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Alpha Eritrean Engineers Community

FEBRUARY 2013
VOL 4 NO. 1

RECYCLING ENHANCING THE PROPRIETIES OF SCRAP TIRES THROUGH POLYMER BLEND MATERIALS TESTING & SPECIAL INSPECTION SERVICE ARE PROFESSIONAL CIVIL ENGINEERING SERVICES

Striving for excellence, Engineer Feven

Join AEEC celebrating Engineers week February 17 23 2013


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CELEBRATING ENGINEERS WEEK LIST OF COMPANIES HIRING

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CONTENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS


RECYCLING ENHANCING THE PROPRIETIES OF SCRAP TIRES THROUGH POLYMER BLEND BY F EVEN M ATTEWS MATERIALS TESTING AND SPECIAL INSPECTION SERVICES ARE PROFESSIONAL CIVIL ENGINEERING SERVICES BY M EDHANIE T ECLE CELEBRATING NATIONAL ENGINEERS WEEK
BY

EDITORS
SEBLE GEBREMEDHIN, M.S. IN PSYCHOLOGY ADIAM WOLDEGERGISH, PH.D IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY SAMSON GONNETZ, B.A. IN CIVIL ENGINEERING FILIPOS ABREHAM, M.S, IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND YOSIEF WOLDEMARIAM, B.A. IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Y OSIEF W OLDEMARIAM

JOB APPORTUNITIES BY F ILIPOS A BREHAM

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RECYCLING ENHANCING THE PROPRIETIES OF SCRAP TIRES THROUGH POLYMER BLEND


I LTERNATING CURRENT (AC) VS. D IRECT CURREN(DC) was born in Jeddah Saudi Arabia, on October 1990. I combining waste tire dust (WTD) with an elastomer moved to Eritrea with my family in 1995. I got a chance that is ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) in presence of to learn more about my traditions, culture, my language bisphenol a diglycidyl ether (BADGE) act as a and had the privilege of attending elementary and compatibilizer. The blend is also irradiated in order to middle school at the Finland Mission. I attended two improve the cross-linking between the components. years high school in Kenya and then completed the Finally the effects of BADGE composition and remainder two years in Saudi Arabia. I then attended irradiation dosage on the mechanical, thermal and college in Malaysia as an undergraduate where I morphological properties of the blend were analyzed. completed my degree in Chemical Engineering at These procedures are summarized in figure 1. University College Sedaya International, UCSI University. Throughout my studies I was able to BACKGROUND maintain exemplary academic results and this would not The history of recycling materials started during the have been possible without the everlasting support of times of Plato in 400 BC. It was not until 19th and 20th my parents, who are my INSPIRATION. I still plan to centuries the need for raw materials required in pursue my graduate program in the future for a PhD, as industrial development caused cheaper option of I am a great believer of continued learning. reusing scrap materials rather than buying a new one. In st As for now, it is a privilege and a great honour for me 21 century, the main motivation of recycling materials to share this article which I have written for Alpha became the fact when natural resources were reducing in quantity while emission of carbon dioxide was Eritrean Engineers Magazine. increasingly leading to the greenhouse effect. A perfect example of justifying the objectives of recycling in 21st INTRODUCTION century is recycling of scrap tires. Tires are made from natural rubber, synthetic rubber, elastomers, polymers and other additives which highly Alexander Parkes discovered polymer blend during contribute in their ability to withstand the rigidity of the Queen Victoria 9th year reign. During this period, two environment. Tires have high durability and hence are isomers which are cis-1,4-polyisoprene (natural rubber) safe when used in vehicles. The fact that tires cannot be and rigid trans-1,4-polyisoprene (gutta percha) were easily decomposed when disposed makes them the main blended. They were then softened in a mixture of CS2 threat to the environment due to its continuous increase with SCl2 and milled with SCl2 in a hot rubber mill. in demand. However, when scrap tires catch fire, they This product showed cross-linking taking place and the release very toxic gases contributing to the greenhouse rigidity of the material varied with composition. After 150 years, the fundamental behind polymer blend has effect. not changed much. It is based on the selection of The same distinctiveness that makes tires undesirable components with complementary properties, then for disposal makes them perfect for recycling and generation of the desired, stable morphology by means reusing them for different applications including mats, of compatibilization. carpets, moisture barriers, rubber-modified asphalts and playgrounds. Consequently, to minimize the effect of During 19th century, the polymer industry started waste tire on the environment and use them for safe dealing with rubber and thermosets. Subsequently, application, a greener way was established with the help synthetic polymers were introduced dominated by thermoplastics. The first thermoplastic produced had of polymer blend. poor mechanical properties. Thus, it was blended with This research endeavour to enhance the property of the rubber to implement and enhance the rigidity of the waste tire through the technology of polymer blend by thermoplastic to produce a high impact polystyrene an

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polymeric plasticiser used to further make polyvinyl chloride.

