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B3 110

CIGRE 2006


T JESSON*, T LAWRENCE, G. MADEN and G. SIMONELLI National Grid and Mott MacDonald United Kingdom

This paper looks at fault conditions in substation systems relating both a dynamic assessment approach to the loading imparted on supporting structures and theoretical conditions presently considered when evaluating asset fault capacity. Established power networks are commonly facing the need for sound asset management and clear prioritising of maintenance, strengthening or replacement. This includes substation support structures which can vary in form and material composition as well as age and condition. One of the more complex problems that needs to be addressed is that of structural capacity assessment, particularly where there is an alteration in service needs and existing support infrastructure has been designed to redundant standards and for different service conditions. Present international standards include the calculation of equivalent static loads for the assessment of structures under short circuit loading. This approach does not is more onerous than the true transitory loads imparted by the motion of flexible bus-bars following a short circuit fault of, typically, less than 1 second. Additionally, worst case conditions are built into assessment criteria defined in some standards, which can combine to provide over-conservative results. In this work the structures response to short circuit electromagnetic impulses have been modelled dynamically using a multi-physics dynamic finite element analysis program. Results have been verified against CIGRE published test results and cases compared against calculated values produced by established codified methods. Significant gains in asset sustainability are shown to be apparent by the introduction of dynamic analysis techniques. With an aging asset stock the potential usefulness of this approach is the creation of a broader range of options when operators are faced with changes in service conditions. KEYWORDS Substation-short circuit-strain conductors-dynamic forces-structural capacity


Introduction One of the most difficult aspects in managing HV substations is the confident prediction of safe structural loading on support structures in the event of short circuit displacement of conductors. Historically this has not been an issue as structures and associated electrical systems have remained well within their design envelope or approached as a historic precedence (grandfather rights). Assessment, when needed, can be adequately covered by hand calculations, guidance for which can be found in IEC 60865 , Short-circuit currents - Calculation of effects - Part 1: Definitions and calculation methods, which broadly assumes that the effects on the structures by the transient forces associated with a short circuit can be represented by a static load. This approach, whilst acknowledged to be inherently conservative, has been extremely useful in providing a design check for the development of schemes where re-employed structures are being considered. More recently system upgrades have lead to a tranche of asset management activity with a need to assess the condition and capacity of the network infrastructure with a view to increasing the ratings of substations. This has driven the need to increase our understanding of the assets in more detail, and specifically to understand more clearly the forces imparted under short circuit loading conditions. This driver, coupled with the development of analysis techniques over the last 10 years has enabled dynamic modelling of short circuit problems to be undertaken and assessments to consider the effects of the transient electrical short circuit, the reaction of a flexible conductor and the response of the structure. This paper reports on recent work in this area, conducted to assist National Grid in the development of a capability to assess dynamically support infrastructure with a view to providing a better understanding of the capacity of the present asset stock and extend the application to more complex conductor geometries. Project approach The project described in this paper was initiated on a fundamental basis. This followed a history of evaluations in recent times where results were not compliant with the codes when following the approach recommended in the present IEC 60865 methodology. This initiates the need for higher capital expenditure in projects to replace assets or other major changes to the scope of work, whereas a different, and equally valid, assessment technique can be applied to show compliance. From a Civil Engineering perspective, it was suggested that, although some structures failed assessments carried out in accordance with the IEC methodology in respect of overturning mechanisms and/or over-stress of support members, experience indicated that true structural failure was unlikely with no evidence of historical examples over a large asset base. However, a need evolved for revaluating the way in which structures are assessed to meet operational and supply drivers for schemes which are considering higher ratings for equipment and therefore higher potential short circuit forces experienced by the supporting structures. It was therefore proposed to investigate what advantages could be found in considering forces as a dynamic rather than static load, as calculated by IEC standards. To achieve this, a non-linear finite element dynamic incremental analysis methodology has been developed. This involved the modelling of both conductors and structures jointly using finite element analysis software, in this case ADINA (version 8.2). This work has built upon published information and lead to the development of a strategy for dealing with structures where structural capacity issues have been raised through the normal IEC 60865 route. Additionally, this approach could facilitate a means with which to assess structures loaded via more complex geometries involving non-parallel conductors, such as where landing lines connect substations to transmission towers. At the commencement of the work a strategy was developed in order to deliver a verified methodology.

