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10. 10.


10.1.1 General 10.1.2 Internal transportation and Handling during Installation 10.1.3 Assembly on Site 10.1.4 Pre-Charging 10.1.5 Inspection and Testing after Installation 10.2 Operation

10.2.1 General 10.2.2 Starting-Up Pumps 10.2.3 Setting-Up Operating Parameters 10.2.4 Stopping Pumps 10.2.5 Interruption of Works 10.2.6 Monitoring, Control and Data Acquisition 10.3 Maintenance

10.3.1 Routine Inspection 10.3.2 Yearly Inspection 10.3.3 Other Maintenance Activity 10.3.4 Spare Parts





10.1.1 General The installation of vessel shall be done in accordance with the following instructions. The final assembly, as well as vessel set-up, calibration and commissioning shall be performed by the Main Contractor and under the supervision of the Vendor. Only on that condition, the vessels shall be entitled to the guarantee. 10.1.2 Internal transportation and Handling during Installation The vessels will be delivered to the site in horizontal position and supported by saddles to which they will be fixed by straps. The vessels will be inspected as soon as they are received and checked that everything is in good order. Notes of damaged or missing items on the receipt and freight bill will be made and claimed with the transportation company as soon as possible. When unloading the vessels from trucks only lifting lugs marked on the cargos shall be used. Crane operators will observe marked center of mass. If center of mass in not marked, it will be assumed that it is located in the middle of lifting lugs span. Vessels will be stored in horizontal position and in their original package until installation takes place and will be transported to the place of installation by trucks. For lifting the vessels from the truck and placing the vessels onto concrete foundations two mobile cranes will be used. Before lifting, the straps to fix the vessels to the saddles will be released. From that point, only lifting lugs (eyes) welded to the vessels will be used. The first crane will be used for lifting the vessels from the trucks, while the second will help getting the hanged vessels in vertical positions. The first crane will used side lugs, while the second will use the top ones. When the vessels are hanged by both cranes in vertical position, the first crane will be dismissed and lifting of the vessels down to the foundation will be handled solely by the second crane. The schemes, showing the lifting procedure, are attached: Figure 10.1. The location and size of foundation bolts are shown on assembly drawings. The capacity of cranes, slings and shackles to be used for handling the vessels must be rated adequately and due to the gross weights of the vessels. Metal wire slings must be with nylon coating to prevent scratching Before the vessels are brought on the foundations, the foundations shall be inspected for dust, dirt, oil, chips, water, etc. and remove any contaminants. When the vessels are lifted down in installation positions, marking of bolting holes will be done if chemical bolts are used. After the vessels are lifting up and bolting holes drilled, the vessels will be positioned again on the foundations taking care of vessels orientation (orientation of the ladders have to be as per drawings).

If sleeve type, or J bolts are to be used, the preparation of the foundations will be done in advance and due to assembly drawings, or using leveling worksheets. Before bolting, the verticality of the vessels will be checked using engineering level meter. For the purpose of leveling, steel shims will be used. Leveling will be done in two perpendicular directions. Leveling height should be within 1.5 mm in both directions. After vessels are leveled, the bolts and nuts will be tightened by using a torque wrench, or tensioner as to impart a precise amount of torque as to pre-stress the bolts. The bolts can be reasonably preloaded if needed. All vessels being installed must be properly grounded to prevent unexpected static electric discharge If not, a static electric discharge may occur when the vessels are drained and disassembled for maintenance purposes. After tightening the bolts to the foundation, the vessels will be flange joined to the top of the pipes that connect the vessels with pumps discharge pipelines. The transition pieces that are connected to the vessels lower nozzles are to be flange joined to the dismantling joints installed at the top of the connection pipes. Before joining of flanges starts, the surface of flange faces, gasket and bolting material will be visually inspected so to make sure that they are not damaged. The joining should be done in accordance with pipelines joining procedures specified by pipe fittings manufacturer, or to ANSI B 16.5 code. The special care shall be taken to selection of tightening tools, bolt and nut face surface lubrication, tightening torque, sequencing and number of passes (recommended are four passes at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of load). Final tightening shall be repeated after the assembly has been allowed to relax for approximately 1 hour. No loads from the pipes, as such of the weights of dismantling joints and isolating gate valves, are allowed to be transferred to the lower nozzles of the vessels. For that purpose, the isolating gate valves have to be rigidly supported. Installation shall be performed by the Main Contractor and under supervision of the Vendor. 10.1.3 Assembly on Site The vessels will be transported to the site with membrane installed inside, and with joined and sealed upper and lower flanges. However, instruments, hoses, valves, ladders, platforms, fences and davits will be transported separately and will be assembled at the site. Hoses, valves and pressure gauges are with treated ends. All treated joints will be sealed by Teflon Red Tape Triple Density. Radar level meters are flanged and they will be joined to the support pipes by bolts.


