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2012 IEEE 7th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference - ECCE Asia June 2-5, 2012,

Harbin, China

A new three-phase inverter built by a low-frequency three-phase inverter in series with three highfrequency single-phase inverters
Zhiguo Lu , Chunjun Wu, Lili Zhao, Wanping Zhu Chongqing University Institute of Electrical and Electric Engineering Chongqing, China Laobie_2007@163.com
AbstractThis paper proposes a new type of three-phase inverter built by a line-frequency three-phase bridge inverter in series with three high-frequency single-phase bridge inverters. The three-phase bridge inverter bears the main output power; three single-phase full-bridge inverters are used to improve the system dynamic performance. Compared with the traditional inverter circuit, the circuit can achieve high efficiency and low harmonics at the same time, and it can also reduce the voltage stress of the power switches. This is a new way for the combination of the inverters. The circuit can be controlled easily, so it was easy to be modularized. Simulation model of the new three-phase inverter is presented. Highfrequency inverter used PWM modulation and line-frequency inverters worked at the two-logic mode. The correctness and feasibility of the theoretical analysis is verified by the Saber simulation. Keywords: series invereters; high-frequency inverter and linefrequency inverter; PWM modulation

I. INTRODUCTION With the continuous development of society, more and more energy is needed. However, Fossil fuels were consumpted rapidly in nearly one hundread years, and it also caused serious environmental problems. So new alternative energys development and applications have become the important issues in nowdays[1~2]. Many countries are accelerating research and development on the new energy. Among them, solar, wind and other new energy research have become a worldwide hot spot. From PV, we can only get the DC power, so it needs to get through the inverter for users to use. The electricity generated by wind power also needs processing before it can be used. As an intermediate conversion hub, inverter becomes a hot research topic for many experts and scholars in nowdays. The research of the new topology, control method, output quality and high efficiency power have become the focus of the study. Now resarch on the inverter is most about three-phase bridge inverter, three-phase bridge inverter in parallel, singlephase full-bridge inverter, and three single-phase full-bridge inverters star or angular connected and other topologies[3~6]. The three phases current and voltage of three single-phase
The Independent Research Project Supported by State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology (2007DA10512711205)
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full-bridge inverters with delta connection interacted, so it needed decouped and controlled complicated [3]. In order to output high-quality voltage waveform, the traditional threephase bridge inverter increased the circuit's operating frequency. But this will let the switches work at high frequency condition, and switching losses increased sharply [4]. A new control method was proposed in [5], three-phase bridge inverter is divided into six work regions, each region has a pair of switches worked in the line-frequency state, but it only partially reduced switching losses. In order to further reduce high-frequency switching losses, two parallel three-phase bridge inverters was proposed in [6], and parallel shunt circuit can reduce the switch current to reduce the switches losses, but it will bring circulation problems. Soft-switching can reduce the switching losses effectively, but because of the loaddependent, the operating frequency range, additional stress, complexity of the network, so its practical use was affected[7]. Double-frequency thought was proposed in [8] [9] [10] [11], two circuits connected in parallel, line-frequency unit committing output power, high frequency unit used to improve system dynamic performance, that can reduce the switches losses and improve the efficiency. A new inverter topology that a line-frequency three-phase bridge inverter in series with three high-frequency single-phase inverters is proposed in this paper. Three-phase bridge inverter works at line-frequency, bearing most of the output power of the system. And three single-phase inverters work at high frequency so that the system has good dynamic performance and high quality output voltage and current waveforms. The inverter can output high quality waveforms and increase the efficiency at the same time, the inverter output voltage complies with the IEEE power quality requirements: THD <5% and the deviation is less than 5% [12]. Three-phase inverter in series with three single-phase full-bridge inverters is a new thought, and it provides a new way to resarch and develop the inverter. II. TOPOLOGY INFERENCE AND ANALYSIS Using double-frequency thought, a three-phase inverter in series with three single-phase inverters was proposed in this paper. Three-phase inverter output phases a, b, c, respectively in series with a single-phase full-bridge inverter. Each phase

978-1-4577-2088-8/11/$26.00 2012 IEEE

after the LC filter was connected to the load. Specific circuit configuration was shown in Fig. 1. Three-phase inverter circuit works at line-frequency, which bears the main output power. The switches work at linefrequency, so the switching loss is small and the efficiency of output syetem is high. And the control method is simple. The voltage waveform shown in Fig.2 (a) can be achieved by controlling the switches of three-phase bridge inverter. At the same time three single-phase inverters work at high frequency, this can improve the system dynamic performance and output high-quality voltage waveforms. The voltage waveform shown in Fig.2 (b) can be achieved by PWM modulation. In order to achieve high quality output waveform and improve the efficiency of the inverter at the same time, using the two methods in series circuit, the output shown in Fig.1 (c) shows the voltage and current waveforms.

