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By: Abdul Hafiz

ACKNOLEDGMENT
This was the first time in Mobiserve Pakistan to arrange a Training Program at this level and in this way to groom the engineers and technicians as well trained technical people, motivate them and centralizing by minimizing the communication gap between the teams, Mobiserve office and TSU. By these trainings, Mobiserve teams has increase the learning level by performing company SOPs and quality work to the client given in the training programs. I would like to add some names whose presence and contribution enabled me to complete this manual. Mr. Muhammad Asad (Manager: Technical Support Unit) was always encouraging and pushing me to reach this level of learning and training program and his valuable suggestion are always a light for me. I am also thankful to Mr. Shiraz Ahmed Khan (Assistant Project Manager), Mr. Muhammad Imran Bajwa & Mr. Shahid Habib (Senior Engineers) of TSU for sharing their technical knowledge and communication skills with me to complete this. Most of all I would like to thank Mobiserve family which provided me an opportunity to utilize my best capabilities in the best interest of the organization.

Topics
Introduction Preventive / Corrective Maintenance A.T.S Distribution Panel Site External Alarms Fire Device Photo Electric Switch Use Of Earth Meter Introduction to Rectifiers Assemble L-Type Connector.

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INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this training is to improve the knowledge and skill of Technical staff those are working in our Remote areas. The training based on two parts: Theoretical Training Practical Training at site In theory class basic concept of the equipment especially power related issues will be discussed, and circuit diagrams will be explained deeply. While during practical at site it is more effected to solve the critical issues which mostly generated in remote areas and our technical staff facing problems to solve those issues. At the end of class some tasks will be given to the individual for improving his confidence of working on the equipment.

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Mains

ATS
Generator

D I S T R I B U T I O N P A N E L

E.L.C.B 63A

10A, 2P

In/Out door Lights

10A, 2P

Tower Lights
Emergency Lights
RF Antenna

10A, 2P

10A, 2P

Fire Device
E.L.C.B. 25A Sockets

M/W Antenna

16A, 2P

32A, 2P

ACs Spares Rectifier

BTS Cabinet

Microwave IDU

10A/32A 2P (each) 32A, 4P

DC Supply -54V
LVD

(D.P)
(AC Supply)

Battery Backup

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PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM)


These are schedule duties means to do the PM in such a manner that nothing should be pending in order to avoid alarms. Do the PM with good manners also clean the site when you done your work. Checking of PM material box in the office, prepare the box according to the list of items and material consumed on last PM. Checking the PM tools kit, Laptop, Meters and Camera etc. Before intervene the site call OMC and informed to concern staff and start the PM by taking snaps of site.

Observation: Make a list of such points and arrange these points according to planning and solve the issues priority wise. Fill the PM form accordingly.

Reserve: Make the reserve on last page of PM form.

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Battery Test: Observe battery voltage and current on rectifier. During battery test apply clamp meter for voltage & current, dont trust rectifier display. Check the load balance on rectifier. Complete inspection of Gen sets. Also inspect Wapda Transformer (neutral line & D-links etc), Wapda Meter (cables fixing & conditions etc) and Mains Supply C.B (cables & Box upper side hole etc). Carryout site general cleaning and take snaps after PM activities.

At the time of leaving site: Close all materials and tools. Call OMC and make the site clear from alarms. Inform concerned staff.

After reaching office: Arrange the cables, laptop and meter etc on their proper places.

Follow up and reporting after PM: Complete all pending issues as soon as possible and update the pending file. Also carry out the reporting of the site.

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Rubber for sharp edge on upper side of D.P.


Observe Feeder cables grounding.

Isolation of Feeder cables & Connectors.


Cables are heated up due to loose connections in the Wapda Meter.

Meters 03 LEDs show that all three phases are coming.

Loose fixing can cause problems.

Check the Indoor Lights working or not ?

For safety of the BTS Cabinet install its top cover close the BTS Cabinet door

Check the connection between Site ground plate and main grounding Terminal.