ENGINEER FEVEN ~ AEEC ~ ENGINEER FEVEN ~ AEEC ~ AEEC ~ ENGINEER FEVEN ~ AEEC ~ AEEC

In the 1960s, Allan Hay accidentally discovered polyphenylene ether when blending high impact polystyrene which resulted in improving the processability of the material at a high temperature. In the 1980s, with the help of automotive industries the cost, paintability, solvent and scratch resistance was improved, in addition to mechanical properties and processability. The growth in need of recycling polymers developed better technologies of blending over time.

Figure 1: Schematic flow of the process OBJECTIVES FOR RECYCLING TIRES Scrap tires are unsuitable for use due to wear and irreparable damage. There is no known method for tire disposal without adverse effects. Hence, the recycling of polymers after their intended use continues to be an important subject having various advantages such as: a. Reduces the amount of rubber produced in future b. Prevent environmental pollution by reducing the production of greenhouse gases and mitigating global warming effect

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c. Save energy as producing a raw material PROPERTY TESTED consumes considerable amount of energy Polymer blend materials, imposed by the requirements resource of specific application, must perform under exhausting DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCEDURE mechanical, chemical, thermal, and electrical conditions. The scrap tires used in this research were grinded into different sizes from 40 to 80 mesh. Generally, there are many methods used to blend polymers such as melt mixing, solvent mixing, in-situ polymerization and many more. In this research, the grinded tire was blended with EVA through a melt mixing process using Haake Rheomix Polydrive R600/610 machine. The mechanical properties include tensile impact and hardness which play a major role in our everyday life.

Mechanical behaviour implies any reaction of the material when under mechanical stress result in deformation. Information obtained during mechanical tests of polymers, can determine how strong or stiff a material is, whether it is brittle or ductile, hard or soft EVA is copolymer of ethylene and Vinyl Acetate (VA). and if it can hold up well under constant stress. The weight percentage of Vinyl Acetate affects the rigidity of the polymer and can vary from 5 to 18 wt%. The lower the percentage of VA (5%) the more rigid the end product will be. A higher the percentage of VA (1518%) produces a more flexible film having higher degree of toughness and better elongation. Therefore, in this research the EVA blended contained 15 wt% of VA with a melting flow index of 1.478g/10min and a density of 0.93 g/cm3. The compatibilizer used that is BADGE, acts as a lubricating agent during the blending process. In order to analyze its effect on the blending process, the amount of BADGE added varied from 0wt% to 5wt% with an increment of 1wt% for each blend. The blended sample was hot and cold pressed into 1mm, 3mm and 6mm sheets which were further cut into I still plan to pursue my graduate program in the BS6747, ASTM D256, and ASTM D2765 standards future for a PhD, as I am a great believer of continued respectively. These standards are used for tensile, learning. impact and hardness testing respectively. Tensile properties: include young modulus, Later, the mechanical, thermal and morphological tests were conducted on the blend to determine the effect of the BADGE added and irradiation dosage applied. modulus 100, elongation percentage, and tensile strength. These properties determine how a polymer will react to forces applied during tension. They are very important to determine when dealing with materials that need to be

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stretched during application. They are also greatly affected by temperature. Impact properties: can be measured using izod, charpy, gardner, tensile impact and many more. The results obtained from these impact tests can be used for material selection or quality control. Polymers are sensitive to stress concentration at a notch. The information obtained from this will help to prevent designing of materials with polymers that cannot withstand the required high stress concentration at the edge or sharp corners. Hardness properties: is measured using Durometer test or Rockwell hardness test. Durometer test is used as an alternative for flexibility for the specification of elastomers. The hardness value is determined by the penetration of the Durometer indenter foot into the sample. Gel content property: provides a means of controlling the process and rating the quality of finished products. The degree of cross-linking is resolute by measuring the swell and extraction occurring in a solvent where the portion of the polymer is not cross-linked.