The following main areas were pursued:

1. Identify the critical input parameters for the ADINA model

2. Verification of the ADINA model against published data 3. Analysis of substation bay structure and conductor configurations. Critical input parameters It was necessary from the outset of this work to consider the significance of various factors influencing the peak loading conditions of numerous parameters over which the formulation of a rational engineering strategy for their assessment needs to be fitted. Establishing the critical modelling parameters was both an initial task in the project and an ongoing activity so that issues encountered during the analysis development process were adequately closed-out. The initial need was to establish the capability of the software and confirm that a single program was able to deliver the information required on the behaviour of the systems to be considered. Additionally, various parameters were investigated to understand their sensitivity on the system and whether worst case effects would be influenced by certain criteria. Amongst the most important criteria considered were the phase angle of the current, the degree of stiffness in the structures supporting flexible conductors and the damping in the system. Choosing a phase angle to determine the maximum effect on the structure is dependent on the structural response as well as the instant in time that the fault occurs. It is therefore possible that the peak structural response may not occur as a result of the voltage phase angle that produces the highest peak amperage. It should be noted that in the IEC standard for calculating conductor forces, none of the formulae have any time dependency for voltage phase angles. A sensitivity study was undertaken to define the appropriate stiffness parameter (S) for the reinforced concrete structures for a simplified comparative analysis method used as a rough benchmark for the nonlinear technique. It was concluded that for a strain structure with moderate torsional stiffness it is not appropriate to calculate the coefficient (S) at a support based on the elastic displacement due to a force acting at that support only. Simultaneous action at the supports on the opposite sides of the structure can result in a higher coefficient and therefore in worst conductor drop effects. From the ADINA simulations studied to date, it is apparent that the assumption of the level of damping inherent in the conductors is a sensitive parameter that can have a significant effect on the forces considered. Data relating to the damping for the type of conductors being considered has not been readily definable during this study. Earlier in the project, during the initial verification against CIGRE experimental results, a small damping value was utilised (Rayleigh damping using % at Hz and 10% at 50Hz). This was used to match the decay seen in the CIGRE tests, but could not be confirmed or improved upon through gaining a better understanding of the cable damping from literature. Therefore, for the later simulations it was decided to take a conservative approach by assuming no damping in the system to avoid producing unsubstantiated values. The implications of this are that the forces predicted by ADINA will be conservative. Verification of the ADINA model against published data Research into the short circuit behaviour of flexible conductors and their supporting structures has been previously carried out by CIGRE and full scale tests are reported in CIGRE Brochure 105, The Mechanical Effects o f Short Circuit Currents in Open Air Substations, Volume 2 Data Base of Reference Tests, April 1996. These tests have formed the basis of this verification exercise, two being selected to model in detail. The prime reason for selection of these particular examples is that they are close to the typical arrangement of conductors and structures as used on National Grid substations. In addition, CIGRE reported sufficient information in these cases to allow an ADINA model to be accurately developed for the configurations in question.

The two CIGRE tests modelled for verification purposes are: Case 10 Test 1102 a two phase line to line fault (bridged between phases) Case 11 Test 1202 a balanced three phase fault.

13.90 m

34 m

68 m

102 m 102 m

4.75 m

Test configuration for Case 10 Test 1102

Test configuration for Case 11 Test 1202 (68m span modelled)

Figure 1: CIGRE test configuration for Case 10 and 11 The short circuit characteristics for the test are as follows: Root mean square amperage: Time constant Duration of fault: Case 10 = 29.7kA Case 10 = 0.08s Case 10 = 0.255s Case 11 = 34.9 kA Case 11 = 0.07s Case 11 = 0.245s

Analysis of both of these systems by dynamic modelling was constrained to consideration of the conductors only at this phase of the work, addition of structures in the modelling being introduced once verification was achieved. In order to evaluate the dynamic analysis method against current standards a comparison was made between the CIGRE measured results, IEC calculated forces based upon IEC 60865 and values obtained by application of the ADINA modelling of the system. It was found that in comparison with IEC calculation results the ADINA dynamic simulation of the CIGRE configuration provided results which more closely agreed with those directly measured. The following summarises the verification study results. Criteria Peak swing force (kN) Peak drop force (kN) Maximum swing out angle (deg) CIGRE Test (kN) Case 10 Case 11 23 20.4 34.7 66 27.8 IEC Calculation Case 10 Case 11 14.3 14.7 41.5 40.6 ADINA Prediction Case 10 Case 11 26 18 32 60 25.5 66.3

Not 48.2 56.9 given Table 1: Model Verification results

In addition to measured and predicted force and swing-out values compared above, the force timehistory prediction curves for the ADINA dynamic simulation and those directly measured and published by CIGRE could be evaluated.

