will begin to fly 3.0 miles LEFT of the planned route of flight starting at WOOLY intersection. The aircraft will return to the normally planned centerline of the route at the GATBY intersection. The aircraft will maintain this three mile offset left of course until passing GATBY, or until the offset is canceled. The offset is flown from all waypoints along the centerline of the route.

Pressing the OFFSET prompt will display the LATERAL OFFSET page as follows:

The desired lateral offset centerline can be entered by typing into the scratch pad and up-selecting to the 2L LSK. Format for the entry is as follows: LD.D or RD.D The L/R prompts dictate whether the offset is to be flow left or right of the planned route centerline. D.D describes the distance in mile/tenth of mile.

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FMC TAKEOFF PROCEDURES


Overview: The FMC provides a number of functions to assist with the takeoff planning process. Specifically, the FMC is capable of taking desired performance input from the crew and calculating engine thrust limits, engine takeoff thrust derates and autothrottle management. These features are used as part of the normal pre-takeoff process, and are described below. The FMC/CDU carries a tremendous amount of data regarding engine performance under greatly varied conditions. This data, combined with sensor input from the Air Data Computers and the crew is used to automatically manage the engines in such a manner that engine limitations are never exceeded. Put another way, the FMS will allow the crew to operate the engines to the peak of power or efficiency without undue concern for engine damage by over temperature conditions. N1 LIM Page: The N1 LIMIT page provides the crew with the ability to manually select the thrust modes to be used by the FMS to provide thrust limits and thrust commands to the autothrottle servos. The N1 LIMIT page can be displayed by pressing the N1 LIMIT key on the FMC/CDU, or by selecting the appropriate LSK when the <N1 LIMIT prompt is displayed at the INIT/REF INDEX page or PERF INIT page during pre-flight. A sample N1 LIMIT page is shown below:

The N1 LIMIT page displays three takeoff thrust limit options at lines 2L through 4L. Lines 2R through 4R display climb thrust limit options. Additional information to help the crew obtain a clear picture of expected engine performance is also available from this page. The N1 LIMIT page contains the following items of interest to the crew: SEL/OAT: Selected Outside Air Temperature and sensed Outside Air Temperature are displayed at the 1L LSK. Selected Outside Assumed Air Temperature: The 1L key provides the crew with the ability to enter an assumed air temperature (SEL). Valid entries are one or two digit entries from 0 to 99. This field cannot be changed once the aircraft exceeds sixty five knots, or after autothrottle engagement. The field will be removed once the aircraft becomes airborne. The field can be removed by using the DELETE key on the FMC/CDU. Helpful Hint!: The SEL entry is used to enter a temperature that is different from that being detected by the air data computer. For example, if a temperature difference is expected between the current aircraft location on the airfield and the temperature that is expected at the runway threshold, the expected threshold temperature can be added so as to ensure that an accurate estimate of thrust ratings can be computed by the FMS. Outside Air Temperature: The Air Data Computer measured OAT is displayed in the center of row 1. Thrust Limit Mode: The currently selected thrust limit mode is displayed in small font in the header line for 1R. (displays 24KN1 in this image) This header will change to match the current thrust rating that has been selected for the engines. In addition, the

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FMC USERS MANUAL N1% limit for this thrust mode is displayed in large font at 1R. Note that if CLB-1 or CLB2 has been selected for the climb, the N1% displayed at 1R will continue to by the full thrust rating for the engines in the given conditions. Following are the available thrust limit modes: TO TO 1 TO 2 GA CON CRZ CLB CLB 1 CLB 2 24K 22K DERATE 20K DERATE Go-Around Continuous Cruise Climb 3% N1 derate 6% N1 derate The desired climb thrust limit mode is armed by pressing the associated LSK. When a mode is selected, the <SEL> indicator will move to the associated line to indicate which mode is currently armed. If a derated takeoff thrust limit was selected, the FMC will automatically suggest an optimal climb thrust derate given current temperature or assumed temperature entries. This mode can be changed by simply selecting a different climb thrust mode. Notes Regarding Reduced Thrust: In the interest of reduced wear on the engines, reduced thrust should be used whenever practical. Climb thrust derates are designed to lower the climb angle and are particularly beneficial in the following ways: Reduce climb angle increases overthe-nose visibility in congested airspace. Reduced climb angle reduces the rate of pitch-over if the aircraft needs to level at a low altitude initially after takeoff.

Takeoff thrust and Takeoff thrust Derates: Lines 2L through 4L show the available takeoff thrust limit modes which may be selected by the crew. In order, they are: TO: Takeoff is the normal full takeoff thrust mode rated at 24,000lbs. TO 1: Takeoff 1 is derated to 22,000lbs. TO 2: Takeoff 2 is derated to 20,000lbs.

The takeoff thrust limit mode is selected by pressing the associated LSK. When a mode is selected, the <ACT> indicator will move to the associated line to indicate which mode is currently selected. In addition, the takeoff thrust limit mode will be displayed in 1R. Selecting either 24KN1, 22KN1 or 20Kn1 and will override any assumed air temperature figure entered into 1L by the crew. Climb Thrust and Climb Thrust Derates: Lines 2R through 4R show the available climb thrust limit modes which may be selected by the crew. In order, they are: CLB: Climb is the normal climb thrust mode. CLB 1: Climb 1 gives 3% lower N1 and 8% lower climb thrust. CLB 2: Climb 2 gives 6% lower N1 and 16% lower climb thrust.

CLB-1 reduces N1 by approximately 3% while the aircraft is below 10,000 feet and then gradually adjusted thrust upward so that both engines are operating at full thrust by the time the aircraft reaches 15,000 feet. CLB-2 reduces N1 by approximately 6% while the aircraft is below 5,000 feet and then gradually adjusts thrust upward so that both engines are operating at full thrust by the time the aircraft reaches 15000 feet. Since both reduced thrust climb modes operate only below 15,000 feet, the CLB page should be used to monitor engine thrust when below 15,000 when climb thrust is reduced. Once over 15,000 feet, use the N1 LIMIT page for monitoring engine thrust. Helpful Hint!: Use the CLB and N1 LIMIT pages to determine what power settings should be used when hand flying the aircraft or when flying the aircraft with the autothrottles selected off or deferred. PMDG 737NG - AOM

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FMC USERS MANUAL is useful in situations involving engine failure while the aircraft is at high gross weights, or at a high cruise altitude. This thrust limit mode will provide the highest thrust output possible without damaging engines. Cruise thrust limit mode is the normal operating thrust limit mode for normal cruise flight operations. TAKEOFF REF Page: The TAKEOFF REF page provides information pertaining to takeoff performance and settings. This information includes such settings as flap acceleration height, engine out acceleration height, thrust reduction height, runway slope and wind condition information, runway condition, takeoff speeds, trim and runway position shift information.

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When flying a departure procedure that requires the aircraft be leveled at a low altitude immediately after takeoff, use of CLB-2 is generally a good technique to reduce the sensation of pitch-over that is experienced by passengers when the aircraft is operated at higher power settings. In Flight Thrust Modes: When airborne, the N1 LIMIT page will not display takeoff or climb thrust modes. These modes will be replaced by the in-flight thrust limit modes. These modes will be displayed in lines 1L through 3L of the THRUST LIM page, and are as follows: GO AROUND: Go around thrust limit. CONTINUOUS: Continuous maximum allowable thrust limit. CLIMB: Full Climb Thrust CRUISE: Cruise limit thrust .

To select any of the various thrust limits available, simply press the associated LSK and the FMC/CDU will update the FMS to adjust the available thrust limit. Likewise, the CLB-1 and CLB-2 derated climb thrusts can be selected by pressing the associated LSKs near the bottom of the display. Go around thrust is a limit mode provided for go around conditions, where high engine thrust settings are required for a short period of time. Continuous thrust limit mode provides the highest thrust output possible from the engines in continuous operation. This mode PMDG 737NG - AOM

Flap Setting: The planned flap setting can be entered at line 1L. If an invalid takeoff flap setting is entered manually at 1L, an error message will be generated. The takeoff flap setting must be correct in order for the FMC to generate the correct takeoff speeds. Planned Thrust: The thrust selected in the N1 LIMIT page is displayed at line 2L. Additionally, the maximum available N1 speed is displayed in large font. CG/Trim: Information not usable within MSFS at this time. Takeoff Speeds: V1, VR and V2 reference speeds are displayed in lines 1R through 3R. The speeds are not automatically populated to the display, but can be brought up by pressing in the 1R, 2R and 3R LSKs Revision 1.4 23APR04

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FMC USERS MANUAL respectively once the preflight is completed and a flaps setting is entered at the 1L LSK. The crew is responsible for validating the accuracy of these computed takeoff speeds by manually checking them against the manufacturer specified takeoff speeds. Takeoff speeds can be overridden or manually entered by the flight crew if desired. Valid entries are any three digit number from 100 to 300. If any changes are made to the takeoff performance initialization, the takeoff speeds will be removed and must be reconfirmed.

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FMC CLIMB OPERATIONS

Overview: The FMC provides a number of methods to assist the crew in planning, managing, and effecting a precise and economical climb regime of flight. The FMC accepts climb performance demands from crew member entries, and adjust aircraft performance via the FMS and autothrottle servos. CLB Page: The climb page allows crew access to current and upcoming climb conditions and climb profile information. The active climb speed mode is always displayed in the CLB page. The CLB page is accessed by pressing the CLB key on the FMC/CDU. A typical CLB page is shown below:

SPD REST: The SPD REST field at 3L is a dynamic information field that will change during the course of the climb to show the MOST RESTRICTIVE speed that can be allowed for the climb. For example, when a FLAPS10 takeoff is planned, 161/FLAPS will be displayed at 3L as the speed and reason for the restrictive speed limitation. As the flaps are retracted, the 161/FLAPS will change to 171/FLAPS, etc, indicating that as the aircraft is cleaned up for high speed flight it is possible to increase the speed constraint for the climb. When the aircraft is clean and able to accelerate for climb, the 3L LSK prompt will display the speed restriction as defined below the local transition altitude. For example, in the US, if an 10,000 foot transition altitude is used, the 3L LSK will display 250/10000. Once clear of all restrictions, the restrictions at 3L will be deleted and the aircraft will accelerate to TGT SPD (if operated under VNAV.) When not operated under VNAV, the crew may use this page to determine the current restrictive speed or planned climb speed. Maximum Climb Rate: The speed and climb gradient that will yield the maximum climb rate given the current aircraft configuration can be attained by pressing the 5L LSK at the <MAX RATE prompt. Maximum Climb Angle: The speed and climb gradient that will yield the maximum climb angle given the current aircraft configuration can be attained by pressing the 6L LSK at the <MAX ANGLE prompt. In the event of an engine failure, the MAX ANGLE speed will be replaced with the engine out maximum altitude figure for the current aircraft configuration. Revision 1.4 23APR04

CRZ ALT: The cruise altitude that has been planned for the flight is displayed at 1L. The current cruise altitude is displayed if one has been selected and CLB is the active mode. If the current altitude is not displayed, 1L will contain prompt boxes which can be replaced by up-selecting the desired cruise altitude from the scratchpad. TGT SPD: The Airspeed / Mach number displayed at 2L represents that target climb speed/mach number for the climb phase of flight. This is the target climb speed to which the airplane will accelerate if operated under VNAV once the airplane is clear of other, more restrictive speed constraints for flaps or regulated airspace.