During PM, observe general cleaning of BTS Cabinet.

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Mains Supply C.B

If Box is installed Outdoor, then route for Power cables must be from lower side of the Main Supply C.B Box.

Dont leave any hole open inside Mains Supply C.B Box and Lock the Box door. Always use cable glands for power cables.

Shelter Top Roof side


If water leakage at site, then use Sika Flex on the roof of BTS room Shelter to avoid water leakage which is very dangerous for operational electronics equipment.

Proper piping for ACs increase the beauty of job and helpful to minimize AC related issues.

Observe ducting, proper piping, ACs stand, grounding for AC (ODU) and drain pipe for (IDU).

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During PM observe cable Terminals, Line up connectors, Glands & Labeling inside the D.P. and tighten all connections.

During PM clean the feeder cables and use labels on feeder cables.

Not to leave battery Terminal without cover and clean battery back up during PM. (Also Batteries test must be done).

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Temperature sensor must be installed inside the AC Indoor Unit filters.

AC control system should be placed on easy approach.

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(Check all meters and controls). KVA = Amperes Required X Volts X 1.73 1000

Site cleaning is also a part of PM.

BTS Room door must be closed when job is completed.

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CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE (CM)

It is an emergence and unscheduled task. Prepare your self and be ready for trouble ticket (T.T). Solve the T.T with in task time limit. Timing is a valuable thing in corrective maintenance. Before going to solve the T.T check CM Tools, Spares, Clamp meter, Laptop etc. Send the comments of T.T to direct manager and HLO immediately after coming from T.T. When working on 2 Mb cable / T-43 or BNC connector, extra care is required.

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GEN SET INSPECTION


Automatic Start of each at power fails of other (Mains/Gen). Radiator cleaning status & coolant. Generator engine cleaning status. Oil or water leakage. Fuel leakage. Exhaust pipe Isolation. Indicators/Counters operation (Volt, AMP, HZ & Oil). Battery connection status (Grease applied). Battery water level. ATS panel & ATS label status. ATS wiring & Components. ATS Indicators. Generator Alarms status (Oil Sensor-Temp Sensor). PM date of the Gen set. Other Reserves (Engine status, Performance & Load etc).

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ATS
The Panel used for Auto Transfer of Supply is called ATS. Each functional part of ATS will discuss in theory class in detail according to diagram which is attached in this presentation. In the ATS two supplies come as input one is from Wapda and the other is from Gen set (which is standby supply) and the output line is common which goes to distribution panel for further distribution. This power line consists of AC supply having three phases and Neutral. ATS Comprises following components: Circuit breakers Magnetic contactors Fuses Relays Timer Relays 03 Phase monitor (UVR) Indicators ATS select switch How ATS works (for details, please see Diagrams).

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ATS Panel Indicators must be ok and be sure panel door is locked after any activity and select sw is at auto position.
Cables gland must be installed for power cables.
Wapda phase (In)

Gen phase (In)

(MOR)
N (00)

N (0)

Manual Override

W/phase (In) W/phase (Out)

G /phase (In)

NC

NC

Wapda Magnetic Contactor (KM1)

NC

Gen Magnetic Contactor (KM2)

NC

G/phase (Out)

Auxiliary

AUX

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Dual Gensets ATS

Page 1 of 2

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Page 2 of 2

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DISTRIBUTION PANEL (D.P)

D.P stands for distribution panel. Power (03 phase + N) which comes from ATS is the input for D.P. Here power is distributed into different lines via circuit breakers according to the load. First stage of D.P is ELCB which is more sensitive than other C.Bs. Detail of circuit breaker is below: E.L.C.B .(63A, 4P) M.C.B ...(63A, 4P) Rectifier C.B ...(32A, 4P) ACs C.Bs ..(32A, 2P) Lights C.B ..(10A, 2P) Sockets C.Bs .(16A, 2P) ELCB for Controlling of both Sockets Supply ..(25A, 2P) Fire Panel C.B .(10A, 2P) Beacon Lights C.B ...(10A, 2P) Two spare C.Bs (10A, 2P & 32A, 2P) In D.P most critical circuit is 24 hours Timer and its wiring for both the ACs. Especially connections of (thermostat) 27 sensor are notable.