In order to facilitate the following analysis, we can make the following assumptions: (1) The three-phase load is symmetrical, and the load between the three phases uses star connection La = Lb = Lc = L

Ca = Cb = Cc = C Ra = Rb = Rc = R and assume that L, C has no parasitic resistance; (2) DC voltage is stable, and U da = U db = U dc = U d , and the main circuit switches are ideal components; (3) high-frequency single inverter unit switching frequency is much greater than line-frequency. And in a switching cycle, the output voltage is invariable.

uapa uapb uapc


frequency

is the output voltage of the lineinverter.

and daa , dbb , dcc d aa U d , d bb U d , d cc U d are the duty cycle and the output voltage in a switching cycle of the high-frequency single-phase inverter respectively. Then the new series inverter equivalent model was shown in Fig. 3. three-phase

u apb

Ud d bb

daa U

Cc

d ccU d

Fig.3 The equivalent circuit model of the new inverter

Fig.1The main circuit of the new three-phase inverter


U t

III.

NEW THREE-PHASE INVERTER MODULATION STRATEGY


ANALYSIS

The new three-phase inverter output voltage waveform is divided into six regions. It is shown in Fig.4.

(a)
U

2Vrms

va

vb

vc

(b)
U

2Vrms

0
(c)
t

60

120 180 240

300 360

Fig.4 Six operating rigions of the inverter

Fig. 2 Combination of waveforms superposition principle

Line-frequency three-phase inverter logic choose twologic operating mode, only one switch under each bridge arm

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is on and it is on 180 in turn in each cycle. The output voltage signal can be got by the simple switches driving signals, which are shown in Fig. 2 (b). The switch state and the output voltage in each area of line-frequency three-phase are shown in Tab. 1: In each work area, due to high switching frequency much greater than the line-frequency, we can select a region and assume the switches are in the fixed frequency state, to analyse the high-frequency single-phase bridge switches working condition. New three-phase inverert working in region and were selected to analyse three single-phase inverters operation mode. As the three single-phase inverters bridge circuit connected with line-frequency inverter in the
Tab.1 The switches state and the output voltage

vab

on

off

u dp u dp
0

S ap1 S ap 5 S ap 6 S ap1 S ap 2 S ap 6 S ap1 S ap 2 S ap 3 S ap 2 S ap 3 S ap 4 S ap 3 S ap 4 S ap 5 S ap 4 S ap 5 S ap 6

S ap 2 S ap 3 S ap 4 S ap 3 S ap 4 S ap 5 S ap 4 S ap 5 S ap 6 S ap1 S ap 5 S ap 6 S ap1 S ap 2 S ap 6 S ap1 S ap 2 S ap 3

udp udp
0

constantly worked in the first and the second case, only changing in the size of the output pulse width, and the amplitude was +U da . In this region, a switch was normally open and a switch was normally closed, only two switches working at high frequency state, which can reduce the switching loss effectively. When the new inverter was working in the region , the high-frequency inverter constantly worked in the third and the fourth case, only changing in the size of the output pulse width, and the amplitude was +U da . In this region, a switch was normally open and a switch was normally closed, only two switches working at high frequency state, which can also reduce the switching loss effectively. Similar showed in other regions. Traditional SPWM control principle is a standard sine wave and a triangular carrier for the transfer, getting the pulse signal to control the switches. And this single-phase inverter by modulated signal showed in the Fig. 2(a) transferring two triangle carriers with equal frequency and amplitude, get the pulse signals A 0 and B0 . After the modulated signal shown in Fig. 2 (a) passing zero level comparator, we can get the pulse C0 . After A 0 B0 and C0 passing through a series of logic gates, we can get the switch driving signals.

vr1

vref

vr 2
A0 B0 C0
va

same way and its operating principle were same here, just the driving signals of the switches lag phase followed by 120 , so we can select a phase to analyse the switch state and the output voltage.
Tab.2 Single-phase inverter output voltage and switches state

S a1
0 0 1 1

Sa 2
1 0 0 1

Sa3
1 1 0 0

Sa 4
0 1 1 0

va
U da
-0

U da

U da
+0

U da
Fig.4 PWM operation principle of single-phase bridge inverter

Assuming the switch on 1, off 0, 0 is defined +0 and -0 to analyse conveniently. va = 0 is defined as +0 when switching between U da and +0; va = 0 is defined as -0 when switching between U da and -0. Single-phase inverter output voltage and switch state were show in Tab. 2. When the new inverter was working in the region , the high-frequency inverter

From Tab.2, we can know that when va = U da or

vAB = +0 , S

a1

is on. It means Sa1 =A0 . When va = -U da or

vAB = 0 , S a 2 is on, It means S a 2 = B0 .In the similar way, we can get Sa 3 = A0 + C0 S a 4 = B0 + C0 . Four switches control logic schematics were shown in Fig. 5.

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A0
B0 C0

S a1 Sa 2 Sa3

Sa 4

inverter phase a, b line voltage waveforms and high frequency single-phase phase a output voltage waveform, the output waveforms approximation with the output waveforms of analysis. Fig. 9 was the output voltage waveform of phase a before and after the filter.The amplitude was 311V and the effective value was 220V. Fig. 10 was phase a, phase b and

Fig. 5 switches logic control schematics

We can get the other two switches driving signal pulse signals whice was shown in Fig. 6.