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FMC USERS MANUAL Engine Out Climb Mode: Selecting the ENG OUT> prompt at 5R will display advisory engine-out speed schedules, performance predictions and guidance. The information in this page is not used to provide engine control or thrust control guidance, but should be used by the crew as reference information in order to ensure proper single engine climb/cruise/descent performance. TO T/C: To Top-of-Climb describes the estimated distance and time of crossing (in UTC) for the Top of Climb based upon the final cruise altitude as programmed into the FMC/CDU. FMC Climb Profile Logic: The FMC is programmed for a default climb logic to select a 250 knots climb to 10,000 feet, followed by an economy climb to cruise altitude. The crew may modify this climb profile via the RTE LEGS page. In the event that the FMC cannot comply with the next altitude restriction programmed into the RTE LEGS page, (either due to rate of climb or speed related concerns) the prompt UNABLE NEXT ALT will be displayed. Helpful Hint!: If you receive the UNABLE NEXT ALT warning from the FMC, it is almost certainly a result of trying to reach a higher altitude than is possible given the current climb gradient. Often times adjusting the speed or planned altitude to cross a specific waypoint will cause the warning to cease.

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FMC CRUISE OPERATIONS

Overview: Use of the FMC for cruise flight operations greatly reduces en-route pilot workload, and simplifies the process of providing the greatest level of operating economy possible with the aircraft. The Cruise capabilities of the FMC include fuel management, engine out operations, VNAV cruise modes and altitude step climb operations. CRZ Page: The CRZ page provides the crew with access to current and upcoming cruise profile information. Information displayed in the CRZ page includes the current commanded cruise altitude, cruise speed, N1% target settings, step climb size, next step to fix, next waypoint ETA and fuel, optimum and maximum cruise altitude and engine out cruise setting information. A sample CRZ page is shown below:

by selecting a new altitude using the MCP altitude knob. If the MCP altitude is set to an altitude that is higher than the current cruise altitude, the cruise altitude will be updated to the new altitude. If the MCP altitude is set to an altitude that is lower than the current cruise altitude and the aircraft is more than 50 miles from the topof-descent, the cruise altitude will be updated to the new altitude and a descent commenced. If the MCP altitude is set to an altitude that is lower than the current cruise altitude and the aircraft is within 50 miles of the top-ofdescent, an early descent will be initiated at a rate of 1000 fpm until the normal descent path is intercepted. TGT SPD: The target speed displayed at the 2L LSK becomes active when the aircraft levels off at cruise altitude. The target speed will then be highlighted to indicate that it is active. TURB N1% (Not modeled) The N1% that should be used in the event of entry into turbulent air is displayed at the 3L LSK. This is the thrust setting that will provide the optimal turbulent air penetration speed given the current altitude and conditions. FUEL AT: The 4L LSK displays the FMS calculated planned landing fuel figure at the destination. The number may vary slightly during climb and initial cruise while average fuel burn figures are higher than cruise fuel burn. This prompt can be highly useful when selecting a higher/lower than planned cruising altitude or modifying the route to destination, or the destination itself. Before EXECUTING the route modification, return the CRZ page and verify the planned fuel at landing given the new route/destination/altitudes.

Information contained in the CRZ page includes: CRZ ALT: Line 1L shows the currently selected cruise altitude. This information will always be displayed unless a descent mode is activated. Prompt boxes in the CRZ ALT line indicate that crew entry of cruise altitude is required. The displayed cruise altitude is the altitude that was entered into the flightplan as described earlier. The selected cruise altitude can be modified either by direct entry into the CRZ page, or PMDG 737NG - AOM

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FMC USERS MANUAL OPT/MAX: In the center of the display, the Optimum and Maximum altitudes for the current aircraft weight and flight conditions are displayed. These values can be used to ensure proper altitudes are being selected during the cruise portion of flight. TO T/D: To Top-of-Descent describes the estimated distance and time of crossing (in UTC) for the Top of Descent. ENG OUT: In the event of an engine failure in flight, selecting the ENG OUT> prompt at 5R will instruct the FMC to provide engineout speed schedules, performance predictions and flight guidance. In the event that the aircraft is above the maximum engine out altitude at the time of the engine failure, the cruise altitude will automatically be lowered to the engine out maximum altitude.

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FMC DESCENT OPERATIONS

Overview: The FMC descent capabilities provide for descent planning and execution. A planned descent can only exist when a lateral route containing at least one descent constraint is active in the RTE LEGS page. The descent planning features of the FMC allow the crew to set speed transitions, descent path restrictions, and waypoint dependent speed and altitude constraints. DES Page: The descent page provides the crew with access to descent planning and information. The DES page is selected by pressing the DES key on the FMC/MCDU keypad. The NEXT PAGE/PREV PAGE keys may need to be used if the aircraft is still at cruise altitude. A sample DES page is displayed below:

page. The descent constraint cannot be updated or changed from the DES page, but it may be deleted. Deleting the constraint will remove it from the lateral route. TGT SPD: Line 2L contains the descent speed mode information.. The descent speed is displayed in large font, in the Mach/Airspeed. Information on this line can be updated manually if desired. SPD REST: Line 3L provides the crew with the ability to enter an altitude dependent speed restriction. The line contains transition speed, followed by the transition altitude in a SSS/AAAAA format. The altitude entry must be an altitude below the cruise altitude, but above the End of Descent altitude. If operating in VNAV, this speed/altitude constraint pair will be used in planning the deceleration prior to descent below the designated altitude. TO T/D: To Top-of-Descent describes the estimated distance and time of crossing (in UTC) for the Top of Descent. WPT/ALT: Not currently modeled. DES NOW: When the aircraft is not currently descending, but the MCP altitude selector is set below the current altitude and the aircraft is within 50nm of the Top-ofDescent, the DES NOW prompt will be displayed at 6R. The DES NOW> prompt deletes all climb/cruise constraints and commences an early descent. The rate of descent will be approximately 1000 feet per minute until the aircraft intercepts the originally planned vertical descent path which would have commenced at the top-ofdescent mark. Descent Methods: There are two methods that can be used to plan descents in the Next Generation 737. Speed based descents and path based descents.

The following information is provided on the DES page: E/D ALT: The End of Descent Altitude information displayed in 1L describes the altitude and waypoint at which the descent is planned to end. When no SID/TRANSITION or APPROACH fixes are entered, this area will be blank. AT: Line 1R contains the descent constraint waypoint as defined in the RTE LEGS page of the flight plan. The header line contains AT followed by the navigation fix identifier to which the descent constraint is assigned. The constraint is displayed in the DES page exactly as it appears in the RTE LEGS PMDG 737NG - AOM

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FMC USERS MANUAL The FMC prefers to calculate a path that will allow for a throttle-idle descent path. Based on current conditions and any wind information entered into the DES FORCAST page, the FMS will calculate a descent path that will allow for the most economical power-idle glide down from cruise flight. This calculated descent is called a Descent Path. At the top of the previous image, the title line contained the title ECON PATH DES. This indicates that the descent method being used by the FMC is the descent path profile that will give it the throttles-idle descent path. A second descent method is also available, depending upon crew preference. A SPEED based descent will allow the crew to plan a descent at a specific speed, with power and elevator being managed to maintain the desired speed during the descent.

The following information is provided on the DESCENT FORECASTS page: TRANS LVL: The transition level for the destination airport is displayed in 1L. The transition level can be modified by upselecting from the scratchpad. CABIN RATE: (Not Modeled) The rate of descent required to adjust the cabin altitude rate of descent in order to minimize the rate of change in cabin pressure. TAI ON/OFF: Altitude at which anti ice is projected to be necessary. Boeing has disabled this capability as of this writing. ISA DEV/QNH: Destination airport temperature deviation from Standard Atmospheric Conditions and airport QNH. This information is used to plan the descent portion that will take place below the Transition Level entered at the 1L LSK. WIND ALT/ DIR/SPD: Wind altitude speed and direction entries are made by the crew based upon reported conditions, observed conditions (use the wind indication on the Nav Display!) or forecast conditions in order to assist the FMC in computing the descent profile as defined in the flight plan. Helpful Hint!: This functionality is operating in the PMDG FMC and is very important for accurate descent planning purposes. If you find that you are continually receiving a DRAG REQUIRED message during descent, it could be that you have not entered wind conditions into the forecast page when a tailwind condition exists. PMDG 737NG - AOM

DESCENT FORECASTS Page: The DESCENT FORCASTS page allows the crew to enter and use forecast values for wind, transition level, anti-ice settings and descent wind direction information. A sample DESCENT FORECASTS page is shown below:

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Conversely, if you find that the descent appears to be shallow or power is needed to maintain the descent path, a headwind could exist along the descent path that was not entered into the Forecast page. Altitude bands for the winds are entered at the discretion of the crew. Descent Profile Logic: The default descent profile logic is to effect an economy descent form cruise altitude to the transition altitude. After passing through the transition altitude, 240 knot descent is commanded. The crew may manually override the default descent profile through the use of speed and/or altitude constraints entered into the RTE LEGS page. The descent profile can also be modified using the MCP speed and/or altitude selector knobs. A combination of RTE LEGS entries and MCP selections can be used to adhere to ATC instructions, or to expedite the descent profile as needed. During the descent, the aircraft will occasionally reach the descent limit speed regime while attempting to maintain the calculated vertical profile. This can occur as a result of headwinds or tailwinds, or wind forecasts not being entered correctly in the DESCENT FORCASTS page. The DRAG REQUIRED prompt is generally a good indication of a tail wind condition or descent overshoot, while the THRUST REQUIRED prompt generally indicates headwinds, or descent undershoot. In cases of descent undershoot and overshoot, once the aircraft reaches the limit speeds (upper or lower limits) the vertical guidance function of the FMC will command the aircraft to depart the planned vertical profile while maintaining a descent that most closely follows the planned descent profile. Adding drag or thrust as required will normally return the aircraft to the planned descent path.

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FMC USERS MANUAL

FMC APPROACH PROCEDURES


Overview: The FMC approach initialization pages provide the crew with quick and effective access to the landing flap and speed selection process. The FMC provides the crew with approach speed calculations for weight/speed data and provides reference information for the touchdown. APPROACH REF Page: The approach page provides the crew with information directly related to the final approach to landing process. A sample APPROACH REF page is shown below: the ICAO airport identifier, followed by the runway number and L/C/R designator. Runway length reference information is provided in large font in 3L, and is displayed in both feet and meters. Helpful Note!: This information is only displayed after an approach to the destination has been selected in the DEP/ARR menu. ILS FREQUENCY/COURSE: To further assist the crew with rapid information management, the instrument approach frequency and final approach course are provided at the 4L LSK after an instrument approach is selected to the destination airport. FLAPS/VREF: The Vref reference speeds for the FLAPS15, FLAPS30 and FLAPS40 landing flaps settings are provided in lines 1R, 2R and 3R respectively. These Vref values are directly reported from the aircraft performance database, and will change as the GROSS WT figure in 1L changes. The following information is provided on the APPROACH REF page: GROSS WT: Line 1L provides the current airplane gross weight in thousands of pounds unless the figure has been manually adjusted by the crew. Manual adjustment of the GROSS WT figure is accomplished by up-selecting a manually entered figure from the scratchpad. Valid entries are three digits with an optional decimal point. Crew entered GROSS WT values are used for predictive purposes only, and do not affect aircraft computation of actual gross weight. Runway Length: Line 3L contains runway reference information to assist the crew in planning the touchdown and stopping phase of flight. The header line in 3L will display FLAPS/SPEED: After reviewing the information contained in the APPROACH REF page, the crew can select the desired landing flap setting by down-selecting from either 1R, 2R or 3R. This will cause the selected landing flap setting to be automatically populated to the 4R LSK under the FLAP/SPD title. This line serves as a quick reference for the currently selected landing flap setting and approach reference speed. Additionally, if the crew desires to update the landing flap speed to adjust for windshear or gusts, the flap setting/speed can be upselected from the scratch pad using the format FF/SSS.

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FMC FLIGHT REFERENCE AND CREW SUPPORT

Overview: The FMC is capable of providing the crew with information regarding the performance of the aircraft during flight, as well as supporting information which can help the crew to make informed and accurate decisions. PROGRESS Pages: The progress display occupies two display pages, and can be called up by pressing the PROG key on the FMC/CDU. The first progress display page is shown below.

Direct Ground Track from previous fix to current fix in the flight plan. Distance to go to current fix. Estimated Time of Arrival at current fix. Predicted fuel remaining at the current fix.