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Site External Alarms


Knowledge about the Site External Alarms and solution of their issues is very much interesting and responsible job. Most of the issues at sites are repeatedly coded due to wrong patching of External Alarms. If some one knows the routing and alarms patching phenomenon, it is very easy for him to resolve these issues. Wrong patching of these Alarms will represent false status of the Site to OMCR. When working in the DDF for External Alarms patching please use proper toll (Krone puncher) for this purpose, otherwise wires will remain loose in the catchers. Alarms patching and cables routes must be neat & clean. Beware the color coding of PIX cable. Regarding Intruder Alarm, alignment of both parts of door magnetic contact is very much necessary for its alarm coding. Avoid face surface of door magnetic contact from hard layer on it like paint etc, because it will minimize its magnetic force and due this it will be functionally weak. (For detail study about Site External Alarms, please see the Block Diagram).

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PIX ALARMS FOR M-CELL/HM (For BSC)

Number

Alarm Indication

Color code for PIX cable

GENSET

BLUE / BLACK

GREY / RED

DC-DC CONVERTER

ORANGE / WHITE

WHITE / ORANGE

TEMPERATURE

ORANGE / RED

GREEN / RED,BROWN

LOW VOLTAGE

BLUE / WHITE

VOILET / GREY

INTRUDER

BROWN / WHITE

GREY / WHITE

RECTIFIER MAJOR

VOILET / BROWN

BROWN / VOILET

FIRE

BLUE / WHITE

ORANGE / WHITE

RECTIFIER MINOR

VOILET / ORANGE

GREEN / VOILET

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PIX ALARMS FOR M-CELL/HM (For BTS)

Number

Alarm Indication

Color code for PIX cable(rev 3)

Color code for PIX cable(rev 4)

GENSET

WHITE / BLUE

GREY / RED

WHITE / BLUE

BLUE / WHITE

DC-DC CONVERTER

BLUE / WHITE

BLACK / BLUE

WHITE / ORANGE

ORANGE / WHITE

TEMPERATURE

WHITE / ORANGE

BLUE / BLACK

WHITE / GREEN

GREEN / WHITE

LOW VOLTAGE

ORANGE / WHITE

BLACK / ORANGE

WHITE / BROWN

BROWN / WHITE

INTRUDER

WHITE / GREEN

ORANGE / BLACK

WHITE / GREY

GREY / WHITE

RECTIFIER MAJOR

GREEN / WHITE

BLACK / GREEN

RED / BLUE

BLUE / RED

FIRE

WHITE / BROWN

GREEN / BLACK

RED / ORANGE

ORANGE / RED

RECTIFIER MINOR RECTIFIER MAJOR RECTIFIER MINOR LOW VOLTAGE

BROWN / WHITE

BLACK / BROWN

RED / GREEN

GREEN / RED

ORANGE / ORANGE-WHITE BLUE / BLUE-WHITE GREEN / GREEN-WHITE

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ALCATEL DDF
1=Gen set 2=DC-DC 3=Door 4=X 5=Fire 6=X 7=X 8=Temp 9=0 10=0

1 (9) =Low Volage 2 ((10)=Rect Maj 3 (11)=Rect Min 4 (12)=X 5 (13)=X 6 (14)=X 7 (15)=X 8 (16)=X 9 (17)=0 10 (18)=0