T 6

T 3

T 2

2T 3

5T 6

Fig. 6 s3 and s4 driving pulse signals

IV. SIMULATION In order to verify the correctness of the principle and the feasibility of program, A Saber simulation model based on the simulation software was set up in this paper. Simulation parameters are as follows: Line-frequency is 50Hz, and DC voltage is 538V, and high frequency is 20 kHz. U da = U db = U dc = 264V ,

Fig.8 The line-frequency three-phase inverter phase a, b line voltage waveforms and high frequency single-phase inverter phase a output voltage waveform

Ra = Rb = Rc = 100 , La = Lb = Lc = 5mH , Ca = Cb = Cc = 1 F . The simulation results were shown in


Fig.7-12.
Fig. 9 The output voltage waveform of phase a before and after the filter

Fig. 10 Phase a, phase b and phase c output voltage and current waveforms

Fig.7 A switching cycle modulation waveform and the portion enlarged modulation waveform

Fig.7 was a switch cycle modulation waveform and the portion enlarged modulation waveform. And from it, we c ould see that the high-frequency single-phase inverter used the PWM modulation. Fig.8 were the line-frequency three-phase

Fig.11 Output voltage and current spectrum analysis diagram of phase a

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high quality voltage and current waveforms and switching losses was small; It could increase the output efficiency effectively. It also complied with the output voltage and the THD requirements of the IEEE. It was suitable for solar, wind and other new energy. And the power from this inverter could be used directly for users. REFERENCES
Fig.12 Output voltage waveforms of phase a, phase b, and phase c S. Rahman and A. D. Castro, Environmental impacts of electricity generation: A global perspective,IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 307313, Jun. 1995. [2] Liu Changrong Lai Jinshen Low Frequency Current Ripple Reduction Technique with Active Control in a Fuel Cell Power System with Inverter Load [J] IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 200722 (4) 1429-1436 [3] Jianfei Zhao, Jianguo Jiang, Three-phase grid-connected inverter based on three single-phase inverters,Electric power Automation Equipment, 2009, 29(10):59-63. [4] F. Antunes and A. M. Torres, A three-phase grid-connected PV system, in Proc. Ind. Electron. Soc. (IECON 2000), Nagoya, Aichi, Japan, Oct. 2228, 2000, vol. 1, pp. 723728. [5] C.Qiao and K.M.Smedley, Three-phase grid-connected inverers interface for alternative energy sources with unified constant-frequency integration control, in Conf.Rec.IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Chicago,IL,Sep./Oct.2001,vol.4, pp.2675-2682. [6] Yang Chen, keyue Ma Smedley, One-cycle-controlled three-phase grid-connected inverters and their parallel operation,IEEE transactions on industry electronics, VOL. 44, NO.2, March/April 2009. [7] Chao K H Liaw C M, Three-phase soft-switching inverter for induction motor,IEE Proceedings electric power applications, 2001, 148(1):8-1. [8] Xiong Du, Luowei Zhou,Double-frequency buck converter,IEEE transactions on industry electronics, VOL. 56, NO. 5, May 2009. [9] Luo-wei Zhou Xiong Du, The buck converter with double-frequency, Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 26, pp: 68-72, 2006. [10] Xiong Du, Luowei Zhou, Three-phase power factor correction with double-frequency, Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 26 pp: 109-114, 2006. [11] Luo-wei Zhou, Du Xiong, Luo Quanming A novel three-phase rectifier topology with doublefrequency, in proceeding of the IEEE ICIT 05, Hongkong (China), pp: 1063-1068, December, 2005. [12] IEEE Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems. IEEE Std.929 -200.2000, 6. [1]

phase c output voltage and current waveforms. We can see the overshoot of the output three-phase voltage and current waveforms were small.And the waveforms was standard sine waves. Fig.11 was output voltage and current spectrum analysis diagram of phase a, and from the figure we could clearly see that THD was small. Fig.12 was output voltage waveforms when the load turned from 100 to 200 at 20ms. And we can see the dynamic performance of this inverter is good.Specific quantitative was shown in Tab. 3. And it was lower than the IEEE standard that inverter output side voltage THD <5% and the output side voltage allows a deviation of 5%.
Tab.3 THD of the output voltage and current waveforms of phase a, b and c
THD a 1.707% 2.512% b 1.707% 2.559% c 1.708% 2.593%

voltage current

V. CONCLUSION A new series inverter was proposed in this paper. And the inverter consists of a three-phase inverter and three singlephase inverters. The three-phase inverter operated in line frequency, which was mainly responsible for the output power. And three single-phase inverters operated at high frequency, which determined the compensation system performance and improved the system dynamic performance. The new inverter working principle and modulation were analysed in this paper. Theory and simulation showed: The new inverter could output

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