The same information for the next fix in the flight plan is contained in line three of the PROGRESS display. The fourth line in the PROGRESS display includes the destination, distance to go, ETA at destination and estimated fuel remaining at destination. This line can be used to estimate arrival time at the gate and fuel on board the aircraft any time a route edit has been made. TO T/D: Line Five of the display includes planning information to display the distance and fuel quantity on board the aircraft when reaching the Top-Of-Decent point for the flight plan. The estimated time of crossing for the TOC is also displayed.

FROM / ALT/ATA/FUEL: The first line of the PROGRESS page display contains information related to the last flight plan fix that was over flown. From left to right, the information displayed includes: The name of the fix. Aircraft altitude at time of fix crossing. (in thousands) Actual Time of Arrival at last fix. Fuel on board at the time of fix crossing.

WIND: The current wind conditions as calculated by the FMS is displayed at the 6L LSK. This information can be downlselected to be added to the descent forecast if desired.

NEXT / DEG / ETA / FUEL: The second line of the PROGRESS page display contains information describing the fix that is currently the active fix in the flight plan. From left to right, the information displayed includes:

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FMC USERS MANUAL The second PROGESS page is reached by using the NEXT PAGE/PREV PAGE keys, and is displayed below: error is displayed when the aircraft is in the descent phase of flight.

The PROGRESS 2/2 page contains additional information on the wind, temperature and navigation accuracy of the aircraft. Line one contains the calculated tailwind/headwind and crosswind component described in knots. This information is a vector breakdown of the wind information contained on the PROGRESS 1/2 page. Additional information includes: WIND: Line 2 displays the current wind conditions at the location and altitude as calculated by the FMS. SAT/ISA DEV The 2R LSK displays the current SAT and its deviation from ISA conditions. Line 3 displays both cross track error (XTK ERROR) and vertical track error (VTK ERROR) in nautical miles and feet. XTK ERROR is displayed in nautical miles with a L and R designator to indicate that the aircraft has drifted left or right of course respectively. Distance values are displayed up to 99.9 nautical miles. VTK ERROR is displayed in feet, with a + and sign to indicate deviation above and below planned flight track. Vertical track

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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUBJECT PAGE FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS .............................................................................................. 3 Overview ...................................................................................................................................... 3 Flight Management System Outlined........................................................................................... 3 AUTOPILOT FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEM .................................................................................. 3 Overview ...................................................................................................................................... 3 AFDS Mode Control Panel........................................................................................................... 4 Flight Control Computers (FCCs) ................................................................................................ 5 AFDS Systems............................................................................................................................. 5 THRUST Command Modes ......................................................................................................... 5 ROLL Command Modes .............................................................................................................. 6 PITCH Command Modes............................................................................................................. 6 AFDS Command Modes .............................................................................................................. 7 Approach Modes.......................................................................................................................... 8 Autothrottle................................................................................................................................... 8 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT COMPUTER........................................................................................... 9 Overview ...................................................................................................................................... 9 FMC/CDU..................................................................................................................................... 9 AFDS MCP................................................................................................................................. 10 MCP Layout ............................................................................................................................... 10 Flight Director Switches ............................................................................................................. 10 Thrust/Speed Modes.................................................................................................................. 10 Autothrottle Arm Switch ............................................................................................................. 10 N1 Switch ................................................................................................................................... 11 SPD Switch ................................................................................................................................ 11 Selector Knob............................................................................................................................. 11 C/O Switch ................................................................................................................................. 11 IAS/Mach Window...................................................................................................................... 11 LVL CHG Switch ........................................................................................................................ 12 Bank Limit Selector .................................................................................................................... 12 HDG Selector Knob ................................................................................................................... 12 HDG Window ............................................................................................................................. 12 HDG SEL Switch........................................................................................................................ 12 VNAV Switch.............................................................................................................................. 13 VERT SPD Window ................................................................................................................... 13 LNAV Switch .............................................................................................................................. 13 V/S Switch.................................................................................................................................. 13 ALT Window............................................................................................................................... 14 Altitude Selector Knob ............................................................................................................... 14 Altitude Intervention Switch........................................................................................................ 14 ALT HOLD Switch...................................................................................................................... 14 Autopilot FCC Engage CMD Switches ...................................................................................... 14 FCC DISENGAGE Bar............................................................................................................... 14 APP Switch ................................................................................................................................ 15 VOR/LOC Switch ....................................................................................................................... 15 PMDG 737NG - AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE Revision 1.4 23APR04

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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


Overview: The Flight Management System (FMS) on the 737 is designed to provide full control of the aircraft in all phases of flight. The Flight Management system is made up of the Autopilot Flight Director System, FMC/CDU, Flight Controls and onboard computers. While it is common to think of these systems as being separate, it is helpful for the purpose of understanding how to interact with the airplane to consider the Flight Controls, FMC/CDU and Autopilot Mode Control as an integrated system for managing the flight path of the aircraft. As a complete system, the Flight Management System (FMS) provides for automated vertical and lateral navigation of the aircraft. The system is designed so that the crew can interact with the FMS through the Flight Controls, the Autopilot Flight Director Mode Control Panel or the FMC/CDU. Although the 737 FMS is capable of managing all phases of flight from takeoff to touchdown, the crew is under no obligation to use any of the systems provided. If desired the airplane can be flown by hand without using reference to any of the automated systems. Additionally, the AFDS Mode Control Panel can be used to provide Flight Director guidance while hand flying the airplane, or the FMC/CDU and AFDS MCP can be used in concert with the autopilot to provide fully automated flight control. Use of the FMS will result in greater precision, significantly reduced overall operating expense, reduced wear and tear on the airframe and significantly reduced pilot workload during critical phases of flight. Flight Management System Outlined: The 737 FMS is made up of the following systems: Radio Navigation Systems (VOR/ADF, etc) Inertial Reference System GPS Air Data Computers Electronic Flight Instrumentation System (EFIS) Engine Instrumentation and Crew Alerting System. (EICAS) Flight Management Computer (FMC) Autopilot Flight Director System Mode Control Panel (AFDS-MCP)

All of these systems function independently, but are integrated to control the pitch axis, roll axis, yaw axis and acceleration with precision in all phases of flight.

AUTOPILOT FLIGHT DIRECTOR SYSTEM


Overview: The AFDS integrates functions of the autopilot system, the flight director system, and the automatic stabilizer trim system in order to provide complete flight regime control. The AFDS is comprised of three Flight Control Computers (FCCs) that operate in parallel with each other to provide highly precise command and control capabilities. The FCCs, Left and Right, have independent power sources and provide flight control input directly to the flight controls through two independent hydraulic systems. As such, each FCC can be allowed to have full independent control of all aircraft flight control surfaces, or both FCCs can be operated in tandem to provide full fail-safe operation for coupled approaches and autoland.

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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS The AFDS takes data from various sensors on the aircraft (AoA, Airspeed, TAT probes, GPS, IRS, etc) and uses the information to provide pitch and roll cues to the flight director system. The flight director system is then able to display these pitch and roll commands graphically on the cockpit displays. The crew can follow the flight director cues when flying by hand, or can engage the autopilot to follow the pitch/roll cues provided by the flight director. When an autopilot is not active, the crew can follow the displayed pitch/roll cues by manipulating the flight controls to match the steering cues provided by the Flight Director. When an autopilot is activated, it issues commands to the flight controls so as to maintain control of vertical speed, airspeed, altitude and heading as commanded by the flight director. AFDS Mode Control Panel: The Flight Director has many modes for managing pitch, roll and thrust. The crew is able to select the desired modes for the Flight Director through the use of the Autopilot Flight Director System Mode Control Panel (AFDS MCP or simply the MCP.) The MCP is the primary method for directly controlling the Flight Director. The MCP is located on the glare shield, and provides direct control of all Flight Director functions. A common misconception is to thing of this rectangular section of the panel as The Autopilot. Indeed this is not the case, as the autopilot is itself a computerized system of control logic and actuators that provide commands to the flight controls. The MCP, on the other hand, does exactly what its name suggests: It allows the crew to select the MODES that are used by the FLIGHT DIRECTOR. Thus: Autopilot Flight Director System Mode Control Panel! The MCP has lighted function switches which allow the crew to select the modes under which the AFDS operates. Remember at all times that the Flight Director provides commands for the Autopilot to control the airplane in three ways: Pitch Roll Thrust

For each of these areas, there is more than a single method that may be specified. Pitch Modes: Vertical Speed (V/S) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Speed (SPD) Flight Level Change (FLCH) Altitude Hold (ALT) Roll Modes: Heading (HDG) Lateral Navigation (LNAV) VOR/Localizer (VOR/LOC) Thrust Modes: Thrust (N1) Speed (SPD) LNAV, VNAV, FLCH, V/S, N1 and SPD mode are all available for crew selection, as well as heading, airspeed, altitude and vertical speed. In some cases, modes such as FLCH, APP (approach) and SPD will use a combination of engine power, roll and pitch to achieve the desired results, but it is often easiest to remember that effective use of the MCP means the crew will have a mode selected to manage pitch, roll and thrust individually. Any active pitch/roll/thrust mode can be disengaged by selecting a different pitch/roll/thrust mode on the MCP. Modes may also be disconnected by disengaging all operating autopilots and deselecting the flight director. If the aircraft is on an approach and LOC and G/S capture has already occurred, then selecting a different command mode will not disengage the autopilot. In this situation, the only method available to disengage the AFDS is to disengage the autopilot and deselect the flight directors. Pressing the PMDG 737NG - AOM

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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TO/GA switch will also disengage the approach after LOC and G/S capture. Flight Control Computers (FCCs): The function of the FCCs is to integrate the functions of the flight director and the autopilot systems. Each individual FCC provides control commands directly to its associated autopilot control servo. This servo operates the flight controls directly. Both autopilot servo systems are powered using the left and right hydraulic systems. If only one autopilot is engaged, it is capable of controlling the pitch and roll axes of flight. In this mode, the yaw damper provides for yaw control when the aircraft receives a roll command from the FCC, resulting in fully coordinated flight. If both autopilots are engaged and the AFDS has entered approach mode, the FCCs combine to provide redundant pitch, roll and yaw control. Full rudder control is maintained and will automatically provide runway alignment until touchdown. In a multiple autopilot approach with a crosswind, the FCCs will use rudder input and bank angle to slip the aircraft for runway alignment. The bank angle available is limited and in stronger crosswind conditions the FCCs may use a combination of slip and crab to maintain runway alignment. If a failure affecting both FCCs occurs during an approach, an autopilot disconnect will result. If any failure results in loss of either pitch or roll modes, the associated flight director command bar will be removed from the PFD. In cases where both pitch and roll mode are affected, the flight director will be removed entirely and replaced with a fault flag. AFDS Systems: The AFDS, in conjunction with the FCCs, is capable of providing full regime, three-dimensional control of the aircraft in all phases of flight. This is accomplished by issuing commands to the Flight Control Computers that in turn provide control commands to the autopilot servos. The autopilot controls the aircraft in three separate regimes: AUTOPILOT FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODE ANNUNCIATOR THRUST Command Modes: The autothrottle has primary control for all automated thrust settings. While thrust can be set manually by the crew, the autothrottle is an efficient and precise method to set engine power. Thrust modes that may be announced by the FMA mode annunciator are: This indicates that the FMC SPD: autothrottle is maintaining speeds as commanded by the FMC while in VNAV pitch mode. The speed display on the MCP will be blank but the airspeed cursor on the flight instruments will show the commanded speed. The Autothrottle will maintain this speed by modulating thrust as required

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Thrust Mode Roll Mode Pitch Mode

The status of each of these autopilot modes is displayed on the MCP, and on the primary flight display. The area directly above the attitude indicator is called the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) and this provides the crew with important information regarding the current and armed modes for thrust, roll and pitch modes. The lower portion of the FMA also displays the current status of the AFDS system. The AFDS status will be blank, indicating that the autopilot is not controlling the aircraft, or it will say CMD to indicate that the autopilot is controlling the airplane in accordance with flight director commands. THRUST ROLL PITCH