Unloading and placing the vessel on a foundation

10.1.4 Pre-Charging All vessels will be delivered at the site without being pre-charged for security reason. Before putting the vessel in operation, the vessel has to be pre-charged according to data provided by water hammer analysis. The pre-charge pressure depends on system characteristics and water and ambient temperature. Should any of system parameters change, then surge analyses must be repeated to confirm whether the vessel can safely operates under the new condition. Change of water and ambient temperature affects the pressure of the gas contained in between vessels steel structure and bladder which in turn initiates the change of gas state (volume) and affects the volume of water in the bladder. The similar happens with changing of pumping characteristics, among which the most important is the change in the pumps static head. While change of pumps static head happens daily, the change of water and ambient temperature is much more of seasonal character; thus, it is recommended to set-up pre-charge pressure ones per season (winter/summer). Setting parameters should be average ones (static head, summer and winter average temperature). There is one more parameter that should and will be taken in consideration while setting-up pre-charging pressure. That is to say that the pipeline characteristic i.e. the systems resistance or the system characteristic curve, changes with age. It is common designing practice that pumps head is defined for internal pipeline roughness which will appear for years of operation. Keeping in mind that pumps head usually incorporate certain safety margin related to uncertainty of the local losses, it could be concluded that the pumps will operate in first years of operation with somewhat lower head that rated and that difference between actual and design values of head can easily be read on instruments. The steady state volume of water/gas in the vessel depends on pumps head. That means that mass of gas has probably to be revised after pumps have been started. The pre-charged pressure is to be defined on the following parameters given in Detail Designs of Transfer and Distribution Pumps: Transient analysis is done for pumps duty points. Pumps duty point is defined with duty capacity and head that correspond to average static head. Initial volume of gas. Initial pressure of gas which corresponds to duty point head, less difference between water levels in the vessel and TE reservoirs, and less the frictional and local losses from the TE reservoirs to the to the point where the vessel is connected to the pumps delivery pipeline.

Final volume of gas in the vessel (after transient oscillations are settled down) relates to average static head at pumps discharge. Pre-charged pressure is obtained from adiabatic change of state. It is be assumed that initial temperature of gas is 35 0 C.

Pre-charging of the vessels shall take place only after the pump station delivery pipelines are completely tested, flushed, disinfected and filled with TE water and air entrained in the pipelines is expelled out. All other equipment that belongs to the pump station has also to be installed prior to setting-up the vessels parameters. Reservoirs that are feed by the pumps must be filled up to the levels that provide the average static heads. For the purpose of setting up the vessel, the Main Contractor/Client shall secure, in the vicinity of the place of installation, a connection to electrical supply (electrical socket for voltage 220V/50Hz and power up to 1.5 kW) and one portable pumps or elevated tank (provisional) for feeding the vessel with ballast water. Before starting the pre-charging, The Main Contractor/Client shall secure that level meter is fully connected to the electrical network and command centre in accordance with previously accepted documentation (electrical supply provided and signal and monitoring cables connected), and will provide electrical staff to coordinate their work with Vendors. Each vessel is fed with protective ballast made of solution of pure industrial alcohol and water in ratio 1 to 3. The ballast water is placed in the lower dome, in the space between the bladder and the vessel, in the quantity according to the vessels geometry. The purpose of the ballast water is to buffer the bladder, i.e. to prevent wearing contact between the bladders and interior surface of the vessels shell and damaging of bladder during initial filling with water. The vessels shall be fed with ballast water through the cocks R1/2 attached to the lower dome of the vessels. After being poured into the vessels, the ballast water shall never be drained out. The pre-charging operation starts with filling the vessel with the water up to the initial water volume that corresponds to final volume of gas. During that phase, a vent cock at the top flange is opened as to allow expelling of the air in the bladder in order to maintain atmospheric pressure inside. The initial volume of water is monitored by the level meter. After initial volume of water in the bladder is provided, the water connection is closed and charging of gas (nitrogen) starts. Nitrogen will be taken from a pressurized container. The speed of charging the vessel with nitrogen must be controlled. Too fast charging can lead to very fast expansion of the gas followed with extremely low temperature that can make brittle the bladder and the steel shell of the vessel and damage them. The speed of charging shall be through pressure regulator on nozzle gun adjusted to a little higher pressure than the actual system working pressure.