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Fire Device
Fire Device has very important role in the safety of site equipment because if the fire device is faulty whole the Site is on risk (very expensive property may be burn because of fire). The Zeta Fire Device with internally gray color coating of conducting material have a filter circuit on PCB before its input power transformer and there is voltage leakage of about 125Vac to the Earth via this circuit card which normally creates problem for ELCB in D.P. This issue can resolve with bypass the filter circuit. Most common faults related to fire panel are below: Input fuse blown off. Input transformer becomes faulty Some times Fire Device Batteries stop charging due to Fuse blown off or Batteries became faulty which indicates Power Fault. This issue resolves on priority bases. If Fire started just after Mains Failure condition at site, then there is no indication of Fire to OMCR because Fire Device is powerless at that time. If sounder circuits fuse is blown off, this indicates sounder fault. Fire Device Buzzer constantly becomes ON due to Smoke detector connections reverse. If Fire Device is activated and there is no sound, Bell may be faulty or any wire between Bell and Fire Device is opened.

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Fire Device

In normal condition on Fire Panel only Power ON indicator will glow.

Before

After

Use proper female terminals and cables for batteries connections.

This filter circuit creates problem for E.L.C.B in D.P.

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Photo Electric Switch

Photo Electric Switch is used for auto switching (On/Off) of Beacon lights. Beacon lights are very much important especially in the flying zone. In the day time supply of Tower lights remained cut off by photo electric switch. In old type Photo Electric Switch there are four points for connections. Two for input from BTS room (Phase & Neutral) and two for out put to Tower lights (Phase & Neutral). But the newly Photo Electric Switch have three fixed cables (Black, White and Red). White cable is common for both Neutral lines (from BTS room and towards tower). Phase which comes from BTS room is to be connected with Black wire of Photo Electric Switch and output for phase, Red cable of photo electric switch is to be connected with Red wire from Tower. Important point to remember is the position/place of Photo Electric Switch; it must be vertically and away from Out Door Lights. If Photo Electric Switch is placed in the sight of out door lights, it will sense the light and that's way supply to the Tower Lights will cut off by photo electric switch also in the night time.

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Use of Earth Meter


Proper Earth of Site equipment is the safety of workers & equipments with good performance. Inspect the Earth points of Site during each PM and must be refreshed with water. Use of Earth Meter is very important in operation of GSM equipment. Less difference between Site Neutral and Earth is good for equipment and as well as its operation is concern. Following points must be observed during Earth Meter use. Check The Meter Battery, it must be ok. Place one spike at a distance of 5-10 meters from Earth Terminal then second spike at the distance of 5-10 meters from 1st spike. Then connect three large size meter leads (Green, Yellow and Red). Use these leads with following steps: a) Green Lead between Earth Terminal and green color jack on meter. b) Yellow Lead between fist spike and Yellow color jack on meter. c) Red Lead between 2nd spike and red color jack on meter.

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RECTIFIER
Basic function of the Rectifier is to convert AC supply into DC out put. There are many types of rectifiers according to manufacturers. Rectifier comprises following parts: MCU/PSC Rectifier Modules DC Bus Bars LVD Input C.Bs and Out Put C.Bs COBO/COBOMO Board Batteries Back up Surge Arrestors Back plane wiring. Follow the Rectifiers main menus for good performance, because software setting have very important role in rectifier operation which controls all functions of the rectifier like Inputs, Outputs, Batteries Charging, LVD Switching and Rectifier Temperature Sensor etc.

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Main Failure Alarm: Main failure alarm becomes active when inputs of the Rectifier are cut off. If MCU/PSC is faulty, then normally opened points of an extra 220Vac relay can be used temporarily for Site External Alarm (Mains Failure or Loss of input voltage that is Site External Alarm # 4). This extra relay will be placed in D.P and coil supply to this relay will get from output of MCB (32A, 4P), which is used for Rectifier Mains Supply. Some times in the D.P, leakage or short circuiting by Surge Arrester can cause constantly tripping of Rectifier C.B. Rectifier Major Alarm: This alarm is just a reminder of INPUT fail and Batteries operation active. It is an urgent alarm means if problem not resolve at Site well in time, the Site equipment may be shut down very soon. Rectifier Minor Alarm: This alarm shows there is some problem with rectifier itself. It may be due to heat inside the rectifier or in use Load C.B tripped off or surge arrestors are operated etc. Rectifiers out put goes to DC operated equipments, like BTS cabinets, Microwaves, BSCs and C-Nodes /LDI Nodes etc. For power up NEC/Pasolink M/W (IDU), first pull its switch and then turn it towards ON & OFF position.