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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS within engine and aircraft performance limits. Thrust setting is based on FMC N1: selected N1 values. MCP SPD: Speed autothrottle mode. Thrust is set to maintain the speed set in the MCP Speed window. Rate of climb or descent will be a result of maintaining desired aircraft target speed through the adjustment of aircraft pitch. Autothrottle will not violate thrust limits or aircraft speed limits. RETARD: Indicates that the autothrottles are reducing power after LVL CHG or VNAV is engaged for a descent at idle power. ARM: this mode is displayed on the FMA when the Autothrottle has been armed, but no thrust mode was selected to provide the control logic. HOLD: Indicates that autothrottle control of the thrust levers has been released in order to prevent thrust lever movement in the event of an Autothrottle failure. Will be annunciated at 84knots to indicate that the autothrottle has set takeoff power. GA: Go around thrust mode. Thrust is modulated to provide a 2000 fpm climb rate. This mode can be terminated by selecting any other pitch mode. ROLL Command Modes: The Roll mode commands bank angles so as to result in specific turn rates or velocity vectors. The autopilot will attempt to maintain the desired flight path, which can be dictated by a simple heading bug command setting, or by a complex series of waypoint programmed into the FMC. At no time will any autopilot roll mode exceed the bank limit selector or maneuvering speed limits in order to maintain course. Roll modes which may be displayed on the FMA are: GA: Commands bank angle in order to maintain ground track during takeoff or go around maneuver. Ground track will be maintained based on track disposition at time of engagement. Alternatively, if the TO/GA Heading mode has been activated in the PMDG Styles menu, GA will command the aircraft to steer in accordance with the selected heading. LNAV: Commands bank to follow active FMC route as displayed on the navigation display. If on ground, LNAV mode will arm to engage when passing through 50 feet AGL. HDG SEL: Commands bank angle to maintain heading selected in MCP heading window. VOR/LOC: Commands bank to capture localizer when intercept track does not exceed +/- 60. Once captured, will command bank to maintain localizer. PITCH Command Modes: Pitch mode commands aircraft pitch angles to maintain a particular altitude, vertical speed, forward airspeed or climb/descent path. Pitch mode is nearly always directly linked to actions in the Thrust mode. Pitch mode inputs can come from the MCP altitude command knob, the MCP vertical speed knob or the FMC directly. When used in conjunction with a Thrust mode, Pitch mode is a powerful tool to manage climbs and descents to a high degree of accuracy. The autopilot will use both pitch and thrust to maintain commanded airspeed while navigating a vertical climb or descent path. Pitch modes that may be announced on the FMA are: TO/GA: Commands pitch angle required for takeoff or go around. On ground, mode is armed and will command for 8 nose up pitch, followed by required flight director climb pitch after ground clearance. Of TO/GA is pressed during approach, will provide climb attitude guidance for best climb rate. V/S: Maintains vertical speed selected in MCP V/S window. ALT ACQ: Indicates that the autopilot is changing aircraft pitch in order to acquire the MCP or FMC set altitude when transitioning from a climb or descent. ALT HOLD: Commands pitch to maintain altitude set in MCP altitude window, FMC or when ALT HOLD switch is pushed on MCP. PMDG 737NG - AOM

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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS VNAV PTH: Commands pitch up/down to maintain selected FMC altitude or FMC calculated VNAV descent path. The climb/descent path is calculated based upon desired altitudes entered into the FMC flight plan. The FMC attempts to use the most efficient climb and descent angles and will moderate pitch as necessary in conjunction with aircraft speed in order to maintain those calculated paths. VNAV SPD: Commands pitch up/down to maintain selected airspeed. During descents, VNAV SPD will maintain airspeed based upon an idle power descent. VNAV ALT: Displayed if VNAV is commanding pitch to maintain an intermediate altitude during a climb or descent. For example if final cruise altitude is FL350 and during a VNAV climb a restriction to FL290 is received, setting 29000 in the MCP altitude window will cause the aircraft to level at FL290 and enter VNAV ALT mode. VNAV ALT will be displayed only if level off occurred at an intermediate altitude, but VNAV is still the primary pitch mode for climb/descent. MCP SPD: A combination of pitch and thrust is used to maintain MCP commanded speed. G/S: Commands pitch to maintain glideslope when intercept track does not exceed +/- 40 of front course. Will follow glideslope once engaged. FLARE: Will engage between 60-40 feet AGL. Commands pitch to reduce sink rate. Disengages at touchdown and lowers nose wheel slowly to runway. AFDS Command Modes: The status of the entire AFDS system is also displayed on the FMA mode annunciator. This display provides the crew with immediate feedback on the current operating mode of the AFDS system. Displayed modes may be any of the following: FD: Any flight director is selected ON while autopilots are disengaged. Pilot must manually follow Flight Director steering queues. All modes are available on the PMDG 737NG - AOM DO NOT DUPLICATE FMC, but the pilot is responsible for using control inputs to maintain pitch, roll and thrust (if the autothrottle is not engaged.) CMD: Any autopilot is selected ON and is properly engaged. The Autopilot is controlling pitch and roll modes in accordance with flight director commands. CWS P: Pitch is being maintained according to Control Wheel Steering logic. CWS R: Roll is being maintained according to Control Wheel Steering logic. What is Control Wheel Steering?:CWS can be used to control pitch and or roll of the aircraft. CWS provides full control authority to the pilot and pitch and roll can be changed by applying pressure to the yoke. When pressure is released, the autopilot will maintain the pitch and roll attitude established by the control inputs. CWS Mode can be entered in three ways: 1) Pressing a CWS autopilot engage button on the MCP. 2) Application of sustained pressure on the controls while the autopilot is engaged in CMD mode. 3) Engage the autopilot with no previously selected pitch/roll modes. When the AFDS enters CWS mode, CWS P and/or CWS R will be displayed on the FMC and the current pitch and roll attitude will be maintained until changed by control pressures, or selecting an alternate pitch/roll mode on the MCP.

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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Approach Modes: The autopilot is capable of flying a fully coupled ILS approach to landing if desired. At a minimum, to fly a coupled autopilot approach, the appropriate ILS frequency must be entered in the navigation radio and the proper course selected for the approach. The APP switch on the MCP must be pressed and will initially illuminate. The aircraft is capable of conducting a full Autoland with only a single autopilot engaged but this is not considered to be adequate for a safe Autoland. To engage the second autopilot for a fully coupled Dual Channel Autoland, the ILS frequency and course should be set up for the second navigation radio and the CMD B autopilot switch should be pressed prior to reaching 800 AGL on the approach. 1CH or SINGLE CH: Will be displayed to indicate localizer capture by one autopilot. If only one navigation radio is tuned to the ILS frequency, this annunciation will remain for the entire approach. In SINGLE CH mode, the aircraft will use roll and yaw to maintain the localizer course for the approach. When 2/5 dots below the Glideslope, the APP switch on the MCP will extinguishes after localizer and Glideslope are captured. Once the approach is fully captured, APP mode can be disengaged by: Pushing the TO/GA switch (click on upper left screw on MCP in the PMDG airplane. In the actual airplane the TOGA switch is located on the throttle under your thumb but that could not be modeled here.) Disengage the autopilots and turn off both Flight Director Switches. Tune the VHF Navigation receivers to a new frequency. autothrottle is capable of providing for full flight throttle management from takeoff to rollout. Whenever engaged, the autothrottle system will provide speed limit protection by modulating thrust to prevent exceeding limits related to flap settings, angle of attack (alpha floor) and maximum structural speeds. The FMC will display the thrust limit for the current regime of flight on the EICAS display, and provides commands directly to the autothrottle so as not to exceed these thrust limits in any mode of flight. The autothrottle can accept automatic input directly from the FMC flight plan whenever VNAV is selected, or manually from the crew via the MCP. MCP modes available to the crew for selection include, N1 Thrust (N1), speed (SPD), flight level change (FLCH) and VNAV. The autothrottle will provide speed protection in all of these modes. The autothrottle sets thrust by moving both throttles together simultaneously. The autothrottle will maintain the relative position of the throttles, and stop throttle movement at the moment the first throttle reaches the desired thrust setting. The autothrottle then adjusts each engine individually to equalize thrust within 8% of N1. Any throttle can be moved while the autothrottle is engaged, however the autothrottle will return the throttle to its commanded position once it is released. When the autothrottle mode HOLD is announced on the PFD, the autothrottle servo is disconnected to prevent uncommanded movement of the autothrottle. The HOLD mode engages automatically when the aircraft accelerates above 65 knots during the takeoff. HOLD can also engage in flight in VNAV and FLCH modes if autothrottle movement is overridden or stopped manually. The autothrottle will disconnect in any situation where a fault is detected in the engaged autothrottle mode, or if any reverse PMDG 737NG - AOM

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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS thrust lever is raised to reverse idle. The autothrottle should be disengaged if one engine fails in flight, or if both FMCs fail. If the autothrottle is armed in flight, but disengaged, it will automatically re-engage if any pitch or autothrottle mode is selected on the MCP. Flap limit speeds, angle of attack, and airplane configuration limit speeds are monitored by the AFDS and the FMCs in all pitch and autothrottle modes except V/S mode. If an overspeed is anticipated, either the FMC will adjust pitch or the autothrottle will adjust thrust to prevent exceeding a speed limitation. The FMC may announce DRAG REQUIRED if it is determined that pitch adjustment is the only method to prevent an overspeed condition.

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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT COMPUTER


Overview: The 737 carries two independent FMCs which run in parallel to each other in order to maximize accuracy, and eliminate errors. The FMCs contain a database of navigation aids, waypoints, airports, airways, runways, SIDS, STARS, company route information and aircraft performance data. The FMCs are loaded by ground personnel, and the databases are updated every twenty eight days. During flight, the FMC will monitor the database for a combination of VOR and VOR/DME stations at high angles of intercept to the route of intended flight. During the flight, the FMC will autotune the VHF navigation equipment to provide update and verification of current aircraft position, and to provide position, radial and DME data to the crew for navigation purposes. The FMCs will use this method of monitoring current aircraft positioning as well as GPS position data and IRS computed position data. In the absence of reliable VOR tuning and GPS signal, the system will obtain an average position as computed by the Inertial Reference System. (IRS Not modeled in this PMDG version.) The FMCs use the navigation database and aircraft performance information stored in non-volatile memory to provide complete PMDG 737NG - AOM lateral and vertical navigation. This is accomplished by interfacing with and providing commands to the AFDS and autothrottle systems. The FMCs will use route, weather and aircraft performance data to operate the aircraft in the most economical fashion for any given flight regime based upon crew instructions. FMC/CDU: The FMC/CDU is the tool the crew uses to interface with the FMC. The CDU also provides a means for the FMC to display information for crew use. The FMC will display information related to the flight on the EFIS monitors, as well as through a series of FMC/CDU menus known as pages. A CDU line containing small boxes is a signal to the crew that information must be entered for proper FMC operation. A line containing dashes indicates information that is optional for entry, but which will provide for more accurate FMC operation. The FMC/CDUs are very specific about allowing correct data entry into the data fields. The FMC/CDU will not accept illogical references, or references which are not usable given the capabilities of the FMC. The FMC/CDU provides a MENU key which allows the crew to select either the FMC functions of the FMC/CDU, or access to the ACARS capabilities of the FMC. Revision 1.4 23APR04

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AFDS MODE CONTROL PANEL

AFDS MCP: The AFDS Mode Control Panel is located on the glare shield. This is one of the principle means used by the crew to communicate with and control the AFDS during most phases of flight. The MCP contains switches to select and arm the autopilots as well as various pitch, roll and axis modes of the AFDS. In addition, the MCP allows the crew to override an FMC commanded mode, or manually select heading, speed, altitude and vertical speed as desired. MCP Layout: The MCP layout is designed to allow for an intuitive interface between the crew and the AFDS. Similar functions on the MCP are clustered together in order to separate dissimilar functions. Flight Director Switches: Located on either end of the MCP, the Flight Director switches enable or disable the display of flight director command bars on the PFD. The flight directors display information as reported by the left or right Flight Control Computer respectively. The autopilot will only accept commands from one Flight Director at a time. The current MASTER Flight Director is identified by an illuminated MA above the flight director switch.