time or temperature while the temperature of the sample in a specified atmosphere is programmed. The thermal analysis techniques are categorized based on the variables they are designed to examine. The two techniques used in this research are:

ENGINEER FEVEN ~ AEEC ~ ENGINEER FEVEN ~ AEEC ~ AEEC ~ ENGINEER FEVEN ~ AEEC ~ AEEC

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC): is defined as a technique in which heat flow into sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. The sample is subjected to a controlled temperature program. The information obtained from this test then determines glass transition temperature, heat capacity jump at the glass transition, melting and crystallization temperatures, heat of reaction, characterization of thermosets and measurement of liquid crystal transitions. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA): is used to obtain the onset temperature of initial polymer weight loss, as well as the extent of oxidative effects or char formation. It involves measurement of the weight gain or loss of a polymer as a function of temperature and time, and utilizes an extremely sensitive electronic microbalance. In polymer science, the word morphology means to form an organization on a size scale above the atomic arrangement but smaller than the size and shape of the whole sample. The morphology of a polymer sample is determined by a wide range of optical, electron and scanning probe microscopy techniques. In here, resolution and contrast are the major parameters of microscopy studies. Among many techniques, the one used during this research was scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM): is one of the most versatile instruments available for the examination and analysis of the microstructural characteristics of polymers. The major reason for the SEM usefulness is the high resolution and large depth of field which is responsible for the three dimensional appearance of the specimen image.

Thermal properties or thermal analysis is a technique in which a property of the sample is monitored against

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The main parameters affecting the property of the blend of EVA and WTD, are the weight ratio of polymer and compatibilizer blended, mixing time, blending temperature and particle size. Previous researchers have studied the effect of weight ratio, temperature and time to find out the optimum conditions for EVA:WTD (80:20) wt%, 140 oC and 10 mins. respectively.

The thermal and morphological properties of pure EVA were improved by blending EVA with WTD. The stability of EVA and WTD blend was reduced when the ratio of BADGE and irradiation dosage increased. The morphology of the impact samples showed the smooth cracking and homogeneity of the blend causing the impact property to reduce.

CONCLUSION In this research, how the particle size of WTD had affected the mixing torque and tensile properties of the In conclusion, it was seen that BADGE as a blend was examined. Torque can be related to resistance compatibilizer does not accelerate the irradiation of flow in which an increase in melting decreased the induced cross-linking between EVA and WTD. This viscosity hence reducing in what happens to the torque. being said, the EVA and WTD blend can be used for The sizes of WTD chosen for this study were 40 mesh different R-resistant, ozone resistant applications and 80 mesh. In comparison between the two, the torque including bottles, oil and gas ceiling as the for 40 mesh gave a higher value indicating the blending mechanical, thermal and morphological properties process was less viscous. This is because the finer the are improved. size of the WTD, the more surfaces area provided for a Reference better homogeneity and distribution. When comparing the tensile properties, elongation % 1. L.A. Utracki, Compatibilization and Recycling in and tensile strength favors 80 mesh whereas young Polymer Blends. RAPRA technology Ltd, 2000, Ch 3 and modulus and modulus 100 favoured 40 mesh. Generally, 9, pp 9-28. 80 mesh size is preferable, but the low availability of it 2. C. Sawyer, T. Grubb, and F. Meyers, Polymer caused to proceed with 40 mesh size. Morphology and Polymer Characterization in Polymer The EVA and WTD blend in presence of BADGE was greatly affected in its mechanical, thermal and morphological properties by the irradiation dosage applied and the ratio of BADGE added. The mechanical properties were seen to improve as the irradiation dosage was increased from 0 kGy to 200 kGy except for elongation percentage and impact properties. This is because irradiation causes cross-linking between the blends hence encouraging brittle behavior. The presence of a BADGE as a compatibilizer causes lubrication effect within the blend. As a result, the mechanical properties are seen to increase with increase of BADGE composition except for elongation percentage, impact and hardness properties.
Microscopy 3rd ed. Springer, Ch 1, pp 1-21.
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J. Scheirs, Sample preparation, Thermal analysis and Microscopy of polymers in Compositional and Failure Analysis of Polymers. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2005, Ch 3-5, pp 37-107. Thermal Analysis and Thermal Properties in Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics. ASM International, 2003, Ch 11, pp 115-142. F. Ciardelli and S. Penczek, Processing for Ultimate Properties in Modification and Blending of Synthetic and Natural Macromolecules. Kluwar Academic Publishers, 2003, Ch 10, pp 201-205. M.L. Robeson, Fundamentals of polymer blends, Compatibilization methods, Types of polymer blends,