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We can calculate the Maximum Power of Rectifier with formula: P sys max = (n-1) X Power of one Rectifier Module (n is the total number of installed rectifier modules). Some Rectifier Modules Max output Power and Current is below:Flatpack Delta(small size) Delta(large size) Emerson Lorain Ascom 1500W / 29Adc. 1200W / 28Adc 2000W / 46.5Adc 1500W / 30Adc 3000W / 50Adc 3000W / 50A dc etc

LED bar graph (10 green LEDs) in front of Flatpack (ELTEK) shows output current on a scale from 2.9A to 29A. Each LED represents 2.9A output current. The rectifier module delivers 29Adc when all LEDs are lit. The tenth Led also indicates that the rectifier is in current limit operation. LORAIN Rectifier Module also has ten LEDs for output current but here each LED represents 5A, so its ten LEDs show max 50 AMPs current. Output voltage of rectifier modules can be adjusted.

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In Ascom rectifier put the DC output breaker to OFF position before removing/inserting the rectifier module, because its module has mechanical interlock which is released by putting the DC output breaker to OFF position. In Emerson Rectifier some output C.Bs are with two parts, so always use both parts of single C.B for the Load otherwise by using one part of C.B it will create problem (normally tripped off). The Emerson rectifier has two (LVDs) Low Voltage Disconnects. (LVD1 for normal Load & LVD2 for priority Load). So the DC distribution is divided into two branches, one for normal load and one for priority load. During a power outage the priority load can be powered longer if the normal load is disconnected at a preset voltage or after a predetermined delay. TO LOCK/SCREW TIGHT THE RECTIFIER INTO POSITION: When rectifier module is plugged into its slot, then it is necessary to lock/screw tight its position. MOUNT BLIND PANELS ON EMPTY RECTIFIER POSITIONS: For safety reasons, blind panels must be mounted in all spare module locations to avoid contact with all conducting components and wrong air circulation inside the system. When using air blower on rectifiers modules for cleaning purpose, the rectifier must be off, otherwise rectifiers Fan can be damage with opposite flow of blowers air. Serviceability of the Battery Bank has an important role on the Site performance.

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CHANGE OF BATTERY: When a battery has been found to be faulty. It shall be replaced but the battery circuit breaker must be switched off before doing any work on the Battery Bank. During Load connection it is very important to remember color coding/Polarity for inputs to the DC operated equipments (e.g. black lead as +ve for Motorola equipment but in some other equipments it is considered as ve like NEC Pasolink). As Motorola Equipment is concern, the BLACK color power line is used with grounded Bar, it may be for +ve or ve polarity. Ensure adequate insulation from ground (earth) when working on the rack or changing fuses. Make sure that the voltage values for all components are set correctly. Incorrect voltage setting may lead to an increase in the voltage and consequent danger of explosion. Ensure that the alarm limit values (trigger thresholds) are set correctly. Incorrect settings may trigger false alarms. Never leave any loose connection during Preventive / Corrective maintenance and be confidence & careful while working on the equipments.

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Rectifier Preventive Maintenance:


The purpose of preventive maintenance is to reveal the potential failures of the monitoring and alarm circuitry. The exceptions are batteries, should be checked and maintained regularly according to the instructions delivered with batteries. To ensure high system reliability the most important measurements are: Verification of battery condition and connections. Verification of the functioning of the controller unit. To ensure the high life expectancy of the batteries the most important measurements are: The quality of the battery maintenance, cell voltage, ambient temperature. Verification of the battery float charge voltage.

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Standard Assembly of L-type IF Connector

L-type connector includes six components


(i) L-type connector for IDU. (ii) H-type connector for ODU.

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