4.75 m

Figure 2 below illustrates the comparison between CIGRE Case 10 Test 1102 and the ADINA prediction for this configuration.
CIGRE Test 1102 - 102m ASTER Conductors - 2 Phase Fault ADINA Analysis 35 30 25 Force (kN) 20 15 10 5 0




2.0 t im e (s)





Figure 2: Conductor Force Time Histories for the CIGRE measured results and ADINA analysis prediction
Based upon the study results it was concluded that the verification of the ADINA modelling method, by simulation of examples from the CIGRE test program (as reported in, CIGRE Brochure 105) was successful, although limited cases were available to simulate. It was demonstrated that considerable agreement in cable trajectories, swing and drop force timehistories were produced by modelling the real test parameters. Some forces predicted from the ADINA analysis were lower than the true measured forces. These were assessed to be due to structure interactions in the tests, where the ADINA simulation did not include models for the structures. For the cases examined, the dynamic analysis technique predicted values for peak forces and maximum swing-out angles that were in closer agreement to the CIGRE measured test results than those calculated using an IEC 60865 approach. Analysis of existing substation bay structures and conductor configurations With a validated methodology, an investigation of the response of three different structural arrangements with different fault intensities, different durations, was instigated. The analysis of these structures included conductors and supporting structures with foundations, the latter modelled as elastic blocks bearing onto a rigid plane. This permitted an evaluation of overturning for the structures to be made dynamically. The same systems were also analysed by using an IEC hand calculation method for comparison with the dynamic analysis predictions. Structure configurations The structure configurations chosen have been taken from existing UK substations operated by National Grid. These include bays from Lackenby, Walpole and Fleet substations. National Grid structure types were modelled utilising construction design drawings held in archive, providing all relevant information for each structure, including reinforcement and foundation details. The structure references used for each site are as follows (using original Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) structure references). Lackenby Walpole Fleet HS43 HS43 HS37 SG33 S33J S33 S33 S38

A typical configuration model is shown overleaf for Walpole substation




Figure 3: General configuration of the Walpole substation bay modelled Conductor span and sag details for each of the cases studied were established on site in earlier survey work and used in this project as follows:

Substation Model

Structure couples HSJ43-HS43

Span (m) 50 26 27 28 28

Conductor sag (m) 1.5 0.4 0.89 1.2 1.15

Lackenby HS43-HS37 SG33-S33J8 Walpole S33J8-S38 Fleet S33-S33

Table 2. Conductor configuration details for each case considered Other physical properties of the conductors modelled were taken from examples in service with National Grid. Results The study investigated a number of conditions for the configurations chosen. Short circuit fault currents of 31.5kA and 60kA were considered, the latter unlikely in practice, but applied theoretically to provide higher repulsion forces in the conductors, potentially leading to more onerous structural loading conditions. In association with current, short circuit fault durations were considered of 150ms, 350ms, 450ms and 1 second for each case in order to investigate the sensitivity of duration on the system. Figure 4, below illustrates the results, in terms of peak drop-force for each condition simulated compared directly against the IEC 60865 calculated results.

Drop force
80 Walpole 70 Lackenby Fleet

60 Drop force Ff (kN)






W al po W le/3 al 1. po 5/ . W le/3 15 al 1. po 5/ .3 le W 5 /3 al 1. po 5/ le .4 /3 5 W 1.5 al / po 1.0 0 W le/6 al 0/ po .1 5 W le/6 al 0/ p .3 5 W ole/ al 60 po /.4 La le 5 /6 ck en 0/1 .0 La by 0 /3 ck en 1.5 /.1 La by 5 /3 ck 1. e 5/ La nb .3 y/ ck 5 en 31. 5/ by .4 5 La /31 .5 ck en /1.0 0 La by /6 ck en 0/.1 by 5 La /6 ck en 0/.3 La by 5 ck /6 en 0 by /.45 /6 0 Fl ee /1.0 t/3 0 1. Fl ee 5/.1 t/3 5 1. Fl ee 5/.3 t/3 5 Fl 1. ee 5 t/3 /.45 1. 5/ 1 Fl ee .00 t/6 0/ Fl ee .15 t/6 0 Fl ee /.35 t/6 Fl 0/ ee .4 5 t/6 0/ 1. 00