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and Properties of polymer blends in Polymer Blend. Carl Hanser Verlag, 2007, Ch 2-4,6, pp 11- 250, 333-350. J.E. Mark, B. Erman, and F.R. Eirich, Elastomer blends, Thermoplastic elastomers, Tire engineering and Recycling of Rubber in The Science and Technology of Rubber 3rd ed. Elsevier Academic Press, 2005, Ch 12-15, pp 529-665. Polymer blend technologies in Review of Science and Technology in Escwa Member Countries Issue 4. United Nations, Ch 3, pp 28-31. J.G. Drobny, Thermoplastic Elastomers Based on Recycled Rubber and Plastics in Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers. William Andrew Inc, 2007, Ch 14, pp 277-280. V. Mittal, J.K. Kim, K. Pal, Recycling of Elastomeric Nanocomposites in Recent Advances in Elastomeric Nanocomposites. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, Ch 2, pg 179-181. W. Grellmann, S. Seidler, Mechanical Properties of Polymers, in Polymer Testing. Carl Hanser Verlag, 2007, Ch 4, pp 73-218. Z.D. Cheng, Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry of elastomers, Polymer degradation and Temperature moduluated Differential Scanning Calorimetry in Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. Elsevier Science B.V., 2002, Ch 13-14 and 16, pp 519-650 and 713810. H. Lobo and J.V. Bonilla, Thermogravimetric Analysis of Polymers in Handbook of Plastics Analysis. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2003, Ch 4, pp 1-18. G. Raju et al., Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Acrlate onto Oil Palm Empty fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Fiber journal of Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, Volume 46, pp 949-955, 2007. I. Banik, A.K. Bhowmick, Effect of electron beam irradiation on the properties of crosslinked rubbers journal of Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Volume 58, pp 293-298, 2000. D. De et al., Reclaiming of ground rubber tire (GRT) by novel reclaiming agent journal of European Polymer Journal, Volume 42, pp 917-927, 2006. R.L. Clough, High-energy radiation and polymers: A review of commercial processes and emerging

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KIM ET AL., THERMAL PROPERTIES OF AGRO-FLOUR-FILLED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER BIO-COMPOSITES JOURNAL OF THERMAL ANALYSIS AND CALORIMETRY, VOLUME 81, PP 299306, 2005. C.K. HSU, THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PROPERTIES OF POLYMER FIBERS JOURNAL OF THERMOCHIMICA ACTA, VOLUME 392-393, PP 163-167, 2002. J. FROHLICH ET AL., THE EFFECT OF FILLER-FILLER AND FILLERELASTOMER INTERACTION ON RUBBER REINFORCEMENT JOURNAL OF COMPOSITES: PART A, VOLUME 36, PP 449-460, 2005. M. TAMADA ET AL., CROSSLINKING OF POLYVINYLCARBAZOLE WITH ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION JOURNAL OF RADIATION PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY, VOLUME 54, PP 409-411, 1999. YANG ET AL., THERMAL PROPERTIES OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC FILLER-THERMOPLASTIC POLYMER BIO-COMPOSITES JOURNAL OF THERMAL ANALYSIS AND CALORIMETRY, VOLUME 82, PP 157-160, 2005. Z. MOHAMAD ET AL., CHARACTERIZATION OF EPOXIDIZED NATURAL RUBBER/ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE (ENR-50/EVA) BLEND: EFFECT OF BLEND RATIO JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, VOLUME 99, PP 1504-1515, 2006. Z.A. ANIS ET AL., PERFORMANCE OF IRRADIATED AND CROSSLINKED ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE/WASTE TIRE DUST BLEND JOURNAL OF ELASTOMERS AND PLASTICS, VOLUME 43, PP 239-256, 2011. A. BHATIA ET AL., COMPATIBILITY OF BIODEGRADABLE POLY (LACTIC ACID) (PLA) AND POLY (BUTYLENE SUCCINATE) (PBS) BLENDS FOR PACKAGING APPLICATION JOURNAL OF KOREAAUSTRALIA RHEOLOGY, VOLUME 19, PP 125-131, 2007. Z.A. ANIS ET AL., EFFECT OF MIXING CONDITIONS ON THE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE/WASTE TIRE DUST (EVA/WTD) BLEND JOURNAL OF POLYMERPLASTICS TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING, VOLUME 48, PP 1139-1142, 2009. B.A. IBRAHIM ET AL., INFLUENCE OF POLYMER BLENDING ON MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES IN JOURNAL MODERN APPLIED SCIENCE, VOLUME 4, PP 157-161, 2010.