Thrust/Speed Modes: All of the AFDS modes which use speed intervention and speed protection are clustered around the IAS/Mach speed selector knob. Autothrottle Arm Switch: When selected ON, this switch arms the autothrottle for mode engagement. The autothrottle will engage when any of the following speed intervention/vertical navigation modes are engaged: FLCH VNAV TO/GA N1 SPD

If the flight director is selected OFF and the autothrottle is armed, the autothrottle will revert to the SPD mode until flight directors are rearmed, or unless N1 mode is manually selected. If VNAV is already engaged at the time the A/T ARM switch is selected ON, the autothrottle will engage in the appropriate mode for the regime of flight.

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N1 Switch: If current mode is FLCH, SPD, VNAV SPD, VNAV PTH, VNAV ALT or TO/GA, pressing the N1 switch changes the thrust limit to the CLB thrust setting. This setting will be displayed on the EICAS. This does not affect the autothrottle mode, but changes the thrust limit allowed. If any other mode is currently selected, pressing N1 will advance thrust to the currently displayed thrust limit. SPD Switch: If pressed, the autothrottle is engaged in speed mode. SPD will be annunciated on the FMA and the throttle will control thrust to maintain the IAS/Mach displayed in the IAS/Mach MCP window. SPD mode will not exceed minimum or maximum speed limits. Selector Knob: Changes the value displayed in the IAS/Mach window and updates the command speed bug on the PFD. Left click will change single digits. Right click will change tens unit. If VNAV mode is engaged, the window will usually be blanked because the speed input and control commands are being managed by the FMC. If VNAV mode is active and the SPD INTV (Speed Intervention) knob is pushed then the MCP Speed window will display the FMC commanded speed so that adjustments can be made. Pressing SPD INTV will return speed control to the FMC as described in the flight plan. If the autothrottle is operating in FLCH, SPD or TO/GA mode, the display will not be blanked. SPD is inactive if in FLCH, VNAV or TO/GA mode. PMDG 737NG - AOM

C/O Switch: The Change Over switch allows the crew to manually select an reading in Knots or Mach.

IAS/Mach Window: Indicates current or selected VNAV speed unless VNAV is already engaged. PFD command airspeed bug is manipulated using this setting. Indicator will be blank when VNAV mode is engaged. When VNAV is engaged, speed and speed bugs are placed under control of the FMC.

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Within Microsoft Flight Simulator, the click area for the bank angle selector is located around the click area for the heading bug. If you accidentally alter the bank limit mode when attempting to change heading, simply move the mouse to the opposite side of the heading bug and click again. This will bring the bank limit switch back to 30 degrees. LVL CHG Switch: Pressing the LVL CHG switch will disengage any other active pitch mode. Level Change integrates AFDS pitch control and autothrottle thrust control to effect an altitude change. If the IAS/Mach indicator is blank: Indicator will un-blank and display the FMC target speed. If the FMC target speed is invalid, then LVL CHG will use the existing airspeed. If the IAS/Mach indicator is not blank: Command speed for the climb will remain as displayed. The Autothrottle will advance the throttles to the selected thrust for climbing, or reduces to idle if a descent is being effected. AFDS will use pitch control to control speed after climb/descent thrust is set by the Autothrottle, resulting in the best rate of climb or descent. When MCP altitude is reached, the pitch mode changes to altitude hold and ALT is displayed on the PFD. The autothrottle holds the commanded speed and SPD mode is engaged. Bank Limit Selector: Allows the crew to manually set a bank limit for the aircraft. This switch is normally left at 30 degrees but may be selected lower as desired. If you notice during flight that your airplane is only turning slightly, this might be a culprit area to examine!

HDG Selector Knob: Allows magnetic heading to be selected in the HDG window. Heading mode will disarm if the aircraft captures an ILS on LOC mode.

HDG Window: Indicates magnetic heading selected using heading selector knob.

HDG SEL Switch: Engages heading hold manually. When pressed, AFDS will maintain current heading. If bank angle exceeds 15 degrees, AFDS will maintain heading at time the wings roll level.

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VNAV Switch: Pressing the VNAV switch arms or engages the vertical navigation mode of the AFDS, and transfers pitch and speed modes of the AFDS and autothrottle to the FMC. VNAV mode gives control of the pitch mode to the FMC and causes the AFDS to fly a vertical profile as it is described in the FMC flightplan and updated or modified by the crew. If VNAV is engaged, VNAV mode appears in green on the PFD. VNAV mode will not engage (but will arm) if the FMC Performance Initialization page is incomplete. VNAV mode is disengaged by any of the following: Engaging TO/GA, LVL CHG, SPD, V/S, ALT, or G/S pitch modes. Or if VNAV switch is pushed a second time before VNAV engagement.

LNAV Switch: Pressing LNAV switch arms or engages the lateral navigation mode of the AFDS, and transfers roll and yaw (heading) control to the FMC. LNAV will engage as long as the aircraft is above 50 AGL and within 2.5 miles of the planned track. If the aircraft is outside of these parameters, LNAV mode will arm and engage when the aircraft moves within these parameters (e.g.- after takeoff). LNAV mode will be displayed in greed on the PFD if LNAV mode is engaged. If LNAV arms, but the aircraft is not on an intercept heading to planned track, the FMC scratch pad will show the text NOT ON INTERCEPT HEADING, and the previously armed roll mode will remain active. LNAV mode is disengaged by any of the following: Selecting HDG SEL modes. At localizer capture. If LNAV switch is pushed a second time before LNAV engagement.

VERT SPD Window: Displays current vertical speed at time V/S speed is pushed. Displays selected vertical speed as selected using V/S knob. Range is 6000 fpm to +6000 fpm.

V/S Switch: engages V/S mode. AFDS will maintain V/S set in V/S window. V/S does not provide speed protection in the climb or descent.

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ALT Window: Displays altitude as selected using the altitude selector knob. Displayed altitude is target altitude for all AFDS, FMS and altitude alert functions. AFDS and FMC will not allow a climb or descent through the displayed altitude. If altitude has been captured, AFDS and FMC will not allow the aircraft to depart from displayed altitude unless a pitch mode has been selected. Altitude Selector Knob: Allows selection of altitude in the ALT window. If at cruise, and within 50nm of the Top Of Descent point, selecting a lower altitude in the MCP altitude window, then pressing the MCP ALT knob causes the DES NOW feature to become active, and the AFDS will initiate a 1,250 ft/min descent rate until intercepting the VNAV calculated descent path, at which point it will enter the VNAV descent path. Altitude Intervention Switch: The ALT INTV button can be pressed to the following effect: During a climb or descent, pushing the ALT INTV button will delete the next waypoint altitude constraint between the airplane and the altitude displayed in the ALT window. (For example: during a step descent, pressing the altitude selection knob will delete the next level off point in the FMC flight plan, provided it is above the MCP altitude displayed in the ALT window.) If climbing, and no waypoint related altitude restrictions exist, pressing the ALT INTV button will transfer the MCP ALT value to the FMC and overwrite the FMC altitude. The aircraft will level at the MCP altitude. When pushed during cruise, the ALT window value will be transferred to the FMC flightplan and the new altitude becomes the Revision 1.4 23APR04

cruise altitude. If in VNAV ALT or VNAV PTH modes, VNAV will automatically initiate the required climb or descent.

ALT HOLD Switch: Manually engages altitude hold mode. AFDS will capture and hold the altitude as indicated at the time the switch is pushed. Autopilot FCC Engage CMD Switches: Pressing switch engages associated FCC and places it in CMD mode. If both flight director switches are off, autopilot will engage in CWS Roll and CWS Pitch mode.

FCC DISENGAGE Bar: Pulling down forces all autopilots to disengage, or prevents them from being activated.

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APP Switch: Arms or engages the AFDS to capture and track the localizer and glide slope. LOC and G/S are armed (displayed in white on PFD) only prior to actual capture of localizer and glideslope. AFDS can capture localizer or glideslope in any order, and upon capture each will display in green to show that LOC and G/S modes are both active. LOC capture can occur when aircraft track is within 120 degrees of the front course, G/S capture can occur when the intercept track angle is within 80 degrees of the localizer course. Once LOC and G/S are captured, the APP switch will extinguish, indicating that the only way to disengage the APP mode is to follow the steps outlined earlier in this chapter. APP mode can be terminated prior to localizer or glide slope capture by pushing the APP switch a second time, or by selecting LOC, LNAV or VNAV modes to override APP mode. APP mode will also disengage if localizer is captured and different roll mode is selected. If the glideslope only has been captured, selection of a different pitch mode will disengage the APP mode. If TO/GA is selected, or the flight directors are selected OFF at any time, APP mode will disengage.

VOR/LOC Switch: Arms or engages the AFDS to capture and track the localizer. LOC is armed only (displayed in white on PFD) prior to actual localizer capture. The current AFDS roll mode will remain active until localizer capture. LOC display will change to green when LOC mode becomes active upon localizer capture. LOC mode can be disengaged by pressing the LOC switch a second time prior to LOC capture, or by selecting the flight directors OFF, or engaging the TO/GA mode. It is generally important not to set the airplane up to violate your clearance limit while being vectored for an approach. When ATC instructs you to Intercept the Localizer for Runway X pressing VOR/LOC will intercept the localizer. When cleared for the approach, pressing APP will allow the aircraft to intercept and descend via the Glideslope.

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TCAS II Version 7
Overview: PMDG has partnered with Lee Hetherington, a veteran PMDG Beta tester, to bring you a TCAS II Version 7 logic engine that provides real world TCAS position and resolution advisory information precisely as displayed to airline pilots flying the 737NG. Written by Lee, the TCAS II Version 7 logic engine will be made available by him for many other applications, but we are proud to present his work integrated into the existing PMDG airplane to provide a TCAS simulation truly worthy of the phrase, As Real as it Gets! TCAS is a vital aviation safety tool, and while traditional MSFS based TCAS simulations have served primarily as aircraft position radar, Lee has teamed with PMDG to bring a TCAS II simulation that will provide Conflict Resolution Advisory information precisely as is done on the aircraft. What TCAS II Does: TCAS II uses transponder encoded information to predict the closest point of contact for aircraft operating in the surrounding area. If it is apparent that the flight path of two aircraft will conflict, advisory information is provided to the crew in order to direct aircraft away from each other. By integrating Lees behavior model, we have been able to provide realistic real time TCAS information to the navigation display in the PMDG 737 cockpit. Resolution advisories are displayed in the format of avoidance boxes and vertical speed commands on the PFD and the VSI. Additionally we have provided aural callouts that are given to crews in order to maximize the effectiveness of escape procedures during a resolution advisory. TCAS Display: Traffic information is displayed on the navigation display of the PMDG 737. To ensure TCAS is working, you can select TEST on the Transponder mode switch, and a test format will be Revision 1.4 23APR04 shown on the navigation display, along with the advisory information, TCAS System Test OKAY.

TCAS range can be adjusted using the ND Range knob on the EFIS MCP. Maximum range for TCAS information is 40nm. Traffic information displayed on the ND will be displayed using one of four graphic icons to identify the threat level of displayed traffic. General Traffic not considered to be a conflict. Proximate traffic within 6nm and +/1200ft vertically but not conflicting. Traffic Advisory:Potential Threat Traffic. Traffic Traffic aural warning. Resolution Advisory: Accompanied by pitch guidance to resolve traffic conflict. TCAS Operation: TCAS is marvelous in its simplicity. To receive the collision protection of TCAS, simply test the system prior to takeoff, and place the Transponder Mode selector in the TA/RA switch position to receive Traffic Advisories and Resolution Advisories.