The vent cock at the top flange of the valve is opened during gas filling phase so as to enable all air from the bladder to be expelled. The monitoring of pressure parameter during injection of gas will be done by pressure gauge connected to the gas side of the vessel. When pressure gauge reading shows specified value, the gas injecting phase is finished and the vessel is correctly precharged. It is special important to take care of water filling capacity when the vessel is filled from the pipeline. If the vessels isolating valve, that is located at the connecting pipe, is provided with a by-pass, the filling should be done through that line. If filling has to be done by opening the isolating valve, special care should be taken to expel all air that could be accumulated in the vessels connecting pipe. If the isolating valve is opened to fast and the connecting pipe is not de-aerated, the huge bubble of air can quickly enter into the vessel, rapidly expand and damage the bladder. The pre-charging of the vessels could be done without initial filling with water (but including ballast water). The procedure is the same, except that pre-charging pressure has to be calculated to relate to the total volume of the vessel, less the volume of ballast water. The pre-charging can also be done in sequence of small steps, alternating injection of gas and filling of water. After pre-charging operation is finished and final inspection and testing are done, the isolating valves on the connection pipes may be opened to proceed to the system startup. 10.1.5 Inspection and Testing after Installation After completion of installation, that means assembly of the vessel at the site and its connection to the pumps delivery pipeline, an inspection will be undertaken as to make sure of the following: The vessel is levelled and properly anchored to the foundation. Grounding is done and satisfies. Ladder, platform and protective fence is installed properly and are safe. Davit is in function. Flange connections are properly aligned and bolts are tightened. All hoses and valve are installed. Electrical supply to the level meter is provided. Level meter is properly wired and works (false signal test). The valves are in function (dry functional test satisfies). All instruments are installed.

Before starting pre-charging of the vessel with gas, all valves shall be checked to make sure they are in right position. The nitrogen gun-nozzle, with integrated pressure reducing valve and pressure gauges, will be checked to make sure they operate satisfying. During pre-charging phase and after putting the vessel into operation, gas and liquid tightness of the vessel will be observed. Tightness of wet joint will be visually inspected, while joints exposed to gas will be checked with and appropriate agent; leakage-detecting foam, or if not available with soapy water. Where leakage occurs, remedy measures will be undertaken. Tightening of joining elements to above the limit torque shall not be allowed. During pre-charging and filling the vessel with gas and water, operation of instruments will be observed to make sure they operate and satisfy. When operational testing of vessels is finalized, all joints to the vessels, including flange and treaded pipe joints, manholes and covers, will be checked once again. 10.2 Operation

10.2.1 General The purpose of the pressure vessels is to attenuate pressure oscillation during transients. That includes normal starting and stopping of pumps, as well as accidental cut-off in electrical supply when all pumps in operation simultaneously fail from the network and when water hammer, or slam can occurs. Application of vessel under pressure devices in protecting pipelines and associated equipment from the consequences of hydraulic shock is based on the fact that the liquid as a working fluid is incompressible, so there is no possibility to absorb, during the transients, the input of energy that comes when kinetic energy of pressure waves in return changes into the pressure energy, and vice versa. Shouldnt pressure vessels of sufficient volumes be deployed, it would cause extremely quick and high pressure oscillations which would exceed the limits to which the equipment is design and would trigger an accident. By placing pressure vessels, the system gains necessary elasticity, using physical properties of compressed gas, for preventing those occurrences. 10.2.2 Starting-Up Pumps