Substation/fault level/fault duration

Figure 4: Drop force IEC calculations and ADINA prediction comparison In addition to the force comparisons, calculations relating to the stress in structural members were undertaken using both the ADINA and IEC results. Finally an overturning evaluation was carried out based on the results. Stress Indices were defined as the ratio of calculated assessment load effect to the respective assessment resistance. Details of each structure were provided on archive drawings. The structural element was considered to pass the assessment where the stress index is less than or equal to unity. The stress indices results showed that for the structures analysed to the IEC method had one third less instances of non-compliance than those resulting from the dynamic assessment using the ADINA predictions. In the case of overturning, results were more dramatic, as current codes tend to consider the peak force exerted on the structure as a static load. The true case relates to transient loading, which the dynamic modelling method was able to simulate. It was found that through static calculation three structure types did not comply with the overturning assessment (i.e. defined as a Factor of Safety of 1.5 and below). Dynamic assessment showed all structures to be stable against the predicted forces imparted with a large Factor of Safety reserve. Theoretical fault conditions were studied to evaluate where overturning could occur when considering the dynamic case, which indicated that fault currents well above those possible in practice were required, therefore indicating overturning to be very unlikely in practice. In examining short circuit cases generally it should be noted that the probability of obtaining the peak fault loads is extremely remote as this relies on a number of coincident events related to parameters such as position in the network (i.e. distance to the generator), duration of the fault matching the oscillating frequency of the conductor and the voltage on the lines at the instant of faulting being at magnitudes that will induce the worst effects. Conclusions In summary, the work to date has shown that a dynamic multi-physics analysis technique provides a distinct advantage over present codified static loading calculations for all the cases evaluated in terms of the substation strain structure maximum fault loading.

Significantly, it is has been seen that the transient loading of short circuit events do not approach instability in the structures (overturning). This contrasts with static loading assessment which results in a relatively high incidence of non-compliance through overturning. Presently further work is underway including the application to other structure configurations and fault conditions and investigation into aspects such as the presence of cable droppers in substation bays and detailed effects of short circuit durations. Additionally, the technique is being used to explore complex geometries, such as the interface between transmission towers and line landing gantries. In the present privatised environment there is more focus on civil asset management to obtain the maximum capability out of the existing structure stock. This is particularly so for substations where operational constrictions make replacement of assets a complex process in terms of planning and maintaining supply. The work in this paper has shown that by using a more sophisticated dynamic analysis method, circuit up-rating may be achieved where previously, more conservative calculations indicated that this was not possible. Additionally, the technique is anticipated to provide an opportunity to gain assurance in projects where complex conductor geometries preclude the clear application of the codified approach in the determination of short circuit loading on the structures.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. CIGRE Brochure 105: The mechanical effects of short-circuit currents in open air substations (rigid and flexible bus-bars) Volume 1 an updated revision of the CIGRE brochure of 1987 and Volume 2, data Base of Reference Tests dated April 1996. 2. CIGRE Brochure 214: The mechanical effects of short-circuit currents in open air substations (part II) a companion book of the CIGRE brochure no 105, Working Group 23.03, October 2002 3. CIGRE Brochure 6: The mechanical effects of short-circuit currents in open air substations, Working group 02 (effects of high currents) of study committee 23 (substations), dated 1987. 4. National Grid Technical Standard (NGTS) 3.1.4: Busbar Systems for AIS Substations, Issue 1 August 2004, National Grid. 5. BS8110: Structural use of concrete - Code of Practice for design and construction: 1997 BSI 6. Comite Euro-International Du Beton, Bulletin DInformation No 187, Concrete Structures Under Impact and Impulsive Loading, Synthesis Report, August 1988, CEB. 7. Allen Ross C., Tedesco J. W., Kuennen S. T., Effect of Strain Rate on Concrete Strength, ACI Materials Journal, Jan/Feb 1995, pp37-47 8. Stevens D. J., and Krauthammer T., Non-local Continuum Damage / Plasticity Model for Impulse-Loaded RC Beams, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol 115, No. 9, Sept 1989, ASCE.

9. Chalmers, Behaviour of Concrete under Dynamic Loading, Structural Engineering, Publication no.02:4. 7