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Above/Normal/Below: For effective traffic detection, it is important to manage the TCAS bias. There are three bias modes. Above, Normal and Below. The switch position should reflect the current area of interest. If you are climbing, select ABOVE. During level flight select NORMAL. During descent select BELOW. ABS/REL: There are two ways that TCAS can provide you with altitude information on displayed traffic. Absolute altitude and Relative altitude. Setting this switch to ABS will show you the current Mode S reported altitude encode for each detected target. REL will display the approximate vertical separation between your current altitude and the target aircraft altitude. REL is generally considered a better setting as the REL information makes it easier to determine whether traffic is above or below and by what distance. Altitude information is displayed along with each traffic symbol, along with an arrow to indicate whether the conflicting traffic is climbing or descending. General Traffic: On the 737NG, TCAS is configured to suppress the display of all traffic except for TA and RA qualifying traffic. (Yellow or Red). In principle, this would mean that you should never see conflicting traffic on TCAS. Not all TCAS installations offer General Traffic Suppression, however and General Traffic information can be useful for maintaining good situational awareness. We have defaulted the TCAS setup to display General Traffic. For perfect realism, you can uncheck the Show All NonThreatening Traffic box under TCAS on the VARIOUS page of the PMDG Styles menu.

Traffic Advisory (TA): A Traffic Advisory should be taken seriously, as it will be the first indication of a potential resolution advisory. A Traffic Advisory will be accompanied by the aural warning Traffic! Traffic! The Navigation Display will show the conflict traffic in yellow. This will help to quickly identify the correct relative location and altitude to begin searching. Resolution Advisory (RA): A resolution advisory is considered to be an aircraft emergency. A resolution advisory will be displayed on TCAS in red, along with an aural command to climb or descend. Resolution advisories are designed to provide maximum vertical spacing between two aircraft that are in conflict with one another. The success of an RA depends upon immediate and decisive action by the crew in accordance with the instructions provided by the RA. RA instructions are based upon an expectation that within 2.5 seconds of an RA, the crew will perform a +/-0.25G maneuver in accordance with the RA instructions. On the Vertical Speed indicator, an RA will trigger two color bands Red: Conflict Area Green: Target Pitch Zone

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The aural warning will give initial instructions for the RA, and the crew should adjust pitch to enter the green band on the VSI. Note that as the RA develops, it may change the location of the green band in order to increase or decrease the needed vertical speed to reflect greater or lower separation of conflicting traffic. A similar Conflict Box is displayed on the attitude indicator to provide unambiguous guidance to the crew during an RA.

This Conflict Box is displayed in red and matches safe green band displayed on the Vertical Speed Indicator. When TCAS has determined that both aircraft are clear of one another, the Conflict Box and colored pitch bands on the Vertical Speed will be removed, along with the aural advisory, Clear of Conflict.

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MANUAL FLIGHT TECHNIQUES TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUBJECT PAGE

TAKEOFF PROCEDURES.............................................................................................................. 3 CLIMBOUT PROCEDURES............................................................................................................ 6 CRUISE PROCEDURES................................................................................................................. 7 DESCENT PROCEDURES ............................................................................................................. 7 APPROACH PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................... 8 LANDING PROCEDURES ............................................................................................................ 11 MISCELLANEOUS FLIGHT TECHNIQUES ................................................................................. 14

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TAKEOFF PROCEDURES
Takeoff Speeds: The speeds appropriate for the takeoff weight of the aircraft should have been selected and confirmed in the TAKEOFF PERF page of the FMC during the initial cockpit setup. If the FMC has not registered confirmed takeoff speeds, an amber NO V-SPD warning will be displayed on the PFD, near the top of the airspeed scale. Takeoff speeds are computed using crew input, and the appropriate V speed indicators and flaps setting markers will be displayed in their appropriate place on the airspeed scale. Not all settings will be visible at any given time. Takeoff Position: Weight and engine thrust not-withstanding, the 737 is capable of conducting a rolling takeoff on most runways. Before advancing the thrust levers, be certain that the aircraft is properly aligned with the runway. The takeoff roll should begin deliberately after the aircraft has been properly aligned with the runway centerline. If a short delay is anticipated once in the takeoff position, the parking brake should be set in order to protect against inadvertent movement of the aircraft due to thrust, wind or runway slope conditions. Slight movement of the aircraft may not be immediately noticeable to the crew when concentrating on other takeoff related tasks. Upon receipt of the takeoff clearance, the aircraft lights should be configured according to the appropriate checklist, and the parking brake released. Throttle Advance: Advance the throttles smoothly for takeoff. If the autothrottle is not used to set takeoff thrust, the Pilot Flying (PF) should advance the throttles until reaching approximately 60% N1. Once engine readings have stabilized, the throttles should be advanced to takeoff power, with final throttle adjustments being made before the aircraft has accelerated to 80 knots. After reaching 80 knots in the takeoff roll, the throttles should only be adjusted to keep the engines within operating parameters. If the autothrottle is being used to set takeoff thrust, the PF should bring the throttles smoothly forward until approximately 70% N1 is displayed on the EICAS. Once engine indications have stabilized, the TO/GA switch should be pressed. (To make the TOGA switch accessible, we have placed a click spot on the top left screw of the autopilot Mode Control Panel.click there to simulate pressing the TO/GA button.) As the throttles advance to their FMC determined position, it is important that the PF back the throttles up with a hand, and the hand should only be removed upon reaching V1. In all cases, the crew should be mindful that the engine power settings do not exceed the green maximum power settings displayed above the engine power strips on the EICAS display. Takeoff Roll: At the beginning of the takeoff role, the PF should maintain slight forward pressure on the controls in order to ensure proper directional control through firm contact between the nose wheels and the runway surface. This is not to imply than use of the tiller above more than 20 knots is acceptable, but firm tire adhesion to the runway surface will greatly improve directional control in the event of an engine failure at high thrust and low speeds. Directional control should be maintained through the use of coordinated rudder and aileron input to ensure a straight takeoff with minimum roll tendency on rotation. The PNF will call out 80 knots at the appropriate time, as an indication to the PF that the aircraft has entered into the high speed regime of the takeoff. At 80 knots, the PF should begin to release the forward pressure held on the flight controls. Revision 1.4 23APR04

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10 - 4 MANUAL FLIGHT TECHNIQUES The proper technique for takeoff involves careful rotation until the target takeoff pitch attitude is reached. The target pitch attitude should be maintained until the aircraft flies itself off the runway. Resist the temptation to continue raising the nose above the target pitch attitude or a tail strike may result. In gusty conditions, the rotation may be delayed slightly in order to prevent inadvertent over-rotation induced by wind gusts. Once the aircraft becomes airborne, confirm via the radar altimeter that at least 20 feet has been attained, the continue rotating at 2.5 - 3 per second until airspeed stops increasing. A proper rate of rotation will lead to the aircraft attaining V2 at 35 feet above the runway surface. Early, rapid or excessive rotation can extend the takeoff run, cause a tail strike condition, and/or activate the stick shaker and stall warning. Crosswind Takeoff: As with other aircraft types, the most effective method to maintain directional control during the takeoff is to use rudder for directional control as necessary, and aileron input to control roll tendency. As the aircraft accelerates, the control inputs should be gradually reduced so as to achieve a smooth liftoff without banking the wings. An uneven bank angle on rotation produces a risk of engine nacelle damage from striking the runway surface. Rejected Takeoff: It is extremely important that crews understand that a decision to reject a takeoff is not made because the airplane can stop. A decision to reject a takeoff is made because the airplane will not fly. Once entering the high-speed regime of the takeoff role, a decision to reject the takeoff should only be made if, from the captains perspective, a failure occurring prior to V1 sufficiently calls into question the ability of the aircraft to fly safely. Crews should keep in mind that rejecting the takeoff at high PMDG 737NG - AOM

The automatic aural warning system will call out V1 when the indicated aircraft speed is still 5 knots lower than the actual V1 speed setting. This buffer is included in recognition of the fact that a no-go decision immediately before V1 can be more effectively made if the PF is aware of the rate of acceleration to V1. Note: In order to obtain airspeed callouts during the takeoff role, you must have initialized the FMC before commencing the takeoff. This is a simulator specific requirement. Upon reaching V1, the PF should remove the hand used to back up the throttles. This is done to enforce the go decision, and to prevent a reactive decision to reject a takeoff after reaching V1. At Vr, the PNF will call Rotate, as a signal for the PF to begin applying back pressure on the controls to raise the nose of the aircraft from the runway. A proper rate of rotation for the 737 is 2.5 to 3 per second until a target takeoff pitch attitude of approximately 8 nose up is attained. Target pitch attitudes for each airframe are listed as follows: Type -600 -700 -800 -900 T/O Pitch 9.0 9.0 8.0 8.0 Tail Strike Pitch 16.2 14.8 11.0 9.2

Due to fuselage length, the pitch attitude for takeoff becomes increasingly critical in the 800 and 900 airframes. In Microsoft Flight Simulator, striking the tail of the aircraft on the ground is treated as an aircraft crash, and Microsoft Flight Simulator may fail engines, wings or otherwise disable the aircraft. This is not precisely realistic behavior, but this warning serves to remind crews that conducting the aircraft in an unsafe manner carries dire consequences in the real world. Revision 1.4 23APR04

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MANUAL FLIGHT TECHNIQUES 10 - 5 speed may place the aircraft at greater risk than the initial failure. A decision to reject the takeoff should be made with authority, and in time that braking can be applied before V1 is reached. The pilot flying should quickly reduce the throttles to idle, disengage the autothrottle and apply reverse thrust. If set to RTO, the autobrakes will activate when the throttles are returned to idle. Note: Most users of Microsoft Flight Simulator know that pressing the F2 key will apply reverse thrust, but it is important to know that you will not get proper breaking unless you also bring your joystick throttle to idle in order to activate the spoilers during the Rejected Takeoff! If the autobrakes do not activate, the crew should apply maximum manual braking commensurate with safety. Reverse thrust should be applied normally, with careful consideration given to asymmetric thrust in the event the takeoff is being rejected due to an engine failure. Engine Failure During Takeoff: In the event that an engine fails on takeoff but a decision to continue the takeoff is made, directional control must be maintained by applying rudder to the side opposite that of the failed engine. The amount of rudder required to maintain directional control will depend on aircraft weight, crosswind influence, airspeed at the time of the failure and which engine failed. It is important that only enough rudder be applied to maintain directional stability as additional rudder will produce excess drag or cause the aircraft to yaw away from the failed engine. This condition is undesirable because it may result in yaw oscillations during the takeoff that will reduce the overall controllability of the aircraft. After an engine failure, avoid rotating the aircraft early or excessively. Rotate smoothly at Vr and hold the target takeoff pitch until the aircraft flies itself off the runway. Continue the takeoff normally, PMDG 737NG - AOM accelerating to V2. The pitch attitude during the early climb will be slightly lower than that normally required for a two engine takeoff. (Usually 2 lower than the normal climb out angle.) Maintain V2 until reaching the Engine Out Acceleration Height. (E/O Accel Ht.) as set in the FMC takeoff page. On passing the E/O Acceleration Height, lower the nose by one half of the pitch attitude required for the climb. . (e.g. from 20 to 10 pitch.) Reducing the pitch in this fashion will allow the aircraft to begin accelerating so that the flaps may be retracted. Do not descend during the acceleration sequence. After completion of the flap retraction sequence, ensure the operating engine is not exceeding the selected thrust parameter and continue the climb profile. In the event the engine failure occurs after reaching V2, but before reaching V2 + 10, maintain the speed at which the aircraft was travelling at the time of the engine failure. Use pitch to maintain airspeed, and accept whatever rate of climb results unless obstacle clearance is an issue. Climb to the E/O Acceleration Height and commence the acceleration and flap retraction as described above. If the engine failure occurs at V2 + 10, then use pitch to maintain this speed until reaching the E/O Acceleration Height and commencing the acceleration and flap retraction sequence as described above. If the engine failure occurs at a speed greater than V2 + 10, use pitch to reduce speed to V2 + 10 and climb to the flap retraction/acceleration altitude. This technique will give the best rate of climb for the given available thrust. The above described procedure for acceleration and flap retraction applies. Failure of an engine on one side of the aircraft will cause a yaw tendency toward the failed engine. Opposite rudder input should be applied using trim with enough rudder deflection to eliminate the aircrafts tendency to change heading. The aircraft should be considered properly trimmed if yaw tendency is eliminated and the yoke Revision 1.4 23APR04

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10 - 6 MANUAL FLIGHT TECHNIQUES can be held without aileron input. Although a slight banking may be noticed, using ailerons to level the wings will cause an increase in aerodynamic drag, resulting in a less efficient wingform, reduced lift effectiveness and reduced climb performance.