Once the vessel has been properly pre-charged and inspected, the pumps can be started. As the pressure, during the start of the pump, increases, the pre-charged gas starts being compressed until the system stabilized itself and steady state is reached. The volume of compressed gas at steady state is called gas working volume. Pumps that start via soft starter, of VFD, the pressure in the vessel will uniformly and steadily rise until reach the operating value. Pumps that start without soft starter, or VFD, will firstly start filling exclusively the vessel while the water in the pipeline accelerates. This filling will last till the complete volume of water in the pipeline is accelerated. During the acceleration, the pumps might reach shut-off point, i.e. reach their maximal head, before the steady state is established. Consequently, the water level in the vessel might rise over maximal level in normal operation. The pumps start in sequence one by one in respond to consumer requirements. Although the pressure in the system generally increases with increasing in the pumping capacity (number of pumps in operation), this is not necessarily so. 10.2.3 Setting-Up Operating Parameters When all operating pumps are in operation, the vessels parameters (pressure and water level) should be red, recorded and compared to design parameters defined in surge analysis. If non-compliance between recorded and design parameters would be found, the additional quantity of gas should be injected in the vessel (when gas volume is less than designed), or some portion of gas should be realized through vent valve (when gas volume is bigger than designed). It is recommended to monitor vessels parameters on regular basis and set them up seasonally. Once the vessel operating and system parameters in regards to pumps duty point have been set up, they will be recorded and compiled in the vessel status table: Vessel volume, V (m3) Vessel nominal pressure, NP (bar) Vessel diameter, Ds (mm) Vessel height, Hc (mm) Static pressure in the place of vessel connection, Hst (bar) Working pressure, Pr (bar) Volume of vessel ballast water, Vb Pre-charge pressure (empty vessel), Ppr (bar)

10.2.4 Stopping Pumps Stopping the pumps, one by one as it is envisaged in operational sequence will induce the decreasing in the system steady state pressure and reflect in increasing of vessels

gas volume. Stopping of only one pump (if not controlled by soft starter or VFD) will cause the oscillations of the pressure and the gas volume in the system and these will simultaneously followed with decreasing of the pressure and increasing of gas volume. The oscillation and decreasing/increasing of parameters will be stronger where all pumps in operation suddenly shut-down due to failing from electrical supply. 10.2.5 Interruption of Works During normal system operation, the vessels are constantly connected to the installation. The height of the column of water in the vessel, which will be continuously monitored on the level meters, depends on the system working parameters. It is expected that volume of water/gas will very during the transients in a range of 20% to 80% of the vessel total volume. Should level meter detect pre-set minimal and maximal water level in the vessel, an alert will be given and pumps will be deliberately stopped for investigation and inspection of the vessel. While an unacceptable high level of water indicates the leakage of gas, a detected low level of water indicates that pre-charge pressure is set too high. Losing of gas is not necessarily the consequence of gas leakage. It could also happen in case of bladder damage when water and gas phase come in contact. The process of gas absorbing by water is, however, very slow and cannot lead to a sudden accident as it could be the case in occasion where the vessel starts quickly to lose the gas because of high leakage rate. During the interruption of vessel operation it shall be disconnected from the pipework by closing the isolating valve on connection pipe. Prior to re-activation of function, the water and air status in the vessel should be checked. Where necessary, gas or water will be added/discharge in order to establish set parameters. If interruption of works includes the emptying of the vessel, the vessel shall be precharged and filled with water in accordance with steps explained in pre-charge procedure. 10.2.5 Monitoring, Control and Data Acquisition The pressure vessels will be equipped with two pressure gauges and one level meters. The pressure gauges will be mounted an on control table. They serve for indication of pressure. One gauge is connected to the water, and another to the gas side of the water. The gauge that is connected to the water side of the vessel is permanently opened, while another will be opened only during pre-charging of the pressure.

When the gauges are mutually connected they can provide reading of the height of the water level in the vessel. This method of water level reading will be used only occasionally, as in case when the level meter is out of operation. Permanent reading of the water level by the means of gauges is not recommended. For permanent reading of water level in the vessel, one radar guided level meter is foreseen. The level meter will be installed at the top of a supporting pipe. The level meter enables continues reading on display to be installed on the control board, as well as transferring data to the control center. The level meter will be set to give warning signal when level of the water reaches one of two set values: LHH (extremely high level) and LLL (extremely low level). As LH (level high) relates to maximal water level that corresponds with water and gas volumes in pumps duty point (or any normal operating point with the higher head), LHH will be set above that LH in order to give an alert on decreasing of gas volume. It could happen that LHH gives repeatedly short alerts during the starting of pumps which accelerate quickly (pumps to start without help of starter of VFD). When the level meter detects that the height of the water in the vessel is less than LL, a LLL alert will be given. LL level relate to minimal volume of water and maximal volume of gas which appear after pumps are suddenly cut-off electrical supply and consequent transient is stabilized. LLL can be reached only during pre-commissioning phase (operational testing), or if where operating parameters differ from design ones. HLL and LLL volumes could be re-set. Alert signal must be recorded and immediately reported to the operation superintendent, or operation manager. When an alert signal is given the pumps must be stopped one by one (as per operational procedure given by pumps manufacturer). The cause of HLL or LLL has to be investigated and remedy measures undertaken as to eliminate it. 10.3 Maintenance