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applications journal of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Volume 185, pp 8-33, 2001.

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Comments & Suggestions

Page
Wow, what a greatJune 2012 issue of Alpha Eritreanguys. I I was glad to read the job!!! I am really proud of you Engineers just got the magazine and read it "cover"it sounds really good. Community email and start reading it, to "cover". I loved it. Thank you for your email work and making it happen. Great I am writing you this hard to propose a few things, if I may so. First job!!! most I think the magazine is such a brilliant idea in keeping and for Eritrean Engineers connected and in informing each other what areas Engineer Mekonen Hadgu
of research, advancements, breakthroughs and challenges in the vast discipline and specializations of Engineering.

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That said here are see the project It is really nice to my suggestions: issuing its first output. Make work and keep it up. Hope it will inspire lots of Great it a magazine where everyone puts forward his/ her breakthroughs, researches, activities and thesis papers Eritrean Engineers and may be it will be a venue forfor ideas of other intellectuals...make it a sharing place and not merely place attaining engineering carries for a lot of young Eritreanaand of telling old stories but future stories too. the like. Engineer Danyom Berhane Engineer Filipos Abreha Excellent year for the group and excellent work. You have done great! 2013 could only be better and I wish you all the best. I am sure the Bravo.and many morewonderful and your effort and those ofand group This is really Eritreans will achieve many great things others is just made it a bit easier for many! I hope what we all should you have much appreciated and needed. That is the best for do a better place and better path for others. the-future of AEEC and its members. I also want to thank

you for your kind words in the 1st edition. I am very Note there is a PECVD job believe that if we are in a position humbled and honored. Iopening in the upper NY side and if anyone wants the job let me know and I will forward to a hiring manger. to lend a helping hand to our fellow people, then the fruits Engineer Yosief Berhane of that simple effort are enjoyed by many. Engineer Daniel Woldeselasie ALPHA ERITREAN ENGINEERS

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MATERIALS TESTING AND SPECIAL INSPECTION SERVICES ARE PROFESSIONAL CIVIL ENGINEERING SERVICES
LTERNATING CURRENT (AC) VS. D IRECT

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CURREN(DC)

at University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Engineering Manager with Segen Construction Co., in Asmara, Eritrea, and Assistant Lecturer II at Arba Minch Water Technology Institute in Ethiopia.

This article will introduce the engineering community about Construction Materials Inspection and Testing and the roles and responsibilities of a Professional Civil Engineer. The intended purpose of Materials Testing and Special Inspection Services is to verify certain structural elements are being built in accordance My name is Medhanie Tecle and I have worked as a with the approved project plans and specifications civil engineer for over 20 years. I earned my B.S. for a project. degree in Civil Engineering from Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia and received my M.S. degree When conducting Materials Testing, it is critical in Civil & Environmental Engineering from that the materials being used in construction of University of Nevada, Las Vegas. I am currently these structural elements (i.e. soils, reinforced employed at Cardno ATC as a Principal concrete, structural steel, structural masonry, Engineer/Engineering Manager. As a manager at fireproofing) meet the intended design quality and the Las Vegas Branch, I provide senior level specifications. These construction materials are management for the day-to-day operations and tested in accordance with rigorous, exact specified administration of geotechnical engineering and standards like those found in the American Society construction materials testing services. My for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and American responsibility primarily is to ensure the quality for Association of State Highway and Transportation the geotechnical engineering and construction Officials (AASHTO) Testing Standards. In materials and testing services meet or exceed addition, these standards outline specific regulatory requirements of the general industry and experience, certifications and accreditations of the professional standards. My experiences include: personnel and laboratories that perform these tests. Senior Geotechnical and Materials Engineer with Inspection and testing firms should also have a Terracon Consultants, Inc., Staff Professional with detailed quality system manual which outlines from Kleinfelder, Inc., Research and Teaching Assistant beginning to end how all tests are to be performed