CLIMBOUT PROCEDURES
Initial Climb: In a normal takeoff condition, the pitch attitude required to maintain V2+10 knots in the climb is 15-17 nose up. In light airplane configurations, this pitch attitude may be exceeded in order to maximize the rate of climb. (Provided the airspeed is not allowed to drop below V2+10.) Some consideration to passenger comfort should be given to if the climb angle required to maintain V2+10 exceeds 25 nose up pitch. If this is a concern, a slight reduction in N1 is the best way to reduce climb angle. If a turn is required during the initial climbout phase of the flight, do not begin banking until the aircraft has climbed at least 200 feet AGL. Between 200 AGL and 400AGL do not exceed bank angles of 15. If the flight director is being used to provide guidance during takeoff, bank attitude according to the flight director is satisfactory, as the flight director takes aircraft speed, weight and stall factors into account. Acceleration in the Climb: If the flight directors are not being used in the climb, the pitch angle should be reduced when climbing through the Flap Acceleration Height as set on the FMC Takeoff page. Pitch angle should be reduced by not more than of the pitch required to maintain V2+10. For example, if 20 nose up was required, then the pitch angle can be reduced to 10 nose up, but not lower. This will allow the aircraft to begin accelerating in the climb. Flaps should be retracted according the flap retraction schedule on the airspeed indicator. During the flap retraction sequence, do not select the next flap setting until the aircraft has accelerated beyond the amber warning band (on the airspeed indicator) for the next flap setting. Acceleration should be continued until the flaps are fully retracted If necessary, modify the pitch, power and flap settings as required in order to comply with ATC clearances or SID requirements. When reaching Flaps Up, the crew should select the Climb Thrust setting by pressing the LVL CHG switch, the N1 switch, or via the FMC Climb page. Verify the appropriate CLB setting is displayed on the EICAS engine display. Once in this mode, engine thrust settings will be automatically adjusted for maximum cost/climb performance given current environmental conditions and climb requirements. Engine failure in/during climb: Once above the E/O Acceleration Height, select the ENG OUT mode on the FMC Climb Page. Selecting the engine out page will not change the behavior of the autopilot, but It will provide reference information to assist the crew with the single engine climb.

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CRUISE PROCEDURES
Optimum Altitude: The FMC VNAV Cruise page will display both the Optimum cruise altitude and Maximum Cruise Altitude for the current flight configuration. The Optimum altitude will give the best ratio of ground mileage for fuel consumed. Normally, a cruise altitude close to the Optimum altitude should be selected. Flight above the optimum altitude will reduce the margin between cruise speed and stall speed. Flight above optimum altitude should be avoided if autothrottles are inoperative. Fuel Economy: The FMC will continually monitor and report on fuel usage during the course of a flight. If a change in flight conditions reduces the range of the aircraft and causes a fuel reserves reduction, the FMC message INSUFFICIENT FUEL will be displayed. FMC monitoring of the required fuel level does not remove crew responsibility for monitoring and managing the useful fuel load. Factors which can cause a change in the required fuel load include, but are not limited to: Improper Trim Settings Unbalanced Fuel Load Excessive Throttle Adjustments Flight Higher Than Optimum Altitude Lower Than Planned Cruise Altitude Temperatures Higher Than Forecast Faster Airspeed Than Planned Slower Airspeed Than Planned Higher than forecast wind conditions. Infarcts enroute holding. Unforecast altitude changes.

Known Fuel Consumption Increases: M.01 over planned speed: 2,000 above Optimum Alt: 4,000 above Optimum Alt: 4,000 below Optimum Alt: 8,000 below Optimum Alt: 2% Increase 2% Increase 3.4% Increase 4% Increase 9% Increase

DESCENT PROCEDURES
Leaving Cruise: The descent process can be conducted manually by taking control of the flight, or by selecting a lower assigned altitude in the MCP and pressing LVL CHG or VNAV. A descent may also be initiated by entering a lower FL___ in the FMC VNAV Cruise Page. Higher profile descents may require the use of speed brakes in order to reach altitude or speed targets during the descent. In descents requiring the use of speed brakes, it is important that level off at the lower assigned altitude be anticipated so that speed brakes can be retracted and thrust increased to obtain a smooth level out procedure. Late reduction of speed brakes and cause uncomfortable G loading and passenger discomfort. The use of flaps to increase aerodynamic drag in order to facilitate a higher descent rate is not recommended as this places significant wear and tear on the flaps, flap track and flap actuator mechanisms. If additional drag is required, speedbrakes or a reduced descent angle are recommended. Speedbrake Usage: In all cases where speed brakes are used, the speed brakes should be closed before thrust is added. Speed brakes should not be used below 1500 AGL. Crews should keep in mind that speedbrake usage with greater than Flaps 10 selected causes additional stress loading to be placed on the trailing edge flaps. Although this will not adversely affect controllability of the aircraft, it does place additional wear and tear on the flap track mechanisms.

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APPROACH PROCEDURES
Initial Approach: Crew workload during the approach portion of the flight increases steadily right up to the point of touchdown. As such, the earlier a crew is prepared with all weather, runway and approach information the more distributed the workload will become. A strong approach briefing allows the crew to plan ahead for various contingencies such as vectoring through congested airspace, unusual approach procedures, emergency procedures, weather related contingencies, etc. The crew should have all information regarding ATIS, NOTAMS and aircraft performance data collected prior to descending below 10,000 feet. Approach Speeds: The speed bugs displayed on the ND airspeed indicator are selected based upon the crews selection in the Approach page of the FMC. Speeds are based on the aircraft weight and fuel remaining. When speed is maintained at these airspeed/flap limits, a full safety margin for aerodynamic stall is maintained. The maneuvering speed for a specific flap setting is displayed using a green index marker with the associated flap number beside it. Prior to entering the approach, the landing flap setting should be selected in the FMC APPROACH REF page. This page will show the 25 REF, 30 REF and 40 REF speeds given the current aircraft weight. The selected flap setting and REF speed should be selected and entered using the appropriate LSK. Once selected, the FMC will not continue to adjust the REF speed to reflect continued fuel burn. If significant weight change is experienced due to prolonged holding, reselecting a REF speed is necessary to update approach and flap maneuvering speeds. When selecting speeds independently of ATC instructions, selecting an MCP speed which is 10 knots higher than the flap Revision 1.4 23APR04 maneuvering speed bug will provide a stable, efficient flight envelope with a comfortable margin for banking turns which may be required by ATC. Flaps Usage: To ensure a normal, stabilized approach, it is good technique to have Flaps 5 selected by the time the initial approach is commenced. Proper deployment technique is to set the next flap setting as the airspeed passes through the next highest flap setting maneuver speed. For example, selecting flaps 10 will be done as airspeed slows through the flaps 5 maneuver speed. Stabilized Approach: A stabilized approach is important to a consistent and safe landing technique. This is particularly true in transport category aircraft. A stabilized approach is defined by accomplishment of the following before reaching 1000 feet AGL on an instrument approach or 500 feet AGL on a visual approach: Landing configuration (gear and flaps) On descent profile (ILS Localizer and glide slope, published non precision profile, or when conditions have been met to allow a visual approach below DH or MDA on a non precision approach.) Speed within 5 knots of target REF speed. Rate of descent not in excess of 1000 fpm on precision approach or 1200 fpm on non precision approach. Engines spooled up normally to maintain speed and rate of descent.

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MANUAL FLIGHT TECHNIQUES 10 - 9 approach or 500 feet on a visual approach, initiate a go around. Precision Approach and Landing (ILS): The initial approach can be flown using a number of different modes in the autoflight mode, regardless of whether a manual or automatic landing is anticipated. The HDG SEL and LNAV modes can be used for lateral tracking of the flight path and VNAV, LVL CHG or V/S can be used for altitude changes. Generally VNAV is considered to be the preferred method, as the VNAV program provides speed management not found in the V/S mode, and as such can make for a smoother approach with less significant throttle movement and thrust changes. When VNAV mode is not usable, or at the crews discretion, LVL CHG will provide for speed management during a descent, but will result in increased throttle movement and cabin noise during small altitude changes. For small altitude changes, use of the V/S mode will minimize autothrottle thrust changes until the new, lower altitude is reached. Passenger comfort is maximized and engine wear and tear are minimized when changes in required thrust settings are anticipated and accounted for by the crew. For example, when the landing gear are lowered, timely selection of the next slower speed required for the approach will eliminate the need for the autothrottle to increase thrust in order to compensate for increased drag from the landing gear immediately prior to a thrust change for a decrease in approach speed. Whenever possible, it is helpful to enter the landing runway into the FMC DEP/ARR page, as this will display an extended runway centerline in the ND MAP mode, which can help with spatial awareness. When turning onto the localizer intercept heading and commencing the approach, select APP mode on the ND. The expanded compass rose or full compass rose (HSI) provide for the best approach information display. If LNAV is being used to manage lateral track navigation, use caution to ensure that the aircraft actually captures the ILS PMDG 737NG - AOM localizer. In some cases, the aircraft will continue to fly the LNAV approach heading without actually capturing the localizer, which can lead to dangerous descent conditions if a glideslope capture occurs. After localizer capture, the heading bug should be set to reflect to inbound approach course. If a large intercept angle was being flown, the autopilot will perform one intercept maneuver before stabilizing on the localizer. At intercept angles less than 30 degrees, the autopilot will not require an intercept maneuver. The aircraft should be configured for final approach prior to reaching the final approach fix. This will ensure an accurate glide slope intercept at the appropriate speed for the approach. Landing flaps setting should be selected immediately after capturing the glideslope, with the MCP speed set to final approach speed for the landing flaps setting. Normally, landings will be performed at flaps 25, or flaps 30 unless runway or weather conditions dictate the use of flaps 40. Single Engine ILS Approach: A normal approach should be flown in accordance with the Abnormal Procedure for single engine landing. When flying the approach with an engine out, it is important the crew stabilize the aircraft on the final approach speed prior to reaching the outer marker. This will provide an opportunity to re-trim the aircraft as required to eliminate yaw tendencies at the slower approach speeds. Once the aircraft is trimmed, a normal approach and landing can be flown. It is generally not considered good practice to land with flaps 30 or flaps 40 unless runway length limitations require it. Selecting a higher flap setting is preferable in the event that a single engine go-around is necessary. In some cases, the crew may desire to zero out any trim influence prior to flying the approach. This will require that the crew manually input the control deflections necessary to eliminate the yaw tendencies of the aircraft. While this is a higher workRevision 1.4 23APR04