10.3.1 Routine Inspection Once the pressure vessels are installed and parameters are set up, they do not need any special maintenance during the work. However, the operational staff should perform periodical inspection, which can be scheduled once per month and once per quarter, as to check the status of joints, instruments and operating parameters of the vessels, record and correct them if necessary. Routine inspection should include the following activities: Checking that the level and the pressure are in set-out limits If the level is too high, gas has been lost inject the gas to adequate level/pressure

If the level is too low, the pre-charge pressure is too high let some gas out and correct the level/pressure Readings on level meter and pressure gauges have not to be taken during hot hours, but during the time with approximate average daily temperature (ein the morning, or in the evening). Check for leaks Check all valves and instruments

Note: Setting up the level/pressure values in the vessel MUST be done when the vessel is isolating from the pumps discharge pipelines. The procedure is the same as described in the section on pre-charging. 10.3.2 Yearly Inspection Depending on National Code of Practice and Legalization, pressure vessels can be subject to compulsory Inspection. The frequency and type of test differ, but in general can include standard routine inspection (once in three years) and re-testing (once in 5 to 10 years, depending on type of gas). As filling gas is inert gas hydrogen which doesnt inhibit corrosion, it is expected that re-testing should not take place more than once in 10 years. 10.3.3 Other Maintenance Activity The main activity in relation to maintenance could be replacing of bladder. There are two potentially dangerous scenarios when a bladder can be damaged. The first one can happens when a vessel remains without the water and the bladder is exposed to gas pressure for a longer period of time. The second one is when a vessel remains without pressurized gas and ballast water so that the bladder is exposed to the pressure of the water. In both cases the Vendor bears no responsibility. Bladders are replaceable. In case of need of their replacement, the work should be performed solely by the Vendors service team, or under his direct supervising. When start replacing bladder. The vessel has to be isolated from the pumps delivery pipeline, gas has to be realised through gas connection valve, the ballast water has to be drained through the ballast water connection valve, and water has to be drained through water drainage valve. WARNNING:

Before water is drained out of a vessel, firstly released the gas as to relax the pressure between the bladder and inner surface of the vessels shell. After all gas is expelled out of the vessel, leave the gas valve opened. Open the vent valve at the top nozzle this is of the highest importance as to prevent vessel to be exposed to vacuum and fatal damaging during drainage. Open water drainage valve and start emptying the vessel When all water is almost drained and only amount of water equal to the volume of ballast water stay in the vessel, open the ballast water drain valve and start emptying ballast water simultaneously with water in the bladder.

After bladder is replaced, pre-charging procedure will be repeated as described in previous section. When leakage occurs and it cannot be remedied by tightening, the joint which leaks should be dismantled, cause of leaks should be examined and correction/replacement make. Whenever a joint is disassembled, the joint sealing element has to be replaced with new one. SAFETY WARNNING: Before a joint, on the no matter side of the vessel, is disassembled, the vessel must be isolated from the pumps discharge pipeline and depressurized which means that the gas must be completely released from the vessel. Failing to follow above safety warring can cause a fatal accident.

When the vessel is isolated from the pipeline and depressurized, the water in the vessel comes under pressure that is equivalent to atmospheric. When disassembling a wet joint, drain the water from the bladder till the joint to be remedied is above the water level. 10.3.4 Spare Parts The spare parts for 2 and 5 year operation are given in spare parts list. As because bladder type pressure vessels are simple and reliable devices, only a very few parts are needed to support maintenance. No special tools are needed for preventive maintenance. 10.4 Warranty/Guarantee

The Vendor guarantees the quality and performance characteristics under the following conditions: Installation, operation and maintenance shall be performed as specified in the previous sections. The vessels shall operate under conditions and with system parameters (pumps duty points, pipelines, reservoirs) that are defined in the previous sections and in the Project Documentation. The final assembly, as well as vessel set-up, calibration and commissioning shall be performed by the Main Contractor and under the supervision of the Vendor. That the vessels have to be secured from unauthorized handing. Operation logs have to be recorded, authorized and available

Only on the conditions stated above, the Client shall be entitled to the warranty.