ENGINEER MEDHANIE ~ AEEC ~ ENGINEER MEDHANIE ~ AEEC ~ ENGINEER MEDHANIE ~ AEEC ~ AEEC ~ AEEC ~

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of the materials, installation, fabrication, erection or placement of components and connections requiring special expertise to ensure compliance with approved construction documents and referenced standards.

The role and duties of a special inspector are generally defined by the local Building Official. Many Building Officials now follow the International Code Council (ICC) Model Code for Special Inspections or variation of it. in the field and in laboratory. The manual outlines how the testing equipment are to be calibrated, explains detailed testing procedures, the process for personnel training is, shows expected periodic review and the audit necessary by both internal staff and external agencies. The manual further includes reporting requirements and proper review of all data. The new standards presently require all material testing services be performed under the supervision of a Professional Civil Engineer. For Special Inspections, it is critical that certain structural elements be inspected during construction to verify that they are being installed as per the specifications and project plans as outlined in the manual. Chapter 17 of The 2009 International Building Code (IBC) defines the special inspectionprocess as Inspection as herein required

Part of this Code requires a quality system manual that details how they will perform their special inspection duties, certifications of staff, accreditation of their office/lab, internal staff review and outside agency audits, etc. This Model Code for Special Inspections also requires all special inspection services be performed under the supervision of a Professional Civil Engineer. Materials Testing and Special Inspection Services are an essential part of a successful design and construction team. As noted above, most local, national and international codes and standards now require these services be performed under the direction of a Professional Civil Engineer.
~ Engineer Medhanie Tecle

ENGINEER MEDHANIE ~ AEEC ~ ENGINEER MEDHANIE ~ AEEC ~ ENGINEER MEDHANIE ~ AEEC ~ AEEC ~ AEEC ~

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G o ld en , sec u r e, st r o n g er , b et t er a n d b r ig h t er fu t u r e

Alpha Eritrean Engineering Magazine A A E E E E M M A A E E E E M M A A E

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Hard to reach doesnt have to mean hard to do

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Bringing the best and the brightest together

In celebration National Engineers Week, Alpha Eritrean Engineers Community commemorates the contribution engineers make to our society. We also thank you and appreciate the talent and commitment each one of you contributes to Alpha Eritrean Engineers Magazine to elevate the sprite of our cooperation by sharing your experiences and aspirations in your articles. Your articles encourage engineering as a career path among those who have strong will and would be willing to go extra mile to make a difference in their own and somebody elses life. The combined effort of the authors and editors of AEECs complimentary magazine make it a magazine that connects engineers around the globe, informs of professional opportunities and shares priceless experiences. We look forward to learning how you celebrate engineers week and any of your engineering experiences, challenges, aspirations, accomplishments and successes. We would specially like to say thank you for those who worked diligently to see February 2013 issue publication and those who constantly gave us words of encouragements, ideas and helped us in editing each and every article to make it better and presentable. We congratulate all of you for making this possible. Happy engineers week! Engineer Yosief Woldemariam Thursday, February 21, 2013

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The authors
Feven Mattews
fevu_alem2000@yahoo.com received her BS in Chemical Engineering from University College Sedaya International, UCSI, and currently Feven is working with Malaysian Nuclear Agency as an Intern.

Medhanie Tecle
medghet@yahoo.com received his B.S. in in Civil Engineering from Addis Ababa University & MS

If you need an updated information, discussions or got an Engineering experiences that you want share your knowledge or ideas with your fellow professionals. You will find us on www.linkedin.com/groups/AlphaEritrean-Engineers-Community

in Civil & Environmental Engineering from University of Nevada, Las Vegas and currently he is Principal Engineer/Engineering Manager at Cardno ATC.

Yosief Woldemariam
meharigrw@yahoo.com earned his B.S. in

Electrical Engineering from San Francisco State University. Currently he is working with Syska Hennessy Group, consulting firm as designer.

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