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10 - 10 MANUAL FLIGHT TECHNIQUES load solution, it is available to the crew and should be completed prior to reaching the final approach fix. Crews should resist the temptation to adjust rudder trim after crossing the final approach fix as this may distract crew members from flying the approach effectively. Non-Precision Approaches: When flying non precision approaches, the aircraft must be in the landing configuration prior to reaching the final approach fix. Final Descent checklist should be completed prior to crossing the final approach fix as well. Landing flaps should be set and landing speed selected on the MCP speed selector prior to commencing the descent to the MDA. A rate of descent should be used which will allow visual acquisition of the runway environment (commensurate with MDA) in time to align the aircraft with the landing runway. During NDB approaches, the MAP CTR mode provides a good picture of needle tracking throughout the approach. During VOR approaches, the VOR or MAP modes provides a good situational awareness picture of the approach. Circling to Land: When circle to land minimums are met and wind conditions require such a maneuver, the pilot flying must maintain visual contact with the field once descent below the clouds in completed. When circling, bank angles in excess of 30 degrees should be avoided. Flaps 20 and the associated flaps 20 maneuvering speed is recommended for the approach portion of the procedure as well as the circling maneuver. Once the turn to final is commenced, extend landing flaps and commence a normal visual approach profile. VNAV Approaches: It is possible to use a combination of VNAV and LNAV to fly non precision approaches down to 50 above the runway environment. If the aircraft is within 15nm of the arrival runway and flaps15 or greater has been selected, it is possible to use VNAV to fly the non precision approach profile. For example: The crew should enter the required crossing altitudes and speeds in the FMC flightplan for stepdown fixes along the approach. Then, when within 15nm of the airport and operating at flaps 15 or greater, the MCP altitude will not serve to inhibit the VNAV/FMC descent according to the descent profile. Generally the MCP altitude should be set to the cleared altitude prior to crossing the final approach fix. The MCP altitude can then be set to the Missed Approach Altitude when crossing the final approach fix, and a VNAV managed descent according to the altitude/speed restrictions in the FMC will be commenced. Note: We have included this level of accuracy in the FMC capability because it represents operational procedures used by aircrews around the world on a regular basis. This level of accuracy brings forward some unfortunate factors regarding the MSFS navigation and landmass database employed by FS9. During our pre-release testing we found that it was not uncommon for the VNAV approach mechanism was able to fly the airplane down to 50 above the threshold altitude with precision accuracy. However, in a number of test cases, the runway location within the MSFS scenery based upon outmoded position data and the runway was not always exactly under the airplane even though the FMC navigation position was reported to be identical to the runway touchdown zone position on current Jeppesen Approach Plates. So, as in the real world, we strongly encourage crewmembers to remember that the pilot flies the airplane, not the automation, and it may occasionally be necessary to demonstrate sound judgment and pilotage when working within the MSFS world.

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LANDING PROCEDURES
Landing Geometry: To make consistently accurate and safe landings, it is important that the pilot have a firm understanding of the geometry in the landing configuration. The standard ICAO glideslope installation requires the glideslope to intersect the runway surface 1,000 feet from the threshold. In this configuration, a 2.5 glideslope will have a runway threshold crossing height (TCH) of 66 feet. If the aircraft is flown to the runway in this configuration without a normal flare, the main gear will touch down approximately 900 feet from the runway threshold. If a moderate flare is accomplished, rather than simply flying the aircraft onto the runway, the flight path of the main landing gear can be expected to lengthen by between 300 and 700 feet. It is recommended that the aircraft be flared to touch down on the runway surface between 1,000 and 1,500 feet from the threshold. As such, the pilot should use the 1,000 foot markings on the runway as the visual aim point for the approach. Coincidentally, this aim point will provide a good visual reference for flying both a 2.5 and 3 glide slope, and result in an appropriately placed touchdown using normal flare technique. Touchdown should occur in the first 3,000 feet of the runway, or 1/3 of the runway length, whichever is shorter. Flare: At 50 feet radio altitude above the runway surface, the throttles should be moved to idle. At 30 feet radio altitude, nose up pitch should be increased from the approach angle to approximately 5 nose up. If accomplished correctly, the aircraft should settle onto the runway without extended floating. Keeping power added during the flare may cause extended floating in ground effect just above the runway surface, which will PMDG 737NG - AOM significantly increase landing distance. Crews are likewise cautioned not to continue to increase nose up pitch during the flare in an effort to grease it on as this may cause a rapid decay in airspeed, reducing aircraft controllability and reducing the effectiveness of immediate go around thrust should it be needed. In addition, a pitch attitude of only 9.2 nose up will cause fuselage contact with the runway surface upon main gear touchdown in the 900.. The recommended approach and landing technique is to fly a visual aim point 1,500 feet down the runway. Reduce thrust to idle beginning at 50 feet, with the flare commencing at 30 feet. Fly the aircraft onto the runway surface and commence the rollout procedure. Effective use of this procedure will consistently result in a runway touchdown between 1,000 and 1,500 feet from the threshold. VASI/ PAPI: If landing on a runway equipped with a standard two bar VASI system or a PAPI, use caution to manage the threshold crossing effectively. During testing, it has been discovered that Microsoft Developers misplaced the location of many ILS glideslopes, making them not congruent with the VASI/PAPI and in some cases making the touchdown point of the runway incorrect. It is not uncommon to find airports in the real world where the visual approach aids do not align with the instrument approach aids, so again the practical use of sound piloting will reward with good, safe landings. Crosswinds: When the flying a coupled approach, the autopilot will fly most of the approach with the airplanes nose crabbed into the wind. As the airplane touches down on the runway surface, the upwind wing may be lower than the downwind wing, and enough rudder

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10 - 12 MANUAL FLIGHT TECHNIQUES input will be applied to keep the aircraft aligned with the runway centerline. This is the best technique for landing the aircraft in a crosswind condition, as it provides the best directional control of the aircraft upon touchdown and minimizes wear and tear on the airframe and landing gear. After the nose has been lowered to the runway, rudder and steering tiller input may be required to keep the aircraft aligned with the runway during deceleration due to the reduced effectiveness of spoilers and ailerons after touchdown. If conducting an Autoland, do not anticipate having the airplane track the centerline while rolling out. The 737, unlike some larger Boeing airplanes, does not have a ROLLOUT mode in the Autoland capability so the crew is continually responsible for tracking the runway centerline after touchdown. Due to the tandem wheel arrangement on the 737 main landing gear, the airplane has a strong tendency to travel in the direction the nose of the airplane is pointed at the moment of touchdown. Thus, a slight nose into the wind deflection can result in the aircraft travelling toward the upwind side of the runway during the rollout. This should be immediately and precisely corrected with rudder input while lowering the nose wheel to the runway surface. Autobrakes provide the best braking response during crosswind landings because of the difficulty in applying even brake pressure to rudder pedals that are displaced in order to provide rudder deflection for the final phase of the approach. As such, crews are advised to use autobrakes whenever possible on crosswind landings. Runway Braking: To understand the importance of steady brake pressure application, it is important to understand that the antiskid system which is used to prevent wheel locking and skidding monitors friction between the tires and the runway surface through a deliberate modulation and testing of braking power to the main gear. If the autobrakes are overridden by flight crew Revision 1.4 23APR04 application of braking pressure, this process of runway sampling starts again from the beginning. Repeated pumping of the brake pedals by the flight crew can increase the landing roll by as much as 75% in some cases. Crews are advised to apply a steady rate of pressure on the brake pedals when autobrakes are not used. The autobrake system allows for settings 1 4 and MAX. Autobrakes are recommended for any landing being accomplished on a runway shorter than 8,000 feet, or at high gross landing weights on longer runways. During the approach segment of the flight, select the autobrakes power setting required for the landing. After touchdown, brake application is indicated by a positive rate of deceleration beginning one or two seconds after touchdown. The braking is applied gradually, with the full selected braking power being applied as the nose wheel touches the runway surface. A combination of Autobrakes and Spoiler deployment is normally sufficient to decelerate the airplane within its landing distance requirements. Remember that the aircraft runway length certification involves only normal braking, spoilers and no reverse thrust, so the application of reverse thrust will shorten the expected landing distance. In order to ensure proper Autobrake and Spoiler deploy on landing, it is EXTREMELY important that the throttle be pulled to idle immediately upon main wheel touchdown if some power was used during the landing. (The throttles should have been at idle 30 AGL, but sometimes it is necessary to carry some power until touchdown.) If you do not get autobrake/spoiler activation, be sure to pull the throttles to idle! If the autobrakes system fails (accompanied by a AUTOBRAKE DISARM warning), apply manual brake pressure. Use of reverse thrust will augment the braking system and reduce wear on the brake systems. Regardless of whether or not reverse thrust is applied, the autobrake system seeks a target rate of deceleration PMDG 737NG - AOM

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MANUAL FLIGHT TECHNIQUES 10 - 13 (see Landing chapter), rather than a certain brake power. This will result in a consistent and smooth rate of deceleration after touchdown. The autobrake system is designed to bring the aircraft to a complete stop upon touchdown, so crew intervention is required if a full stop is not desired. Simply disarm the autobrakes system by selecting OFF after passing through 60 knots and reducing reverse thrust to idle. Autobrakes may also be disarmed by advancing the throttles or manually applying brake pressure momentarily. Reverse Thrust: Application and amount of reverse thrust is subject to the discretion of the flight crew. When touching down on wet or slippery runways, every effort should be made to ensure that only symmetrical reverse thrust is applied. On dry runways, asymmetrical thrust should only be applied with extreme caution, as this may pose a significant directional control problem to the flight crew. When passing through 80 knots begin moving the throttles so as to reach reverse idle by 60 knots. Use of reverse thrust levels higher than idle when forward speed is below 60 knots increases the potential for FOD ingestion and engine surging due to ingestion of engine exhaust. The engines should be brought to forward idle by the time taxi speed is reached. If directional control problems are encountered during the landing rollout, it is important that they be identified and solved quickly in order to keep the aircraft on the runway centerline and under control. If a skid is detected during the landing roll: Reduce reverse thrust to idle if at high levels of reverse thrust. Verify correct control inputs for current crosswind conditions. (aileron into the wind and opposite rudder) Use forward differential thrust, if necessary to restore directional control.

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MISCELLANEOUS FLIGHT TECHNIQUES


Emergency Descent: At the first indication of a cabin altitude /cabin pressure problem, the crew should immediately don oxygen masks. A quick trouble shooting process is to verify that all packs are normal and to close all isolation valves. If this does not remedy the problem, or if it is obvious that cabin altitude is uncontrollable, an emergency descent should be commenced at once. An emergency descent is best performed under control of the autopilot, as this reduced the crew workload and allows them to focus on issues related to localizing and identifying the aircraft problem. Immediately select 14,000 feet or Minimum Enroute Altitude, whichever is higher in the MCP Altitude window. Press LVL CHG, extend the speedbrakes and verify the MCP commanded airspeed is in the usable range. Passing through 16,000 feet begin preparing for a controlled level out by selecting 290 knots in the MCP speed window. Retract speedbrakes and apply thrust as necessary during the level out and consult the required checklists. Stalls: An aerodynamic stall in any aircraft configuration, flight mode, or at any altitude is an unacceptable flight condition for the 737. At the first warning of an impending stall, (stick shaker or stall buffet): Throttles: Full Forward Pitch: Adjust to minimize loss of altitude. Intermittent stick shaker is acceptable in order to prevent ground or obstacle contact. Wings: Level Configuration: Do not change flap or gear settings until recovery from the stall is complete. the flight crews be able to manage steeper bank angles should they be necessary or desired. Entry into a 45 bank should be accomplished with the MCP speed set to 240 KIAS. Level flight can be maintained with only a slight nose pitch up in the turn. Use of stabilizer trim is recommended to eliminate approximately half of the required flight column control input required to maintain level flight in the turn. Force-Feedback Issues: For users who have force-feedback joysticks enabled, we STRONGLY recommend that you disable Control Surface Forces within Microsoft Flight Simulator before attempting to fly this airplane. Force feedback provides tactile cues to you via the joystick. The control forces are not generated based upon algorithms that realistically simulate control feedback, and can actually cause significant Pilot Induced Oscillations as you attempt to correct for unrealistic forces exerted against your control inputs during flight.

Steep Turns: Turns in excess of 30 are not normally accomplished during normal operations. For pilot familiarity with the aircraft in all regimes of flight, is important Revision 1.4 23APR04 DO NOT DUPLICATE PMDG 737NG - AOM